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Sample records for process block diagram

  1. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  2. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  3. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  4. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  5. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  6. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In Hyuck; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Kun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2014-03-01

    Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is because the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate) that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manually by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was suggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  7. Network legos: building blocks of cellular wiring diagrams.

    PubMed

    Murali, T M; Rivera, Corban G

    2008-09-01

    Publicly available datasets provide detailed and large-scale information on multiple types of molecular interaction networks in a number of model organisms. The wiring diagrams composed of these interaction networks capture a static view of cellular state. An important challenge in systems biology is obtaining a dynamic perspective on these networks by integrating them with gene expression measurements taken under multiple conditions. We present a top-down computational approach to identify building blocks of molecular interaction networks by: (i) integrating gene expression measurements for a particular disease state (e.g., leukemia) or experimental condition (e.g., treatment with growth serum) with molecular interactions to reveal an active network, which is the network of interactions active in the cell in that disease state or condition; and (ii) systematically combining active networks computed for different experimental conditions using set-theoretic formulae to reveal network legos, which are modules of coherently interacting genes and gene products in the wiring diagram. We propose efficient methods to compute active networks, systematically mine candidate legos, assess the statistical significance of these candidates, arrange them in a directed acyclic graph (DAG), and exploit the structure of the DAG to identify true network legos. We describe methods to assess the stability of our computations to changes in the input and to recover active networks by composing network legos. We analyze two human datasets using our method. A comparison of three leukemias demonstrates how a biologist can use our system to identify specific differences between these diseases. A larger-scale analysis of 13 distinct stresses illustrates our ability to compute the building blocks of the interaction networks activated in response to these stresses. Source code implementing our algorithms is available under version 2 of the GNU General Public License at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/software/network-lego. PMID:18707557

  8. Block diagram modeling of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tokhy, Mohamed S.; Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; Konber, Hussein A.

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). The tools that we are used are the VisSim environment, along with the block diagram programming procedures. The benefits of using this modeling language are the simplicity of carrying out the performance's measurement through computer simulation instead of setting up a practical procedure which becomes expensive, as well as the difficulty of its management. The roles that the parameters of fabrication can play in the characteristics of QDIPs are discussed through developed models implemented by VisSim environment. VisSim can be a powerful supplement to model the Poisson equation. MAPLE software is used to devise this model. The theoretical result confirms that implicit solution of QDIPs governed by dynamic equations provides exact handling of the device performance. As an example, dark current, photocurrent, and detectivity are investigated. In order to confirm our models and their validity on the practical applications, we make a comparison between the results obtained by MAPLE, VisSim, and that experimentally published, and full agreement is observed. The implemented models can help designers and scientists optimize their devices to meet their requirements.

  9. A Simplified Work Scheme for Using Block Diagrams With the Orthographic Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the steps for drawing a block-diagram from a map in the area of structural geology. The author recommends first platting on the orthographic net, all directional data with respect to geographical reference axes. (Author/SA)

  10. Flight control systems properties and problems. Volume 2: Block diagram compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A compendium of stability augmentation system and autopilot block diagrams is presented. Descriptive materials for 48 different types of aircraft systems are provided. A broad representation of the many mechanical approaches which have been used for aircraft control is developed.

  11. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  12. Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

    2007-01-01

    The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a rigorous baseline for the functional architecture.

  13. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  14. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal

  15. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new method for decomposing Witten diagrams into conformal blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.

  16. REDUCE 2: A computer program for the symbolic reduction of large block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Riehl, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    REDUCE 2 is reported as a FORMAC program which symbolically calculates the transfer function(s) of any linear-block-diagram output variable to any or all input variables. The program requires as input a set of algebraic expressions representing the block diagram, the desired transfer function(s), and a string of variables indicating the desired order of reduction. The solution is presented in the compact form of a set of nested functions (super G's). The program can handle systems as large as 600 equations and is intended as a tool for the analysis of complex control and dynamic systems. A companion FORTRAN program, EVAL 2, which numerically evaluates the solution set to obtain amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of frequency is also presented.

