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1

A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

2008-01-01

2

ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

Schmitz, Gregory V.

2001-01-01

3

ECE 423: DSP for Communication Block Diagrams  

E-print Network

and Quantization DSP System Design/Characterization Real-time DSP Hardware and Software - Understands basic signalECE 423: DSP for Communication Block Diagrams Discrete-time System Analysis/Design Sampling experience using MATLAB and Simulink for modeling of linear systems - For both continuous and discrete time

Schumacher, Russ

4

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

5

Block diagrams and splitting criteria for classification trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the classification tree methodology of Breiman et al., (1984) are discussed. A method of displaying classification trees, called block diagrams, is developed. Block diagrams give a clear presentation of the classification, and are useful both to point out features of the particular data set under consideration and also to highlight deficiencies in the classification method being used.

Paul C. Taylor; Bernard W. Silverman

1993-01-01

6

Program listing for the reliability block diagram computation program of JPL Technical Report 32-1543  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program listing for the reliability block diagram computation program described in Reliability Computation From Reliability Block Diagrams is given. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is currently running on a Univac 1108. Each subroutine contains a description of its function.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

1971-01-01

7

Block diagram modeling of quantum dot infrared photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). The tools that we are used are the VisSim environment, along with the block diagram programming procedures. The benefits of using this modeling language are the simplicity of carrying out the performance's measurement through computer simulation instead of setting up a practical procedure which becomes expensive, as well as the difficulty of its management. The roles that the parameters of fabrication can play in the characteristics of QDIPs are discussed through developed models implemented by VisSim environment. VisSim can be a powerful supplement to model the Poisson equation. MAPLE software is used to devise this model. The theoretical result confirms that implicit solution of QDIPs governed by dynamic equations provides exact handling of the device performance. As an example, dark current, photocurrent, and detectivity are investigated. In order to confirm our models and their validity on the practical applications, we make a comparison between the results obtained by MAPLE, VisSim, and that experimentally published, and full agreement is observed. The implemented models can help designers and scientists optimize their devices to meet their requirements.

El Tokhy, Mohamed S.; Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; Konber, Hussein A.

2011-09-01

8

Flight control systems properties and problems. Volume 2: Block diagram compendium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of stability augmentation system and autopilot block diagrams is presented. Descriptive materials for 48 different types of aircraft systems are provided. A broad representation of the many mechanical approaches which have been used for aircraft control is developed.

Johnston, D. E.

1975-01-01

9

Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a rigorous baseline for the functional architecture.

White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

2007-01-01

10

Fast Marching Watersheds Figure 1. Block diagram of Fast Marching Wa-  

E-print Network

#12;Threshold Morphology Operations Fast Marching Fast Marching Watersheds Curvature Estimation F F M MR K Figure 1. Block diagram of Fast Marching Wa- tersheds. 2. Theory Our Fast Marching Watersheds the geodesic "walk" across the surface of the mesh. For our watershed algorithm, we use a similar heap

Koschan, Andreas

11

REDUCE 2: A computer program for the symbolic reduction of large block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REDUCE 2 is reported as a FORMAC program which symbolically calculates the transfer function(s) of any linear-block-diagram output variable to any or all input variables. The program requires as input a set of algebraic expressions representing the block diagram, the desired transfer function(s), and a string of variables indicating the desired order of reduction. The solution is presented in the compact form of a set of nested functions (super G's). The program can handle systems as large as 600 equations and is intended as a tool for the analysis of complex control and dynamic systems. A companion FORTRAN program, EVAL 2, which numerically evaluates the solution set to obtain amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of frequency is also presented.

Lorenzo, C. F.; Riehl, J. P.

1974-01-01

12

Dataflow diagram representation of biological process: DNA, RNA, and protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new method of modeling tool for a biological process -central dogma. The data-flow diagram is used as a representation of the whole data input and output, which enables us to simulate, analyze, and manipulate (in the future) at our disposal. From DNA to protein via RNA is the one of most well-known biological process,

Joe W. Yeol; W. Samarrai; I. Barjis; Y. S. Ryu

2005-01-01

13

The use of a block diagram simulation language for rapid model prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed this summer focussed on the development of a predictive model for the loading of liquid oxygen (LO2) into the external tank (ET) of the shuttle prior to launch. A predictive model can greatly aid the operational personnel since instrumentation aboard the orbiter and ET is limited due to weight constraints. The model, which focuses primarily on the orbiter section of the system was developed using a block diagram based simulation language known as VisSim. Simulations were run on LO2 loading data for shuttle flights STS50 and STS55 and the model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensor data recorded for these flights. As a consequence of the simulation results, it can be concluded that the software tool can be very useful for rapid prototyping of complex models.

Whitlow, Jonathan E.

1995-01-01

14

The Use of a Block Diagram Simulation Language for Rapid Model Prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed this summer was a continuation of work performed during the 1995 NASA/ASEE Summer Fellowship. The focus of the work was to expand previously generated predictive models for liquid oxygen (LOX) loading into the external fuel tank of the shuttle. The models which were developed using a block diagram simulation language known as VisSim, were evaluated on numerous shuttle flights and found to well in most cases. Once the models were refined and validated, the predictive methods were integrated into the existing Rockwell software propulsion advisory tool (PAT). Although time was not sufficient to completely integrate the models developed into PAT, the ability to predict flows and pressures in the orbiter section and graphically display the results was accomplished.

Whitlow, Johnathan E.; Engrand, Peter

1996-01-01

15

Rock magnetic properties estimated from coercivity - blocking temperature diagram: application to recent volcanic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic minerals generally depend on their chemical composition, crystal structure, size, and shape. In the usual paleomagnetic study, we use a bulk sample which is the assemblage of magnetic minerals showing broad distributions of various magnetic properties. Microscopic and Curie-point observations of the bulk sample enable us to identify the constituent magnetic minerals, while other measurements, for example, stepwise thermal and/or alternating field demagnetizations (ThD, AFD) make it possible to estimate size, shape and domain state of the constituent magnetic grains. However, estimation based on stepwise demagnetizations has a limitation that magnetic grains with the same coercivity Hc (or blocking temperature Tb) can be identified as the single population even though they could have different size and shape. Dunlop and West (1969) carried out mapping of grain size and coercivity (Hc) using pTRM. However, it is considered that their mapping method is basically applicable to natural rocks containing only SD grains, since the grain sizes are estimated on the basis of the single domain theory (Neel, 1949). In addition, it is impossible to check thermal alteration due to laboratory heating in their experiment. In the present study we propose a new experimental method which makes it possible to estimate distribution of size and shape of magnetic minerals in a bulk sample. The present method is composed of simple procedures: (1) imparting ARM to a bulk sample, (2) ThD at a certain temperature, (3) stepwise AFD on the remaining ARM, (4) repeating the steps (1) ~ (3) with ThD at elevating temperatures up to the Curie temperature of the sample. After completion of the whole procedures, ARM spectra are calculated and mapped on the HC-Tb plane (hereafter called HC-Tb diagram). We analyze the Hc-Tb diagrams as follows: (1) For uniaxial SD populations, theoretical curve for a certain grain size (or shape anisotropy) is drawn on the Hc-Tb diagram. The curves are calculated using the single domain theory, since coercivity and blocking temperature of uniaxial SD grains can be expressed as a function of size and shape. (2) Boundary between SD and MD grains are calculated and drawn on the Hc-Tb diagram according to the theory by Butler and Banerjee (1975). (3) Theoretical predictions by (1) and (2) are compared with the obtained ARM spectra to estimate quantitive distribution of size, shape and domain state of magnetic grains in the sample. This mapping method has been applied to three samples: Hawaiian basaltic lava extruded in 1995, Ueno basaltic lava formed during Matsuyama chron, and Oshima basaltic lava extruded in 1986. We will discuss physical states of magnetic grains (size, shape, domain state, etc.) and their possible origins.

Terada, T.; Sato, M.; Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

2013-12-01

16

Block Kriging for Lognormal Spatial Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lognormal spatial data are common in mining and soil-science applications. Modeling the underlying spatial process as normal\\u000a on the log scale is sensible; point kriging allows the whole region of interest to be mapped. However, mining and precision\\u000a agriculture is carried out selectively and is based on block averages of the process on the original scale. Finding spatial\\u000a predictions of

Noel Cressie

2006-01-01

17

Fuel Retrieval System Process Flow Diagrams Mass Balance Calculations for K West Basin  

SciTech Connect

This calculation justifies the numbers used for the material balance on the process flow diagrams for the KW Basin Fuel Retrieval Subproject. The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances that are documented in the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Process Flow Diagrams for future reference. The attached mass calculations were prepared in support of revising the fuel retrieval system process flow diagrams for the 105K West Basin. The calculations refer to diagram H-1-81164.

REED, A.V.

2000-01-03

18

Observed Human Errors in Interpreting 3D visualizations: implications for Teaching Students how to Comprehend Geological Block Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block diagrams are commonly used to communicate three dimensional geological structures and other phenomena relevant to geological science (e.g., water bodies in the ocean). However, several recent studies have suggested that these 3D visualizations create difficulties for individuals with low to moderate spatial abilities. We have therefore initiated a series of studies to understand what it is about the 3D structures that make them so difficult for some people and also to determine if we can improve people’s understanding of these structures through web-based training not related to geology or other underlying information. Our first study examined what mistakes subjects made in a set of 3D block diagrams designed to represent progressively more difficult internal structures. Each block was shown bisected by a plane either perpendicular or at an angle to the block sides. Five low to medium spatial subjects were asked to draw the features that would appear on the bisecting plane. They were asked to talk aloud as they solved the problem. Each session was videotaped. Using the time it took subjects to solve the problems, the subject verbalizations of their problem solving and the drawings that were found to be in error, we have been able to find common patterns in the difficulties the subjects had with the diagrams. We have used these patterns to generate a set of strategies the subjects used in solving the problems. From these strategies, we are developing methods of teaching. A problem found in earlier work on geology structures was not observed in our study, that is, one of subjects failing to recognize the 2D representation of the block as 3D and drawing the cross-section as a combined version of the visible faces of the object. We attribute this to our experiment introduction, suggesting that even this simple training needs to be carried out with students encountering 3D block diagrams. Other problems subjects had included difficulties in perceptually recognizing variations in layer thicknesses, difficulties in recognizing an internal structure from the visible cues on the block walls, difficulties in mentally constructing objects and intersections that were not perpendicular, and difficulties in keeping track of the number of folds of a layer, and thus, the number of intersections of the layer with the bisecting plane. All of these problems suggest that web-based games giving mass practice with these variations in block diagram representations are likely to give any person appropriate skills in their interpretation. The time to complete the drawings and the errors in the drawings were also correlated with quantifiable properties of the diagrams, e.g., number of layers, number of folds in the layers, angle of bisection of the plane, etc. These will be used in further research to organize the training from easy to hard problems following what is known already about mass practice and developing abstracted skill sets. The plan is to also make the training adaptive, that is, to provide practice in those areas where an individual user is having the most problems.

Bemis, K. G.; Pirl, E.; Chiang, J.; Tremaine, M.

2009-12-01

19

Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL; Bhattacharya, Sambit [North Carolina Fayetteville State University; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL

2012-01-01

20

Simultaneous and Successive Processing of Circuit Diagrams Having Different Amounts of Detail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The instructional effectiveness of diagrams has been substantiated by research; however, research findings are limited for the identification of the conditions that are necessary for learning from diagrams. The study reported in this paper investigated certain properties of diagrams and how they relate to cognitive processes that students use when…

Winn, Bill

21

Applying state diagrams to food processing and development.  

PubMed

The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components. PMID:11537636

Roos, Y; Karel, M

1991-12-01

22

Applying state diagrams to food processing and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

1991-01-01

23

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

KLEM, M.J.

2000-05-11

24

Map Algorithms for Decoding Linear Block codes Based on Sectionalized Trellis Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MAP algorithm is a trellis-based maximum a posteriori probability decoding algorithm. It is the heart of the turbo (or iterative) decoding which achieves an error performance near the Shannon limit. Unfortunately, the implementation of this algorithm requires large computation and storage. Furthermore, its forward and backward recursions result in long decoding delay. For practical applications, this decoding algorithm must be simplified and its decoding complexity and delay must be reduced. In this paper, the MAP algorithm and its variations, such as Log-MAP and Max-Log-MAP algorithms, are first applied to sectionalized trellises for linear block codes and carried out as two-stage decodings. Using the structural properties of properly sectionalized trellises, the decoding complexity and delay of the MAP algorithms can be reduced. Computation-wise optimum sectionalizations of a trellis for MAP algorithms are investigated. Also presented in this paper are bi-directional and parallel MAP decodings.

Lin, Shu

1999-01-01

25

1 of 3 + 1 page diagram Process Engineering Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

-state condenser the condensation of part of a gas mixture is taking place at TR = 367°C, giving a pressure drop + 1 page diagram 202. An example for a three-surface enclosure system example of a cubical room given be the rate of heat loss Q1-2 (W) by radiation from surface 1 to surface 2 for this situation? b. Can

Zevenhoven, Ron

26

Improving the polishing process for Rockwell hardness test block  

E-print Network

Inefficiencies in a Rockwell hardness test block manufacturing process were analyzed. The polishing stage was identified to be the bottleneck with a high reworking rate. An understanding based on the physics of polishing ...

Imani Nejad, Mohammad

2009-01-01

27

The Organization of Intrinsic Computation: Complexity-Entropy Diagrams and the Diversity of Natural Information Processing  

E-print Network

Intrinsic computation refers to how dynamical systems store, structure, and transform historical and spatial information. By graphing a measure of structural complexity against a measure of randomness, complexity-entropy diagrams display the range and different kinds of intrinsic computation across an entire class of system. Here, we use complexity-entropy diagrams to analyze intrinsic computation in a broad array of deterministic nonlinear and linear stochastic processes, including maps of the interval, cellular automata and Ising spin systems in one and two dimensions, Markov chains, and probabilistic minimal finite-state machines. Since complexity-entropy diagrams are a function only of observed configurations, they can be used to compare systems without reference to system coordinates or parameters. It has been known for some time that in special cases complexity-entropy diagrams reveal that high degrees of information processing are associated with phase transitions in the underlying process space, the so-called ``edge of chaos''. Generally, though, complexity-entropy diagrams differ substantially in character, demonstrating a genuine diversity of distinct kinds of intrinsic computation.

David P. Feldman; Carl S. McTague; James P. Crutchfield

2008-06-29

28

Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram  

PubMed Central

Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. Methods A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Results Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. Conclusions The results indicated that the layout of a process map does influence perceptions of quality and safety problems in a process. In quality improvement work it is important to carefully consider the type of process map to be used and to consider using more than one map to ensure that different aspects of the process are captured. PMID:20056005

2010-01-01

29

Molecular systems biology: data-flow diagram modeling of process in protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new method of modeling tool for a biological process - central dogma. The data-flow diagram is used as a representation of the whole data input and output, which enables us to simulate, analyze, and manipulate (in the future) at our disposal. From DNA to protein via RNA is the one of most well-known biological

J. W. Yeol; I. Barjis; Y. S. Ryu

2005-01-01

30

Mathematics Teaching and Learning as a Mediating Process: The Case of Tape Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how visual representations may mediate the teaching and learning of mathematics over time in Japanese elementary classrooms. Using the Zone of Proximal Development Mathematical Learning Model (Murata & Fuson, 2006; Fuson & Murata, 2007), the process of mediation is explicated. The tape diagram, a central visual representation…

Murata, Aki

2008-01-01

31

Constructing mammography examination process ontology using affinity diagram and hierarchical task analysis.  

PubMed

Mammography is complex and difficult for beginner radiologic technologists (RTs) because knowledge and technical skills rely on one's experience, and it is often difficult for experienced RTs to verbally explain the process to co-workers or beginners. The purpose of this study was to construct a mammography examination process ontology for knowledge sharing among RTs and propose a new ontology construction method using an affinity diagram (AD) and hierarchical task analysis (HTA). First, tasks collected by brainstorming were clustered and connected using the AD. Subsequently, a hierarchical structure was constructed based on the clusters and relations determined in the AD. Finally, a mammography process ontology was determined based on the relations noted in the AD and HTA. As a result, the ontology contained 203 classes and 669 relations. PMID:23920833

Yagahara, Ayako; Tsuji, Shintarou; Fukuda, Akihisa; Yokooka, Yuki; Nishimoto, Naoki; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

2013-01-01

32

Venn diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online resources offer varied opportunities to work with Venn diagrams, one of many tools used in logic and reasoning. Their use is especially helpful in learning foundational notions of definition and set theory. One of the five Process Standards promoted by NCTM, Reasoning and Proof requires middle school students to sharpen such skills as they learn to develop mathematical argument.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

33

Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL -Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization  

E-print Network

Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL - Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization that aims to create a sustainable aviation biofuels to determine the atmospheric emissions and emission sources that may be released from proposed NARA biofuels

Collins, Gary S.

34

Diblock copolymer phase diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adaptation of the Matsen and Bates BCP phase diagram predicted using Mean-field Theory. * Matsen MW, Bates FS, ''http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in_doi=10.1021/ma951138i Unifying weak- and strong-segregation block copolymer theories. Diblock copolymer phase diagram as calculated using Mean-field Theory by Matsen and Bates, where fA is the Block fraction, Ï is the Flory-Huggins Chi Parameter, and N is the length of the block.

Iacovella, Christopher R.

2006-11-20

35

Block copolymers useful for enhanced oil recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for permeability control of a subterranean formation and for enhancing oil recovery from the subterranean formation. The method comprising injecting into the subterranean formation an aqueous solution comprised of a block copolymer having the structural form of ABA triblock or (AB){sub n} multiblock wherein A is a crosslinkable polymer, B is a non-crosslinkable polymer or a polymer having low reactivity to crosslinking agents, n is a number of at least 2 and a crosslinking agent. Wherein A is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, highly hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylic ester, highly hydrolyzed polyacrylic ester, polyvinyl alcohol and mixtures thereof and B is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, polyalkylene ethers, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyridine.

Shu, P.

1989-10-03

36

The design, synthesis and properties of pressure-processable biodegradable block copolymers  

E-print Network

In this thesis, biodegradable block copolyesters were specifically designed and synthesized for their susceptibility to pressure-induced mixing. These baroplastic materials are capable of being processed and molded through ...

Lovell, Nathan Gary

2005-01-01

37

On Partial and Generic Uniqueness of Block Term Tensor Decomposition in Signal Processing  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, we study the partial and generic uniqueness of block term tensor decompositions in signal processing. We present several conditions for generic uniqueness of tensor decompositions of multilinear rank (1, L 1, L 1), ..., (1, LR...

Yang, Ming 1984-

2012-09-18

38

A block-parallel signal processing system for CMOS image sensor with three-dimensional structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the fundamental study of the block-parallel analog signal processing elements which includes CMOS image sensor, correlated double sampling (CDS) array, and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) array. To realize high-speed image capturing sensor, we have proposed a blockparallel signal processing with three-dimensional (3-D) structure. In proposed system, one block consists of 3 stacked layers which are 100

K. Kiyoyama; K-W Lee; T. Fukushima; H. Naganuma; H. Kobayashi; T. Tanaka; M. Koyanagi

2010-01-01

39

Rapidly Solidified Alloys Made by Chill Block Melt-spinning Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chill block melt-spinning (CBMS) processes are used to make rapidly solidified microcrystalline and amorphous alloy ribbon, flakes, etc. Fundamentals of CBMS processes are discussed in light of recent advances. Special regard is given to ribbon geometric defects (edge serrations, surface asperities, etc.). Photomicrographs of CBMS ribbon solidification microstructures are used to compare local solidification rates, especially in the vicinity of ribbon defects.

Liebermann, H. H.

1984-01-01

40

Mollier-I, S-Diagrams for Combustion Gases in Data Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to have all the thermal and caloric states of combustion gases accessible in a computer, closed mathematical approximation equations were established for the real factors, the enthalpy and the entropy of a real combustion gas. The equations approximate the various effects of molecular forces real gas influence and dissociation - at temperatures of 200 K to 6,000 K, pressures of 0.001 to 1,000 bar, and in the range from stoichiometric composition to air. A system of subprograms is listed in FORTRAN, by means of which thermodynamic calculations can be carried out in the same manner as with Mollier I,S diagrams.

Zacharias, F.

1982-01-01

41

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are given a Venn diagram with certain rules and an element. They must then determine where in the Venn diagram the element belongs. This activity allows students to practice placing elements in Venn diagrams as well as reviewing mathematical terms associated with the different rules. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

42

Automated Processing of LASCO Coronal Images: Spurious Point-Source-Filtering and Missing-Blocks Correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on automated procedures for correcting the images of the LASCO coronagraph for i) spurious quasi-point-sources such as the impacts of cosmic rays, stars, and planets, and ii) the absence of signal due to transmission errors or dropouts, which results in blocks of missing information in the images. Correcting for these undesirable artifacts is mandatory for all quantitative works on the solar corona that require data inversion and/or long series of images, for instance. The nonlinear filtering of spike noise or point-like objects is based on mathematical morphology and implements the procedure opening by morphological reconstruction. However, a simple opening filter is applied whenever the fractional area of corrupted pixels exceeds 50 % of the original image. We describe different strategies for reconstructing the missing information blocks. In general, it is possible to implement the method of averaged neighbors using the two images obtained immediately before and after the corrupted image. For the other cases, and in particular when missing blocks overlapped in three images, we developed an original procedure of weighted interpolation along radial profiles from the center of the Sun that intercept the missing block(s). This procedure is also adequate for the saturated images of bright planets (such as Venus) that bleed along the neighboring pixels. Missing blocks in polarized images may generally be reconstructed using the associated unpolarized image of the same format. But in the case of overlapping missing blocks, we implemented our procedure of weighted interpolation. All tests performed on numerous LASCO-C2 images at various periods of solar activity ( i.e. varying complexity of the structure of the corona) demonstrate the excellent performance of these new procedures, with results vastly superior to the methods implemented so far in the pipeline-processing of the LASCO images.

Pagot, E.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.; Boclet, B.

2014-04-01

43

Imprints of Archean to Neoproterozoic crustal processes in the Madurai Block, Southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madurai Block, the largest crustal block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of Peninsular India, preserves the imprints of multistage tectonic evolution. Here, we present U-Pb and Hf isotope data on zircons from a charnockite-granite suite in the north-western part of this block. The oscillatory zoning, and the LREE to HREE enriched patterns of the zircons with positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies suggest that the zircon cores are of magmatic origin, with ages in the range of 2634-2435 Ma implying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic magmatism followed by subsequent metamorphism and protocontinent formation in the north-western part of the Madurai Block. A regional 550-500 Ma metamorphic overprint is also preserved in the zircons coinciding with the final amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent. The Hf isotopic data suggest that the granite and charnockite were derived from isotopically heterogeneous juvenile crustal domains and the charnockites show a significant contribution of mantle-derived components. Therefore, the Hf isotopic data reflect mixing of crustal and mantle-derived sources for the generation of Neoarchean crust in the north-western Madurai Block, possibly in a suprasubduction zone setting during continent building processes.

Bhattacharya, Shrema; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Huang, He; Banerjee, Amlan; George, P. M.; Sajeev, K.

2014-07-01

44

Process-dependent Nanostructure and Crystallinity Competition in All-Conjugated Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Block Copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanostructure of active layer in organic photovoltaic (OPV) is critical to charge transfer and power conversion efficiency (PCE). This study elucidates a model example of crystallinity competition and process-dependent nanostructures in various composition of an all-conjugated block copolymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(9^',9^'-dioctylfluorene) (P3HT-b-PF) synthesized from a combination of Grignard metathesis and Suzuki-Miyaura polycondensation. In contrast to previous studies of P3HT-based all-conjugated block copolymer where P3HT typically dominates the final morphology through crystallization. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) measurements verify that thermally annealed P3HT-b-PF spun-cast films show a morphology dominated by crystallization of P3HT or PF, depending on the size of block ratios. However, all solvent annealed films show primarily an out-of-plane stacking (q ˜ 0.15n å-1 where n =1,2,3,4,5,6,7) on the substrate and with strong (020) ?-stacking parallel to substrate surface. This expanded small lamellar domain is about 4 nm which is designated to alkyl-chain stacking within block copolymer. Subsequent thermal annealing at high temperatures results in loss of the expanded spacing, indicating that the observed orientation and structure of P3HT-b-PF is in non-equilibrium status so that proper processing condition is important in determining final nanostructure and potentially enhanced PCE in all-polymer OPVs.

Lin, Yen-Hao; Verduzco, Rafael

2013-03-01

45

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive problem provides an opportunity for children to become familiar with Venn diagrams, while reinforcing knowledge of number properties. Students must place the numbers from 1 to 40 into a Venn diagram of two sets with an intersection. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

46

Higgs production and decay processes via loop diagrams in various 6D Universal Extra Dimension models at LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate loop-induced Higgs production and decay processes which are relevant for the LHC in various six-dimensional Universal Extra Dimension models. More concretely, we focus on the Higgs production through gluon fusion and the Higgs decay into two photons induced by loop diagrams. They are one-loop leading processes and the contribution of Kaluza-Klein particles is considered to be significant. These processes are divergent in six dimensions. Therefore, we employ a momentum cutoff, whose size is fixed from the validity of perturbative calculation through naive dimensional analysis. In these six-dimensional Universal Extra Dimension models, the Higgs production cross section through gluon fusion is highly enhanced and the Higgs decay width into two photons is suppressed. In particular in the case of the compactification on Projective Sphere, these effects are remarkable. The deviation of the h (0) ? 2? signal from the prediction of the Standard model is much greater than that in the case of the five-dimensional minimal UED model. We also consider threshold corrections in the two processes and these effect are noteworthy even when we take a higher cutoff and/or a heavy KK scale. Comparing our calculation to the recent LHC results which were published at the Lepton-Photon 2011 and at the December of 2011 is performed briefly.

Nishiwaki, Kenji

2012-05-01

47

Coherent phase diagram and interface relaxation processes during LPE of A IIIB V solid solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic equations describing the metastable equilibrium between elastically strained solid and liquid phases in quaternary systems are obtained in terms of simple solution theory. The developed thermodynamic models were used to describe the growth of deformed layers of solid solutions and the complicated process of dissolution of substrates for multicomponent A IIIB V systems. The reliability in predicting the behaviour of a multicomponent system during the LPE process was markedly increased. An isothermal technique of solid solution epitaxy was investigated, which utilizes the supersaturated state arising from lattice mismatch between the contacting phases at the stage of the initial liquid phase epitaxial formation.

Kuznetsov, V. V.; Moskvin, P. P.; Sorokin, V. S.

1988-04-01

48

Application of ISO22000, failure mode, and effect analysis (FMEA) cause and effect diagrams and pareto in conjunction with HACCP and risk assessment for processing of pastry products.  

PubMed

The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of pastry processing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the pastry industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (pastry processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over pastry processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the Risk Priority Number (RPN) per identified processing hazard. Storage of raw materials and storage of final products at -18°C followed by freezing were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, and 144 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a pastry processing industry is considered imperative. PMID:21838557

Varzakas, Theodoros H

2011-09-01

49

Quality Prediction for a Fed-Batch Fermentation Process Using Multi-Block PLS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality prediction is usually required for product quality monitoring and setting up control strategy can reduce operating cost and improve production efficiency. Partial least square (PLS) regression is a popular statistical method for predictive modelling. The amount of data measured and stored in a typical industrial process is dramatically increased due to the fast development of computer and measuring system. It is hard to analyse all measured data using one matrix for its complexity. Multi-Block PLS model allows the data to be separated into sub-blocks and the sub-blocks can be analysed independently. Data from the fed-batch fermentation process is used to build models. Data is divided by different modes and different phases and model parameters are used to select variables that can be used as good predictors. The new set of data after variable selections is used to build a new model again. In most cases, new models show improved prediction performances compared with results from the conventional method.