  17. Block Diagram Simulator to Solve a User-Defined Network of Differential Equatios

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    BDBSIM simulates control and protection systems found in fossil and nuclear power plants. The software is based on the identification of a general equation form that encompasses all control and protection equations encountered in these plants. The user enters his equations in block diagram form as a collection of individual dynamic function, logic, and table blocks. Constructing plant control equations in this manner is analogous to setting up an analog computer for simulation. The capabilitymore » is thus sufficiently general for use in modeling a wide variety of control and protection systems.« less

  18. The Use of a Block Diagram Simulation Language for Rapid Model Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Johnathan E.; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The research performed this summer was a continuation of work performed during the 1995 NASA/ASEE Summer Fellowship. The focus of the work was to expand previously generated predictive models for liquid oxygen (LOX) loading into the external fuel tank of the shuttle. The models which were developed using a block diagram simulation language known as VisSim, were evaluated on numerous shuttle flights and found to well in most cases. Once the models were refined and validated, the predictive methods were integrated into the existing Rockwell software propulsion advisory tool (PAT). Although time was not sufficient to completely integrate the models developed into PAT, the ability to predict flows and pressures in the orbiter section and graphically display the results was accomplished.

  19. The use of a block diagram simulation language for rapid model prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    1995-01-01

    The research performed this summer focussed on the development of a predictive model for the loading of liquid oxygen (LO2) into the external tank (ET) of the shuttle prior to launch. A predictive model can greatly aid the operational personnel since instrumentation aboard the orbiter and ET is limited due to weight constraints. The model, which focuses primarily on the orbiter section of the system was developed using a block diagram based simulation language known as VisSim. Simulations were run on LO2 loading data for shuttle flights STS50 and STS55 and the model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensor data recorded for these flights. As a consequence of the simulation results, it can be concluded that the software tool can be very useful for rapid prototyping of complex models.

  20. The Effect of Diagrams on Online Reading Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    This work examined how adjunct displays influence college readers' moment-by-moment processing of text and the products of reading, using reading time (Experiments 1 & 2), and think-aloud methodologies (Experiment 3). Participants did or did not study a diagram before reading a text. Overall, the reading time data, think-aloud data, and recall…

  1. Rock magnetic properties estimated from coercivity - blocking temperature diagram: application to recent volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, T.; Sato, M.; Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic minerals generally depend on their chemical composition, crystal structure, size, and shape. In the usual paleomagnetic study, we use a bulk sample which is the assemblage of magnetic minerals showing broad distributions of various magnetic properties. Microscopic and Curie-point observations of the bulk sample enable us to identify the constituent magnetic minerals, while other measurements, for example, stepwise thermal and/or alternating field demagnetizations (ThD, AFD) make it possible to estimate size, shape and domain state of the constituent magnetic grains. However, estimation based on stepwise demagnetizations has a limitation that magnetic grains with the same coercivity Hc (or blocking temperature Tb) can be identified as the single population even though they could have different size and shape. Dunlop and West (1969) carried out mapping of grain size and coercivity (Hc) using pTRM. However, it is considered that their mapping method is basically applicable to natural rocks containing only SD grains, since the grain sizes are estimated on the basis of the single domain theory (Neel, 1949). In addition, it is impossible to check thermal alteration due to laboratory heating in their experiment. In the present study we propose a new experimental method which makes it possible to estimate distribution of size and shape of magnetic minerals in a bulk sample. The present method is composed of simple procedures: (1) imparting ARM to a bulk sample, (2) ThD at a certain temperature, (3) stepwise AFD on the remaining ARM, (4) repeating the steps (1) ~ (3) with ThD at elevating temperatures up to the Curie temperature of the sample. After completion of the whole procedures, ARM spectra are calculated and mapped on the HC-Tb plane (hereafter called HC-Tb diagram). We analyze the Hc-Tb diagrams as follows: (1) For uniaxial SD populations, theoretical curve for a certain grain size (or shape anisotropy) is drawn on the Hc-Tb diagram. The curves are calculated using the single domain theory, since coercivity and blocking temperature of uniaxial SD grains can be expressed as a function of size and shape. (2) Boundary between SD and MD grains are calculated and drawn on the Hc-Tb diagram according to the theory by Butler and Banerjee (1975). (3) Theoretical predictions by (1) and (2) are compared with the obtained ARM spectra to estimate quantitive distribution of size, shape and domain state of magnetic grains in the sample. This mapping method has been applied to three samples: Hawaiian basaltic lava extruded in 1995, Ueno basaltic lava formed during Matsuyama chron, and Oshima basaltic lava extruded in 1986. We will discuss physical states of magnetic grains (size, shape, domain state, etc.) and their possible origins.

  2. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B.; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  3. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Observed Human Errors in Interpreting 3D visualizations: implications for Teaching Students how to Comprehend Geological Block Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Pirl, E.; Chiang, J.; Tremaine, M.

    2009-12-01

    Block diagrams are commonly used to communicate three dimensional geological structures and other phenomena relevant to geological science (e.g., water bodies in the ocean). However, several recent studies have suggested that these 3D visualizations create difficulties for individuals with low to moderate spatial abilities. We have therefore initiated a series of studies to understand what it is about the 3D structures that make them so difficult for some people and also to determine if we can improve people’s understanding of these structures through web-based training not related to geology or other underlying information. Our first study examined what mistakes subjects made in a set of 3D block diagrams designed to represent progressively more difficult internal structures. Each block was shown bisected by a plane either perpendicular or at an angle to the block sides. Five low to medium spatial subjects were asked to draw the features that would appear on the bisecting plane. They were asked to talk aloud as they solved the problem. Each session was videotaped. Using the time it took subjects to solve the problems, the subject verbalizations of their problem solving and the drawings that were found to be in error, we have been able to find common patterns in the difficulties the subjects had with the diagrams. We have used these patterns to generate a set of strategies the subjects used in solving the problems. From these strategies, we are developing methods of teaching. A problem found in earlier work on geology structures was not observed in our study, that is, one of subjects failing to recognize the 2D representation of the block as 3D and drawing the cross-section as a combined version of the visible faces of the object. We attribute this to our experiment introduction, suggesting that even this simple training needs to be carried out with students encountering 3D block diagrams. Other problems subjects had included difficulties in perceptually recognizing variations in layer thicknesses, difficulties in recognizing an internal structure from the visible cues on the block walls, difficulties in mentally constructing objects and intersections that were not perpendicular, and difficulties in keeping track of the number of folds of a layer, and thus, the number of intersections of the layer with the bisecting plane. All of these problems suggest that web-based games giving mass practice with these variations in block diagram representations are likely to give any person appropriate skills in their interpretation. The time to complete the drawings and the errors in the drawings were also correlated with quantifiable properties of the diagrams, e.g., number of layers, number of folds in the layers, angle of bisection of the plane, etc. These will be used in further research to organize the training from easy to hard problems following what is known already about mass practice and developing abstracted skill sets. The plan is to also make the training adaptive, that is, to provide practice in those areas where an individual user is having the most problems.

  5. Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Ferragut, Erik M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

  6. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  7. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  8. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test

  9. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  10. Block Diagram of a Black and White TV. Lesson Plan No. 1, Electronic Tech 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollandsworth, Donald S.

    This lesson, which is part of a course in electronics technology, explains the workings of a black-and-white television. It covers the structure and function of the 18 structural blocks of black-and-white television sets. The following materials are included: a lesson plan, transparency masters, and student handouts. The lesson plan includes lists…

  11. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  12. The Art of Sorting: Using Venn Diagrams To Learn Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents activities that have been proven to teach young learners to sort and classify objects that contain more than one attribute. The activities require that students employ the use of sorting hoops and attribute blocks to create Venn diagrams, the assembly of which requires practice. Includes cross-curricular uses of these learning tools.…

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

  14. Map Algorithms for Decoding Linear Block codes Based on Sectionalized Trellis Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1999-01-01

    The MAP algorithm is a trellis-based maximum a posteriori probability decoding algorithm. It is the heart of the turbo (or iterative) decoding which achieves an error performance near the Shannon limit. Unfortunately, the implementation of this algorithm requires large computation and storage. Furthermore, its forward and backward recursions result in long decoding delay. For practical applications, this decoding algorithm must be simplified and its decoding complexity and delay must be reduced. In this paper, the MAP algorithm and its variations, such as Log-MAP and Max-Log-MAP algorithms, are first applied to sectionalized trellises for linear block codes and carried out as two-stage decodings. Using the structural properties of properly sectionalized trellises, the decoding complexity and delay of the MAP algorithms can be reduced. Computation-wise optimum sectionalizations of a trellis for MAP algorithms are investigated. Also presented in this paper are bi-directional and parallel MAP decodings.

  15. MAP Algorithms for Decoding Linear Block Codes Based on Sectionalized Trellis Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ye; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc P. C.