Hong, Jeong Jin; Zhang, Jie

50

Analysis of backward error recovery for concurrent processes with recovery blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three different methods of implementing recovery blocks (RB's). These are the asynchronous, synchronous, and the pseudo recovery point implementations. Pseudo recovery points so that unbounded rollback may be avoided while maintaining process autonomy are proposed. Probabilistic models for analyzing these three methods under standard assumptions in computer performance analysis, i.e., exponential distributions for related random variables were developed. The interval between two successive recovery lines for asynchronous RB's mean loss in computation power for the synchronized method, and additional overhead and rollback distance in case PRP's are used were estimated.

Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y. H.

1982-01-01

51

Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2014-01-01

52

Process-controlled multiscale morphologies in metal-containing block copolymer thin films.  

PubMed

Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a scaffold for nanoporous membranes and as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and remarkable stability, which aid in the development of robust nanoporous networks or high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (> 100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops a discontinuous lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies. PMID:24745279

Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Kilbey, S Michael; Darling, Seth B

2014-03-01

53

Autoplan: A self-processing network model for an extended blocks world planning environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-processing network models (neural/connectionist models, marker passing/message passing networks, etc.) are currently undergoing intense investigation for a variety of information processing applications. These models are potentially very powerful in that they support a large amount of explicit parallel processing, and they cleanly integrate high level and low level information processing. However they are currently limited by a lack of understanding of how to apply them effectively in many application areas. The formulation of self-processing network methods for dynamic, reactive planning is studied. The long-term goal is to formulate robust, computationally effective information processing methods for the distributed control of semiautonomous exploration systems, e.g., the Mars Rover. The current research effort is focusing on hierarchical plan generation, execution and revision through local operations in an extended blocks world environment. This scenario involves many challenging features that would be encountered in a real planning and control environment: multiple simultaneous goals, parallel as well as sequential action execution, action sequencing determined not only by goals and their interactions but also by limited resources (e.g., three tasks, two acting agents), need to interpret unanticipated events and react appropriately through replanning, etc.

Dautrechy, C. Lynne; Reggia, James A.; Mcfadden, Frank

1990-01-01

54

Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

2006-01-01

55

General Diagram-Recognition Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of diagram recognition faces many challenges, including the great diversity in diagrammatic notations, and the presence of noise and ambiguity during the recognition process. To help address these problems, research is needed into methods for acquiring, representing, and exploiting notational conventions. We review several frameworks for diagram recognition: blackboard systems, schema-based systems, syntactic methods, and graph rewriting. Next

Dorothea Blostein

1995-01-01

56

Combining Stressors That Individually Impede Long-Term Memory Blocks All Memory Processes  

PubMed Central

The effects of stress on memory are typically assessed individually; however, in reality different stressors are often experienced simultaneously. Here we determined the effect that two environmentally relevant stressors, crowding and low calcium availability, have on memory and neural activity following operant conditioning of aerial respiration in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We measured aerial breathing behaviour and activity of a neuron necessary for memory formation, right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), in the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiration in untrained animals, and assessed how these traits changed following training. In naïve animals both crowding and combined stressors significantly depressed burst activity in RPeD1 which correlated with a depression in aerial breathing behaviour, whereas low calcium availability had no effect on RPeD1 activity. Following training, changes in burst activity in RPeD1 correlated with behavioural changes, decreasing relative to their naïve state at 3 h and 24 h in control conditions when both intermediate-term memory (ITM: 3 h) and long-term memory (LTM: 24 h) are formed, at 3 h but not 24 h when exposed to individual stressors when only ITM is formed, and did not change in combined stressors (i.e. when no memory is formed). Additionally, we also found that Lymnaea formed short-term memory (STM: 10 min) in the presence of individual stressors or under control conditions, but failed to do so in the presence of combined stressors. Our data demonstrate that by combining stressors that individually block LTM only we can block all memory processes. Therefore the effects of two stressors with similar individual affects on memory phenotype may be additive when experienced in combination. PMID:24223180

Teskey, Morgan Lee; Lukowiak, Ken

2013-01-01

57

A progress report for the large block test of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report on the Large Block Test (LBT) project. The purpose of the LBT is to study some of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near field of a nuclear waste repository under controlled boundary conditions. To do so, a large block of Topopah Spring tuff will be heated from within for about 4 to 6 months, then cooled down for about the same duration. Instruments to measure temperature, moisture content, stress, displacement, and chemical changes will be installed in three directions in the block. Meanwhile, laboratory tests will be conducted on small blocks to investigate individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The fractures in the large block will be characterized from five exposed surfaces. The minerals on fracture surfaces will be studied before and after the test. The results from the LBT will be useful for testing and building confidence in models that will be used to predict TMHC processes in a repository. The boundary conditions to be controlled on the block include zero moisture flux and zero heat flux on the sides, constant temperature on the top, and constant stress on the outside surfaces of the block. To control these boundary conditions, a load-retaining frame is required. A 3 x 3 x 4.5 m block of Topopah Spring tuff has been isolated on the outcrop at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Pre-test model calculations indicate that a permeability of at least 10{sup -15} m{sup 2} is required so that a dryout zone can be created within a practical time frame when the block is heated from within. Neutron logging was conducted in some of the vertical holes to estimate the initial moisture content of the block. It was found that about 60 to 80% of the pore volume of the block is saturated with water. Cores from the vertical holes have been used to map the fractures and to determine the properties of the rock. A current schedule is included in the report.

Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J. [and others

1994-10-01

58

NTNU Java: Free-Body Force Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates the forces on a block on an inclined plane. A free-body diagram shows the gravitational, normal, frictional and net force vectors. The weight, angle of the plane, and coefficient of friction can be changed by the user. The user can also apply an external force to the block. The motion resulting from the forces is not shown.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2005-02-07

59

The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena

2013-04-01

60

Bite-Block Perturbation in People Who Stutter: Immediate Compensatory and Delayed Adaptive Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated sensory-motor mechanisms in five people who stutter (PWS) and five people who do not (PNS). Lip kinematic and coordination data were recorded as they produced bi-syllabic nonwords at two rates (normal and fast) in three conditions (jaw-free, immediately after insertion of a bite-block, and after a 10-min…

Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal; De Nil, Luc

2008-01-01

61

Rapid-cycling dipole using block-coil geometry and bronze-process Nb3Sn superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block coil geometry utilized in recent high-field dipole development has significant benefit for applications requiring rapid cycling, since it intrinsically suppresses coupling currents between strands. A conceptual design for a 6 Tesla dipole has been studied for such applications, in which the intra-strand losses are minimized by using bronze-process Nb3Sn superconducting wire developed for ITER. That conductor provides isolated

A. Mclnturff; P. Mclntyre; A. Sattarov

2007-01-01

62

Establishment of pseudoternary LiO0.5-NiO-MnO2 phase diagram by combinatorial wet process.  

PubMed

A pseudoternary LiO0.5-NiO-MnO2 reaction phase diagram was established using a combinatorial high-throughput materials exploration process to find candidate electrode materials for lithium ion secondary batteries. Each powder library was prepared using our combinatorial wet process based on the electrostatic spray deposition method and results obtained at various firing temperatures in an air atmosphere and an oxide atmosphere. In the air atmosphere, newly composed single phase regions of a layered rock salt-type structure were only found around Li2MnO3 at 800 °C. On the other hand, in the oxide atmosphere, most of the powder library showed the multiphase of the spinel and layered rock salt type structure. PMID:24171655

Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Shimura, Yosuke; Ito, Shigeru

2013-12-01

63

Automatic Diagrams Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fully automatic approach analysis for information extraction from digitized grey level images of scanned diagrams in the field of graphics recognition. The proposed algorithms were tested on Telecom Egypt diagrams and some randomly selected diagrams. The analysis involves three distinct stages: the location of starting pixels in the diagrams; followed by a model based line-following to separate

M. A. Berbar

2006-01-01

64

Analogue neural network design for the processing of measurement signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new design method for the analogue processing and generation of signals in measurement instruments. The method is based on the observation that in each processing procedure the operations to be performed on the input signal are represented by simple mathematical and control function blocks in a flow diagram. The paper shows how each block can

Pasquale Daponte; Domenico Grimaldi; Linus Michaeli

1999-01-01

65

A Process-Based Model of New Venture Creation: Toward Modelling a Practical Application of Extant Theory using SADT Diagrams  

E-print Network

A Process-Based Model of New Venture Creation: Toward Modelling a Practical Application of Extant of new ventures from an array of theoretical perspectives, the answer to the critical question regarding with uncertainties in a systematic and comprehensive way. Keywords: Venture Creation Process, Theory, Models

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

2006-06-01

67

Hexagonally Arrayed 17 nm Interpenetrating and Continuous Biphasic Structure via Block-Copolymer-Templating Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biphasic and interpenetrating continuous membranes with precisely controlled two-dimensional (2D)-hexagonal nanoperiodicity were fabricated using amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polymethacrylate with azobenzene mesogen units in the side chain [PEOm-b-PMA(Az)n]. On a silica (SiO2) nanodot array templated from the block copolymer membrane, the next phase, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), or gold (Au), was coated. Herein, the surface modification of the transferred SiO2 nanodot array was crucial to obtaining the interpenetration of the precursor of TiO2 and its continuous contact. The typical size of the hexagonal array (d) and the center-to-center distance (D) of the SiO2 nanodots were (d, D) = (17 nm, 27 nm) and (d, D) = (22 nm, 51 nm), respectively. The interpenetrating and continuous biphasic structure will provide a promising approach to multiferroic materials, interpenetrative heterojunction for solar cells, new integrated catalysts, and so forth.

Yamashita, Nanae; Komiyama, Hideaki; Zhao, Yongbin; Komura, Motonori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

2012-07-01

68

Interplay Between Residual Stresses, Microstructure, Process Variables and Engine Block Casting Integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The replacement of nodular cast iron with 319 type aluminum (Al) alloys in gasoline engine blocks is an example of the shift towards the use of lighter alloys in the automotive industry. However, excessive residual stress along the cylinder bore may lead to bore distortion, significantly reducing engine operating efficiency. In the current study, microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stress were characterized along the cylinder bridge of engine blocks following thermal sand reclamation (TSR), T7 heat treatment, and service testing of the casting. Neutron diffraction was effectively used to quantify the residual stress along both the Al cylinder bridge and the adjacent gray cast iron cylinder liners in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations with respect to the cylinder axis. The results suggest that an increase in cooling rate along the cylinder caused a significant refinement in microstructure at the bottom of the cylinder. In turn, this suggested an increase in alloy strength at the bottom of the cylinder relative to the top. This increased strength at the bottom of the cylinder likely reduced the susceptibility of the cylinder to rapid relief of residual stress at elevated temperature. In contrast, the coarse microstructure at the top of the cylinder likely triggered stress relief at an elevated temperature.

Lombardi, Anthony; D'Elia, Francesco; Ravindran, Comondore; Sediako, Dimitry; Murty, B. S.; MacKay, Robert

2012-12-01

69

Tree Diagrams and Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' ability to create tree diagrams and figure probabilities of events based on those diagrams. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to tree diagrams as well as suggested ways to work them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-01-20

70

Process-chain approach to the Bose-Hubbard model: Ground-state properties and phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

We carry out a perturbative analysis, of high order in the tunneling parameter, of the ground state of the homogeneous Bose-Hubbard model in the Mott insulator phase. This is made possible by a diagrammatic process-chain approach, derived from Kato's representation of the many-body perturbation series, which can be implemented numerically in a straightforward manner. We compute ground-state energies, atom-atom correlation functions, density-density correlations, and occupation number fluctuations, for one-, two-, and three-dimensional lattices with arbitrary integer filling. A phenomenological scaling behavior is found which renders the data almost independent of the filling factor. In addition, the process-chain approach is employed for calculating the boundary between the Mott insulator phase and the superfluid phase with high accuracy. We also consider systems with dimensionalities d>3, thus monitoring the approach to the mean-field limit. The versatility of the method suggests further applications to other systems which are less well understood.

Teichmann, Niklas; Hinrichs, Dennis; Holthaus, Martin; Eckardt, Andre [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

2009-06-01

71

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of Camber, Detail of Framing of Arch Member of Bottom Chord, Isometric of T Blocks in Bottom Chord - Wood-Covered Bridge, Spanning Main Licking River, Butler, Pendleton County, KY

72

Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

73

Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) computing engine. The implemented block matching algorithm (BMA) uses summed absolute difference (SAD) error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and non-integer search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a non-integer search grid. The additional speedup for non-integer search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition we compared execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized non-full grid search CPU based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and Simplified Unsymmetrical multi-Hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720×480 pixels in resolution, commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards. PMID:22347787

Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

2012-01-01

74

Coating Bores of Light Metal Engine Blocks with a Nanocomposite Material using the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Thermal Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine blocks of modern passenger car engines are generally made of light metal alloys, mostly hypoeutectic AlSi-alloys. Due to their low hardness, these alloys do not meet the tribological requirements of the system cylinder running surface—piston rings—lubricating oil. In order to provide a suitable cylinder running surface, nowadays cylinder liners made of gray cast iron are pressed in or cast into the engine block. A newer approach is to apply thermal spray coatings onto the cylinder bore walls. Due to the geometric conditions, the coatings are applied with specifically designed internal diameter thermal spray systems. With these processes a broad variety of feedstock can be applied, whereas mostly low-alloyed carbon steel feedstock is being used for this application. In the context of this work, an iron-based wire feedstock has been developed, which leads to a nanocrystalline coating. The application of this material was carried out with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc system. AlMgSi0.5 liners were used as substrates. The coating microstructure and the properties of the coatings were analyzed.

Bobzin, K.; Ernst, F.; Zwick, J.; Schlaefer, T.; Cook, D.; Nassenstein, K.; Schwenk, A.; Schreiber, F.; Wenz, T.; Flores, G.; Hahn, M.

2008-09-01

75

A novel algorithm for blending process monitoring of Angong Niuhuang intermediate using vector operation moving block standard deviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to introduce a novel approach named Vector Operation Moving Block Standard Deviation (VO-MBSD) to characterize the original powder blend uniformity of Angong Nuihuang intermediate using NIR technology, including 400g Rhizoma Coptidis, 400g Radix Scutellariae, 400g Radix Curcumae and 400g Fructus Gardeniae. A novel blending evaluation method named VO-MBSD compared with Moving Block Standard Deviation (MBSD) was applied to characterize the blending of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) original powder including Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae, Radix Curcumae and Fructus Gardeniae. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis demonstrated these observations perfectly. OV-MBSD is the rate of change by time, which not only represents the scalar change but also the vector change. The identification accuracy of blend uniformity and end-point via VO-MBSD was the same with classical HPLC method. This method is more accuracy than original MBSD method. Compared with classical MBSD, it is appropriate for the determination of blending end-point and could be successfully implemented as an on-line monitoring tool for blending process.

Liu, Shanshan; Wu, Zhisheng; Feng, Xin; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

2014-11-01

76

Block-type HTGR spent fuel processing: CEA investigation program and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the criteria put forward by the Generation IV Forum to select future nuclear systems (preservation of resources, minimization of final waste impact, economics, etc.), the impetus for the very high-temperature He-cooled reactor raises the issue of processing the fuel in the context of a closed cycle with actinide recycling. Due to the unique structure of the particle fuel used

Michel Masson; Stéphane Grandjean; Jerôme Lacquement; Stéphane Bourg; Jean Marie Delauzun; Jacques Lacombe

2006-01-01

77

Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the two reference materials under the high contact stress, especially at the elevated temperature.

Zhang, Peng

2011-12-01

78

Air-stable, nanostructured electronic and plasmonic materials from solution-processable, silver nanocrystal building blocks.  

PubMed

Herein we describe a room-temperature, chemical process to transform silver nanocrystal solids, deposited from colloidal solutions, into highly conductive, corrosion-resistant, optical and electronic materials with nanometer-scale architectures. After assembling the nanocrystal solids, we treated them with a set of simple, compact, organic and inorganic reagents: ammonium thiocyanate, ammonium chloride, potassium hydrogen sulfide, and ethanedithiol. We find that each reagent induces unique changes in the structure and composition of the resulting solid, giving rise to films that vary from insulating to, in the case of thiocyanate, conducting with a remarkably low resistivity of 8.8×10(-6) ?·cm, only 6 times that of bulk silver. We show that thiocyanate mediates the spontaneous sintering of nanocrystals into structures with a roughness of less than 1/10th of the wavelength of visible light. We demonstrate that these solution-processed, low-resistivity, optically smooth films can be patterned, using imprint lithography, into conductive electrodes and plasmonic mesostructures with programmable resonances. We observe that thiocyanate-treated solids exhibit significantly retarded atmospheric corrosion, a feature that dramatically increases the feasibility of employing silver for electrical and plasmonic applications. PMID:24484271

Fafarman, Aaron T; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Oh, Soong Ju; Caglayan, Humeyra; Ye, Xingchen; Diroll, Benjamin T; Engheta, Nader; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

2014-03-25

79

Building Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students watch a video clip of Bianca as she uses Venn diagrams to try to satisfy three people's preferences in pizza toppings. Students practice using Venn diagrams to represent the pizza topping preferences. Learners are then introduced to prime numbers, prime factorization, and the use of Venn diagrams to determine least common multiple and greatest common factor. Support materials are included: Handout: Gleamers and Glow Power, Assessment: Levels A and B and answer keys are provided.

2007-01-01

80

Simulation of plasma based semiconductor processing using block structured locally refined grids  

SciTech Connect

We have described a new numerical method for plasma simulation. Calculations have been presented which show that the method is accurate and suggest the regimes in which the method provides savings in CPU time and memory requirements. A steady state simulation of a four centimeter domain was modeled with sheath scale (150 microns) resolution using only 40 grid points. Simulations of semiconductor processing equipment have been performed which imply the usefulness of the method for engineering applications. It is the author`s opinion that these accomplishments represent a significant contribution to plasma simulation and the efficient numerical solution of certain systems of non-linear partial differential equations. More work needs to be done, however, for the algorithm to be of practical use in an engineering environment. Despite our success at avoiding the dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions the algorithm is still conditionally stable and requires timesteps which are relatively small. This represents a prohibitive runtime for steady state solutions on high resolution grids. Current research suggests that these limitations may be overcome and the use of much larger timesteps will be possible.

Wake, D.D.

1998-01-01

81

Untangling Euler Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many common data analysis scenarios the data elements are logically grouped into sets. Venn and Euler style diagrams are a common visual representation of such set membership where the data elements are represented by labels or glyphs and sets are indicated by boundaries surrounding their members. Generating such diagrams automatically such that set regions do not intersect unless the

Nathalie Henry Riche; Tim Dwyer

2010-01-01

82

Predicting process windows for pattern density multiplication using block copolymer directed self-assembly in conjunction with chemoepitaxial guiding layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern density multiplication using directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a technique capable of producing patterns with small pitches utilizing guiding template patterns printed as larger feature sizes and pitches. One method for achieving this density multiplication is to utilize chemoepitaxy based on a guiding underlayer that is nominally topographically flat but which is composed of a pinning region, or stripe if referring to lamellae, which will chemically prefer one microphase of the BCP, as well as a second region that is often referred to as "neutral" to both phases of the BCP. In most conceptions of such a chemoepitaxial approach for alignment of lamellae patterns, the pinning stripe is typically the width of a single lamellae of the phase separated BCP, while the neutral stripe is some odd number of lamellae widths. In this work, detailed simulation studies have been performed to elucidate the effects of variables such as guiding stripe size, chemical composition of the neutral stripes, and small topography on the process window of DSA pitch sub-division patterning processes. A simple but novel technique has been developed and utilized to quantify the level of alignment of a simulated BCP film to an underlying guiding pattern. Such process windows and lithographic parameters have been studied for different pitch sub-division conditions including 1:3 and 1:5 pinning stripe:neutral stripe width ratios. It is found that the center of the processing window occurs at a composition of the "neutral stripe" such that it is slightly to somewhat strongly preferential to the type of polymer of opposite type to that attracted by the pinning stripe, and that this ideal "neutral stripe" composition becomes more neutral as the density multiplication increases.

Nation, Benjamin D.; Peters, Andrew; Lawson, Richard A.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.

2014-03-01

83

Algorithmic phase diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.

Hockney, Roger

1987-01-01

84

Dinosaur Extinction: Causal Loop Diagram of Earth Feedback System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a causal loop diagram from system dynamics methodology showing the solar-earth-space energy flow system (the dominant flow system driving earth's surficial systems, including the biosphere) and interactive natural earthly processes that influence it. Also included is a discussion of the diagram, and a link to a page that explains how to read causal loop diagrams.

Mclean, Dewey M.; Tech, Virginia

85

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

86

Self-organized Mn2+-Block Copolymer Complexes and Their Use for In Vivo MR Imaging of Biological Processes  

PubMed Central

Manganese-block copolymer complexes (MnBCs) that contain paramagnetic Mn ions complexed with ionic-nonionic poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(methacrylate) have been developed for use as a T1-weighted MRI contrast agent. By encasing Mn ion within ionized polymer matrices, r1 values could be increased by 250–350 % in comparison with free Mn ion at relative high fields of 4.7 to 11.7 T. MnBCs were further manipulated by treatment with NaOH to achieve more stable complexes (iMnBCs). iMnBCs delayed release of Mn2+ which could be accelerated by low pH, indeed by cellular uptake via endocytosis into acidic compartments. Both complexes exhibited good T1 contrast signal enhancement in liver following intravenous infusion. The contrast was observed in gallbladder due to the clearance of Mn ion from liver to biliary process. iMnBCs, notably, showed a delayed contrast enhancement profile in gallbladder, which was interpreted to be due to degradation and excretion of Mn2+ ions into the gallbladder. Intracortical injection of iMnBCs into the rat brain also led to delayed neuronal transport to thalamus. The delayed enhancement feature may have benefits for targeting MRI contrast to specific cells and surface receptors that are known to be internalized by endocytosis. PMID:25364506

Pothayee, Nikorn; Chen, Der-Yow; Aronova, Maria A.; Qian, Chunqi; Bouraoud, Nadia; Dodd, Stephen; Leapman, Richard D.; Koretsky, Alan P.

2014-01-01

87

Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

NONE

1996-07-01

88

Lattice Boltzmann study of hydrodynamic effects in lamellar ordering process of two-dimensional quenched block copolymers.  

PubMed

By incorporating self-consistent field theory with lattice Boltzmann method, a model for polymer melts is proposed. Compared with models based on Ginzburg-Landau free energy, our model does not employ phenomenological free energies to describe systems and can consider the chain topological details of polymers. We use this model to study the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the dynamics of microphase separation for block copolymers. In the early stage of phase separation, an exponential growth predicted by Cahn-Hilliard treatment is found. Simulation results also show that the effect of hydrodynamic interactions can be neglected in the early stage. For the late stage of phase separation, it is easy to see the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the ordering process of lamellae phase. From the analysis of structure factor curves, we find that the growth of domains is faster if hydrodynamic interactions are introduced. Furthermore, the scaling of the pattern dynamics is investigated for the late stage at zero thermal noise. By studying the behavior of scaling exponents of the structure factor and the nematic order-parameter correlation function C(nn), we can see that the effects of hydrodynamic interactions lead to bigger growth exponent for both functions. PMID:19045162

Song, Kai-Xu; Jia, Yu-Xi; Sun, Zhao-Yan; An, Li-Jia

2008-10-14

89

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

90

Diagram of Computer Keyboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a line drawing of a Windows PC keyboard complete with labels for each key. This diagram is used on tests where students are asked to circle the keys that would be used to perform various functions.

Ward, Charles

2011-01-21

91

Weyl Card Diagrams  

E-print Network

To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only non-trivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods. This paper is a condensed and simplified presentation of the card diagrams in hep-th/0409070.

Gregory C. Jones; John E. Wang

2005-06-02

92

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

93

Weyl card diagrams  

SciTech Connect

To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

Jones, Gregory [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Wang, John E. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taiwan, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2005-06-15

94

Optoelectronics using block copolymers.  

SciTech Connect

Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

2010-05-01

95

Minkowski Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minkowski Diagram model displays the spacetime diagrams for two inertial observers. One or two events may be displayed and moved with the mouse. Optionally, the corresponding light cones may be shown, as well as the simultaneity lines in both reference frames. The spacetime interval is automatically computed. The simulation may be used to discuss simultaneity and causality in special relativity. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Minkowski Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_special_relativity_minkowski.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2011-09-09

96

High level software synthesis for signal processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of complex digital signal processing systems, block diagram oriented simulation has become a widely accepted standard. Current research is concerned with the coupling of heterogenous simulation engines and the transition from simulation to the implementation of digital signal processing systems. Due to the difficulty in mastering complex design spaces high level hardware and software synthesis is becoming

Sebastian Ritz; M. Pankert; Heinrich Meyr

1992-01-01

97

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

98

Onland signatures of the Palawan microcontinental block and Philippine mobile belt collision and crustal growth process: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt had significantly influenced the geological evolution of the Philippines. Multiple collisions involving several fragments, through space and time, resulted into the collage of terranes of varying origin exposed in this part of central Philippines. Cusping of the overriding plate, volcanic arc gap, ophiolite emplacement, incipient back-arc rifting, island

Graciano P. Yumul; Carla B. Dimalanta; Edanjarlo J. Marquez; Karlo L. Queaño

2009-01-01

99

Self-assembly of high-resolutions PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers: processes capabilities and integration on 300mm track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful control and reproducibility of BCP's synthesis are mandatory parameters to push-down PS-b-PMMA block-copolymer systems toward its lowest dimensions for microelectronic applications. The self-assembly process optimization of different high-resolution cylindrical PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers (i.e. L0 period below 25 nm) is studied to highlight processes-variations as regard to more classical PS-b-PMMA systems while the characterizations of bulk materials provide deeper insights on the parameters addressing the self-assembly of such materials. The integration of a high-resolution BCP on 300 mm track is then studied to check the capabilities of such materials in terms of lithographic applications. CD uniformity measurements in contact hole shrink approach, as well as the transfer of the BCP mask into typical industrial under-layer stacks leading to aggressive features, show that these materials exhibit promising potentials for advanced lithographic nodes.

Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Tiron, R.; Gharbi, A.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Jullian, K.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Argoud, M.; Peyre, J.-L.; Van Spaandonk, R.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Navarro, C.

2014-03-01

100

Carbon Cycle Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This diagram illustrates some of the most abundant stores of carbon and identifies some of the pathways in the carbon cycle along which carbon is transferred from one form to another. Long-term sinks of carbon are labelled in black; shorter-term fluxes are labelled in purple. Amounts are in billions of tons.

101

Reading Diagrams. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

102

Venn Diagrams and Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math lesson from Illuminations uses Venn diagrams to illustrate direct, indirect and transitive reasoning. Students will learn the definitions of direct, indirect and transitive reasoning and give examples of each. Several student activity sheets are included. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 and a half class periods to complete.

2011-01-04

103

Impulse-Momentum Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

Rosengrant, David

2011-01-01

104

Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model uses light-trajectories to show the effect of relative motion when observing (recording) events in special relativity. In the default scenario, an explosion (an event) at the center of a right-moving stick occurs at t=0 and the arrival of the explosion light signal at each end is recorded. The arrival event at the left end occurs before the arrival event at the right end because the stick is moving. How do the location and time of these events change if they are observed in a reference frame (the Other Frame) in which the stick is stationary?   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was written for the study of special relativity the Lorentz transformation using spacetime diagrams and is a supplemental simulation for an article by Sebastien Cromier and Richard Steinberg "The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts" in the The Physics Teacher 48 (9), 598-601 (2010). Initial conditions, such as the locations of the explosion and the detectors, can be adjusted by dragging before the simulation is run. The slider can be used to change the speed of the stick. A third view shows the stick and the wavefront in space. More importantly, a checkbox allows users to compare the predictions of Galilean and special relativity in order to observe how the assumption of a constant speed of light leads to the relativity of simultaneity.   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_sr_SimultaneitySpacetimeDiagram.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-07

105

Thinking Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking Blocks is an interactive Flash tool for modeling and solving math problems visually. Students represent quantities and relationships by placing blocks and braces on a work space and using the tools to resize and label them accordingly. Users can change the color of blocks, move them, copy them, divide them into equal parts, and separate them. A pencil tool and keyboard are also available. The site includes video tutorials demonstrating how to use the tool and how to model a wide variety of problem types. It also contains a bank of hundreds of word problems.

2011-01-01

106

Block Copolymers with a Twist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiral block copolymers (BCPs*) comprising chiral entities were designed to fabricate helical architectures (i.e., twisted morphologies) from self-assembly. A new helical phase (H*) with P622 symmetry was discovered in the self-assembly of poly(styrene)-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) BCPs*. Hexagonally packed, interdigitated PLLA helical microdomains in a PS matrix were directly visualized by electron tomography. The phase diagram of the PS-PLLA BCPs* was also

Rong-Ming Ho; Yeo-Wan Chiang; Chun-Ku Chen; Hsin-Wei Wang; Hirokazu Hasegawa; Satoshi Akasaka; Edwin L. Thomas; Christian Burger; Benjamin S. Hsiao

2009-01-01

107

An Introduction to Tree Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes the use of tree diagrams in calculating probabilities. The author provides examples of how tree diagrams are used to calculate specific probabilities and why the language chosen relates to the operations used to find the probability.

Cork, Stu

2014-01-01

108

Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer  

DOEpatents

Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer are provided. Embodiments include establishing by a parallel application a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI, including associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry. Embodiments also include registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-11-18

109

Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer  

DOEpatents

Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a PAMI of a parallel computer is disclosed. The PAMI is composed of data communications endpoints, each including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications through the PAMI. The parallel application establishes a data communications geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI by associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry; registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation; and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-11-11

110

Untangling euler diagrams.  

PubMed

In many common data analysis scenarios the data elements are logically grouped into sets. Venn and Euler style diagrams are a common visual representation of such set membership where the data elements are represented by labels or glyphs and sets are indicated by boundaries surrounding their members. Generating such diagrams automatically such that set regions do not intersect unless the corresponding sets have a non-empty intersection is a difficult problem. Further, it may be impossible in some cases if regions are required to be continuous and convex. Several approaches exist to draw such set regions using more complex shapes, however, the resulting diagrams can be difficult to interpret. In this paper we present two novel approaches for simplifying a complex collection of intersecting sets into a strict hierarchy that can be more easily automatically arranged and drawn (Figure 1). In the first approach, we use compact rectangular shapes for drawing each set, attempting to improve the readability of the set intersections. In the second approach, we avoid drawing intersecting set regions by duplicating elements belonging to multiple sets. We compared both of our techniques to the traditional non-convex region technique using five readability tasks. Our results show that the compact rectangular shapes technique was often preferred by experimental subjects even though the use of duplications dramatically improves the accuracy and performance time for most of our tasks. In addition to general set representation our techniques are also applicable to visualization of networks with intersecting clusters of nodes. PMID:20975147

Riche, Nathalie Henry; Dwyer, Tim

2010-01-01

111

On web diagrams Jun Murakami  

E-print Network

On web diagrams Jun Murakami Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka­ tive invariant is defined in the space of web diagrams, and it includes the Casson­ Walker invariant of the mapping class groups. (cf. [9], [10]) 2. Web space 2.1. Web diagram. To explain the universal perturbative

112

The Plumber's Nightmare:1 A New Morphology in Block  

E-print Network

-made composites and calcined ceramic materials. Finally, the observation of the bicontinuous block to existing studies of ternary phase diagrams of amphiphiles in a mixture of two solvents. The calcined

Gruner, Sol M.

113

Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

1986-01-01

114

Processing of compressed imagery: basic theory with visual pattern image coding (VPIC) and block truncation coding (BTC) transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of processing imagery that exhibits a large data burden can be ameliorated by compressive processing, which simulates an image-domain operation using an analogous operation over a given compressed image format. The output of the analogous operation, when decompressed, equals or approximates the output of the corresponding image operation. In previous research, we have shown that compressive processing can

Mark S. Schmalz

1996-01-01

115

Impact decision support diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

Boslough, Mark

2014-10-01

116

Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

2015-02-01

117

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

2003-01-01

118

Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

Carter, D. A.

1983-01-01

119

Onland signatures of the Palawan microcontinental block and Philippine mobile belt collision and crustal growth process: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision of the Palawan microcontinental block with the Philippine mobile belt had significantly influenced the geological evolution of the Philippines. Multiple collisions involving several fragments, through space and time, resulted into the collage of terranes of varying origin exposed in this part of central Philippines. Cusping of the overriding plate, volcanic arc gap, ophiolite emplacement, incipient back-arc rifting, island rotation and tilting, raised coastal terraces, metamorphism, intrusion of igneous rocks and steepened subducted slab as seen in focal mechanism solutions are some of the manifestations of this collision. A late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene age (20-16 Ma) is proposed for the major collision between the Palawan indenter and the Philippine mobile belt. The collision boundary is located from the northern part of Mindoro through the central mountain range swinging east of Sibuyan Island in the Romblon Island Group and finally threading along the Buruanga Peninsula and eastern side of the Antique Ophiolite Complex before exiting and connecting with the Negros Trench. The collision, through accretion and crustal thickening, has contributed to the crustal growth of the Philippine archipelago.

Yumul, Graciano P., Jr.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Queaño, Karlo L.

2009-05-01

120

A novel one-pot de-blocking and conjugation reaction step leads to process intensification in the manufacture of PEGylated insulin IN-105.  

PubMed

Bio-catalytic in vitro multistep reactions can be combined in a single step in one pot by optimizing multistep reactions under identical reaction condition. Using this analogy, the process of making PEGylated insulin, IN-105, was simplified. Instead of taking the purified active insulin bulk powder as the starting material for the conjugation step, an insulin process intermediate, partially purified insulin ester, was taken as starting material. Process intensification (PI) was established by performing a novel de-blocking (de-esterification) of the partially purified insulin ester and conjugation at B-29 Lys residue of B chain with a short-chain methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) in a single-pot reactor. The chromatographic profile at the end of the reaction was found similar irrespective of whether both the reactions were performed sequentially or simultaneously. The conjugated product of interest, IN-105 (conjugation at LysB(29)), was purified from the heterogeneous mixture of conjugated products. The new manufacturing process was deduced to be more simplified and economical in making the insulin conjugates as several downstream purification steps could be circumvented. The physicochemical characteristics of IN-105 manufactured through this economic process was found to be indifferent from the product formed through the traditional process where the conjugation starting material was purified from bulk insulin. PMID:22453680

Hazra, Partha; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Shabandri, Qais; Adhikary, Laxmi; Dave, Nitesh; Buddha, Madhavan

2012-10-01

121

The semigroup of Betti diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent proof of the Boij-Soederberg conjectures reveals new structure\\u000aabout Betti diagrams of modules, giving a complete description of the cone of\\u000aBetti diagrams. We begin to expand on this new structure by investigating the\\u000asemigroup of Betti diagrams. We prove that this semigroup is finitely\\u000agenerated, and we answer several other fundamental questions about this\\u000asemigroup.

Daniel Erman

2009-01-01

122

Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) Diagrams  

E-print Network

TTT diagrams. These are salt bath (Figs. 1- 2) techniques combined with metallography and hardness techniques and thermodynamic predictions. Salt bath technique combined with metallography and hardness

Cambridge, University of

123

A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

124

TimeScale Block Bootstrap Tests for Non Gaussian Finite Variance Self-Similar Processes with Stationary Increments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling analysis is nowadays becoming a standard tool in statistical signal processing. It mostly consists of estimating scaling attributes which in turns are involved in standard tasks such as detection, identification or classification. Recently, we proposed that confidence interval or hypothesis test design for scaling analysis could be based on non parametric bootstrap approaches. We showed that such procedures are

Herwig Wendt; Patrice Abry

2007-01-01

125

Force Diagrams: How? and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that physics students always have three questions when using force diagrams: (1) Why do I need one? (2) How do I draw one? and (3) How do I find the forces acting on a body? Provides a method to help students find answers to all three questions and understand force diagrams. (MVL)

Newburgh, Ronald

1994-01-01

126

Perturbations to the Hubble diagram  

E-print Network

We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.

Thomas Schucker; Ilhem ZouZou

2005-11-17

127

Physiology Flow-Diagram Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of physiology flow-diagrams for the cardiovascular system, cardiac auto-rhythmic cell, cardiac contractile cell, respiratory system, coagulation/hemostasis, digestive system, excretion, and autonomic nervous system. These flow-diagrams show cause-and-effect markup and have accompanying tutorials.

PhD Sandra J Bruner (Polk Community College Biology)

2005-10-04

128

Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remainders were submitted for routine histopathologic processing. The diagnostic value of FNAB was assessed by comparing the FNAB diagnoses to those made by routine histopathology. Results: Cytopathologic evaluations based on smear cytology and CB with sections stained immunohistochemically can distinguish non-epithelial lesions from epithelial ones in all cases. The diagnostic sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions were: cytologic smears--76%, 68%, and 71%, respectively; CB with immunohistochemical staining--88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. The accuracy of the tissue diagnosis compared to routine histopathology was less for cytologic smears (58%) than for CB with immunohistochemistry (81%; P < 0.05). Conclusions: FNAB of LGT processed using a CB technique capable of producing immunohistochemically stained slides results in a greater percentage of accurate tissue diagnoses than do cytologic smears, when compared to routine histopathology. PMID:25120744

Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Yuan, Yifei; Ping, Bo; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

2014-01-01

129

Triangle Diagram with Off-Shell Coulomb T-Matrix for (In-)Elastic Atomic and Nuclear Three-Body Processes  

E-print Network

The driving terms in three-body theories of elastic and inelastic scattering of a charged particle off a bound state of two other charged particles contain the fully off-shell two-body Coulomb T-matrix describing the intermediate-state Coulomb scattering of the projectile with each of the charged target particles. Up to now the latter is usually replaced by the Coulomb potential, either when using the multiple-scattering approach or when solving three-body integral equations. General properties of the exact and the approximate on-shell driving terms are discussed, and the accuracy of this approximation is investigated numerically, both for atomic and nuclear processes including bound-state excitation, for energies below and above the corresponding three-body dissociation threshold, over the whole range of scattering angles.

E. O. Alt; A. S. Kadyrov; A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; M. Rauh

1995-03-16

130

BLOCK AND QUADTREE BASED SIMPLIFICATION IN TILED BLOCKS TERRAIN ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

, especially by the game industry, are the Geomipmapping (Boer, 2000) and the Chunked LOD (Ulrich, 2002 in the simplification process is described. In Section 6 are discussed methods to correct cracks between adjacent blocks

Carmo, Maria Beatriz

131

What Causes Heart Block?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Block? Heart block has many causes. Some people ... others develop it during their lifetimes (acquired). Congenital Heart Block One form of congenital heart block occurs ...

132

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

Woodrow, Janice

1991-01-01

133

Interpreting T-X Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short problem set works well as a group activity that can be completed in class. The purpose of the exercise is for students to begin to think about T-X phase diagrams and how they are interpreted. Along the way, students learn that text book authors sometimes make mistakes. The figure in the handout is from Winter's Petrology. But, Winter goofed and left some reactions off of the phase diagram.

Perkins, Dexter

134

Processing of A-15 Nb sub 3 Si, Nb sub 3 Ge and Nb sub 3 (AlSi) superconducting ribbons by the chill-block spinning machine  

SciTech Connect

A processing technique for A-15 compounds which has improved mechanical and superconducting properties has been developed. This technique consists of rapid solidification of the alloy by the chill block spinning machine (CBSM) to form amorphous ribbons and by subsequent annealing crystallizes the stable or metastable fine grain flexible A-15 structure. The CBSM has been modified so that all the processing parameters could be controlled and optimized for each alloy composition. By the improved CBSM it was possible to form amorphous Nb{sub 3}Si, Nb{sub 3}Ge and Nb{sub 3}(AlSi) ribbons with more than 80% reproducible rate. Critical current density measurements are limited by contact resistance. A Cu plating technique was introduced in this research that made the contact resistance three orders of magnitude lower than that obtained by other methods. This plated coating also gave an additional mechanical support to the sample and acted as a shunt for thermal stabilization of the sample. J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}Ge at 15 Tesla was 8 {times} 10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}. The J{sub c} of Nb{sub 3}(AlSi) at 15 Tesla was 5 {times} 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2}. The J{sub c} value observed in the Nb{sub 3}(AlSi) alloy at 15 Tesla is the highest reported value for any superconductor as of today.

Manzur, Tariq.

1989-01-01

135

Reheating Phase Diagram for Higgs Inflation  

E-print Network

We investigate the impact on the inflationary predictions from various reheating histories which are characterized by an e-folding number $N_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ and an effective equation-of-state parameter $w_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ during reheating process. For Higgs inflation with a non-minimal coupling to gravity, the predictions are obtained on the $N_{\\mathrm{reh}}\\!\\!-\\!w_{\\mathrm{reh}}$ reheating phase diagram. We find that the predictions are insensitive to reheating phase. Within the $1\\sigma$ region of the scalar spectral index $n_s$ reported by Planck 2014 Preliminary, almost all possible reheating histories are allowed on the reheating phase diagram, where Higgs inflation with canonical reheating history $w_{\\mathrm{reh}}=0$ lies near the upper edge of the $1\\sigma$ range of $n_s$. Future measurements of $n_s$ with high precision will identify the reheating physics of Higgs inflation.

Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang

2015-01-01

136

Diagram of Zeolite Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

2003-01-01

137

NAAP HR Diagram Explorer 1/9 HR Diagram Student Guide  

E-print Network

Name: NAAP ­ HR Diagram Explorer 1/9 HR Diagram ­ Student Guide Background Information Work through Orionis O9 Radius (R) Temperature (T) Luminosity (L) 1 1 1 2 1 9 1 1/2 #12;NAAP ­ HR Diagram Explorer 2 Diagram Explorer Open the HR Diagram Explorer. Begin by familiarizing yourself with the capabilities

Farritor, Shane

138

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Mrs. Brown

2010-03-20

139

Neuraminidase Ribbon Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ribbons is a program developed at UAB used worldwide to graphically depict complicated protein structures in a simplified format. The program uses sophisticated computer systems to understand the implications of protein structures. The Influenza virus remains a major causative agent for a large number of deaths among the elderly and young children and huge economic losses due to illness. Finding a cure will have a general impact both on the basic research of viral pathologists of fast evolving infectious agents and clinical treatment of influenza virus infection. The reproduction process of all strains of influenza are dependent on the same enzyme neuraminidase. Shown here is a segmented representation of the neuraminidase inhibitor compound sitting inside a cave-like contour of the neuraminidase enzyme surface. This cave-like formation present in every neuraminidase enzyme is the active site crucial to the flu's ability to infect. The space-grown crystals of neuraminidase have provided significant new details about the three-dimensional characteristics of this active site thus allowing researchers to design drugs that fit tighter into the site. Principal Investigator: Dr. Larry DeLucas

2004-01-01

140

Block-based image hashing with restricted blocking strategy for rotational robustness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image hashing is a potential solution for image content authentication (a desired image hashing algorithm should be robust to common image processing operations and various geometric distortions). In the literature, researchers pay more attention to block-based image hashing algorithms due to their robustness to common image processing operations (such as lossy compression, low-pass filtering, and additive noise). However, the block-based hashing strategies are sensitive to rotation processing operations. This indicates that the robustness of the block-based hashing methods against rotation operations is an important issue. Towards this direction, in this article we propose a restricted blocking strategy by investigating effect of two rotation operations on an image and its blocks in both theoretical and experimental ways. Furthermore, we apply the proposed blocking strategy for the recently reported non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) hashing. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the block-based hashing algorithms with restricted blocking strategy for rotation operations.

Xiang, Shijun; Yang, Jianquan

2012-12-01

141

Band diagrams of layered plasmonic metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method to map the band diagrams, or equipotential contours (EPCs), of any layered plasmonic metamaterial using a general expression for the Poynting vector in a lossy layered medium of finite extent under plane-wave illumination. Unlike conventional methods to get band diagrams by solving the Helmholtz equation using the Floquet-Bloch theorem (an approach restricted to infinite, periodic, lossless media), our method adopts a bottom-up philosophy based on spatial-frequency decomposition of the electric and magnetic fields (an approach applicable to finite, lossy media). Equipotential contours are used to visualize phase and group velocities in a wide range of layered plasmonic systems, including the basic building block of a thin metallic layer and more complex multi-layers with unique optical properties such as negative phase velocity, super-resolution imaging, canalization, and far-field imaging. We show that a thin metallic layer can mimic a left-handed electromagnetic response at the surface plasmon resonance and that stacks of metal and dielectric layers can do the same provided that the dielectric layer is sufficiently thin. We also use EPCs to estimate resolution limits of both Pendry's silver slab lens and the Veselago lens and show that the image location and lateral image resolution of metal-dielectric layered flat lenses can be described (and tailored) by the concavity and spectral reach of the dominant band in their EPCs. Homogenization methods for describing the effective optical properties of various layered systems are validated by the extent to which they accurately mimic features in their EPCs.

Al Shakhs, Mohammed H.; Ott, Peter; Chau, Kenneth J.

2014-11-01

142

Index of Animated Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of animated phase diagrams by Kenneth Windom at Iowa State University. These short Power Point animations can be used to illustrate equilibrium crystallization concepts. There are slide shows for plagioclase feldspars (albite and anorthite); forsterite, diopside and anorthite; forsterite, enstatite and silica; and diopside and anorthite.

Windom, Kenneth E.; University, Iowa S.

143

Reasoning with Diagrams: Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard notation for modelling software systems is the Unified Modelling Language (UML). This consists of a suite of mainly diagrammatic notations. However, UML's constraint language, OCL, is entirely textual, making the notation less accessible to practitioners. The Reasoning with Diagrams project aims to build the foundation for more accessible no-tations for practitioners, building on and consolidating ex-isting theoretical and

John Howse; Richard Bosworth; Andrew Fish; John Taylor; Peter Rodgers; Gem Stapleton; Simon Thompson

144

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

145

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

146

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

147

Simulation of power cycle with energy utilization diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graphical representation named energy utilization diagram (EUD) is a very useful tool for exergy analysis of chemical processes. This technique can be applied to the power cycle, the combination of heat exchangers and power subsystems. The cooperation of EUD with the process simulator was introduced to retrieve the simulation results and thermodynamic properties. The ASPEN Plus simulator was used

Thongchai Srinophakun; Sangapong Laowithayangkul; Masaru Ishida

2001-01-01

148

Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

149

Block rotation: implementation and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual media processing is becoming increasingly important because of the wide variety of image and video based applications. Block rotation is an important operation in different image/video processing tasks such as graphics, fractal processing, pattern matching and image registration. Remote sensing, medical imaging, computer vision, computer graphics, and video coding are typical applications of digital image rotation. However, a hardware implementation of the block rotation algorithm has not been realized and software implementation is slow. Hence, they are not suitable for real- time execution. In this paper, we propose a novel method for block rotation, which is fast and suitable for hardware implementation. The algorithm employs area based interpolation. Experimental results have shown the performance enhancement compared to classical interpolation algorithms at a similar level of complexity.

Fatemi, Omid; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

1997-09-01

150

Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram  

SciTech Connect

Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

151

Chord diagrams and BPHZ subtractions  

E-print Network

The combinatorics of the BPHZ subtraction scheme for a class of ladder graphs for the three point vertex in $\\phi^3$ theory is transcribed into certain connectivity relations for marked chord diagrams (knots with transversal intersections). The resolution of the singular crossings using the equivalence relations in these examples provides confirmation of a proposed fundamental relationship between knot theory and renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory.

Ioannis Tsohantjis; Alex C Kalloniatis; Peter D Jarvis

1996-04-30

152

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (?)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ?19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ?9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ?22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ?0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic ?, followed by (2) a ?/NbC eutectic at ?1250°C, followed by (3) continued ? solidification, followed by (4) a ?/Laves phase eutectic at ?1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

1989-10-01

153

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

2012-01-01

154

Helical Ordering in Chiral Block Copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing molecular chirality into the segments of block copolymers can influence the nature of the resultant morphology. Such an effect was found for poly(styrene-b-L-lactide) (PS-b-PLLA) diblock copolymers where hexagonally packed PLLA helical microdomains (H* phase) form in a PS matrix. However, molecular ordering of PLLA within the helical microdomains and the transfer of chirality from the segmental level to the mesoscale is still not well understood. We developed a field theoretic model to describe the interactions between segments of chiral blocks, which have the tendency to form a ``cholesteric'' texture. Based on the model, we calculated the bulk morphologies of chiral AB diblock copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Experiments show that the H* phase only forms when microphase separation between PS and PLLA block happens first and crystallization of PLLA block is suppressed or happens within confined microdomain. Hence, crystalline ordering is not necessary for H* phase formation. The SCFT offers the chance to explore the range of thermodynamic stability of helical structures in the phase diagram of chiral block copolymer melts, by tuning parameters not only like the block segregation strength and composition, but also new parameters such as the ratio between preferred helical pitch to the radius of gyration and the Frank elastic constant for inter-segment distortions.

Zhao, Wei; Hong, Sung Woo; Chen, Dian; Grason, Gregory; Russell, Thomas

2012-02-01

155

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 16, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2007 2743 Postprocessing of Low Bit-Rate Block DCT Coded  

E-print Network

Bit-Rate Block DCT Coded Images Based on a Fields of Experts Prior Deqing Sun, Student Member, IEEE (DCT) has been widely used in image and video coding standards, but at low bit rates, the coded images setting. The noise model assumes that the DCT coefficients and their quantization errors are independent

Cham, Wai-kuen

156

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Free Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on free body diagrams. The tutorial includes an introduction to free body diagrams, example problems, a series of self-paced questions, and a free body diagram java applet. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2007-04-23

157

On hooks of Young diagrams Christine Bessenrodt  

E-print Network

On hooks of Young diagrams Christine Bessenrodt Fakult¨at f¨ur Mathematik Otto re­ movable box for a Young diagram is generalized to arbitrary hooks. As an application originated from a conjecture by Regev and Vershik on hook num­ bers in certain skew Young diagrams, described

Bessenrodt, Christine

158

Microfluidic Evaporation for Phase Diagram Screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a pervaporation-based microfluidic device to concentrate solutions in a controlled way. This allows us to develop chips for phase diagram screening,and to study both fundamental and technological issues, such as the impact of kinetic pathway of concentration on a variety of aqueous solutions (colloids, surfactants, polymers and mixtures of thereof). The first part of the presentation will deals with the characterization of the concentration process (including analytical results, numerical simulations, and experimental observations). It will be shown that our device is well suited for a wide range of particle sizes in the colloidal range. In the second part, we will present results obtained on several systems during (along) the concentration process (surfactants and polymers). On-chip FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and microrheology measurements will be presented in addition to optical and fluorescence microscopy.

Moreau, Patrick; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Leng, Jacques

2007-11-01

159

Adapting Diagrams from Physics Textbooks: A Way to Improve the Autonomy of Blind Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We devise and test a set of tactile symbols to represent elements frequently used in mechanics diagrams, such as vectors, ropes, pulleys, blocks and surfaces, that can be used to adapt drawings of physics situations in textbooks for blind students. We also investigate how figures are described for blind students in classroom activities and exams,…

Dickman, A. G.; Martins, A. O.; Ferreira, A. C.; Andrade, L. M.

2014-01-01

160

Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of an Early Cretaceous intrusive suite in northeastern Jiangxi Province, South China Block: Implications for petrogenesis, crust/mantle interactions and geodynamic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Cretaceous Tieshan intrusive suite, in northeastern Jiangxi Province along the northern margin of the Eastern Cathaysia Block, is composed of diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, syenite porphyries, quartz monzonites, monzogranites and granite porphyries. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses reveal that this intrusive complex was emplaced between 142 Ma and 117 Ma. The ~ 135 Ma diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, and syenite porphyries are characterized by low to moderate SiO2 and MgO contents, with high K2O and total alkaline contents. These rocks exhibit slightly to strongly fractionated REE patterns and upper crust-like multi-element patterns with depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti, and show strongly negative ?Hf (t) values of - 9.0 to - 11.8. All these patterns are identical to those of the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros in the east, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites in the west. These geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic features indicate that their magmatic precursors were generated by 0.2%-2% partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by sediments. The ~ 117 Ma quartz monzonite has slightly higher ?Hf (t) values (- 5.6 to - 8.7) like those of the Honggong syenites, indicating an interaction between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The ~ 142-134 Ma granite porphyries and monzogranites are characterized by high SiO2 levels but low concentrations of refractory elements, and show enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, with variable negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr, P and Ba in multi-element diagrams normalized by primitive mantle. The monzogranite exhibits strongly negative ?Hf (t) values of - 10.5 to - 13.3 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1849-2023 Ma, and the granite porphyries display relatively wide ?Hf (t) values of - 7.2 to - 13.4 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1645-2043 Ma, indicating that these monzogranites and granite porphyries are highly fractionated granites derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic basement with involvement of enriched mantle-derived magmas or juvenile components, and the primary magma experienced fractionation of K-feldspar, plagioclase, monazite, allanite and zircon during magma ascent and emplacement. The Tieshan intrusive suite, together with the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites, forms a highly enriched shoshonitic rock belt in the northeastern margin of the Cathaysia Block. Integrating with previously published data, we propose that the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate extended into the central South China Block in the Middle Jurassic, and experienced slab rollback during the Early Cretaceous.

Deng, Zhengbin; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Lifei; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Pengtao; Luo, Ping; Guo, Boran

2014-07-01

161

Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are effective instruments of thought and a valuable tool in conveying those thoughts to others. As such, they can be usefully employed as representations of a research domain and act as stimulus materials in interviews. This process of graphic elicitation may encourage contributions from interviewees that are difficult to obtain by other means. By representing concepts and relationships that

NATHAN CRILLY; ALAN F BLACKWELL; P JOHN CLARKSON

2006-01-01

162

Using Stratified Attribute Tracking (SAT) Diagrams for Learning Analytics  

E-print Network

the process of SAT diagram generation would enable exploring deeper research questions on learning data-Disciplinary Program in Educational Technology Indian Institute of Technology Bombay rwitajit@iitb.ac.in Sridhar Iyer Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay sri@iitb.ac.in Abstract

Iyer, Sridhar

163

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

164

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

165

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

166

Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

167

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

168

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

169

Building, block, street : residential block design  

E-print Network

Late twentieth-century housing, formed by economic and internally generated functional problems rather than by limitations imposed by traditional street pattern and block size, is fundamentally anti-urban. Modern American ...