    2000-01-01

    The maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm is a trellis-based MAP decoding algorithm. It is the heart of turbo (or iterative) decoding that achieves an error performance near the Shannon limit. Unfortunately, the implementation of this algorithm requires large computation and storage. Furthermore, its forward and backward recursions result in long decoding delay. For practical applications, this decoding algorithm must be simplified and its decoding complexity and delay must be reduced. In this paper, the MAP algorithm and its variations, such as log-MAP and max-log-MAP algorithms, are first applied to sectionalized trellises for linear block codes and carried out as two-stage decodings. Using the structural properties of properly sectionalized trellises, the decoding complexity and delay of the MAP algorithms can be reduced. Computation-wise optimum sectionalizations of a trellis for MAP algorithms are investigated. Also presented in this paper are bidirectional and parallel MAP decodings.

  16. Roundhouse Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James

    2000-01-01

    Students must understand key concepts through reasoning, searching out related concepts, and making connections within multiple systems to learn science. The Roundhouse diagram was developed to be a concise, holistic, graphic representation of a science topic, process, or activity. Includes sample Roundhouse diagrams, a diagram checklist, and…

  17. Positioning instructive captions to improve learning from process diagrams in unfamiliar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latz, Rachel Dubois

    2000-10-01

    Process diagrams play an important role in developing the individual learner's meaningful understanding and interpretation of scientific knowledge. However, researchers suggest that learners may not appreciate the diagram's importance as a learning tool. The primary purpose of this experiment was to contribute to the existing body of knowledge about how to enhance learning from process diagrams. In particular, this experiment explored the effect of an instructive caption when learning from a particular process diagram, identified in this experiment as a step schematic. The instructive caption emphasized the meaningful organization and integration of the to be learned information. The experiment compared the effects of learning on three instructional treatments: an instructive caption placed prior to a step schematic, a step schematic with no instructive caption, and an instructive caption placed after the step schematic. One hundred and twenty-eight college students, with little or no advanced formal knowledge of meteorology (weather systems), participated in the experiment. The results of this experiment indicated that an instructive caption does not significantly affect the free recall of explanative information or the generation of problem solutions when learning from a step schematic. However, results of this experiment found a significant relationship between the recall of explanative idea units and problem solving performance. Further exploratory data analysis revealed a significant treatment-preference interaction for recall and problem solving criterion measures. Those learners preferring not to use diagrams performed better with an instructive caption placed prior to the step schematic than an instructive caption placed after the step schematic. The opposite pattern was true for those subjects preferring to use diagrams. Further research is required to determine the role of instructive captions when learning from process diagrams. In addition, learner preference for diagrams may contribute to the learner's cognitive processing of the information portrayed in process diagrams.

  18. TV Trouble-Shooting Manual. Volumes 3-4. Part 1: Block Diagram of Colour TV Receiver and Signal Flow. Student and Instructor's Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Ryozo

    These volumes are, respectively, the self-instructional student manual and the teacher manual that cover the first set of training topics in this course for television repair technicians. Both volumes contain the following two sections: (1) Functional Block Diagram of a Colour TV Receiver, including information on the video reproduction circuit,…

  19. FeynChois: System for automating the process of Feynman diagram generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Woo

    We have developed a DTD (Document Type Definition) for an XML (Extensible Markup Language) document for describing Feynman rules of quantum field theoretical models---the document is called FeynPage. A FeynPage can be any XML document that conforms to the FeynPage DTD. A FeynPage can be understood by a human or a computer program that is aware of the FeynPage DTD. We have also developed a Feynman diagram generator, which has been named FeynChois. It provides a user with a full GUI (Graphical User Interface) environment. More importantly, FeynChois knows how to read FeynPage. When FeynChois is asked by a user to generate diagrams, it will first look up the rules in the FeynPage; then, it will generate diagrams according to the rules for any process specified by the user. If the Feynman rules in a FeynPage are modified, FeynChois will generate diagrams according to the modified rules. What FeynChois generates are actually Java(TM) objects that represent Feynman diagrams. These objects are graphically displayed in the GUI. A user can edit, remove, and/or save the diagrams mostly by mouse operations. The Java classes for Feynman diagram objects together with FeynPage and FeynChois make up the FeynChois system. The dissertation details what the FeynChois system is and how it works.

  20. Convergence to Diagonal Form of Block Jacobi-type Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari, Vjeran

    2008-09-01

    The main result of recent research on convergence to diagonal form of block Jacobi-type processes is presented. For this purpose, all notions needed to describe the result are introduced. In particular, elementary block transformation matrices, simple and non-simple algorithms, block pivot strategies together with the appropriate equivalence relations are defined. The general block Jacobi-type process considered here can be specialized to take the form of almost any known Jacobi-type method for solving the ordinary or the generalized matrix eigenvalue and singular value problems. The assumptions used in the result are satisfied by many concrete methods.

  1. The Mental Health Outcomes of Drought: A Systematic Review and Causal Process Diagram

    PubMed Central

    Vins, Holly; Bell, Jesse; Saha, Shubhayu; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about the long term, indirect health consequences of drought (a period of abnormally dry weather). In particular, the implications of drought for mental health via pathways such as loss of livelihood, diminished social support, and rupture of place bonds have not been extensively studied, leaving a knowledge gap for practitioners and researchers alike. A systematic review of literature was performed to examine the mental health effects of drought. The systematic review results were synthesized to create a causal process diagram that illustrates the pathways linking drought effects to mental health outcomes. Eighty-two articles using a variety of methods in different contexts were gathered from the systematic review. The pathways in the causal process diagram with greatest support in the literature are those focusing on the economic and migratory effects of drought. The diagram highlights the complexity of the relationships between drought and mental health, including the multiple ways that factors can interact and lead to various outcomes. The systematic review and resulting causal process diagram can be used in both practice and theory, including prevention planning, public health programming, vulnerability and risk assessment, and research question guidance. The use of a causal process diagram provides a much needed avenue for integrating the findings of diverse research to further the understanding of the mental health implications of drought. PMID:26506367

  2. The Mental Health Outcomes of Drought: A Systematic Review and Causal Process Diagram.

    PubMed

    Vins, Holly; Bell, Jesse; Saha, Shubhayu; Hess, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    Little is understood about the long term, indirect health consequences of drought (a period of abnormally dry weather). In particular, the implications of drought for mental health via pathways such as loss of livelihood, diminished social support, and rupture of place bonds have not been extensively studied, leaving a knowledge gap for practitioners and researchers alike. A systematic review of literature was performed to examine the mental health effects of drought. The systematic review results were synthesized to create a causal process diagram that illustrates the pathways linking drought effects to mental health outcomes. Eighty-two articles using a variety of methods in different contexts were gathered from the systematic review. The pathways in the causal process diagram with greatest support in the literature are those focusing on the economic and migratory effects of drought. The diagram highlights the complexity of the relationships between drought and mental health, including the multiple ways that factors can interact and lead to various outcomes. The systematic review and resulting causal process diagram can be used in both practice and theory, including prevention planning, public health programming, vulnerability and risk assessment, and research question guidance. The use of a causal process diagram provides a much needed avenue for integrating the findings of diverse research to further the understanding of the mental health implications of drought. PMID:26506367

  3. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    SciTech Connect

    FONG, S.K.

    1998-11-11

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF.

  4. Entropy Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.

    1996-08-01

    New displays, called entropy diagrams, show graphically how entropy changes compete in physicochemical processes. Examples of entropy diagrams are given for an equilibrium vaporization, a spontaneous evaporation into a vacuum, a vapor-pressure lowering due to the presence of an involatile solute, a chemical reaction under standard-state conditions and at equilibrium, an osmotic equilibrium, and an electrochemical equilibrium in a galvanic cell. On these diagrams entropy contributions due to standard-state changes, dilutions, and energy exchanges with thermal reservoirs are shown algebraically as well as diagrammatically. Entropy diagrams are useful for illustrating entropy analyses in which all transformations of matter and energy are related to entropy effects.

  5. Display the CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram with digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-Dong; Yao, Yi-Yang; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2013-12-01

    The chromaticity diagram is also needed in the instrument of a non-contact system for measuring color of printed material. The purpose of this paper is to design the color chromaticity diagram identical with the CIE 1931 and its program in MATLAB with digital image processing is realized. The chromaticity diagram in a binary format representation as black and white is used and the boundary for every color is confined by a closed black real line. More than 20 kinds of colors are selected by the psychophysiology of vision according to the CIE 1931 and their values in RGB are also are given. After every region colors are put in, the closed black real lines are wiped away and their values of RGB are updated according to the value for the nearest color region. The program including the filters in RGB space run until the all steps between every two colors up to the psychophysiology of vision, the chromaticity diagram is obtained. The values of RGB in every position in the chromaticity diagram can be presented.