Kamell, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Natanya)

1996-01-01

170

Learning from Text with Diagrams: Promoting Mental Model Development and Inference Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated learning outcomes and comprehension processes when students learned about the heart and circulatory system using (a) text only, (b) text with simplified diagrams designed to highlight important structural relations, or (c) text with more detailed diagrams reflecting a more accurate representation. Experiment 1 found…

Butcher, Kirsten R.

2006-01-01

171

Controlled self-assembly of conjugated rod-coil block copolymers for applications in organic optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic electronics are of great interest in manufacturing light weight, mechanical flexible, and inexpensive large area devices. While significant improvements have been made over the last several years and it is now clear that morphology on the lengthscale of exciton diffusion (10nm) is of crucial importance, a clear relationship between structure and device properties has not emerged. This lack of understanding largely emerges from an inability to control morphology on this lengthscale. This thesis will center around an approach, based on block copolymer self-assembly, to generate equilibrium nanostructures on the 10 nm lengthscale of exciton diffusion and study their effects on device performance. Self-assembly of semiconducting block copolymers is complicated by the non-classical chain shape of conjugated polymers. Unlike classical polymers, the chains do not assume a Gaussian coil shape which is stretched near block copolymer interfaces, instead the chains are elongated and liquid crystalline. Previous work has demonstrated how these new molecular interactions and shapes control the phase diagram of so-called rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we will focus on controlling domain size, orientation, and chemical structure. While domain size can be controlled directly through molecular weight, this requires significant additional synthesis of domain size is to be varied. Here, the domain size is controlled by blending homopolymers into a self-assembling rod-coil block copolymer. When coil-like blocks are incorporated, the domains swell, as expected. When rod-like blocks are incorporated, they interdigitate with the rods of the block copolymers. This results in an increase in interfacial area which forces the coils to rearrange and an overall decrease in domain size with increasing rod content. Control over lamellar orientation is crucial in order to design and control charge transport pathways and exciton recombination or separation interfaces. While numerous techniques have been demonstrated for classical block copolymers, the pi conjugation in the rod blocks allow for additional control mechanisms. Liquid crystals are traditionally aligned in magnetic fields. Here, it is demonstrated that if the rod-like blocks are aligned unidirectionally, the block copolymer interfaces follow to create macroscopic alignment of the nanostructures. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are generally composed of electron transporting and hole transporting moieties to balance charge recombination. Here, a new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing the hole transporting and electron transporting materials is synthesized. Self-assembly of this new block copolymer results in 15nm lamellae oriented in grains both parallel and perpendicula to the anode. The self-assembled block copolymer shows superior device performance to controls consisting of a luminescent, analogous homopolymer, and a blend of the two component homopolymers. The effects of the morphologies and chemical structure on photovoltaics is explored with a rod-coil block copolymer, (poly(3-hexylthiophene-b-acrylic perylene)). By varying the kinetics of self-assembly through processing, the block copolymer can be disordered, ordered with only short range registry between the nanodomains, or with long-range order. The short range ordered samples showed the best device performance suggesting that the connectivity that is a biproduct of poor order is beneficial for device performance.

Tao, Yuefei

172

Analysis of the TRIPS prototype block predictor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the performance of the TRIPS proto- type chip's block predictor. The prototype is the first imple- mentation of the block-atomic TRIPS architecture, wherein the unit of execution is a TRIPS hyperblock. The TRIPS pro- totype predictor uses a two-step prediction process: it first predicts the exit from the current hyperblock and uses the predicted exit in conjunction

Nitya Ranganathan; Doug Burger; Stephen W. Keckler

2009-01-01

173

Rational synthesis of low-polydispersity block copolymer vesicles in concentrated solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly.  

PubMed

Block copolymer self-assembly is normally conducted via post-polymerization processing at high dilution. In the case of block copolymer vesicles (or "polymersomes"), this approach normally leads to relatively broad size distributions, which is problematic for many potential applications. Herein we report the rational synthesis of low-polydispersity diblock copolymer vesicles in concentrated solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of benzyl methacrylate. Our strategy utilizes a binary mixture of a relatively long and a relatively short poly(methacrylic acid) stabilizer block, which become preferentially expressed at the outer and inner poly(benzyl methacrylate) membrane surface, respectively. Dynamic light scattering was utilized to construct phase diagrams to identify suitable conditions for the synthesis of relatively small, low-polydispersity vesicles. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to verify that this binary mixture approach produced vesicles with significantly narrower size distributions compared to conventional vesicles prepared using a single (short) stabilizer block. Calculations performed using self-consistent mean field theory (SCMFT) account for the preferred self-assembled structures of the block copolymer binary mixtures and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. Finally, both SAXS and SCMFT indicate a significant degree of solvent plasticization for the membrane-forming poly(benzyl methacrylate) chains. PMID:25026466

Gonzato, Carlo; Semsarilar, Mona; Jones, Elizabeth R; Li, Feng; Krooshof, Gerard J P; Wyman, Paul; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Tuinier, Remco; Armes, Steven P

2014-08-01

174

Blocking Losses on an Optical Communications Link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many photon-counting photo-detectors have the property that they become inoperative for some time after detection event. We say the detector is blocked during this time.Blocking produces losses when using the detector as a photon-counter to detect a communications signal. In this paper, we characterize blocking losses for single detectors and for arrays of detectors. For arrays, we discuss conditions under which the output may be approximated as a Poisson point process, and provide a simple approximation to the blocking loss. We show how to extend the analysis to arrays of non-uniformly illuminated arrays.

Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino

2011-01-01

175

A layout algorithm for data flow diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A layout algorithm is presented that allows the automatic drawing of data flow diagrams, a diagrammatic representation widely used in the functional analysis of information systems. A grid standard is defined for such diagrams, and aesthetics for a good readability are identified. The layout algorithm receives as input an abstract graph, specifying connectivity relations between the elements of the diagram, and produces as output a corresponding diagram according to the aesthetics. The basic strategy is to build incrementally the layout; first, a good topology is constructed with few crossings between edges; subsequently, the shape of the diagram is determined in terms of angles appearing along edges; and finally, dimensions are given to the graph, obtaining a grid skeleton for the diagram.

Batini, C.; Nardelli, E.; Tamassia, R.

1986-04-01

176

Variable stars across the observational HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of pulsating variable stars across the observational Hertzprung-Russel (HR) diagram is presented, together with a summary of their global properties. The HR diagram is presented with a third colour-coded dimension, visualizing the fraction of variable, the amplitude of variability or the period of variability. The distribution of variable stars in the other observational diagrams, such as the Period-Amplitude

Laurent Eyer; Nami Mowlavi

2008-01-01

177

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

PubMed Central

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

178

Phase diagrams for DNA crystallization systems.  

PubMed

Phase diagrams for several oligonucleotide duplex-spermine systems have been constructed. These diagrams characterize the duplex and spermine concentrations ranges in which crystalline precipitates are formed. All of them are wedge-like form. The slope of the upper branch of the diagram is determined by the oligonucleotide length. The position of the lower branch depends on both the nucleotide sequence and its length. The position of the lower branch depends on both the nucleotide sequence and its length. It has been shown that the addition to the system of MgCl2 and NaCl salts and MPD results in specific changes in the diagrams. A model for oligonucleotide duplex-spermine system has been suggested which explains the main characteristic features of the obtained phase diagrams. The experimental phase diagrams for the (pGpT)n (pApC)n-spermine system (n = 2,3,4) have been analyzed ion terms of this model and the values of the binding constants of spermine and Mg2+ ions binding to duplexes have been determined. It permitted to identify the complexes that precipitated in different regions of the phase diagrams under various conditions. The diagram obtained in the presence of a cobalt hexammine counterion is also considered. It has been shown that this phase diagram, in general, is similar to those obtained for the oligonucleotide duplex-spermine system. PMID:3271481

Malinina, L V; Makhaldiani, V V; Tereshko, V A; Zarytova, V F; Ivanova, E M

1987-10-01

179

Variable stars across the observational HR diagram  

E-print Network

An overview of pulsating variable stars across the observational Hertzprung-Russel (HR) diagram is presented, together with a summary of their global properties. The HR diagram is presented with a third colour-coded dimension, visualizing the fraction of variable, the amplitude of variability or the period of variability. The distribution of variable stars in the other observational diagrams, such as the Period-Amplitude diagram, is also presented. Some of the progresses performed in the field of variable stars during the last decade are briefly summarized, and future projects that will improve our knowledge of variable stars are mentioned.

Laurent Eyer; Nami Mowlavi

2007-12-21

180

Hofstadter Butterfly Diagram in Noncommutative Space  

E-print Network

We study an energy spectrum of electron moving under the constant magnetic field in two dimensional noncommutative space. It take place with the gauge invariant way. The Hofstadter butterfly diagram of the noncommutative space is calculated in terms of the lattice model which is derived by the Bopp's shift for space and by the Peierls substitution for external magnetic field. We also find the fractal structure in new diagram. Although the global features of the new diagram are similar to the diagram of the commutative space, the detail structure is different from it.

Hidenori Takahashi; Masanori Yamanaka

2006-06-23

181

Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

2010-01-01

182

Block Copolymers in Electric Fields: A Comparison of Single-Mode and Self-Consistent-Field Approximations  

E-print Network

explore a section of the phase diagram in the three-dimensional parameter space of the block architecture, and distorted body-centered-cubic (bcc) phases is compared within the two models. As function of an increasing electric field, the distorted bcc region in the phase diagram shrinks and disappears above a triple point

Andelman, David

183

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

184

On hooks of skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted diagrams  

E-print Network

1 On hooks of skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted diagrams Christine Bessenrodt Fakultat f;ectiveness of the methods introduced in [1] we investi- gate hooks in skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted combinatorial proofs for re#12;ned identities on multisets of hooks in the case of shift-symmetric partitions. 1

Bessenrodt, Christine

185

Multidimensional Modeling with UML Package Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the defacto standard for object-oriented analysis and design, providing differentdiagrams for modeling different aspects of a system. In this paper, wepresent the development of multidimensional (MD) models for data warehouses(DW) using UML package diagrams. In this way, when modelingcomplex and large DW systems, we are not restricted to use fiat UMLclass diagrams. We

Sergio Luján-mora; Juan Trujillo; Il-yeol Song

2002-01-01

186

Projections in Venn-Euler Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venn diagrams and Euler circles have long been used to express constraints on sets and their relationships with other sets. However, these notations can get very cluttered when we consider many closed curves or contours. In order to reduce this clutter, and to focus attention within the diagram appropriately, the notion of a projected contour, or projection, is introduced. Informally,

Joseph Gil; John Howse; Stuart Kent; John Taylor

2000-01-01

187

THE QCD PHASE DIAGRAM AT FINITE DENSITY.  

SciTech Connect

We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the temperature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

SCHMIDT, C.; FODOR, Z.; KATZ, S.

2005-07-25

188

Shear and Moment Diagrams with a Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Applesoft computer program which determines the shear and moment diagrams for any combination of four different load configurations on a simply supported beam. Examples of different load configurations and the diagrams produced are included. Also included is the program listing. (JN)

Wallace, John S.

1984-01-01

189

Myopic Value of Information in Influence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for calculation of myopicvalue of information in influence diagrams(Howard & Matheson, 1981) based onthe strong junction tree framework (Jensenet al., 1994) .An influence diagram specifies a certain orderof observations and decisions through itsstructure. This order is reflected in the correspondingjunction trees by the order in whichthe nodes are marginalized. This order ofmarginalization can be changed by

Søren L. Dittmer; Finn Verner Jensen

1997-01-01

190

Phase Diagrams for Traffics on the Crossroad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traffic flows on two one-lane roads, crossing at a point, are studied on the basis of the local occupation probability method. The phase diagrams are constructed for the cases of various maximum car velocities. It has turned out that the phase diagrams consist essentailly of five regions.

Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Minoru

2001-09-01

191

The QCD phase diagram at finite density  

E-print Network

We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the tempeature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

Christian Schmidt; Zoltan Fodor; Sandor Katz

2005-10-18

192

Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD  

E-print Network

We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates.

H. Panagopoulos; E. Vicari

1998-06-08

193

HertzsprungâRussell (H-R) Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HertzsprungâRussell (H-R) Diagrams model simulates HertzsprungâRussell (HR or H-R) diagram for groups of stars. The diagram is a scatter plot of steller luminosity vs. stellar temperature. The luminosity of stars is proportional to the star's radius squared and its temperature to the fourth power, and for Main Sequence stars, their luminosity is also proportional to their mass to the 3.5 power. Since the range of stellar luminosities and stellar temperatures is so large, the plot uses a log-log scale. The diagram is a way to understand stellar evolution. The HR diagram shows nearby stars, bright stars, and a user-defined star. One can also show the blackbody radiation curve and the user-defined star. The radius of the user-defined star (in Rsun) and the temperature of the user-defined star in Kelvin (5780 K is Tsun) can be changed.

Belloni, Mario

2010-11-11

194

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ?} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

2013-12-07

195

Block and psychoticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that J. P. Block's (1977) criticisms of the Eysenck and Eysenck Adult Psychoticism Scale are one-sided and do not take into account all the evidence. It is also suggested that Block's criticisms center on a function not at all envisaged for the scale, that is, the discrimination of psychotics from normals and other nonpsychotic groups. The scale was constructed

Hans J. Eysenck; Sybil B. Eysenck

1977-01-01

196

Numerical Simulation of Nonperiodic Rail Operation Diagram Characteristics  

PubMed Central

This paper succeeded in utilizing cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the process of the train operation under the four-aspect color light system and getting the nonperiodic diagram of the mixed passenger and freight tracks. Generally speaking, the concerned models could simulate well the situation of wagon in preventing trains from colliding when parking and restarting and of the real-time changes the situation of train speeds and displacement and get hold of the current train states in their departures and arrivals. Finally the model gets the train diagram that simulates the train operation in different ratios of the van and analyzes some parameter characters in the process of train running, such as time, speed, through capacity, interval departing time, and departing numbers. PMID:25435863

Qian, Yongsheng; Wang, Bingbing; Zeng, Junwei; Wang, Xin

2014-01-01

197

The Amplituhedron from Momentum Twistor Diagrams  

E-print Network

We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the "momentum-twistor diagrams". These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices defined in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular for the latter we identify an isolated bubble-structure for each loop variable, arising from a forward limit, or entangled removal of particles. From a given diagram one can directly read off the C, D matrices via a generalized "boundary measurement"; this in turn determines a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude can provide triangulations of the amplituhedron with generally very intricate geometries. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the complete amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

Yuntao Bai; Song He

2014-08-11

198

31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2010-07-01

199

31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2014-07-01

200

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

201

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

202

31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked...

2012-07-01

203

CUDD: CU Decision Diagram Package Release 2.2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CUDD package provides functions to manipulate Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) [5,3], Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADDs) [1], and Zero suppressed Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) [12]. BDDs are used to represent switch functions

Fabio Somenzi

1998-01-01

204

Untwisting the Campbell diagrams of weakly anisotropic rotor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brake can be modeled as an axi-symmetric rotor perturbed by dissipative, conservative, and non-conservative positional forces originated at the frictional contact with the anisotropic stator. The Campbell diagram of the unperturbed system is a mesh-like structure in the frequency-speed plane with double eigenfrequencies at the nodes. The diagram is convenient for the analysis of the traveling waves in the rotating elastic continuum. Computing sensitivities of the doublets we find that at every particular node the untwisting of the mesh into the branches of complex eigenvalues is generically determined by only four 2×2 sub-blocks of the perturbing matrix. Selection of the unstable modes that cause self-excited vibrations in the subcritical speed range, is governed by the exceptional points at the corners of the singular eigenvalue surface-`double coffee-filter'-which is typical also in the problems of electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in non-rotating anisotropic chiral media. As a mechanical example a model of a rotating shaft is studied in detail.

Kirillov, O. N.

2009-08-01

205

Block-based scalable wavelet image codec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high performance block-based wavelet image coder which is designed to be of very low implementational complexity yet with rich features. In this image coder, the Dual-Sliding Wavelet Transform (DSWT) is first applied to image data to generate wavelet coefficients in fixed-size blocks. Here, a block only consists of wavelet coefficients from a single subband. The coefficient blocks are directly coded with the Low Complexity Binary Description (LCBiD) coefficient coding algorithm. Each block is encoded using binary context-based bitplane coding. No parent-child correlation is exploited in the coding process. There is also no intermediate buffering needed in between DSWT and LCBiD. The compressed bit stream generated by the proposed coder is both SNR and resolution scalable, as well as highly resilient to transmission errors. Both DSWT and LCBiD process the data in blocks whose size is independent of the size of the original image. This gives more flexibility in the implementation. The codec has a very good coding performance even the block size is (16,16).

Bao, Yiliang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

1999-10-01

206

The Atom - The Final Link in the Division Process or the First Building Block? Pre-Instructional Conceptions about the Structure of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis as to the atomic structure of any given substance is introduced in many physics and chemistry textbooks by conveying the idea of repetitive division of a given amount of substance, for example, by grinding, dissolving, or evaporating. The rationale for this approach is the assumption of students inferring that this process of…

Pfundt, Helga

207

Cellular FLICE-inhibitory Protein (cFLIP) Isoforms Block CD95- and TRAIL Death Receptor-induced Gene Induction Irrespective of Processing of Caspase-8 or cFLIP in the Death-inducing Signaling Complex*  

PubMed Central

Death receptors (DRs) induce apoptosis but also stimulate proinflammatory “non-apoptotic” signaling (e.g. NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation) and inhibit distinct steps of DR-activated maturation of procaspase-8. To examine whether isoforms of cellular FLIP (cFLIP) or its cleavage products differentially regulate DR signaling, we established HaCaT cells expressing cFLIPS, cFLIPL, or mutants of cFLIPL (cFLIPD376N and cFLIPp43). cFLIP variants blocked TRAIL- and CD95L-induced apoptosis, but the cleavage pattern of caspase-8 in the death inducing signaling complex was different: cFLIPL induced processing of caspase-8 to the p43/41 fragments irrespective of cFLIP cleavage. cFLIPS or cFLIPp43 blocked procaspase-8 cleavage. Analyzing non-apoptotic signaling pathways, we found that TRAIL and CD95L activate JNK and p38 within 15 min. cFLIP variants and different caspase inhibitors blocked late death ligand-induced JNK or p38 MAPK activation suggesting that these responses are secondary to cell death. cFLIP isoforms/mutants also blocked death ligand-mediated gene induction of CXCL-8 (IL-8). Knockdown of caspase-8 fully suppressed apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling. Knockdown of cFLIP isoforms in primary human keratinocytes enhanced CD95L- and TRAIL-induced NF-?B activation, and JNK and p38 activation, underscoring the regulatory role of cFLIP for these DR-mediated signals. Whereas the presence of caspase-8 is critical for apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling, cFLIP isoforms are potent inhibitors of TRAIL- and CD95L-induced apoptosis, NF-?B activation, and the late JNK and p38 MAPK activation. cFLIP-mediated inhibition of CD95 and TRAIL DR could be of crucial importance during keratinocyte skin carcinogenesis and for the activation of innate and/or adaptive immune responses triggered by DR activation in the skin. PMID:21454681

Kavuri, Shyam M.; Geserick, Peter; Berg, Daniela; Dimitrova, Diana Panayotova; Feoktistova, Maria; Siegmund, Daniela; Gollnick, Harald; Neumann, Manfred; Wajant, Harald; Leverkus, Martin

2011-01-01

208

Development and application of a rubric for analysis of novice students' laboratory flow diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a scheme for the analysis of flow diagrams. The flow diagrams in question are a schematic representation of written instructions that require students to process the text of their practical manual. It was hoped that an analysis of the flow diagrams would provide insight into students' understanding of the manual. To this end, we describe the development of a rubric for the analysis of flow diagrams. The analysis showed that most students were able to draw flow diagrams that showed evidence of deep processing, many of which could be used in place of the practical manual. Most students had some concept of how the apparatus worked, providing evidence of their initiation into the social practice of laboratory work. The analysis also showed that flow diagrams could be used to gauge the students' level of understanding of the practical manual. Flow diagrams could be considered to be learning tools as well as part of the assessment for a practical session.

Davidowitz, Bette; Rollnick, Marissa; Fakudze, Cynthia

2005-01-01

209

Types of Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

210

Extrinsic germanium Blocked Impurity Bank (BIB) detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors with long wavelength thresholds greater than 190 microns and peak quantum efficiencies of 4 percent, at an operating temperature of 1.8 K, have been fabricated. These proof of concept devices consist of a high purity germanium blocking layer epitaxially grown on a Ga-doped Ge substrate. This demonstration of BIB behavior in germanium enables the development of far infrared detector arrays similar to the current silicon-based devices. Present efforts are focussed on improving the chemical vapor deposition process used to create the blocking layer and on the lithographic processing required to produce monolithic detector arrays in germanium. Approaches to test the impurity levels in both the blocking and active layers are considered.

Krabach, Timothy N.; Huffman, James E.; Watson, Dan M.

1989-01-01

211

Solvothermal annealing of block copolymer thin films.  

PubMed

A two-stage annealing process for block copolymer films was introduced consisting of a solvent vapor exposure followed by a thermal cycle. By heating the film but not the chamber, changes in the ambient vapor pressure of the solvent were avoided. Films of block copolymers and homopolymers showed transient nonmonotonic swelling behavior immediately after solvent exposure that was dependent on how the thin film was cast before the anneal. Thermal cycling of the solvent-swelled block copolymer films during the solvent vapor anneal (SVA) caused the films to deswell in 1-10 s and produced well-ordered microdomains in templated 45.5 and 51.5 kg/mol polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane films annealed in toluene and n-heptane vapors for total process times of 30 s to 5 min. PMID:24083573

Gotrik, Kevin W; Ross, C A

2013-11-13

212

An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

1989-01-01

213

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

214

The Art of Free-Body Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of drawing free-body diagrams which only show forces exerted on a body from its neighbors. Presents three ways a body may be modeled: a particle, rigid extended, and nonrigid extended. (MKR)

Puri, Avinash

1996-01-01

215

Pharmaceutical salt formation guided by phase diagrams.  

E-print Network

??Salt formation is frequently employed to improve the solubility and bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. Solid-Liquid-Equilibrium (SLE) phase diagram that serves as the foundation for designing… (more)

Lam, Ka Wing

2009-01-01

216

Voronoi diagram generation on the ellipsoidal earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voronoi diagram on the earth surface is a powerful tool to study spatial proximity at continental or global scale. However, its computation remains challenging because geospatial features have complex shapes. This paper presents a raster-based algorithm to generate Voronoi diagrams on earth's surface. The algorithm approximates the exact point-to-point geographical distances using the cell-to-cell geographical distances calculated by a geographical distance transform. The result is a distance image on which Voronoi diagram is delineated. Compared to existing methods, the proposed algorithm calculates geographical distances based on an earth ellipsoid and allows Voronoi generators to take complex shapes. Most importantly, its approximation error is bounded thus enabling users to control the accuracy of the Voronoi diagram through grid resolution.

Hu, Hai; Liu, XiaoHang; Hu, Peng

2014-12-01

217

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign  

SciTech Connect

The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

Nicinski, T.

1992-02-01

218

Algebraic decision diagrams and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present theory and experiments on the AlgebraicDecision Diagrams (ADD's). These diagrams extend BDD'sby allowing values from an arbitrary finite domain to be associatedwith the terminal nodes. We present a treatment foundedin boolean algebras and discuss algorithms and results in applicationslike matrix multiplication and shortest path algorithms.Furthermore, we outline possible applications of ADD's to logicsynthesis, formal verification,

R. Iris Bahar; Erica A. Frohm; Charles M. Gaona; Gary D. Hachtel; Enrico Macii; Abelardo Pardo; Fabio Somenzi

1993-01-01

219

Implications of Cladistics: Understanding Branching Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how a cladogram is formed and its implications. The cladogram is compared to a family tree, however unlike family trees, ancestors in cladistics ideally give rise to only two descendent species. Also unlike family trees, new species form from splitting of old species. Three possible diagrams showing the relationship between humans, gorillas, baboons, and chimpanzees are demonstrated. The author explains why one diagram is favored and also explains the meaning of nodes and clades.

220

Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter  

SciTech Connect

Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

Wiringa, R.B.

1995-08-01

221

Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

Schaefer, B.-J., E-mail: bernd-jochen.schaefer@uni-graz.at [Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Austria)

2012-06-15

222

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23°C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of Hâ formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, PuâOâ, mixed-valent oxides and PuOâ. The intermediate oxides are the

Haschke

1990-01-01

223

Steps toward a radio HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the possibility of establishing a set of observational parameters for radio galaxies which could be used to study radio source evolution in the same way that the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is used to understand stellar evolution. As a first step towards a radio H-R diagram, we show that the FRI\\/II break is a function of both radio and optical

Frazer Owen

224

The Epsilon Expansion of Feynman Diagrams via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction  

E-print Network

Higher-order diagrams required for radiative corrections to mixed electroweak and QCD processes at the LHC and anticipated future colliders will require numerically stable representations of the associated Feynman diagrams. The hypergeometric representation supplies an analytic framework that is useful for deriving such stable representations. We discuss the reduction of Feynman diagrams to master integrals, and compare integration-by-parts methods to differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. We describe the problem of constructing higher-order terms in the epsilon expansion, and characterize the functions generated in such expansions.

S. A. Yost; V. V. Bytev; M. Yu. Kalmykov; B. A. Kniehl; B. F. L. Ward

2011-10-21

225

The Epsilon Expansion of Feynman Diagrams via Hypergeometric Functions and Differential Reduction  

E-print Network

Higher-order diagrams required for radiative corrections to mixed electroweak and QCD processes at the LHC and anticipated future colliders will require numerically stable representations of the associated Feynman diagrams. The hypergeometric representation supplies an analytic framework that is useful for deriving such stable representations. We discuss the reduction of Feynman diagrams to master integrals, and compare integration-by-parts methods to differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. We describe the problem of constructing higher-order terms in the epsilon expansion, and characterize the functions generated in such expansions.

Yost, S A; Kalmykov, M Yu; Kniehl, B A

2011-01-01

226

A non-fullerene electron acceptor based on fluorene and diketopyrrolopyrrole building blocks for solution-processable organic solar cells with an impressive open-circuit voltage.  

PubMed

A novel solution-processable non-fullerene electron acceptor 6,6'-(5,5'-(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione) (DPP1) based on fluorene and diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated moieties was designed, synthesized and fully characterized. DPP1 exhibited excellent solubility and high thermal stability which are essential for easy processing. Upon using DPP1 as an acceptor with the classical electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene), solution processable bulk-heterojunction solar cells afforded a power conversion efficiency of 1.2% with a high open-circuit voltage (1.1 V). As per our knowledge, this value of open circuit voltage is one of the highest values reported so far for a bulk-heterojunction device using DPP1 as a non-fullerene acceptor. PMID:25274538

Patil, Hemlata; Zu, Wang Xi; Gupta, Akhil; Chellappan, Vijila; Bilic, Ante; Sonar, Prashant; Rananaware, Anushri; Bhosale, Sidhanath V; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

2014-11-21

227

Deformation behavior of cylindrical block copolymer bicrystals : pathway to understanding block copolymer grain boundaries  

E-print Network

Model bicrystals made by adhering pieces of near-single-crystal styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) cylindrical block copolymer (BCP), produced by a roll-casting process; yield various types of pure tilt grain boundaries. The ...

Wanakamol, Panitarn

2006-01-01

228

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

2013-01-29

229

Extended solid solution and nonequilibrium phase diagram for NiAl alloy formed during laser cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to rapid solidification in laser cladding, the composition of the solute in the cladding alloy often exceeds the solid\\u000a solubility limit far beyond that expected from the equilibrium phase diagram. Also, the effects of various process parameters\\u000a on the composition of the cladding alloy depend on the sign of the slope of the equilibrium phase diagram at the nominal

A. Kar; J. Mazumder

1989-01-01

230

The mixed block/event-related design.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies began using block design and event-related design experiments. While providing many insights into brain functions, these fMRI design types ignore components of the BOLD signal that can teach us additional elements. The development of the mixed block/event-related fMRI design allowed for a fuller characterization of nonlinear and time-sensitive neuronal responses: for example, the interaction between block and event related factors and the simultaneous extraction of transient activity related to trials and block transitions and sustained activity related to task-level processing. This review traces the origins of the mixed block/event-related design from conceptual precursors to a seminal paper and on to subsequent studies using the method. The review also comments on aspects of the experimental design that must be considered when attempting to use the mixed block/event-related design. When taking into account these considerations, the mixed block/event-related design allows fuller utilization of the BOLD signal allowing deeper interpretation of how regions of the brain function on multiple timescales. PMID:22008373

Petersen, Steven E; Dubis, Joseph W

2012-08-15

231

(block mode classification ) Wyner-Ziv intra  

E-print Network

(Block Mode Information, BMI) Mode decision block WZ Intra Intra H.264 FMO skip block SDSP block Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks BMI Wyner-Ziv blocks WZ Slice CRC code Turbo code Intra Decoded Key block Wyner-Ziv Side Information BMI Turbo code Decoded key block (Reconstruction Frame

Yang, Shih-Hsuan

232

Block copolymer nanocontainers.  

PubMed

Using cell dynamics computer simulation, we perform a systematic study of thin block copolymer films around a nanoparticle. Lamellar-, cylinder-, and sphere-forming block copolymers are investigated with respect to different film thicknesses, particle radii, and boundary conditions at the film interfaces. The obtained structures include standing lamellae and cylinders, "onions", cylinder "knitting balls", "golf ball", layered spherical, "virus"-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects. The kinetics of the structure formation and difference with planar thin films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nanocontainers can be formed by the coating of a sacrificial nanobead by a block copolymer layer with a well-controlled nanostructure. In addition, first scanning force microscopy experiments on a model system reveal surface structures similar to those predicted by our simulations. PMID:20496954

Pinna, Marco; Hiltl, Stephanie; Guo, Xiaohu; Böker, Alexander; Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

2010-05-25

233

Blocks and Screws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, each student is given a block of wood and a screw (or nail), and is asked to put the screw into the block, without any tool (like a screwdriver or hammer). Their efforts, with varying success, lead to a discussion of contrivances, using various items and strategies as make-do (contrived) tools for which they were not intended, and an exploration of many examples of contrivances or adaptive compromises and other imperfections in the living world, especially in humans. This situation may be better explained by evolution rather than the result of intelligent design.

Patterson, Tim

234

1.OA Measuring Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Materials * Unifix cubes * Large blocks in different sizes or varying lengths of sentence strips Note: The large blocks or the cut-up lengths of senten...

235

Isoporous Block Copolymer Membranes.  

PubMed

The developments in membranes based on tailored block copolymers are reported with an emphasis on isoporous membranes. These membranes can be prepared in different geometries, namely flat sheets and hollow fibers. They display narrow pore size distributions due to their formation by self-assembly. The preparation of these membranes and possibilities to further functionalize such membranes will be discussed. Different ways to control the pore size will be addressed, and the potential of block copolymer blends to fabricate membranes with tailored pore sizes will be shown. PMID:25451792

Abetz, Volker

2014-11-29

236

On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Drake, J. F. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)] [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

2013-06-15

237

Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

2011-01-01

238

Evolution of HR Diagrams So as a cluster ages, the  

E-print Network

Evolution of HR Diagrams So as a cluster ages, the main sequence `burns down' in order. lifetime Diagram to Determine the Age of a Star Cluster #12;Evolution of HR Diagrams So as a cluster ages, the main of plotting stars, we represent them with a line of constant age. Using the H-R Diagram to Determine the Age

Barnes, Joshua Edward

239

Extraction, layout analysis and classification of diagrams in PDF documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are a critical part of virtually all scientific and technical documents. Analyzing diagrams will be important for building comprehensive document retrieval systems. This paper focuses on the extraction and classification of diagrams from PDF documents. We study diagrams available in vector (not raster) format in online research papers. PDF files are parsed and their vector graphics components installed in

Robert P. Futrelle; Mingyan Shao; Chris Cieslik; Andrea Elaina Grimes

2003-01-01

240

49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10 Transportation...Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its...

2010-10-01

241

Practical guidelines for the readability of IT-architecture diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work done to establish guidelines for the creation of readable IT-architecture diagrams and gives some examples of guidelines and some examples of improved diagrams. These guidelines are meant to assist practicing IT-architects in preparing the diagrams to communicate their architectures to the various stakeholders. Diagramming has always been important in information technology (IT), but the recent

Henk Koning; Claire Dormann; Hans van Vliet

2002-01-01

242

Measurement of Eye Diagrams and Constellation Diagrams of Optical Sources Using Linear Optics and Waveguide Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the characterization of optical sources with high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and phase sensitivity using linear optical sampling. Eye diagrams and constellation diagrams are reconstructed using the interference of the source under test with a train of sampling pulses. This concept is implemented using a waveguide optical hybrid, which splits and recombines the sources and adjusts the phase

C. Dorrer; Christopher Richard Doerr; I. Kang; Roland Ryf; J. Leuthold; P. J. Winzer

2005-01-01

243

Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

1997-01-01

244

The effects of Roundhouse diagram construction and use on meaningful science learning in the middle school classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction and use on meaningful learning of science concepts in a 6th-grade science classroom. This investigation examined the transformation of students' science concepts as they became more proficient in constructing Roundhouse diagrams, what problems students encountered while constructing Roundhouse diagrams, and how choices of iconic images affected their progress in meaningfully learning science concepts as they constructed a series of Roundhouse diagrams. The process of constructing a Roundhouse diagram involved recognizing the learner's relevant existing concepts, evaluating the central concepts for a science lesson and breaking them down into their component parts, reconstructing the learner's conceptual framework by reducing the amount of detail efficiently, reviewing the reconstruction process, and linking each key concept to an iconic image. The researcher collected and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data to determine the effectiveness of the Roundhouse diagram. Data included field notes, observations, students' responses to Roundhouse diagram worksheets, students' perceptions from evaluation sheets, students' mastery of technique sheets, tapes and transcripts of students' interviews, student-constructed Roundhouse diagrams, and documentation of science grades both pre- and post-Roundhouse diagramming. This multiple case study focused on six students although the whole class was used for statistical purposes. Stratified purposeful sampling was used to facilitate comparisons as well as week-by-week comparisons of students' science grades and Roundhouse diagram scores to gain additional insight into the effectiveness of the Roundhouse diagramming method. Through participation in constructing a series of Roundhouse diagrams, middle school students gained a greater understanding of science concepts. Roundhouse diagram scores improved over time during the 10-week Roundhouse diagramming session. Students' science scores improved as they became more proficient in constructing the Roundhouse diagrams. The major problems associated with constructing Roundhouse diagrams were extracting the main ideas from the textbook, understanding science concepts in terms of whole/part relationships, paraphrasing sentences effectively, and sequencing events in an accurate order. A positive relationship existed for the case study group based on students' choices and drawings of iconic images and the meaningful learning of science concepts.

Ward, Robin Eichel

245

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Two Blocks on an Incline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to interacting forces in a system featuring an incline plane, two blocks of equal mass, and an ideal pulley. Given the angles of incline, mass of the blocks, and coefficient of friction, students are required to determine the acceleration of the block moving up the incline. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, including conceptual analysis, free-body diagrams, and tips to set up the calculations. To promote critical thinking, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

246

Ischemic Nerve Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

Williams, Ian D.

247

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

248

block copolymer - lamellae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinity then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = =52.7. The system was then run for ~10^6 time steps forming a sheet (lamella) phase.

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

249

Block-coded communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theory for block-coded telemetry systems is useful in testing performance of one- and two-way, phase-coherent telemetry systems when double-conversion, superheterodyne, phase-locked receiver, preceded by bandpass limiter is used to track carrier.

Lindsey, W. C.

1970-01-01

250

Neonatal congenital heart block.  

PubMed

Congenital Heart Block (CHB) is the most serious complication of neonatal lupus erythematosus. Transplasental transfer of maternal anti SSA/Ro or antiSSB/La antibodies around 12th week of gestation is associated with development of CHB. This may lead to inflammation, fibrosis and scarring of fetal conduction system in the early second trimester. Different degrees of atrioventricular (AV) block may be seen in the affected fetus. First and second-degree AV blocks may change in severity; however, third degree AV block is irreversible. CHB is mostly diagnosed between 18 - 24th weeks of gestation. Even if most of the mothers carrying autoantibodies of several rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogrens syndrome are not aware of their diseases until their children are born with CHB, it is recommended that antibody-positive mothers or the mothers having babies with neonatal lupus erythematosus should be referred for close fetal echocardiographic surveillance beginning from the early second trimester. Although their utility is still controversial, various therapeutic regimes such as sympathomimetic, plasmapheresis, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, digoxin, diuretic and in utero pacing have been used for intrauterine treatment of CHB. Aggressive medical treatment is coupled with pacing in infants who do not respond to medical therapy alone. PMID:23778728

Yildirim, Ayse; Tunaoolu, F Sedef; Karaaoac, Aysu Turkmen

2013-05-01

251

Struggling to understand abstract science topics: a Roundhouse diagram-based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. It is based on a metacognition-based visual learning model proposed by Wandersee in 1994. Ward and Wandersee introduced the Roundhouse diagram strategy and showed how it could be applied in science education. This article aims at elucidating the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current understandings to reach the intended meaningful understanding of complex science topics. The main findings of this study are that (a) it is crucial that relevant prior knowledge and dysfunctional alternative conceptions not be ignored during new learning if low-performing science students are to understand science well; (b) as the student's mastery of the Roundhouse diagram construction improved, so did science achievement; and (c) the student's apt choice of concept-related visual icons aided progress toward meaningful understanding of complex science concepts.

Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

2002-06-01

252

Software safety analysis of function block diagrams using fault trees , Junbeom Yoob,*, Sungdeok Chab  

E-print Network

) for a nuclear power plant in South Korea. Our approach to fault tree analysis, which combines fault-shi, Kyongki-do, Republic of Korea b Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced­on, 305-701, Republic of Korea c Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), I&C and HF team, 150

253

Figure 1. (a) Basic structure of the proposed system (b) Proposed architectural block diagram  

E-print Network

-layered clothes. This is why the wireless system is commonly used for body sensor networks [2]. However method in chip-to-chip communication [3], it provides only few tens of micrometer communication range due-line system, because there is no physical connection between inter-layer clothes any more. The rest

Yoo, Hoi-Jun

254

FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM CS SC OE EOCEN SYNC 12/8 EOC  

E-print Network

, low noise bipolar circuits; laser-trimmed thin-film resistors provide high accuracy. The converterW (typ). The AD678 is available in 28-lead plastic DIP, ceramic DIP, and 44-lead J-leaded ceramic surface- fied sampling A/D function unattainable with discrete designs. 2. SPECIFICATIONS: The AD678K, B

Berns, Hans-Gerd

255

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Figure 1. Block diagram for systems identification  

E-print Network

for systems identification approach. Influence of Unsteadiness on Thrust Measurements of Pulse Detonation 76019 The measurement of thrust of a pulsed detonation engine is complicated by the inherent It is obvious that thrust is an important performance parameter for pulse detonation engines (PDEs).1 Much

Texas at Arlington, University of

256

A Novel Method for Block Size Forensics Based on Morphological Operations  

E-print Network

analysis is to detect the presence of block ar- tifacts and estimate the block size for a given image a BMP image has been JPEG compressed previously by detecting the block artifact effects. It has also- ital images are based on block processing, one of the fundamental steps for subsequent forensics

Aickelin, Uwe

257

Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect

The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

2010-01-01

258

Three-body crystallization diagrams and the cooling of white dwarfs  

E-print Network

The 3-body crystallization diagrams of C/O/Ne ionic mixtures characteristic of white dwarf interiors are examined within the framework of the density-functional theory of freezing. The crystallization process is described more accurately than in former calculations where the three-component system was treated as an effective two-component mixture (Segretain et al. 1994). The distillation process due to neon-crystallization is found to occur only for the late stages of crystallization. At the beginning, the presence of neon plays only a minor role and the phase diagram resembles a pure carbon-oxygen diagram. The final phase diagram is found to exhibit an azeotropic point with a neon concentration $x_{Ne}=0.22$, a carbon concentration $x_{C}=0.78$ and an oxygen concentration $x_O=0$, so that during the distillation process, the fluid crystallizes into a pure neon-carbon solid. The critical temperature is $T_A=0.85\\,T_C$, where $T_C$ is the pure carbon crystallization temperature. We use this accurate phase diagram to calculate the total gravitational energy released during white dwarf crystallization and the related time delay. The final result yields $\\Delta \\tau \\approx 2.6$ Gyr, among which about 20\\% are due to the neon-distillation process.

Laurent Segretain

1995-10-23

259

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

260

Weight diagram construction of Lax operators  

SciTech Connect

We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-10-01

261

Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

2013-01-01

262

Near Earth Objects Program: Orbit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides access to diagrams of the orbits of a very large number of objects in the asteroid belt as well as comets that cross Earth's orbit. The collection is searchable by object name or designation and users can also browse through an extensive list of potentially hazardous asteroids.

NASA JPL Near Earth Object Program

263

Using Euler Diagrams in Traditional Library Environments  

E-print Network

Using Euler Diagrams in Traditional Library Environments J´er^ome Thi`evre, Marie-Luce Viaud 1 INA for traditional library environments, which allows the user to elaborate easily and efficiently new strategies one is an interactive representation of the structures composing the documentary kernel of the library

Verroust-Blondet, Anne

264

The granulation boundary in the HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A granulation boundary in the H-R diagram is found. The boundary runs smoothly from spectral type G1 Ib to near F0 on the main sequence. On the cool side of the boundary, the spectral line bisectors are of the classical type associated with granulation. On the hot side the bisectors show a reversed slope and curvature indicative of some other

David F. Gray; Thomas Nagel

1989-01-01

265

New developments in understanding the HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of recent research efforts aimed at the interpretation and reproduction of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to basic stellar evolution; nuclear reactions, opacities, and stellar winds; semiconduction and convective overshoot; and old star clusters. The discussion also covers intermediate age clusters and Cepheid stars and supergiant stars in the Milky Way and LMC.

Cesare Chiosi; Gianpaolo Bertelli; Alessandro Bressan

1992-01-01

266

Synthetic HR-diagrams for massive stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of luminous stars are compared to synthetic HR diagrams generated from three sets of evolutionary models with different treatment of mass loss, convective overshoot, and considering or not variations in the opacity due to heavy elements. We take into account also different values for the slope of the initial mass function, and the possibility that a fraction of the

E. Nasi; C. Forieri

1990-01-01

267

The Keynesian Diagram: A Cross to Bear?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In elementary economics courses students are often introduced to the basic concepts of macroeconomics through very simplified static models, and the concept of a macroeconomic equilibrium is generally explained with the help of an aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model and an income/expenditure model (via the Keynesian cross diagram).…

Fleck, Juergen

268

Knowledge Visualization Using Optimized General Logic Diagrams  

E-print Network

readable rule vi- sualization in the diagram. This problem has been solved by applying a simulated, such as Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services, IBM DB2 Intelligent Miner, and Oracle Data Miner. They are also or more readable and visually attractive. Therefore, a problem arises as to how to optimize the attribute

Michalski, Ryszard S.

269

Phase diagram of the Kondo lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the phase diagram of the Kondo lattice: we generalize to the lattice a method proposed by Yoshimori and Sakurai for the single-impurity Kondo problem; this method transforms the Kondo exchange interaction into a fictitious s-f hybridization, and gives a resonance of width TK at the Fermi level. We study the Kondo phase and compare its energy with the

C. Lacroix; M. Cyrot

1979-01-01

270

Array diagrams and the Nial approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nested Interactive Array Language, Nial, combines APL and LISP concepts and is based on the theory of nested rectangular arrays. Array theory provides a concise mathematical model of data capturing the essence of everyday data objects. Arrays are displayed by diagrams, which provide an easily comprehended way of communicating the rectangularity, nesting and content of arrays. A novel drawing

Fl. Schmidt; M. A. Jenkins

1982-01-01

271

Penguin diagrams for the HYP staggered fermions  

E-print Network

We present results of the one-loop corrections originating from the penguin diagrams for the improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links such as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, $\\bar{\\rm Fat7}$, HYP (I) and HYP (II). The main results include the diagonal/off-diagonal mixing coefficients and the matching formula between the continuum and lattice operators.

Keunsu Choi; Weonjong Lee

2003-09-15

272

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 054104 (2011) Self-assembly in block polyelectrolytes  

E-print Network

three-dimensional structures, like spherical micelles positioned at the sites of body-centered cubic to dissociating triblock copolymers and demonstrated our approach on three characteristic examples: (1) diblock-segments in the system) and the charge density on A blocks and calculated the phase diagram that contains ordered

Neimark, Alexander V.

273

Enhancing Learning Effectiveness through Connectance Diagrams: A New Tool for Learning Organisations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a particular approach for increasing knowledge creation in organisation. The paper provides a discussion of related concepts, processes, and a tool. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes the reasons for drawing connectance diagrams, the process and the software. It also…

Lim, Sirirat Sae; Tan, Kim Hua; Platts, Ken

2005-01-01

274

Relative Building-Block Fitness and the Building-Block Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building-block hypothesis states that the GA works well when short,low-order, highly-fit schemas recombine to form even more highly fithigher-order schemas. The ability to produce fitter and fitter partial solutionsby combining building blocks is believed to be a primary source of theGA's search power, but the GA research community currently lacks preciseand quantitative descriptions of how schema processing actually takesplace

Stephanie Forrest

1993-01-01

275

31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2010-07-01

276

31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2010-07-01

277

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2012-07-01

278

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2011-07-01

279

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2014-07-01

280

31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms...

2013-07-01

281

Intraocular radiation blocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo

P. T. Finger; T. K. Ho; D. M. Fastenberg; R. A. Hyman; E. M. Stroh; S. Packer; H. D. Perry

1990-01-01

282

Base Blocks Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps users develop place value concepts involving subtraction of numbers with 1, 2, 3, or 4 digits. The virtual blocks are manipulated to model regrouping in order to solve whole number subtraction problems posed by the applet. Users also may create and solve their own problems with whole numbers or with up to 3 decimal places. When creating problems a user may change the default of base 10 to any of the bases 2, 3, 4, or 5.

2010-01-01

283

Herbert L. Block Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Herb Block (also known as "Herblock") was one of the most influential political commentators and editorial cartoonists in American history. His work began to appear in 1929, and he continued creating social commentary for 72 years. The Library of Congress website digitized some of the 14,000 images that the Herb Block Foundation donated in 2002. Visitors interested in seeing the wide range of topics Block covered in his cartoons can click on the "Search This Collection" link that appears below the introductory paragraphs on the homepage. Once visitors have arrived to the search area they can click on "Subject and Format Headings" underneath the heading "Other Ways to Search" to see the A to Z subject index. Some of the topics include "Escalators--1960-1970","Government Officials--1970-1980","Mao, Zedong--1893-1976", "Overcrowding--1940-1950", and "Discrimination--1950-1960". Back on the homepage, visitors shouldn't miss the link to the "Image Sampler" which contains the "Herblock Collection Image Sampler" featuring 24 images.

284

Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `block sensitivity of boolean functions  

E-print Network

Sensitivity, block sensitivity, and `­block sensitivity of boolean functions Claire Kenyon LRI, bat for Communications Research, 805 Bunn Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540. E­mail: kutin@idaccr.org Sensitivity is one of the simplest, and block sensitivity one of the most useful, invariants of a boolean function. Nisan [8

Kenyon, Claire

285

Pedestrian mid-block crossing difficulty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a research project that developed a model of mid-block crossing difficulty as perceived by pedestrians. Four aspects of the research are reported: research design issues; selection of potential determinants; data collection; and statistical analysis. This model was done through a statistical calibration and validation process involving collecting actual site characteristics and stated levels of crossing difficulty by

Xuehao Chu; Michael R Baltes

2001-01-01

286

Building Blocks for early childhood mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building Blocks is a National Science Foundation-funded project designed to enable all young children to build a solid foundation for mathematics. To ensure this, we used a design and development model that drew from theory and research in each phase. Our design process is based on the assumption that curriculum and software design can and should have an explicit theoretical

Julie Sarama; Douglas H. Clements

2004-01-01

287

Block Mean Value Based Image Perceptual Hashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image perceptual hashing has been proposed to identify or authenticate image contents in a robust way against distortions caused by compression, noise, common signal processing and geometrical modifications, while still holding a good discriminability for different ones in sense of human perception. We propose and compare four normalized block mean value based image perceptual hashing algorithms which demonstrate higher performances

Bian Yang; Fan Gu; Xiamu Niu

2006-01-01

288

Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology

Monojoy Goswami; Bobby G Sumpter; Jimmy Mays; Jamie M Messman

2010-01-01

289

RADIATION-RESISTANT BUILDING BLOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation-resistant building-block design is presented. The block can ; be used for constructing walls, rooms, or chambers to prevent radiation from ; penetrating. The block is rectangular with a 120 deg notch on one end and a 120 ; deg point on the other end, making it especially suitable for constructing ; hexagonal containers. The material used is barite

Alberti

1960-01-01

290

A simple algorithm for automatic Feynman diagram generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm for automatic Feynman diagram (FD) generation. Derived directly from the definition formula of an FD, the algorithm features first of all a clear concept. Also, it could naturally generate the symmetry factor for each FD. As it is free of complex and tricky operations commonly seen in other FD generation software, the code for this algorithm should always be easy to write. We provide such an implementation in C. This C program is very small, but it is fast and powerful; it receives as input an arbitrary user-defined model and an arbitrary process, and generates FDs at any order. In its current status the algorithm suppresses the equivalent FDs at one-loop order totally; but at two-loop or higher order the suppression is incomplete, although this fact does not hurt the correctness of the Feynman amplitudes obtained. We expect the algorithm to be convenient for researchers studying new calculation techniques or building new calculation tools, and for those who are working on effective field theory. Unusual features: Allows for an arbitrary physical model and an arbitrary number of loops. Symmetry factors are naturally generated. Very small. Very fast. Additional comments: This program serves mainly as an illustration of the algorithm described in its companion paper. Running time: About 0.015 s to generate all the Feynman diagrams of a typical two-loop order u??tt¯ process in QCD model.

Xiao, Bo; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Shou-hua

2013-08-01

291

Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa- inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

292

Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

Hill, F.

293

Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions  

E-print Network

We calculate, at the one loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, $\\bar{\\rm Fat7}$, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, $\\bar{\\rm Fat7}$ and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide the complete matching at the one loop level with all corrections of ${\\cal O}(g^2)$ included.

Weonjong Lee

2004-09-17

294

49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RULES OF PRACTICE ABANDONMENT AND DISCONTINUANCE OF RAIL LINES AND RAIL TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram... (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its...

2014-10-01

295

Representing the Study Site in a Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to help students learn the skills and value of the translating complex interactions among Earth System components into a simplified diagram. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

296

Phase diagram of two capacitively coupled Josephson  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the phase diagram of two capacitively coupled Josephson junction arrays with charging energy Ec, and Josephson coupling energy EJ in a perpendicular homogeneous magnetic field with frustration F= 1\\/2 and 1\\/3. The results are obtained using a path integral Quantum Monte Carlo algorithm. The parameter alphai that quantifies the quantum fluctuations in the i-th array is defined by

Guillermo Ramirez-Santiago; Jorge Jose v

2005-01-01

297

From Farey sequences to resonance diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farey sequences were discovered in the beginning of the nineteenth century proving very useful in number theory. These series are found to be tightly related to tune resonance diagrams in accelerators. So far, no connection has been made between these two fields. This paper aims to serve as a bridge between these two areas of knowledge introducing the concept of resonance sequences for the most efficient exploration of the tune space.

Tomás, R.

2014-01-01

298

Instability regions in the upper HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following instability regions for blueward evolving-supergiants are outlined and compared. (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar winds (where vwind=vsound) are situated inside the photospheres, at a

Cornelis de Jager; Alex Lobel; Hans Nieuwenhuijzen; Richard Stothers

2001-01-01

299

From Hubble diagrams to scale factors  

E-print Network

We present a lower bound on the radius of the universe today $a_0$ and a monotonicity constraint on the Hubble diagram. Our theoretical input is Einstein's kinematics and maximally symmetric universes. Present supernova data yield $a_0 > 1.2\\cdot 10^{26}$ m. A first attempt to quantify the monotonicity constraint is described. We do not see any indication of non-monotonicity.

Thomas Schucker; Andre Tilquin

2005-06-20

300

Mechanical phase diagram of shrinking cylindrical gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When polymer gels are subjected to an external stimulus such as temperature or solvent change, they undergo a phase transition often driving pattern formation. In this paper, we use an elastic model to investigate the linear stability of shrinking cylindrical NIPA gels. This model exhibits bubble and bamboo patterns. The wavelengths of these patterns and their phase diagram are in agreement with the experiment of Matsuo and Tanaka [Nature (London) 358, 482 (1992)].

Boudaoud, Arezki; Chaïeb, Sahraoui

2003-08-01

301

Modeling the state diagrams of ternary reciprocal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model p-T diagram of a eutectic-type ternary reciprocal system is presented. An isobaric cross section in the form of a projection onto a concentration diagram is shown. Isothermic and polythermic cross sections of a eutectic-type ternary reciprocal fusibility diagram with swept faces of a tetrahedral prism are created. A projection of the diagram of a ternary reciprocal system with solid solutions based on initial components with a ternary nonstoichiometric intermediate phase is considered.

Khaldoyanidi, K. A.

2014-12-01

302

The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

Gingerich, O.

2013-04-01

303

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

304

Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

Gibson, D. M.

1985-01-01

305

SEMPA Measurements of Ferromagnetic Nanodisk Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Scanning Electron Microscopy with Polarization Analysis (SEMPA) to image the magnetic domain structures of ferromagnetic nanodisks with different diameters and thicknesses, and thereby determine the phase diagram of the ground state in these technologically important magnetic structures. Depending on the nanodisk dimensions, one of three distinct ground state magnetic configurations is observed: a single domain in-plane, a single domain out-of-plane, or a vortex state. In contrast to previous work, the magnetic states of individual nanodisks are determined using simultaneous SEMPA measurements of both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization components. By systematically imaging Permalloy nanodisks with diameters that range from 35 nm to 190 nm and with thicknesses that range from 10 nm to 65 nm, we are able to locate phase boundaries and the triple point between the three phases. Near the phase boundaries and triple point we observe a mixture of the different phases. A model magnetic phase diagram generated by using the OOMMF micromagnetic simulator is found to agree well with the phase diagram determined by the SEMPA measurements. This work is supported by the NIST-CNST/UMD-NanoCenter Cooperative Agreement.