  6. Morphology phase diagram of ultrathin anatase TiO2 films templated by a single PS-b-PEO block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Jun; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2006-04-12

    Ultrathin TiO2 films showing rich morphologies are prepared on Si(100) substrates using sol-gel chemistry coupled with an amphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The block copolymer undergoes a good-poor solvent pair induced phase separation in a mixed solution of 1,4-dioxane, concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). By adjusting the weight fractions of 1,4-dioxane, HCl, and TTIP, inorganic block copolymer composite films containing a variety of different morphologies are obtained. On the basis of the results a ternary phase diagram of the morphologies is mapped. By calcination, anatase TiO2 films are achieved. The morphologies and crystallographic phase of the films are studied with AFM, SEM, and XRD, respectively, and the formation mechanisms of the different morphologies are discussed. PMID:16594703

  7. Light-emitting block copolymers composition, process and use

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2006-11-14

    Generally, and in one form, the present invention is a composition of light-emitting block copolymer. In another form, the present invention is a process producing a light-emitting block copolymers that intends polymerizing a first di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound in the presence of an anionic initiator and a base to form a polymer and contacting a second di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound with the polymer to form a homopolymer or block copolymer wherein the block copolymer is a diblock, triblock, or star polymer. In yet another form, the present invention is an electroluminescent device comprising a light-emitting block copolymer, wherein the electroluminescent device is to be used in the manufacturing of optical and electrical devices.

  8. Research on Process Window Diagrams of Tube-Compression by Viscous Pressure Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tiejun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhongjin

    2014-06-01

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in tube-compression process. As a new method, the pressure distribution of viscous medium can be controlled when wrinkles occur in tube-compression process by viscous pressure forming (VPF) and then wrinkles can be eliminated under certain condition. So the tube-compression limit is greatly improved by expanding the deformation area in this new developed process. However, the limit of tube-compression by VPF is hard to be predicted according to existing forming limit theory. In this paper, process window diagrams considering some parameters of tube-compression length, tube-blank diameter, and limit diameter reduction were predicted by finite element method, and were verified by experiments. The results show that the diagrams can predict the limit diameter reduction of tube-blank, and also can reflect the states of wrinkles and the possibility of its elimination during tube-compression by VPF, which can provide guidance for the application of this forming technology.

  9. Student Understanding Of The Physics And Mathematics Of Process Variables In P-V Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Evan B.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2007-11-01

    Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all physical context. We report on a comparison of student responses to physics questions involving interpretation of ideal gas processes on P-V diagrams and to analogous mathematical qualitative questions about the signs of and comparisons between the magnitudes of various integrals. Student performance on individual questions combined with performance on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties are addressed by instruction.

  10. Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams for 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhou; Wu, Xin; Li, Guangyao

    2013-08-01

    Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steels possesses many superior characteristics over conventional room temperature forming process and is fairly attractive in improving strength and reducing weight of vehicle body product. However, the mechanical and failure behavior of hot stamping boron steel 22MnB5 are both strongly affected by strain hardening, temperature, strain rate, and microstructure. In this paper, the material yield and flow behavior of 22MnB5 within the temperature and strain rate range of hot stamping are described by an advanced anisotropic yield criterion combined with two different hardening laws. The elevated temperature forming limit diagram (ET-FLD) is constructed using the M-K theoretical analysis. The developed model was validated by comparing our predicted result with experimental data in the literature under isothermal conditions. Based on the verified model, the influence of temperature and strain rate on the forming limit curve for 22MnB5 steel under equilibrium isothermal condition are discussed. Furthermore, the transient forming limit diagram is developed by performing a transient forming process simulation under non-isothermal transient condition.

  11. Electron-number diagram for study of corrosion processes. Final report, 1 August 1984-31 July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Angus, J.C.; Zappia, M.J.

    1986-09-26

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of electron-number diagrams are being developed. These new diagrams provide a conceptual framework for interpreting and codifying the very complex chemical and phase equilbria that take place during practical corrosion processes. They also have utility in other areas such as electrodeposition, hydrometallurgy, and geochemistry. Work has on focused the single-redox-element systems Cu, Cr, Fe, S, and U and the two-redox-element systems Ga/As and Cd/Te.