Chung, Seok-Hwan; McMichael, Robert; Pierce, Daniel; Unguris, John

2009-03-01

306

Star-Like Micelles with Star-Like Interactions: A quantitative Evaluation of Structure Factor and Phase Diagram  

E-print Network

PEP-PEO block copolymer micelles offer the possibility to investigate phase behaviour and interactions of star polymers (ultra-soft colloids). A star-like architecture is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20). Micellar functionality f can be smoothly varied by changing solvent composition (interfacial tension). Structure factors obtained by SANS can be quantitatively described in terms of an effective potential developed for star polymers. The experimental phase diagram reproduces to a high level of accuracy the predicted liquid/solid transition. Whereas for intermediate f a bcc phase is observed, for high f the formation of a fcc phase is preempted by glass formation.

M. Laurati; J. Stellbrink; R. Lund; L. Willner; D. Richter; E. Zaccarelli

2005-05-04

307

Selective blocking of the nodal sodium channels by ultraviolet radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the excitable membrane of the node of Ranvier was studied. Ultraviolet radiation blocks the sodium channel and shifts the steady state inactivation curve along the voltage axis in the negative direction. The blocking process appears to be highly specific in two respects: 1. no other electrical properties of the nodal membrane such as resting

J. M. Fox; I. Physiologisches

1974-01-01

308

DETECTING DIGITAL IMAGE FORGERIES BY MEASURING INCONSISTENCIES OF BLOCKING ARTIFACT  

E-print Network

DETECTING DIGITAL IMAGE FORGERIES BY MEASURING INCONSISTENCIES OF BLOCKING ARTIFACT Shuiming Ye 1. These inconsistencies, if detected, could be used to check image integrity. Besides, forgeries creation process would blocking artifacts are then checked as a trace of image forgery. Our proposed approach is able to detect

Sun, Qibin

309

Block Motion Model for Optical Flow with Smoothness Prior Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

An explicit constraint is introduced into the Lucas-Kanade gradient based block motion model. This constraint helps the estimation process to consider surrounding motion vectors during its calculation. Consequently a better motion field can be produced than that by the original block motion model. Further, a discontinuity adaptive function is introduced into the Lucas-Kanade equation, which helps to preserve the discontinuities

Stephanus Surijadarma Tandjung; Seah Hock Soon; Qian Kemao

2006-01-01

310

Building Blocks for Youth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Building Blocks for Youth is an alliance of children's advocates, researchers, law enforcement professionals and community organizers that seeks to protect minority youth in the justice system and promote rational and effective justice policies." The organization's Website provides reports, data, and news releases concerning the issue of the treatment of minorities in the American criminal justice system. Issued this month, their latest report Off Balance: Youth Race and Crime in the News examines the media treatment of crime victims and perpetrators who are people of color. Building Blocks also offers three previous reports that analyze data concerning the discrepancies between sentencing for black and white juveniles accused of similar crimes, both nationally and specifically in California, and data on the growing practice of charging juveniles as adults. The site also features a number of fact sheets on related issues, a newsroom featuring press releases and links to related articles in the online press, and a monthly newsletter presenting the latest fact sheet. The reports are offered in HTML as well as .pdf formats for easy downloading.

311

Holomorphic blocks in three dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We decompose sphere partition functions and indices of three-dimensional = 2 gauge theories into a sum of products involving a universal set of "holomorphic blocks". The blocks count BPS states and are in one-to-one correspondence with the theory's massive vacua. We also propose a new, effective technique for calculating the holomorphic blocks, inspired by a reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The blocks turn out to possess a wealth of surprising properties, such as a Stokes phenomenon that integrates nicely with actions of three-dimensional mirror symmetry. The blocks also have interesting dual interpretations. For theories arising from the compactification of the six-dimensional (2, 0) theory on a three-manifold M, the blocks belong to a basis of wave-functions in analytically continued Chern-Simons theory on M. For theories engineered on branes in Calabi-Yau geometries, the blocks offer a non-perturbative perspective on open topological string partition functions.

Beem, Christopher; Dimofte, Tudor; Pasquetti, Sara

2014-12-01

312

Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how triangular diagrams can aid in presenting some of the rather complex transient interactions that occur among gas and surface species during heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The basic equations and numerical examples are described. Classroom use of the triangular diagram is discussed. Several diagrams and graphs are provided. (YP)

Klusacek, K.; And Others

1989-01-01

313

Correlation diagrams for rigid and nonrigid three-body systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation diagram is constructed for the energy levels of a three-body system. The principle limiting cases for which the diagram is constructed are the equilateral triangle of three identical particles and the completely nonrigid cluster with pairwise harmonic forces. The artificial symmetries of these limits can be broken by conventional methods to make the diagram suitable for real molecules.

Michael E. Kellman; François Amar; R. Stephen Berry

1980-01-01

314

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson  

E-print Network

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University PO some properties of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams, using asymptotic obtained some properties of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams. They prove the results

Janson, Svante

315

Composition Inference for UML Class Diagrams Ana Milanova  

E-print Network

Composition Inference for UML Class Diagrams Ana Milanova Department of Computer Science Rensselaer [23]. UML class diagrams describe the architecture of the pro- gram in terms of classes and interclass this gap, this paper pro- poses a methodology for inference of binary associations for UML class diagrams

Bystroff, Chris

316

Towards Mitigating the Complexity of System Level Design Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic generation of diagrams has been practically used in the HDL based design for decades. Unfortunately, the diagrams in the system level have become too complicated for the designers to identify signal flows. In this paper, we propose three techniques to enhance the readability of the even more complicated higher level diagrams. They include i) the transformation of repetitive

Euncheol Lee; Kyosun Kim; Sang-Gu Jo; Sung-Hwan Oh

317

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content With a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity

James Wandersee

2010-07-01

318

The HR Diagram of Globular Clusters: Theorist' view(s)  

E-print Network

The HR Diagram of Globular Clusters: Theorist' view(s) F. D'Antona Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy Abstract: I list the characteristic features of Globular Cluster (GC) HR diagrams which provide by looking at the composite HR diagram of the GC NGC 6397 shown in figure 1, and illustrated in figure 2

D'Antona, Francesca

319

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HR DIAGRAM Jeffrey L. Linsky  

E-print Network

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HR DIAGRAM Jeffrey L. Linsky JILA/University of Colorado and NIST Solar. What are the consequences of this behavior in a dynamic atmosphere? 1 A Tour Through the HR Diagram of the HR Diagram. Questions to ask during our tour: ffl What direct or indirect techniques can measure

Linsky, Jeffrey L.

320

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation  

E-print Network

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

Vuik, Kees

321

The Use of Semantic Constraints on Diagram Editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current software tools supporting diagramming notations are not satisfactory. Editors for diagramming notations such as State Transition Networks, Petri Nets or the Entity-Relationship data model, are always confronted with a problem: how much guidance should be given to the user throughout the editing task? Not enough guidance allows the diagram to evolve to non plausible configurations and may provoke the

J. Artur Serrano

1995-01-01

322

Enhanced Software for Displaying Orthographic, Stereographic, Gnomic and Cylindrical Projections of the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION The sun-path diagram and shading mask protractor are well known graphic formats that have traditionally been used by architects and engineers to analyze whether or not a solar shading device will block direct sunlight on a given point... 1990), SOMBRERO (Schnieders et al. 1997), AWNSHADE (McCluney 1995), SOLAR-2 (Sheu 1986), SUNPATH (McCluney 1995), and SUNSPEC (McCluney 1995) programs. OPAQUE (Abouella and Milne 1990), developed by the Department of Architecture at UCLA, draws a...

Oh, K. W.; Haberl, J. S.; Degelman, L. O.

2000-01-01

323

Block-spectral mapping for multi-scale solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient multi-scale method is presented. Discrete block domains with high mesh resolution are used to resolve fine scale features and the number of the blocks to be solved is kept as small as being sufficient for constructing a block-block spatial spectrum. A pointwise spectrum for the blockwise variation is generated for each mesh point on the corresponding block boundaries. These block-to-block spectra provide the required formation for all the block interfaces, and hence enable the fine scale solutions in these solved blocks to be mapped to a large domain simultaneously. The structured blocking also provides a convenient domain division for parallel processing. The method has been implemented in a 3-D time-marching finite volume solver for the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The double Fourier series is adopted to construct the pointwise spatial spectrum, which is well suited for wall bounded problems where a domain layer with fine scale resolution is required. Several test cases of mass and heat transfer problems have been examined and the results show consistently that the accurate solutions for fine scale domains can be obtained very efficiently with a reduction in degrees of freedom by two orders of magnitude, illustrating the potential of solving complex problems which might currently be intractable.

He, L.

2013-10-01

324

To block or not to block: European approaches to content regulation, and implications for freedom of expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the limited effectiveness of state laws, and lack of harmonization at international level a number of states started to introduce policies to block access to Internet content and websites deemed illegal which are situated outside their legal jurisdiction. However, blocking policies are not always subject to due process principles, decisions are not necessarily taken by the courts of

Yaman Akdeniz

2010-01-01

325

Blocking the Hawking Radiation  

E-print Network

Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of WIMPs can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics i.e. accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

Autzen, Martin

2014-01-01

326

Blocking the Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

Autzen, Martin; Kouvaris, Chris

2014-06-01

327

Spin waves in the block checkerboard antiferromagnetic phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the discovery of a new family of 122 iron-based superconductors, we present the theoretical results on the ground state phase diagram, spin wave, and dynamic structure factor obtained from the extended J1-J2 Heisenberg model. In the reasonable physical parameter region of K2Fe4Se5, we find that the block checkerboard antiferromagnetic order phase is stable. There are two acoustic spin wave branches and six optical spin wave branches in the block checkerboard antiferromagnetic phase, which have analytic expressions at the high-symmetry points. To further compare the experimental data on neutron scattering, we investigate the saddlepoint structure of the magnetic excitation spectrum and the inelastic neutron scattering pattern based on linear spin wave theory.

Lu, Feng; Dai, Xi

2012-02-01

328

An Evaluation of Substrates for Tactile Maps and Diagrams: Scanning Speed and Users' Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the relative suitability of a range of base materials for producing tactile maps and diagrams via a new ink-jet process. The visually impaired and sighted participants tactilely scanned arrays of symbols that were printed on seven substrate materials, including paper, plastic, and aluminum. In general, the rougher substrates…

Jehoel, Sandra; Ungar, Simon; McCallum, Don; Rowell, Jonathan

2005-01-01

329

A Fault Tree Analysis Strategy Using Binary Decision Diagrams. Karen A. Reay and John D. Andrews  

E-print Network

1 A Fault Tree Analysis Strategy Using Binary Decision Diagrams. Karen A. Reay and John D. Andrews (BDDs) in fault tree analysis provides both an accurate and efficient means of analysing a system. There is a problem however, with the conversion process of the fault tree to the BDD. The variable ordering scheme

330

Integrated Analyses and Assessment of Operational Risk: An Influence Diagrams Approach Based on Topological Data Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the shortages of the general operational risk data model, a new operational risk data model -- operational risk topological data model is brought forward in this paper. It can not only contain the information about the connection between all risk causes during the risk event happening process, but also can support the operational risk measurement by influence diagrams approach.

Zhang Qinghong; Zhao Lei

331

Representing UML Snowflake Diagram from Integrating XML Data Using XML Schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a UML conceptual-level integration framework for supporting OLAP operations on diverse XML data sources. Our integration framework takes advantage of the constructs and relationships existing within XML schemas. Two processes are involved in our integration framework. The first one is to convert XML schemas into UML class diagrams. The second is to build a multidimensional model from the

Yu Li; An Aijun

2005-01-01

332

26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

333

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

1976-01-01

334

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

2014-04-01

335

State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists  

PubMed Central

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

2012-01-01

336

47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Definition. Thousands-block number pooling is a process by which the 10,000 numbers in a central office code...number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers, except those exempted by...

2010-10-01

337

Mean-Curvature Flow of Voronoi Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of grain boundary networks by the mean-curvature flow under the restriction that the networks are Voronoi diagrams for a set of points. For such evolution we prove a rigorous universal upper bound on the coarsening rate. The rate agrees with the rate predicted for the evolution by mean-curvature flow of the general grain boundary networks, namely that the typical grain area grows linearly in time. We perform a numerical simulation which provides evidence that the dynamics achieves the rate of coarsening that agrees with the upper bound in terms of scaling.

Elsey, Matt; Slep?ev, Dejan

2015-02-01

338

Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

2011-01-01

339

Ten proposed rules of numerical diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagrams have been used for 3 centuries to present numerical information succinctly. Yet no complete, specific rules are available for their preparation, similar to the rules of grammar, syntax, and spelling of language. Some guidance is offered in the dozen books on graphics published in the United States in the past 40 years, and fragments appear in textbooks and manuals. But none of these is complete or consistent, and each offers at least one glaring contravention of the basic tenets of mathematics and logic.

Court, Arnold

340

Potential-pH diagrams of stress effects on occluded cell corrosion inside stress corrosion cracks  

SciTech Connect

The construction of experimental potential-pH diagrams depicting both thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors inside a pit or crack during its propagation was described in detail. This study included the procedures and methods for determining the related thermodynamic and kinetic curves, corrosion rates during the different stages of propagation, and the critical pH value below which the film on the crack tip ruptured completely and the corrosion process accelerated. The system 18% chromium (Cr)-9% nickel (Ni)-titanium (Ti) stainless steel (SS)-chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) was used to draw the potential-pH diagrams with and without stress as demonstration examples. Effects of stress on occluded cell corrosion (OCC) were shown by comparing the diagrams. Stress reduced passivation ability, increased corrosion rates, and increased the critical pH value.

Zuo, J.Y.; Liu, Y.P.; Xu, C.C. [Beijing Inst. of Chemical Technology (China); Pourbaix, M. [Cebelcor, Brussels (Belgium)

1995-03-01

341

A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

1990-01-01

342

Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

2015-01-01

343

Phase diagram of electron-doped dichalcogenides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using first-principle calculations, we examine the sequence of phases in electron-doped dichalcogenides, such as recently realized in field-gated MoS2. Upon increasing the electron-doping level, we observe a succession of semiconducting, metallic, superconducting, and charge density wave regimes, i.e., in different order compared to the phase diagram of metallic dichalcogenides, such as TiSe2. Both instabilities trace back to a softening of phonons, which couple the electron populated conduction band minima. The superconducting dome, calculated using Eliashberg theory, is found to fit the experimentally observed phase diagram, obtained from resistivity measurements. The charge density wave phase at higher electron doping concentrations as predicted from instabilities in the phonon modes is further corroborated by detecting the accompanying lattice deformation in density-functional-based supercell relaxations. Upon charge density wave formation, doped MoS2 remains metallic but undergoes a Lifschitz transition, where the number of Fermi pockets is reduced.

Rösner, M.; Haas, S.; Wehling, T. O.

2014-12-01

344

Phase diagram of quantum square ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1=J2 and J2>J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states [1]. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1=J2, suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.[4pt] [1] L.-P. Henry et al., PRB 85, 134427 (2012).

Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

2013-03-01

345

Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.  

PubMed

In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ? 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

Odriozola, Gerardo

2012-04-01

346

Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

347

THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE: COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS  

SciTech Connect

The color-magnitude diagrams/tip of the red giant branch (CMDs/TRGB) section of the Extragalactic Distance Database contains a compilation of observations of nearby galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. Approximately 250 (and increasing) galaxies in the Local Volume have CMDs and the stellar photometry tables used to produce them available through the Web. Various stellar populations that make up a galaxy are visible in the CMDs, but our primary purpose for collecting and analyzing these galaxy images is to measure the TRGB in each. We can estimate the distance to a galaxy by using stars at the TRGB as standard candles. In this paper, we describe the process of constructing the CMDs and make the results available to the public.

Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rizzi, Luca [United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, 660 N. A'ohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shaya, Edward J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Makarov, Dmitry I.; Makarova, Lidia [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, SAO Branch (Russian Federation)

2009-08-15

348

NIPER Lab WARDEN -- Descriptive panels and diagrams for NIPER Lab WARDEN software. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second volume of a two-volume series on the NIPER Lab WARDEN computer program, a modular laboratory or pilot plant automation software designed for data acquisition/control/analysis/presentation. Volume 1 of the series is the User Manual that serves all users, whereas this volume is the Reference Manual intended for advanced users examining the structure or modifying the program. Volume 1 contains a brief introduction of LabVIEW and object-oriented programming, various features of the NIPER Lab WARDEN program, instructions on how to use these features, and several example problems and their step-by-step solutions. This volume (Volume 2) contains the complete program code needed to reproduce or modify the program. It includes the position in hierarchy, the connector pane, the front panel, and the block diagram for each of the virtual instruments (VI) in NIPER Lab WARDEN. The panels and block diagrams contained herein are generated from the computer program described in Volume 1 but are arranged to show and explain the structure and interrelationship between various elements of the program.

Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1994-04-01

349

The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

de Freitas, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

350

MISR Center Block Time Tool  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

  MISR Center Block Time Tool The misr_time tool calculates the block center times for MISR Level 1B2 files. This is ... version of the IDL package or by using the IDL Virtual Machine application. The IDL Virtual Machine is bundled with IDL and is ...

2013-04-01

351

Pattern Blocks (Lesson - Grade 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces pattern blocks and an awareness of geometric shapes to young learners. Students identify and label the shapes and solve puzzles with the blocks. Links to templates, vocabulary and activity cards are provided (pdf). Extensions, an assessment plan and suggestions for parent involvement are also provided.

Lessonplans, Uen

2007-06-28

352

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogenities in Martian

Jouko T. Raitala

1988-01-01

353

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian

Jouko T. Raitala

1988-01-01

354

MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION, vol. 64, nr. 210, pp. 777-806, 1995. ANALYSIS OF COPPERSMITH'S BLOCK WIEDEMANN  

E-print Network

block. Since the components of the blocks can be processed in parallel, the arithmetic necessary in eachMATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION, vol. 64, nr. 210, pp. 777-806, 1995. ANALYSIS OF COPPERSMITH'S BLOCK projections by a block of vectors in place of a single vector it is possible to parallelize the outer loop

Kaltofen, Erich

355

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

Eitzen, D. G.

1975-01-01

356

Three-body crystallization diagrams and the cooling of white dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-body crystallization diagrams of C\\/O\\/Ne ionic mixtures characteristic of white dwarf interiors are examined within the framework of the density-functional theory of freezing. The crystallization process is described more accurately than in former calculations where the three-component system was treated as an effective two-component mixture (Segretain et al. 1994). The distillation process due to neon-crystallization is found to occur

L. Segretain

1996-01-01

357

An incremental block-line-Gauss-Seidel method for the Navier-Stokes equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A block-line-Gauss-Seidel (LGS) method is developed for solving the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. The method requires only one block-tridiagonal solution process per iteration and is consequently faster per step than the linearized block-ADI methods. Results are presented for both incompressible and compressible separated flows: in all cases the proposed block-LGS method is more efficient than the block-ADI methods. Furthermore, for high Reynolds number weakly separated incompressible flow in a channel, which proved to be an impossible task for a block-ADI method, solutions have been obtained very efficiently by the new scheme.

Napolitano, M.; Walters, R. W.

1985-01-01

358

R E F E R E E D P A P E R Cartography Meets Gaming: Navigating Globes, Block  

E-print Network

R E F E R E E D P A P E R Cartography Meets Gaming: Navigating Globes, Block Diagrams and 2D Maps is added, as children and adolescents are very proficient at using these devices. The fusion of gaming cases, the characteristics of the most common gaming devices, and discusses spatial navigation

Jenny, Bernhard

359

Determining the Mechanical Properties of Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lattice block structures and shape memory alloys possess several traits ideal for solving intriguing new engineering problems in industries such as aerospace, military, and transportation. Recent testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center has investigated the material properties of lattice block structures cast from a conventional aerospace titanium alloy as well as lattice block structures cast from nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The lattice block structures for both materials were sectioned into smaller subelements for tension and compression testing. The results from the cast conventional titanium material showed that the expected mechanical properties were maintained. The shape memory alloy material was found to be extremely brittle from the casting process and only compression testing was completed. Future shape memory alloy lattice block structures will utilize an adjusted material composition that will provide a better quality casting. The testing effort resulted in baseline mechanical property data from the conventional titanium material for comparison to shape memory alloy materials once suitable castings are available.

Wilmoth, Nathan

2013-01-01

360

Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders. The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and Joint Light curve Analysis, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.

Schücker, Thomas; Tilquin, André; Valent, Galliano

2014-11-01

361

Phase diagram of nondegenerate twisted mass fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of nondegeneracy between the up and down quarks and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the C P -violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large nondegeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the C P -violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases.

Horkel, Derek P.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

2014-11-01

362

Excitonic phase diagram in unstressed Ge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented for a second condensed phase of excitons in unstressed, high-purity Ge, based on a simple plasma line-shape analysis. Above the critical temperature for electron-hole liquid condensation (Tc~=7 K), time-resolved photoluminescence spectra can be fit with an electron-hole plasma component with nondecaying density, implying spatial condensation into droplets. Shortly after the excitation source is switched off, all successive luminescence spectra are fit with a constant-density electron-hole plasma line shape plus contributions from free excitons and excitonic complexes. The spectral analysis is based on separate characterizations of electron-hole plasma and excitonic complexes from published experimental and theoretical work. The presence of a second condensed phase of excitons in unstressed Ge would be consistent with recent findings of a similar nature in stressed germanium and unstressed silicon. A possible phase diagram is suggested based on the present findings.

Simon, A. H.; Kirch, S. J.; Wolfe, J. P.

1992-10-01

363

Improving perturbation theory with cactus diagrams  

E-print Network

We study a systematic improvement of perturbation theory for gauge fields on the lattice [hep-lat/0606001]; the improvement entails resumming, to all orders in the coupling constant, a dominant subclass of tadpole diagrams. This method, originally proposed for the Wilson gluon action, is extended here to encompass all possible gluon actions made of closed Wilson loops; any fermion action can be employed as well. The effect of resummation is to replace various parameters in the action (coupling constant, Symanzik and clover coefficient) by ``dressed'' values; the latter are solutions to certain coupled integral equations, which are easy to solve numerically. Some positive features of this method are: a) It is gauge invariant, b) it can be systematically applied to improve (to all orders) results obtained at any given order in perturbation theory, c) it does indeed absorb in the dressed parameters the bulk of tadpole contributions. Two different applications are presented: The additive renormalization of fermio...

Constantinou, M; Skouroupathis, A; Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos

2006-01-01

364

Probing the QCD phase diagram with fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relevance of higher order cumulants of conserved charges for the analysis of freeze-out and critical conditions in heavy ion collisions at LHC and RHIC is discussed. Using properties of O(4) scaling functions, the generic structure of these higher cumulants at vanishing baryon chemical potential is discussed. Chiral model calculations are then used to study their properties at non-zero baryon chemical potential. It is argued that the rapid variation of sixth and higher order cumulants at the phase boundary may be used to explore the QCD phase diagram in experiment. Moreover, results for the Polyakov loop susceptibilities in SU(3) lattice gauge theory as well as in (2+1) flavor lattice QCD are discussed. An analysis of the ratios of susceptibilities indicates that the deconfinement transition is reflected in characteristic modifications of these ratios.

Friman, Bengt

2014-08-01

365

Nebraska Astronomy Applet Project: Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation explores the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and those topics necessary to understand the diagram. These topics include the different kinds of spectrum, spectral classification, and luminosity class. This module provides a fairly in-depth tutorial in reading HR diagrams. The user can change the temperature and lumonisity of the star and see how its position changes on the HR diagram. Instructor resources are available including student manuals, assessment materials, and a list of the assumptions used. This is part of a collection of astronomy applets.

Lee, Kevin M.

2008-08-21

366

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

367

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

368

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

369

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

370

Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

371

The Circle Block Print  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students enjoy the printing process. Some may have experimented with printing in the past using found objects or cutouts made of cardboard. In this article, students create a design on a pie-shaped piece and then repeat it to make a radial design.

Shaw, Annita

2011-01-01

372

Coin Blocks: Counting Money with Value-Sized Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson develops number skills, understanding of coin values, and the concept of equivalence. Students use coin blocks, concrete representations of the value of coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters), to compose and decompose values up to a dollar. The resource includes a 3-minute video for teachers on how to build the coin blocks prior to the lesson. An interactive game, Coin Box, provides additional practice for students and is cataloged separately.

Jennifer Rising

2011-01-01

373

Nanoparticles in the environment: assessment using the causal diagram approach  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) cause concern for health and safety as their impact on the environment and humans is not known. Relatively few studies have investigated the toxicological and environmental effects of exposure to naturally occurring NPs (NNPs) and man-made or engineered NPs (ENPs) that are known to have a wide variety of effects once taken up into an organism. A review of recent knowledge (between 2000-2010) on NP sources, and their behaviour, exposure and effects on the environment and humans was performed. An integrated approach was used to comprise available scientific information within an interdisciplinary logical framework, to identify knowledge gaps and to describe environment and health linkages for NNPs and ENPs. The causal diagram has been developed as a method to handle the complexity of issues on NP safety, from their exposure to the effects on the environment and health. It gives an overview of available scientific information starting with common sources of NPs and their interactions with various environmental processes that may pose threats to both human health and the environment. Effects of NNPs on dust cloud formation and decrease in sunlight intensity were found to be important environmental changes with direct and indirect implication in various human health problems. NNPs and ENPs exposure and their accumulation in biological matrices such as microbiota, plants and humans may result in various adverse effects. The impact of some NPs on human health by ROS generation was found to be one of the major causes to develop various diseases. A proposed cause-effects diagram for NPs is designed considering both NNPs and ENPs. It represents a valuable information package and user-friendly tool for various stakeholders including students, researchers and policy makers, to better understand and communicate on issues related to NPs. PMID:22759495

2012-01-01

374

Geo-botanical evidence of Late Quaternary mass wasting in block field areas of Virginia.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of block fields at Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, document and provide information on the magnitude and frequency of mass movement on these coarse-grained slopes. Although Pleistocene periglacial climate may have facilitated original formation of block fields, some block fields now continue to spread downslope during intense runoff events. Present block-field mass wasting may be the principal erosional process in these areas of resistant rock.-from Author

Hupp, C.R.

1983-01-01

375

Efficient block-matching motion estimation algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block-matching motion estimation (ME) is a principal process for most existing video compression standards, but it has a significant impact on computation overhead. An efficient block-matching algorithm is proposed for ME. The proposed algorithm consists of three effective steps: (1) apply the full search (FS) algorithm to construct a polynomial interpolation model from the group with four skipping frames to determine near-optimal global motion vector (MV) for the initial search point, (2) perform an adaptive search pattern in the interpolation step to refine the MV and (3) use the half-way stop technique to reduce search points. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a maximum speed-up factor of 366.47 with only 0.52% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) degradation in comparison with the FS algorithm.

Guo, Shu-Mei; Hsu, Chih-Yuan

2013-04-01

376

Carbon-carbon cylinder block  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

377

The Building Blocks of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about atoms and their structure (protons, electrons, neutrons) — the building blocks of matter. They see how scientific discoveries about atoms and molecules influence new technologies developed by engineers.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

378

Three-dimensional nanofabrication by block copolymer self-assembly.  

PubMed

Thin films of block copolymers are widely seen as enablers for nanoscale fabrication of semiconductor devices, membranes, and other structures, taking advantage of microphase separation to produce well-organized nanostructures with periods of a few nm and above. However, the inherently three-dimensional structure of block copolymer microdomains could enable them to make 3D devices and structures directly, which could lead to efficient fabrication of complex heterogeneous structures. This article reviews recent progress in developing 3D nanofabrication processes based on block copolymers. PMID:24706521

Ross, Caroline A; Berggren, Karl K; Cheng, Joy Y; Jung, Yeon Sik; Chang, Jae-Byum

2014-07-01

379

Persistency-field Eh-pH diagrams for sulfides and their application to supergene oxidation and enrichment of sulfide ore bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At temperatures prevailing near the Earth's surface, metastable co-existence of chemical substances is common because chemical reactions that would directly lead to the attainment of thermody-namically most stable equilibria are often blocked by high activation energy barriers. The persistency of a metastable assemblage is then governed by alternative reaction paths that provide lower activation energy barriers. Comparison of observed mineral assemblages in the supergene oxidized and enriched sulfide ores with corresponding stability Eh-pH diagrams reveals that the supergene assemblages are mostly metastable due primarily to the persistency of sulfide minerals beyond stability boundaries. A new set of diagrams called persistency-field Eh-pH diagrams has been constructed for binary metal sulfides on the basis of electrochemical and other experimental data. Each diagram delineates the persistency field, which is a combined field of thermodynamic stability and reaction path-controlled metastability, for a specific sulfide mineral. When applied to the supergene assemblages, these new diagrams show much better correspondence to the field observations. Although there may still be room for further refinement, the new diagrams appear to provide a strong visual aid to the understanding of the behavior of sulfide minerals in the supergene conditions. ?? 1992.

Sato, M.

1992-01-01

380

K-terminal Network Reliability Evaluation Using Binary Decision Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a modern data structure proved to be compact in representation and efficient in manipulation of Boolean formulas. Using binary decision diagram in network reliability analysis has already been investigated by some researchers. In this paper we show how an exact algorithm for network reliability can be improved and implemented efficiently using CUDD - Colorado University

Mohammad Ghasemzadeh; Christoph Meinel; Sara Khanji

2008-01-01

381

Voronoi diagrams of set-theoretic solid models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of a Voronoi diagram is extended to arbitrary set-theoretic solid models. A method for approximating such diagrams using recursive subdivision is described. The method relies on octrees, which have been used for computing the distances between whole solid models. Two- and three-dimensional images generated using the algorithm are presented

David Lavender; A. Bowyer; J. Davenport; A. Wallis; J. Woodwark

1992-01-01

382

Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

Wendel, Paul

2011-01-01

383

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

L. Glasser

2004-01-01

384

Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

Glasser, L.

2004-01-01

385

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson  

E-print Network

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams, usi* *ng asymptotic calculations and Vershik [1] have recently obtained some properties of the set of hook* * lengths for certain skew Young

Janson, Svante

386

Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

Landecker, Heidi

2009-01-01

387

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

Chamizo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

388

Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings  

E-print Network

Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings Gem Stapleton, Leishi Zhang, John comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively

Reiterer, Harald

389

Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

2012-01-01

390

Generating Time Space Diagram Using Event-Based Traffic Data  

E-print Network

Generating Time Space Diagram Using Event-Based Traffic Data Presented by: Heng Hu, PhD Jianfeng rely on Synchro TS-Diagram · Field verification is done via probe vehicles, which is time consuming Det A B C Time Space Delayed arrivals Link Entrance Dummy Vehicle QOD vf Back of Queue Queue Departure

Minnesota, University of

391

Diversions: Spatial Thinking Tasks--Cube Diagrams and Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…

Gough, John

2009-01-01

392

Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

Goodwin, Alan

2002-01-01

393

Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

2012-01-01

394

HR diagrams derived from the Michigan Spectral Catalogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data used for the HR diagrams are taken from a volume prepared by Houk and Cowley (1975) and a second volume prepared by Houk (1978). The absolute magnitudes were taken mainly from the Landolt-Boernstein tables. The graphs provided include HR diagrams for normal stars of quality 1 and 2, and errors in HD magnitudes as a function of p.e.

N. Houk; R. Fesen

1978-01-01

395

An explanation of the ‘granulation boundary’ in the HR diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granulation boundary is a line running in the HR diagram from about F0V stars to G1Ib. It divides the HR diagram in two regions in which the ‘spectral line bisector’ behaves differently. To the right (cooler stars) the Fraunhofer lines in stellar spectra show the characteristics typical for convective motions. For hot stars it indicates the presence of large

Cornelis Jager

1990-01-01

396

Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

Mudaly, Vimolan

2012-01-01

397

Irradiation distribution diagrams and their use for estimating collectable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for summarising annual or seasonal solar irradiation data in irradiation distribution diagrams including both direct and diffuse irradiation is outlined. The practical use of irradiation distribution diagrams is discussed in the paper. Examples are given for the calculation of collectable irradiation on flat plate collectors or trough-like concentrators like the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), and for the calculation

M Rönnelid; B Karlsson

1997-01-01

398

30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...Sulphur Management, General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a)...

2011-07-01

399

30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...Sulphur Management, General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a)...

2010-07-01

400

30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...Sulphur Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a)...

2014-07-01

401

30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...Sulphur Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a)...

2012-07-01

402

30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER...Sulphur Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a)...

2013-07-01

403

Voronoi Diagram of Polygonal Chains under the Discrete Frechet Distance  

E-print Network

Voronoi Diagram of Polygonal Chains under the Discrete Fr´echet Distance Sergey Bereg1 , Kevin is the (continuous/discrete) Fr´echet distance. In this paper, for the first time, we consider the Voronoi diagram of polygonal chains in d-dimension under the discrete Fr´echet distance. Given a set C of n polygonal chains

Zhu, Binhai

404

Drawing Area-Proportional Venn-3 Diagrams with Convex Polygons  

E-print Network

Drawing Area-Proportional Venn-3 Diagrams with Convex Polygons Peter Rodgers1 , Jean Flower2 , Gem Modelling Group, University of Brighton, UK {g.e.stapleton,john.howse}@brighton.ac.uk Abstract. Area-proportional intersections have a specified numerical value. In these diagrams, the areas of the re- gions are in proportion

Kent, University of

405

Phase Diagram and Scattering Intensity of Binary Amphiphilic Systems  

E-print Network

Phase Diagram and Scattering Intensity of Binary Amphiphilic Systems G. Gompper and Ulrich S parameter, which describe the con- centration and orientation of the amphiphile, respectively, is used to study the phase diagram and the scattering intensity of binary amphiphilic systems. With increasing

Schwarz, Ulrich

406

Fully Dynamic and Kinematic Voronoi Diagrams in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a survey of static, dynamic, and kinematic Voronoi diagrams as a basic tool for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We show how the Voronoi diagram with its dual, the Delaunay multigraph, can be used to maintain the topology of the map objects of a GIS. The presented method allows the insertion, deletion, and translation of points and line

Christopher M. Gold; Peter R. Remmele; Thomas Roos

407

ARAUCARIA: SOFTWARE FOR ARGUMENT ANALYSIS, DIAGRAMMING AND REPRESENTATION  

E-print Network

community and in teaching critical thinking skills to undergraduates is argument diagramming. By identifying for the academic community. Keywords: Argumentation schemes, argumentation theory, critical thinking, diagramming, where it aims to teach students both to think critically about the arguments of others, and to create

Reed, Chris

408

From Topography Profile Diagrams to the Evolution of Oceanus Borealis: Proposal of a Strategy that may Result in the Formal Proof of Martian Ocean Recession, Timing and Probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical theory of stochastic processes based strategy using recently published topography profile diagrams was proposed that may result in the formal proof of martian ocean recession, timing and probability.

G. Salamuniccar

2003-01-01

409

Research on automatic optimization of ground control points in image geometric rectification based on Voronoi diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of remote sensing satellites, the data quantity of remote sensing image is increasing tremendously, which brings a huge workload to the image geometric rectification through manual ground control point (GCP) selections. GCP database is one of the effective methods to cut down manual operation. The GCP loaded from database is generally redundant, which may result in a rectification slowdown. How to automatically optimize these ground control points is a problem that should be resolved urgently. According to the basic theory of geometric rectification and the principle of GCP selection, this paper deeply comprehends some existing methods about automatic optimization of GCP, and puts forward a new method of automatic optimization of GCP based on voronoi diagram to filter ground control points from the overfull ones without manual subjectivity for better accuracy. The paper is organized as follows: First, it clarifies the basic theory of remote sensing image multinomial geometric rectification and the arithmetic of how to get the GCP error. Second, it particularly introduces the voronoi diagram including its origin, development and characteristics, especially the creating process. Third, considering the deficiencies of existing methods about automatic optimization of GCP, the paper presents the idea of applying voronoi diagram to filter GCP in order to complete automatic optimization. During this process, it advances the conception of single GCP's importance value based on voronoi diagram. Then by integrating the GCP error and GCP's importance value, the paper gives the theory and the flow of automatic optimization of GCPs as well. It also presents an example of the application of this method. In the conclusion, it points out the advantages of automatic optimization of GCP based on the voronoi diagram.

Li, Ying; Cheng, Bo

2009-10-01

410

Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

1991-01-01

411

Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

2014-06-01

412

Phase diagram of colloid-rod system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.

Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui

2010-01-01

413

Phase diagram of colloid-rod system.  

PubMed

The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed. PMID:20113064

Lai, S K; Xiao, Xuhui

2010-01-28

414

Quantum corrected phase diagram of holographic fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phases of strongly correlated electron systems in two spatial dimensions in the framework of AdS4/CFT3 correspondence. The AdS (gravity) model consists of a Dirac fermion coupled to electromagnetic field and gravity. To classify the ground states of strongly correlated electrons on the CFT side and to construct the full phase diagram of the system, we construct a quantum many-body model of bulk fermion dynamics, based on the WKB approximation to the Dirac equation. At low temperatures, we find a quantum corrected approximation to the electron star where the edge is resolved in terms of wave functions extended fully through AdS. At high temperatures, the system exhibits a first order thermal phase transition to a charged AdS-RN black hole in the bulk and the emergence of local quantum criticality on the CFT side. This change from the third order transition experienced by the semi-classical electron star restores the intuition that the transition between the critical AdS-RN liquid and the finite density Fermi system is of van der Waals liquid-gas type.

Medvedyeva, Mariya V.; Gubankova, Elena; ?ubrovi?, Mihailo; Schalm, Koenraad; Zaanen, Jan

2013-12-01

415

Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

416

Schematic diagram of (VDT) - open throat design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schematic diagram of Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) - open throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott note in NACA TR 416 (p. 305) that a serious fire destroyed the tunnel (not the steel shell) in August 1927. The original design had a closed-throat test section five feet in diameter. After the fire it was decided to convert to an open throat design as depicted here. Jacobs and Abbott reported that this design was not satisfactory. 'The difficulties, which included excessive vibration, unsteady velocity at the test section, a rather large pressure gradient along the axis of the test section, and excessive effects of extraneous air currents on the balance, were overcome by rebuilding parts of the tunnel.' L2742.03: After a fire in August 1927 destroyed the VDT (not the steel shell), engineers decided to replace the original closed throat design with an open throat test section. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was immediately replaced with a new closed-throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott wrote: 'The whole interior structure was changed to the closed-throat type. A new exit cone having a smaller divergence angle and a new entrance cone having a better form were built. The synchronous-drive motor was replaced by a direct-current motor. These changes were completed in December, 1930.' (NACA TR No. 416, p. 305)

1928-01-01

417

The Self-Calibrating Hubble Diagram  

E-print Network

As an increasing number of well measured type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) become available, the statistical uncertainty on w has been reduced to the same size as the systematic uncertainty. The statistical error will decrease further in the near future, and hence the improvement of systematic uncertainties needs to be addressed, if further progress is to be made. We study how uncertainties in the primary reference spectrum - which are a main contribution to the systematic uncertainty budget - affect the measurement of the Dark Energy equation of state parameter w from SNe Ia. The increasing number of SN observations can be used to reduce the uncertainties by including perturbations of the reference spectrum as nuisance parameters in a cosmology fit, thus "self-calibrating" the Hubble diagram. We employ this method to real SNe data for the first time and find the perturbations of the reference spectrum consistent with zero at the 1%-level. For future surveys we estimate that ~3500 SNe will be required for our metho...

Feindt, Ulrich; Paech, Kerstin

2012-01-01

418

Improving perturbation theory with cactus diagrams  

E-print Network

We study a systematic improvement of perturbation theory for gauge fields on the lattice [hep-lat/0606001]; the improvement entails resumming, to all orders in the coupling constant, a dominant subclass of tadpole diagrams. This method, originally proposed for the Wilson gluon action, is extended here to encompass all possible gluon actions made of closed Wilson loops; any fermion action can be employed as well. The effect of resummation is to replace various parameters in the action (coupling constant, Symanzik and clover coefficient) by ``dressed'' values; the latter are solutions to certain coupled integral equations, which are easy to solve numerically. Some positive features of this method are: a) It is gauge invariant, b) it can be systematically applied to improve (to all orders) results obtained at any given order in perturbation theory, c) it does indeed absorb in the dressed parameters the bulk of tadpole contributions. Two different applications are presented: The additive renormalization of fermion masses, and the multiplicative renormalization Z_V (Z_A) of the vector (axial) current. In many cases where non-perturbative estimates of renormalization functions are also available for comparison, the agreement with improved perturbative results is consistently better as compared to results from bare perturbation theory.

Martha Constantinou; Haralambos Panagopoulos; Apostolos Skouroupathis

2006-12-04

419

A simple pathway to ordered silica nanopattern from self-assembling of block copolymer containing organic silicon block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembly of block copolymer is an effective strategy to prepare periodic structures at nanoscale. In this paper an unique and very simple method to prepare inorganic silica nanopattern is demonstrated from self-assembling of poly(styrene-block-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) on the surface of silicon wafer. To simplify the patterning process, at first we obtain highly ordered PDMS microdomains, which are covered with PS layer

Qi Wang; Jinghui Yang; Weiwei Yao; Ke Wang; Rongni Du; Qin Zhang; Feng Chen; Qiang Fu

2010-01-01

420

Magnetization ground states and phase diagrams for a nanosized Co hollow sphere: An onion-type magnetization state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetization ground states (MGSs) for a nanosized Co hollow sphere, with the outer radius, R <50 nm, have been studied numerically by micromagnetic simulation using object oriented micromagnetic framework (OOMMF). In addition to the originally known single domain and vortex-curling states, a three dimensional "onion" state with a corresponding analytical expression is proposed and confirmed as one of the ground states. Two phase diagrams, one for a single crystalline and the other for a polycrystalline nanosphere, are obtained for the three MGSs. The result reveals that the magnetic anisotropy has a significant effect on the phase line in the diagrams. The finite temperature effect and the blocking properties of the nanosphere for the magnetization reversal are discussed.

Kong, Desheng; Wang, Siming; Chen, Chinping

2008-07-01

421

Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

2013-01-01

422

Projection designs for mixture experiments in orthogonal blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixture experiments are often carried out in the presence of process variables, such as days of the week or different machines in a manufacturing process, or different ovens in bread and cake making. In such experiments it is particularly useful to be able to arrange the design in orthogonal blocks, so that the model in tue mixture vanauies may ue

Philip Prescott

2000-01-01

423

The Role of Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagrams in Materials Design for High Strength Oil and Gas Transmission LinePipe Steels  

SciTech Connect

The economical movement of gas and oil to the marketplace requires transmission pipelines to be designed to operate at higher pressures with improved toughness over a variety of temperature ranges. To meet the higher strength and toughness specification requirements of these transmission pipelines, appropriate materials and processes must be used in their design and construction. This includes selection of appropriate alloy composition, processing routes, microstructure control, and cost. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram is a tool that can be used to select alloy composition and processing route in order to obtain a specific, desirable microstructure for transmission pipeline steels in a cost effective manner. In the past, CCT diagrams were developed experimentally under laboratory conditions and thus not practical for commercial pipeline design considerations. However, with the vast data available and improved computational tools, reasonably accurate computer generated CCT diagrams can be produced quickly. These computer generated diagrams can give a materials design engineer, a reasonable understanding of the effect of subjecting a given alloy to various processing routes and hence the resultant microstructures. Since final microstructure is a key variable in determining the final pipeline steel material properties, the chosen alloy/processing route and its effect on the final microstructure needs to be understood. This paper will discuss the role of CCT diagrams in the design of steels (cost, alloy, processing, and microstructure) for oil and gas transmission pipelines. Examples of computer generated CCT diagrams for various API alloy designs are included.

Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL

2006-01-01

424

IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software Design Document. [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP) is described. The ITIP is implemented on the PDP 11/70 and interfaces directly with the Interactive Graphics Design System and the Data Management and Retrieval System. The program provides an efficient method for developing a network flow diagram. Performance requirements, operational rquirements, and design requirements are discussed along with sources and types of input and destination and types of output. Information processing functions and data base requirements are also covered.

Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.

1981-01-01

425

Energetic Studies and Phase Diagram of Thioxanthene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular stability of thioxanthene, a key species from which very important compounds with industrial relevance are derived, has been studied by a combination of several experimental techniques and computational approaches. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline thioxanthene (117.4 ± 4.1 kJ·mol-1) was determined from the experimental standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpy of sublimation was determined by a direct method, using the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, and also by an indirect method, using a static apparatus, where the vapor pressures at different temperatures were measured. The latter technique was used for both crystalline and undercooled liquid samples, and the phase diagram of thioxanthene near the triple point was obtained (triple point coordinates T = 402.71 K and p = 144.7 Pa). From the two methods, a mean value for the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K (101.3 ± 0.8 kJ·mol-1), was derived. From the latter value and from the enthalpy of formation of the solid, the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of gaseous thioxanthene was calculated as 218.7 ± 4.2 kJ·mol-1. Standard ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite procedure and several homodesmotic reactions in order to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioxanthene. The ab initio results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Freitas, Vera L. S.; Monte, Manuel J. S.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D. M. C.

2009-10-01

426

The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the Rh = ct Universe and ?CDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the Rh = ct Universe is more likely than ?CDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

Melia, Fulvio

2014-01-01

427

Projectors, shadows, and conformal blocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" d+1,1. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

Simmons-Duffin, David

2014-04-01

428

Tharsis block tectonics on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian internal structure, energy distribution, magma accumulation and motion below the lithosphere. Thermal convection can be seen as a necessary consequence for transient initial phase of Martian cooling. This produced part of the elevated topography with tensional stresses and graben systems radial to the main bulge. The linear grabens, radial to the Tharsis center, can be interpreted to indicate rift zones that define the crustal block boundaries. The load-induced stresses may then have contributed on further graben and ridge formation over an extended period of time.

Raitala, Jouko T.

1988-01-01

429

Automatic blocking of nested loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

1990-01-01

430

Human Factors Operability Timeline Analysis to Improve the Processing Flow of the Orion Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of Human factors and timeline analysis to have a more efficient and effective processing flow. The solution involved developing a written timeline of events that included each activity within each functional flow block. Each activity had computer animation videos and pictures of the people involved and the hardware. The Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool (HFEAT) was improved by modifying it to include the timeline of events. The HFEAT was used to define the human factors requirements and design solutions were developed for these requirements. An example of a functional flow block diagram is shown, and a view from one of the animations (i.e., short stack pallet) is shown and explained.

Stambolian, Damon B.; Schlierf, Roland; Miller, Darcy; Posada, Juan; Haddock, Mike; Haddad, Mike; Tran, Donald; Henderon, Gena; Barth, Tim

2011-01-01

431

Vector (butterfly) diagrams for osteoarthritic gait: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

This paper describes briefly a simple three-dimensional vector diagram display combining all the force components of gait in one diagram. The locus of the centre of pressure of the feet on the ground is fully illustrated. This provides a useful reference for the consideration of the position of the centre of body mass over one foot or the other. In the case of some pathological gaits, the lateral displacement can be substantial. The traditional two-dimensional diagram fails to show some of these effects. PMID:3361599

Khodadadeh, S

1988-01-01

432

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - H-R Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides students with the opportunity to make a H-R Diagram for different star systems. It goes through the relation between the color of a star and its surface temperature, in order to obtain a preliminary diagram. Then, using data from the Hipparcos probe, and the Pleiades system, the student is able to calculate the distance to several stars, which leads to the final version of the Diagram. The same concept is applied to Globular Clusters, and the student is able to tell the age of it by looking at its color.

433

High frequency ultrasound imaging in pupillary block glaucoma.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--The diagnosis of pupillary block glaucoma requires sufficient clarity of the ocular media. This is particularly important for assessment of both the presence and patency of an iridotomy, and the determination of central anterior chamber depth. METHODS--High frequency ultrasonography was used in three patients with suspected pupillary block to determine iris configuration, posterior chamber volume, and ciliary body conformation. RESULTS--All patients demonstrated high frequency ultrasonographic findings consistent with pupillary block: iris bombé, a formed posterior chamber, and a lack of anterior rotation of the ciliary processes. CONCLUSION--High frequency ultrasound imaging appears to be a valuable adjunct in making or corroborating the diagnosis of pupillary block glaucoma. Images PMID:8534666

Aslanides, I M; Libre, P E; Silverman, R H; Reinstein, D Z; Lazzaro, D R; Rondeau, M J; Harmon, G K; Coleman, D J

1995-01-01

434

Anisotropy effect on the stress-based fracture forming limit diagram using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the anisotropy effect on the stress-based fracture forming limit diagram using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion. In sheet metal forming process, a usage of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) has been remarkably increasing for the lightweight car body and good formability. It is, however, unable to evaluate the formability of AHSS with the conventional forming limit diagram during complex forming processes since it is obtained by assuming the proportional loading path and AHSS shows sudden fracture involving little amount of necking. The stress-based fracture forming limit diagram was constructed using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion in order to evaluate the formability of AHSS accurately. The anisotropy effect on the fracture strain is also evaluated to reflect the material behavior of sheet metals in constructing the criterion for the prediction of onset of the fracture. The constructed stress-based fracture forming limit diagrams deal with the stress state ranging from pure shear to equi-biaxial tension with the variation of orientation of sheet metals. It is clearly observed that the stress-based fracture forming limit diagrams are varied with the change of orientation of sheet metals.

Park, Namsu; Huh, Hoon

2013-12-01

435

Unit Blocks: A Curriculum for Early Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can use unit blocks as tools for directed learning activities, or blocks can be reserved for children's discovery learning experiences. To use unit blocks for discovery learning, children need adequate, protected space and sufficient, uninterrupted time. Given opportunities for free play with unit blocks, children progress through seven…

Banta, Mary Ann

436

State estimation using augmented blocked matrices  

SciTech Connect

Blocked structures of the augmented matrix of power system sate estimation are studied and it is shown that there are advantages in blocking according to a nodal formulation. The topological and computational properties of three blocking alternatives are studied and their numerical condition numbers compared. Recommendations are given for developing software for the proposed nodal blocking formulation.

Alvarado, F.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (US)); Tinney, W.F.

1990-08-01

437

A heated large block test for high level nuclear waste management  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive decay heat from high-level nuclear waste may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the host rock of a repository. A heated large block test (LBT) is designed to understand some of the TNMC processes. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m was isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block were collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The large block will be heated by heaters within so that a dryout zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Guard heaters on the block sides will be used to minimize horizontal heat losses. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress, displacement, electrical resistivity, acoustic emissions, and acoustic velocities will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes. The progress of the project is presented in this paper.

Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Owens, M.W.; Roberts, J.J.

1995-01-01

438

47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. 80...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. ...testing equipment, instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the...

2012-10-01

439

47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. 80...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. ...testing equipment, instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the...

2011-10-01

440

47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. 80...Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment. ...testing equipment, instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the...

2013-10-01

441

To use or not to use diagrams: The effect of drawing a diagram in solving introductory physics problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a given problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing diagrams facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detail in a studentâs diagram corresponds to a better score.

Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-07-17

442

Biology Diagrams: Tools To Think With.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subcellular processes like meiosis are frequently problematic for learners because they are complex and, except for the extent that they can be observed under a light microscope, occur outside of our direct experience. More detailed characterization of what underlies various degrees of student understanding of a process is required to more fully…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

443

Ferrian Ilmenites: Investigating the Magnetic Phase Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study is to investigate the magnetic phase changes within the hematite-ilmenite solid solution, yFeTiO3·(1-y)·Fe2O3. Two sets of synthetic ferrian ilmenites of y-values equal to 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 were available for this study. As currently drawn, the magnetic phase diagram, proposed by Ishikawa et al. [1985, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. v.54, 312-325], predicts for increasing y values (0.5

Lagroix, F.

2007-12-01

444

Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

Corley, Edward L.

445

GCC BSC Set Block Net  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Setting block net across an intertidal rivulet draining a hurricane-derived mudflat.  Net is retrieved at low tide to obtain an estimate of fish catch.  Fish density was found to be greater in waters draining natural tidal forests than in waters from mudflats formed as a result of landfall of a Cate...

446

Block Scheduling: Pathways to Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Block scheduling and intensive or extended-time scheduling have been appearing in high schools across the United States. This guidebook is designed to help each school find the best route to achieve this organizational change. The book's premise is that structural change in schools is not sufficient to create meaningful educational improvement.…

Adams, Don C.; Salvaterra, Mary E.

447

Block cache for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On chip memories provide fast and energy efficient storage for code and data in comparison to caches or external memories. We present techniques and algorithms that allow for an automated use of on chip memory for code blocks of instruc- tions which are dynamically scheduled at runtime to increase per- formance and reduce power consumption. I INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK

Dominic Hillenbrand; Jörg Henkel

2008-01-01

448

Building Blocks for Personal Brands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

2011-01-01

449

Blocking in Human Electrodermal Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associative blocking in human conditioning was investigated using electrodermal and self-reported US expectancy measures. Previous null results using a design reported by Lovibond, Siddle, and Bond (1988) suggested that a clearly demarcated phase structure and visual cues with semantic content may have distracted attention from the experimental contingencies. Therefore the current experiment intermixed pre-training and compound training trials and masked

John Hinchy; Peter F. Lovibond; Kim M. Ter-Horst

1995-01-01

450

Block copolymers in tomorrow's plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this era of portability and rapid technological advances, polymers are more than ever under pressure to be cheap and offer tailored property profiles. Often, the key lies in designing blends and alloys carefully structured at the appropriate scale (preferably less than a micrometre) from existing polymers. Block copolymers - two or more different polymer chains linked together - have

Anne-Valérie Ruzette; Ludwik Leibler

2005-01-01

451

Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

Wendel, Paul

2011-05-01

452

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

453

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

Chamizo, José A.

2012-05-01

454

Using ordered partial decision diagrams for manufacture test generation  

E-print Network

Because of limited tester time and memory, a primary goal of digital circuit manufacture test generation is to create compact test sets. Test generation programs that use Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) as their primary functional...

Cobb, Bradley Douglas

2004-09-30

455

Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools  

EPA Science Inventory

Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

456

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork{reg_sign}  

SciTech Connect

The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai`s methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user`s view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

Nicinski, T.