  12. Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

    2009-01-01

    Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. PMID:19702780

  13. Top-down versus bottom-up processing of influence diagrams in probabilistic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, R.D.; Burns, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Recent work by Phillips et al., and Selby et al., has shown that influence diagram methodology can be a useful analytical tool in reactor safety studies. An influence diagram is a graphical representation of probabilistic dependence within a system or event sequence. Bayesian statistics are employed to transform the relationships depicted in the influence diagram into the correct expression for a desired marginal probability (e.g. the top event). As with fault trees, top-down and bottom-up algorithms have emerged as the dominant methods for quantifying influence diagrams. Purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a potential error in employing the bottom-up algorithm when dealing with interdependencies. In addition, the computing efficiency of both methods is discussed.

  14. The testing of thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes using a large block

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Chesnut, D.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Roberts, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The radioactive decay heat from nuclear waste packages may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near-field environment of a repository. A group of tests on a large block (LBT) are planned to provide a timely opportunity to test and calibrate some of the TMHC model concepts. The LBT is advantageous for testing and verifying model concepts because the boundary conditions are controlled, and the block can be characterized before and after the experiment. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 {times} 3 {times} 4.5 m will be sawed and isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block will be collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. The large block will be heated with one heater in each borehole and guard heaters on the sides so that a dry-out zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress and displacement will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes.

  15. Mollier-I, S-Diagrams for Combustion Gases in Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, F.

    1982-01-01

    In order to have all the thermal and caloric states of combustion gases accessible in a computer, closed mathematical approximation equations were established for the real factors, the enthalpy and the entropy of a real combustion gas. The equations approximate the various effects of molecular forces real gas influence and dissociation - at temperatures of 200 K to 6,000 K, pressures of 0.001 to 1,000 bar, and in the range from stoichiometric composition to air. A system of subprograms is listed in FORTRAN, by means of which thermodynamic calculations can be carried out in the same manner as with Mollier I,S diagrams.

  16. Block copolymers useful for enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a method for permeability control of a subterranean formation and for enhancing oil recovery from the subterranean formation. The method comprising injecting into the subterranean formation an aqueous solution comprised of a block copolymer having the structural form of ABA triblock or (AB){sub n} multiblock wherein A is a crosslinkable polymer, B is a non-crosslinkable polymer or a polymer having low reactivity to crosslinking agents, n is a number of at least 2 and a crosslinking agent. Wherein A is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, highly hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylic ester, highly hydrolyzed polyacrylic ester, polyvinyl alcohol and mixtures thereof and B is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, polyalkylene ethers, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyridine.

  17. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

  18. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  19. Integration of a Self-Organizing Block Copolymer Resist for Nanometer-Scale Semiconductor Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C. T.; Guarini, K. W.; Milkove, K. R.; Baker, S. M.; Russell, T. P.; Tuominen, M. T.

    2001-03-01

    We spin-cast thin films of PMMA-polystyrene block copolymers to produce ordered nanometer-scale templates over wafer-size areas. Control of processing conditions facilitates self-organization of the copolymer film into an ordered hexagonal array of PMMA cylinders in a matrix of polystyrene. Array dimensions can be changed via the volume fractions of the two polymer blocks, and in our experiments the cylinder diameters are 30 nm with center-to-center distances 45 nm. This templating process is particularly attractive because of its amenability to wafer batch processing in conventional semiconductor tools. We will discuss our efforts to integrate block copolymer templates into silicon processing, including template deposition on silicon, SiO2, and poly-Si, and pattern transfer into different substrates by reactive ion etching.

  20. Structural changes of semicrystalline polyolefin block copolymer elastomers during step cycle mechanical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deplace, Fanny; Wang, Zhigang; Hustad, Philip; Tian, Juan; Rose, Jeffrey M.; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Shimizu, Fumihiko; Toki, Shigeyuki; Rong, Lixia; Zhu, Jie; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Kramer, Edward J.

    2010-03-01

    Development of stereo- and regioselective catalysts has led to the capability to produce multiblock copolymers with crystalline isotactic or syndiotactic polypropylene blocks and ethylene-r-propylene rubbery blocks which have excellent elastomeric properties. During step cycle mechanical processing the crystals can plastically deform and transform from lamellae into rod-like fibrils. The stress-strain tensile curves provide evidence of dramatic changes in the mechanical properties and small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering experiments as well as real space imaging bring a better understanding of the structural changes of the crystals during such processing.