1992-02-01

457

Phase diagram of water: The principle of group cosubjection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pT phase diagram topology of water, including textures, is established, assuming that structural phase transitions do not change the molecule intrinsic symmetry and local symmetry in Wyckoff positions, but correspond to a group-subgroup cosubjection.

Lyakhov, G. A.; Mazo, D. M.

2002-02-01

458

State diagram and water adsorption isotherm of raspberry ( Rubus idaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal transitions of freeze-dried raspberry powder (Rubus idaeus) were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. Freeze-dried raspberry powders containing unfreezable and freezable water were examined to develop the state diagram of raspberry. The state diagram of freeze-dried raspberry powders included the glass line; glass transition temperature versus solids content, freezing curve; initial freezing point versus solids content; end point of

Roopesh M. Syamaladevi; Shyam S. Sablani; Juming Tang; Joseph Powers; Barry G. Swanson

2009-01-01

459

Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.

Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James

2008-01-01

460

Modelling the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory Heusler alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modelled the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory alloys of the Heusler type by using the phenomenological Ginzburg–Landau theory. When fixing the parameters by realistic values taken from experiment we are able to reproduce most details of, for example, the phase diagram of Ni2+xMn1?xGa in the (T, x) plane. We present the results of ab initio calculations of

P Entel; V D Buchelnikov; V V Khovailo; A T Zayak; W A Adeagbo; M E Gruner; H C Herper; E F Wassermann

2006-01-01

461

Fast computation of Generalized Voronoi Diagrams Using Graphics Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a new approach for computing generalized 2D and 3D Voronoi diagrams using interpolation-based polygon rasterization hardware. We compute a discrete Voronoi diagram by rendering a three dimensional distance mesh for each Voronoi site. The polygonal mesh is a bounded-error approximation of a (possibly) non-linear function of the distance between a site and a 2D planar grid of sample

Kenneth E. Hoff III; Tim Culver; John Keyser; Dinesh Manocha; Ming C. Lin

2000-01-01

462

Dodecagonal space vector diagram using cascaded H-Bridge inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the development of dodecagonal (12-sided) space vector diagrams from cascaded H-Bridge inverters. As already reported in literatures, dodecagonal space vector diagrams have many advantages over conventional hexagonal ones. Some of them include the absence of 6n±1, (n=odd) harmonics from the phase voltage, and the extension of the linear modulation range. In this paper, a new power circuit

Anandarup Das; K. Mathew; Chintan Patel; Rijil Ramchand; K. Gopakumar

2010-01-01

463

The Life Cycle of the Star/H-R Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a great resources with online lessons providing student inquiry as they learn about the life cycle of the star as well as the usages of the H-R diagram. The images provide students a conceptual understanding of the life cycle of the star and how it applies to the H-R diagram. My students enjoyed the interactive lab tools as well as the online formative assessment questions.

http://www.cpet.ufl.edu/sift/

2011-10-14

464

Characterization study of lower Lagunillas member, Block IV, Lake Maracaibo. Application of horizontal well to revive a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Lagunillas is one of the largest reservoirs in Venezuela located in Block IV in the Lake Maracaibo Basin in Zulia State in Western Venezuela. The estimated remaining reserves are 270 MMSTB. A multidisciplinary, integrated reservoir characterization study was performed to evaluate reservoir heterogeneity and fluid flow dynamics in fine scale. The majority of the remaining reserves are in the form of oil bypassed in the low resistivity pay zones. These zones were identified by the now core-log calibration performed in this area. Significant pressure decline from the initial 4200 psi to 1400 psi has prompted us to explore new development strategy of selective drilling of horizontal wells. A key step in the study was acquisition and integration of new geoscience, well log and pressure data. The available geology, geophysics, sedimentology and petrophysics were integrated and loaded on to a 3-D visualization package for correlating and validating the various lithofacies with petrophysics and sedimentology. The resulting reservoir model was exported to a flow simulator for developing a dynamic simulation model. A target layer was selected based on the results of the characterization study and risk assessment strategy. A pilot well was drilled in the reservoir to acquire new data and information. These information were processed to evaluate the borehole stability, petrophysical properties, location of the fluid phases, pressure behavior and target zone. The processed data were utilized to confirm the location and to develop the completion diagram of the horizontal well.

Coll, C.; Gamero, H.; Jimenez, Z. [Maraven, Carcas (Venezuela)

1996-12-31

465

Characterization study of lower Lagunillas member, Block IV, Lake Maracaibo. Application of horizontal well to revive a mature oil field  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Lagunillas is one of the largest reservoirs in Venezuela located in Block IV in the Lake Maracaibo Basin in Zulia State in Western Venezuela. The estimated remaining reserves are 270 MMSTB. A multidisciplinary, integrated reservoir characterization study was performed to evaluate reservoir heterogeneity and fluid flow dynamics in fine scale. The majority of the remaining reserves are in the form of oil bypassed in the low resistivity pay zones. These zones were identified by the now core-log calibration performed in this area. Significant pressure decline from the initial 4200 psi to 1400 psi has prompted us to explore new development strategy of selective drilling of horizontal wells. A key step in the study was acquisition and integration of new geoscience, well log and pressure data. The available geology, geophysics, sedimentology and petrophysics were integrated and loaded on to a 3-D visualization package for correlating and validating the various lithofacies with petrophysics and sedimentology. The resulting reservoir model was exported to a flow simulator for developing a dynamic simulation model. A target layer was selected based on the results of the characterization study and risk assessment strategy. A pilot well was drilled in the reservoir to acquire new data and information. These information were processed to evaluate the borehole stability, petrophysical properties, location of the fluid phases, pressure behavior and target zone. The processed data were utilized to confirm the location and to develop the completion diagram of the horizontal well.

Coll, C.; Gamero, H.; Jimenez, Z. (Maraven, Carcas (Venezuela))

1996-01-01

466

Understanding fine magnetic particle systems through use of first-order reversal curve diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

reversal curve (FORC) diagrams are constructed from a class of partial magnetic hysteresis loops known as first-order reversal curves and are used to understand magnetization processes in fine magnetic particle systems. A wide-ranging literature that is pertinent to interpretation of FORC diagrams has been published in the geophysical and solid-state physics literature over the past 15 years and is summarized in this review. We discuss practicalities related to optimization of FORC measurements and important issues relating to the calculation, presentation, statistical significance, and interpretation of FORC diagrams. We also outline a framework for interpreting the magnetic behavior of magnetostatically noninteracting and interacting single domain, superparamagnetic, multidomain, single vortex, and pseudosingle domain particle systems. These types of magnetic behavior are illustrated mainly with geological examples relevant to paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and environmental magnetism. These technical, experimental, and interpretational considerations are relevant to applications that range from improving particulate media for magnetic recording in materials science, to providing a foundation for understanding geomagnetic recording by rocks in geophysics, to interpreting depositional, microbiological, and environmental processes in sediments.

Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Zhao, Xiang; Pike, Christopher R.

2014-12-01

467

CALCULATING ASTEROSEISMIC DIAGRAMS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS  

SciTech Connect

With the success of the Kepler and CoRoT missions, the number of stars with detected solar-like oscillations has increased by several orders of magnitude; for the first time we are able to perform large-scale ensemble asteroseismology of these stars. In preparation for this golden age of asteroseismology we have computed expected values of various asteroseismic observables from models of varying mass and metallicity. The relationships between these asteroseismic observables, such as the separations between mode frequencies, are able to significantly constrain estimates of the ages and masses of these stars. We investigate the scaling relation between the large frequency separation, {Delta}{nu}, and mean stellar density. Furthermore we present model evolutionary tracks for several asteroseismic diagrams. We have extended the so-called C-D diagram beyond the main sequence to the subgiants and the red giant branch. We also consider another asteroseismic diagram, the {epsilon} diagram, which is more sensitive to variations in stellar properties at the subgiant stages and can aid in determining the correct mode identification. The recent discovery of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants forms the basis for a third asteroseismic diagram. We compare the evolutionary model tracks in these asteroseismic diagrams with results from pre-Kepler studies of solar-like oscillations and early results from Kepler.

White, Timothy R.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Kjeldsen, Hans, E-mail: t.white@physics.usyd.edu.au [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre (DASC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-12-20

468

Generalized serial search code acquisition - The equivalent circular state diagram approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transform-domain method for deriving the generating function of the acquisition process resulting from an arbitrary serial search strategy is presented. The method relies on equivalent circular state diagrams, uses Mason's formula from flow-graph theory, and employs a minimum number of required parameters. The transform-domain approach is briefly described and the concept of equivalent circular state diagrams is introduced and exploited to derive the generating function and resulting mean acquisition time for three particular cases of interest, the continuous/center Z search, the broken/center Z search, and the expanding window search. An optimization of the latter technique is performed whereby the number of partial windows which minimizes the mean acquisition time is determined. The numerical results satisfy certain intuitive predictions and provide useful design guidelines for such systems.

Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.

1984-01-01

469

Frequency stability of GPS NAVSTAR block 1 and block 2 on-orbit clocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the frequency stability of the on-orbit NAVSTAR clocks os performed by the Naval Research Laboratory. The frequency stability is presented for sample times of one day to 30 days. Composite frequency stability profiles are presented for Block 1 and Block 2 NAVSTAR clocks. Several NAVSTAR cesium clocks show frequency stabilities of a few parts in 1 x 10(exp 14) for long sample times. Time-domain noise-process analysis shows the dominant noise type to be white frequency noise for sample times of one to ten days. The non-stationary stochastic behavior of one of the cesium clocks, illustrated by its frequency stability history, shows that the frequency stability is not always time-invariant.

Mccaskill, Thomas B.; Reid, Wilson G.; Buisson, James A.; Warren, Hugh E.

1992-01-01

470

Polymer crystalline texture controlled through film blowing and block copolymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer properties can be manipulated through processing or chemical modification. Both methods are explored here, by (a) elucidating the origin of directional tear behavior in polyethylene (PE) films processed under different conditions, and (b) synthesizing new block copolymers, whose architectures permit precise control over crystal thickness and melting temperature. Directional tear in films of PE and its copolymers was traced to the orientation imparted during film blowing, quantified through x-ray scattering. The blow-up ratio (BUR) was the most significant process parameter controlling crystal orientation. The Keller-Machin I structure was observed in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, which tore preferentially in the transverse direction (TD). Conversely, the Keller-Machin II structure was observed in ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer films at low BUR, which also tore TD, but the orientation rotated 90° at high BUR, leading to preferred tear in the machine direction (MD). High-density and linear low-density PE films also exhibited the Keller-Machin I structure (as in LDPE) but tore either along MD (HDPE) or isotropically (LLDPE). These differences in tear behavior between chemically similar but architecturally distinct polymers, differing greatly in the type and level of branching, stem from intercrystallite tie molecules. In the second area, crystalline-amorphous diblock copolymers were synthesized through ring-opening metathesis polymerization and subsequent hydrogenation, where the amorphous block was hydrogenated poly(ethylidene norbornene), hPEN, and the crystalline block was either hydrogenated polycyclopentene, hPCP (identical to HDPE) or hydrogenated polynorbornene, hPN. Acyclic metathesis discovered during the PCP synthesis focused the study on block copolymers containing hPN, which is atactic yet highly crystalline. The hPN crystal structure was solved as monoclinic-beta (space group C2/c), with a = 6.936 A, b = 9.596 A, c = 12.420 A, and beta = 130.7°. hPN/hPEN diblocks of constant crystalline block length and different amorphous block lengths permitted a direct test of theoretical scaling laws based on the premise of an equilibrium degree of crystal chain folding. Stable chain folding induced by the amorphous block was confirmed, and the theoretical scaling laws were generally verified, though integral chain folding by the crystalline block superimposes a discreteness on the continuous domain scaling predictions. As the amorphous block length increased, producing thinner crystals, the melting point decreased commensurably. The melting point was also influenced by the monomeric and polymeric endgroups attached to the crystallizable block, through the crystal surface energy.

Lee, Li-Bong Wei

471

Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

Savran-Gencer, Ayse

2014-01-01

472

Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.  

PubMed

The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA. PMID:17457722

Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

2007-01-01

473

Block-based reconstructions for compressive spectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imaging system (CASSI) captures spectral information of a scene using a reduced amount of focal plane array (FPA) projections. These projections are highly structured and localized such that each measurement contains information of a small portion of the data cube. Compressed sensing reconstruction algorithms are then used to recover the underlying 3-dimensional (3D) scene. The computational burden to recover a hyperspectral scene in CASSI is overwhelming for some applications such that reconstructions can take hours in desktop architectures. This paper presents a new method to reconstruct a hyperspectral signal from its compressive measurements using several overlapped block reconstructions. This approach exploits the structure of the CASSI sensing matrix to separately reconstruct overlapped regions of the 3D scene. The resultant reconstructions are then assembled to obtain the full recovered data cube. Typically, block-processing causes undesired artifacts in the recovered signal. Vertical and horizontal overlaps between adjacent blocks are then used to avoid these artifacts and increase the quality of reconstructed images. The reconstruction time and the quality of the reconstructed images are calculated as a function of the block-size and the amount of overlapped regions. Simulations show that the quality of the reconstructions is increased up to 6 dB and the reconstruction time is reduced up to 4 times when using block-based reconstruction instead of full data cube recovery at once. The proposed method is suitable for multi-processor architectures in which each core recovers one block at a time.

Correa, Claudia V.; Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R.

2013-05-01

474

Three-body crystallization diagrams and the cooling of white dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3-body crystallization diagrams of C\\/O\\/Ne ionic mixtures characteristic\\u000aof white dwarf interiors are examined within the framework of the\\u000adensity-functional theory of freezing. The crystallization process is described\\u000amore accurately than in former calculations where the three-component system\\u000awas treated as an effective two-component mixture (Segretain et al. 1994). The\\u000adistillation process due to neon-crystallization is found to occur

Laurent Segretain

1995-01-01

475

Understanding the Irregular Data from the Large Block Test  

SciTech Connect

The Large Block Test (LBT) is one of three thermal tests at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. While two of those three tests (the Single Heater Test and the Drift Scale Test) were large underground tests, the LBT was above ground. The test block, with a size of 3 x 3 x 4.5 m, has a highly heterogeneous permeability field, with at least four orders of magnitude variation in permeability. Some of the temperature data from the LBT appear irregular at first glance, but on closer examination can be attributed to this heterogeneous nature of the fractured block. In this project, we attempt to develop a better understanding of these irregular temperature data from the LBT. The test block in the LBT was excavated from the surrounding Topopah Spring fractured nonlithophysal tuff in the Fran Ridge area of Yucca Mountain. The bottom of the block remained attached to the underlying rock, while the top and the four side faces were kept open to the atmosphere. Mapping of all the fractures from the four sides and the top surface of the block revealed the existence of some large fractures in the block. The presence of such large fractures indicates that the flow of water and heat-induced vapor can be very different in different zones of the block, with vapor and water flowing more easily through the highly permeable fractures than elsewhere. It is our hypothesis that the irregular temperature data arise out of thermal-hydrological processes taking place in the heterogeneous fracture system. We show, through simulations performed with a 3D dual-permeability numerical model based on the TOUGH2 simulator, that such a heterogeneous fracture system can indeed give rise to irregular temperature data.

Sumit Mukhopadhyay

2001-05-31

476

block copolymer - hexagonal cylinder phase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A system of 800 building blocks of composition A5B5 at a concentration of 0.85, was run starting at a temperature of infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of chiN = 57.9. The system was then run for ~ 3x10^6 time steps forming a cylindrical phase. Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

Horsch, Mark

2004-11-22

477

Solid Rock to Building Block  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students continue their pyramid building journey, acting as engineers to determine the appropriate wedge tool to best extract rock from a quarry and cut into pyramid blocks. Using sample materials (wax, soap, clay, foam) representing rock types that might be found in a quarry, they test a variety of wedges made from different materials and with different degrees of sharpness to determine which is most effective at cutting each type of material.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

478

Liquid-blocking check valve  

DOEpatents

A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

Merrill, J.T.

1982-09-27

479

Compact planar microwave blocking filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

480

Intra-His bundle block in second-degree Mobitz I atrioventricular block with right bundle branch block.  

PubMed

Because second-degree Mobitz I atrioventricular (AV) block is usually associated with a disturbance at the AV nodal level, and rarely at the infra- or intra-His bundle level, it has been considered as mostly benign in character. We report on a patient with intra-His bundle block in second-degree Mobitz I AV block with right bundle branch block. PMID:19542538

Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Kee Sik; Kim, Yoon Nyun

2009-09-01

481

Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) Analysis of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Flight Termination System and Power Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to perform public risk analyses for vehicles containing Flight Termination Systems (FTS), it is necessary for the analyst to know the reliability of each of the components of the FTS. These systems are typically divided into two segments; a transmitter system and associated equipment, typically in a ground station or on a support aircraft, and a receiver system and associated equipment on the target vehicle. This analysis attempts to analyze the reliability of the NASA DFRC flight termination system ground transmitter segment for use in the larger risk analysis and to compare the results against two established Department of Defense availability standards for such equipment.

Morehouse, Dennis V.

2006-01-01

482

Scalable Parallel Building Blocks for Custom Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a set of building blocks that provide scalable data movement capability to computational scientists and visualiza- tion researchers for writing their own parallel analysis. The set includes scalable tools for domain decomposition, process as- signment, parallel I\\/O, global reduction, and local neighborhood communication-tasks that are common across many analysis appli- cations. The global reduction is performed with a

Tom Peterka; Robert Ross; Attila Gyulassy; Valerio Pascucci; Wesley Kendall; Han-Wei Shen; Teng-Yok Lee; Abon Chaudhuri

483

Scalable Parallel Building Blocks for Custom Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a set of building blocks that provide scalable data movement capability to computational scientists and visualiza- tion researchers for writing their own parallel analysis. The set includes scalable tools for domain decomposition, process as- signment, parallel I\\/O, global reduction, and local neighborhood communication-tasks that are common across many analysis appli- cations. The global reduction is performed with a

Tom Peterka; Robert Ross; Attila Gyulassy; Valerio Pascucci; Wesley Kendall; Han-Wei Shen; Teng-Yok Lee; Abon Chaudhuri

2011-01-01

484

Uniaxial compression behavior of small blocks of welded tuff  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory compression tests have been conducted on small block samples of Topopah Spring Tuff to investigate the scale dependence of geomechanical properties. These tests are the first of a series of tests designed to study coupled processes in the near-field environment of a nuclear waste repository. This paper presents new deformation and elastic wave velocity data.

Blair, S.C.; Berge, P.A.

1995-11-16

485

Motifs and structural blocks retrieval by GHT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a protein gives more insight on the protein function than its amino acid sequence. Protein structure analysis and comparison are important for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins, predicting protein functions, and predicting protein folding. Proteins are formed by two basic regular 3D structural patterns, called Secondary Structures (SSs): helices and sheets. A structural motif is a compact 3D protein block referring to a small specific combination of secondary structural elements, which appears in a variety of molecules. In this paper we compare a few approaches for motif retrieval based on the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT). A primary technique is to adopt the single SS as structural primitives; alternatives are to adopt a SSs pair as primitive structural element, or a SSs triplet, and so on up-to an entire motif. The richer the primitive, the higher the time for pre-analysis and search, and the simpler the inspection process on the parameter space for analyzing the peaks. Performance comparisons, in terms of precision and computation time, are here presented considering the retrieval of motifs composed by three to five SSs for more than 15 million searches. The approach can be easily applied to the retrieval of greater blocks, up to protein domains, or even entire proteins.

Cantoni, Virginio; Ferone, Alessio; Petrosino, Alfredo; Polat, Ozlem

2014-06-01

486

CCMR: Exciton Blocking Layers in Organic Photovoltaics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organic solar cells have been attracting increased attention recently as an alternative to more costly silicon cells. Organic photovoltaics can be lightweight, processed on flexible substrates, and use less energy to produce [1]. However, significant barriers in efficiency and longevity must be overcome before such cells are commercially viable. Current organic cells can reach only up to 6% efficiency in the lab, while commercially available silicon cells average 15% efficiency [2, 3]. Cell longevity is also severely restricted by the tendency of C60 to increase in resistance when exposed to oxygen. Exciton blocking layers (EBLs) have been exploited to increase longevity [4], mechanically protect the donor and acceptor layers [5] and increase efficiency [6]. Until recently, primarily bathocuproine (BCP) has been used, with some investigation into tris-8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3) [5] and bathophenanthroline (BPhen) [6]. There has also been investigation into the positive effects of annealing on efficiency [7,8,9]. This research seeks to evaluate the effects of thermal annealing on 4 different exciton blocking layer types: BCP, Alq3, BPhen, and NBPhen, a close relative of BPhen.

Becker, Katherine

2007-08-29

487

Microevaporators for Kinetic Exploration of Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use pervaporation-based microfluidic devices to concentrate species in aqueous solutions with spatial and temporal control of the process. Using experiments and modeling, we quantitatively describe the advection-diffusion behavior of the concentration field of various solutions (electrolytes, colloids, etc.) and demonstrate the potential of these devices as universal tools for the kinetic exploration of the phases and textures that form upon concentration.

Leng, Jacques; Lonetti, Barbara; Tabeling, Patrick; Joanicot, Mathieu; Ajdari, Armand

2006-03-01

488

43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in accordance with sound real estate...

2011-10-01

489

43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in accordance with sound real estate...

2014-10-01

490

43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in accordance with sound real estate...

2013-10-01

491

43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in accordance with sound real estate...

2010-10-01

492

43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in accordance with sound real estate...

2012-10-01

493

Reduction of blocking artifacts using side information  

E-print Network

Block-based image and video coding systems are used extensively in practice. In low bit-rate applications, however, they suffer from annoying discontinuities, called blocking artifacts. Prior research shows that incorporating ...

Kam??l?, Fatih

2006-01-01

494

A DIAGRAM APPROACH TO AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF JSP\\/SERVLET WEB APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We defined diagrams called Web transition diagrams to rep- resent overall behavior of Web applications. Using these diagrams, we can generate server program type Web ap- plications such as CGI-based Web applications, and server page type Web applications such as ASP-based Web appli- cations. The purpose of this paper is to design Web transi- tion diagrams to represent wider class

Kornkamol Jamroendararasame; Tetsuya Suzuki; Takehiro Tokuda

495

Using Memory Diagrams When Teaching a Java-Based CS1  

E-print Network

Using Memory Diagrams When Teaching a Java-Based CS1 Mark A. Holliday and David Luginbuhl-oriented concepts. We believe that a type of diagram that we call a memory diagram can be an effective visualization tool for the beginning object-oriented programmer. Memory diagrams differ from more well-known object

Holliday, Mark A.

496

A HR-like Diagram for Solar/Stellar Flares and Corona -- Emission Measure vs Temperature Diagram  

E-print Network

In our previous paper, we have presented a theory to explain the observed universal correlation between the emission measure ($EM=n^2 V$) and temperature (T) for solar/stellar flares on the basis of the magnetic reconnection model with heat conduction and chromospheric evaporation. Here n is the electron density and V is the volume. By extending our theory to general situations, we examined the EM-T diagram in detail, and found the following properties: 1) The universal correlation sequence (``main sequence flares'') with $EM \\propto T^{17/2}$ corresponds to the case of constant heating flux or equivalently the case of constant magnetic field strength in the reconnection model. 2) The EM-T diagram has a forbidden region, where gas pressure of flares exceeds magnetic pressure. 3) There is a coronal branch with $EM \\propto T^{15/2}$ for $T 10^7$ K. This branch is situated left side of the main sequence flares in the EM-T diagram. 4) There is another forbidden region determined by the length of flare loop; a lower limit of flare loop is $10^7$ cm. Small flares near this limit correspond to nanoflares observed by SOHO/EIT. 5) We can plot flare evolution track on the EM-T diagram. A flare evolves from the coronal branch to main sequence flares, then returns to the coronal branch eventually. These properties of the EM-T diagram are similar to those of the HR diagram for stars, and thus we propose that the EM-T diagram is quite useful to estimate the physical quantities (loop length, heating flux, magnetic field strength, total energy and so on) of flares and corona when there is no spatially resolved imaging observations.

Kazunari Shibata; Takaaki Yokoyama

2002-06-03

497

Method for making block siloxane copolymers  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

Butler, Nora (Livermore, CA); Jessop, Edward S. (Livermore, CA); Kolb, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

498

Method for making block siloxane copolymers  

DOEpatents

A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers is disclosed. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

Butler, N.L.; Jessop, E.S.; Kolb, J.R.

1981-02-25

499

Optimized Negative Dimensional Integration Method (NDIM) and multiloop Feynman diagram calculation  

E-print Network

We present an improved form of the integration technique known as NDIM (Negative Dimensional Integration Method), which is a powerful tool in the analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams. Using this technique we study a $% \\phi ^{3}\\oplus \\phi ^{4}$ theory in $D=4-2\\epsilon $ dimensions, considering generic topologies of $L$ loops and $E$ independent external momenta, and where the propagator powers are arbitrary. The method transforms the Schwinger parametric integral associated to the diagram into a multiple series expansion, whose main characteristic is that the argument contains several Kronecker deltas which appear naturally in the application of the method, and which we call diagram presolution. The optimization we present here consists in a procedure that minimizes the series multiplicity, through appropriate factorizations in the multinomials that appear in the parametric integral, and which maximizes the number of Kronecker deltas that are generated in the process. The solutions are presented in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, obtained once the Kronecker deltas have been used in the series. Although the technique is general, we apply it to cases in which there are 2$ $or$ $3 different energy scales (masses or kinematic variables associated to the external momenta), obtaining solutions in terms of a finite sum of generalized hypergeometric series de 1 and 2 variables respectively, each of them expressible as ratios between the different energy scales that characterize the topology. The main result is a method capable of solving Feynman integrals, expressing the solutions as hypergeometric series of multiplicity $(n-1) $, where $n$ is the number of energy scales present in the diagram.

Ivan Gonzalez; Ivan Schmidt

2007-02-27

500

Loading Path Dependence of Forming Limit Diagram of a TRIP800 Steel  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the microstructure-based finite element modeling method is used in investigating the loading path dependence of formability of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. For this purpose, the effects of different loading path on the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of TRIP steels are qualitatively examined using the representative volume element (RVE) of a commercial TRIP800 steel. First, the modeling method was introduced, where a combined isotropic/kinematic hardening rule is adopted for the constituent phases in order to rightly describe the cyclic deformation behaviors of TRIP steels during the forming process with combined loading paths which may include the unloading between the two consecutive loadings. Material parameters for the constituent phases remained the same as those in the authors’ previous study [1] except for some adjustments for the martensite phase due to the introduction of the new combined hardening rule. Based on the new material parameters and new hardening rule, the predicted deformation behaviors of the TRIP800 steel show quite similar qualitative trends to those reported in other experimental works. Pseudo-forming limit strain diagrams (Pseudo-FLD) for the TRIP800 steel were, then, obtained for various loading paths. The computational results show that, similar to other single phase materials, the TRIP800 steel shows very sensitive loading path dependence in the strain-based forming limit diagrams (strain-FLD), but does not in the stress-based forming limit diagrams (stress-FLD), and that the phase transformation does not have significant effects on the FLD for the TRIP800 steel. From the observations in this study, the current modeling methods can be used in examining the qualitative trends of FLD of TRIP steels under different loading paths/prestrains.

Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-04-12