  1. Biological processes, properties and molecular wiring diagrams of candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaci, Núria; Berenguer, Antoni; Díez, Javier; Reina, Oscar; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Moreno, Víctor; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent advances in whole-genome association studies (WGASs) for human cancer risk are beginning to provide the part lists of low-penetrance susceptibility genes. However, statistical analysis in these studies is complicated by the vast number of genetic variants examined and the weak effects observed, as a result of which constraints must be incorporated into the study design and analytical approach. In this scenario, biological attributes beyond the adjusted statistics generally receive little attention and, more importantly, the fundamental biological characteristics of low-penetrance susceptibility genes have yet to be determined. Methods We applied an integrative approach for identifying candidate low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, their characteristics and molecular networks through the analysis of diverse sources of biological evidence. Results First, examination of the distribution of Gene Ontology terms in ordered WGAS results identified asymmetrical distribution of Cell Communication and Cell Death processes linked to risk. Second, analysis of 11 different types of molecular or functional relationships in genomic and proteomic data sets defined the "omic" properties of candidate genes: i/ differential expression in tumors relative to normal tissue; ii/ somatic genomic copy number changes correlating with gene expression levels; iii/ differentially expressed across age at diagnosis; and iv/ expression changes after BRCA1 perturbation. Finally, network modeling of the effects of variants on germline gene expression showed higher connectivity than expected by chance between novel candidates and with known susceptibility genes, which supports functional relationships and provides mechanistic hypotheses of risk. Conclusion This study proposes that cell communication and cell death are major biological processes perturbed in risk of breast cancer conferred by low-penetrance variants, and defines the common omic properties, molecular interactions and possible functional effects of candidate genes and proteins. PMID:19094230

  2. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  3. Psychological Aspects of Aging. Module A-7. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on psychological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Six sections present…

  4. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Block VII, Classroom Course 13-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the fourth section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block VII deals with heat treating, hardness…

  5. Processes of subduction and exhumation of continental blocks in collisional orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirel, C.; Brun, J.; Burov, E. B.; Wortel, M. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of accretion, subduction and exhumation of rocks during orogeny is a fundamental issue for plate tectonics. Numerous models have been proposed in order to explain the tectonic events that accompany continental subduction. Here, in order to examine the different processes in a simple, self-consistent manner, the fully coupled thermo-mechanical numerical code PARAFLAM is used to perform a parametric study on the subduction mode and, particularly, on the continental subduction processes. A wide range of parameters including slab-pull magnitude, temperature and viscosity distribution, initial geometry of the subduction zone and rheology, is explored to understand the dynamics of accretion, the different processes of exhumation, the deformation of the slab and the deformation of the overriding plate. The first results of this study show the evolution of one or two small continental blocks (terranes) reaching the subduction-zone continental margin. A set of experiments demonstrates that the progressive incorporation of a continental block into the over-riding plate is governed by the dynamics of subduction. Initially, the continental block is partly or entirely subducted, which increases its buoyancy and induces its detachment from the subducting slab. By the time the emplacement of the block into the continental margin is completed, exhumation is likely to have occurred, depending mainly on the slab pull magnitude and the rheology of the continental block itself. As an example, some experiments show the continuous subduction of a continental block followed by an UHP-HP exhumation and a metamorphic-core-complex type of exhumation. These cases can be compared with the pattern of deformation observed in the Aegean-Sea domain or in the Tyrrhenian one.

  6. Scrutinizing UML Activity Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

    Building an information system involves two processes: conceptual modeling of the “real world domain” and designing the software system. Object-oriented methods and languages (e.g., UML) are typically used for describing the software system. For the system analysis process that produces the conceptual description, object-oriented techniques or semantics extensions are utilized. Specifically, UML activity diagrams are the “flow charts” of object-oriented conceptualization tools. This chapter proposes an alternative to UML activity diagrams through the development of a conceptual modeling methodology based on the notion of flow.

  7. Automated Processing of LASCO Coronal Images: Spurious Point-Source-Filtering and Missing-Blocks Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagot, E.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.; Boclet, B.

    2014-04-01

    We report on automated procedures for correcting the images of the LASCO coronagraph for i) spurious quasi-point-sources such as the impacts of cosmic rays, stars, and planets, and ii) the absence of signal due to transmission errors or dropouts, which results in blocks of missing information in the images. Correcting for these undesirable artifacts is mandatory for all quantitative works on the solar corona that require data inversion and/or long series of images, for instance. The nonlinear filtering of spike noise or point-like objects is based on mathematical morphology and implements the procedure opening by morphological reconstruction. However, a simple opening filter is applied whenever the fractional area of corrupted pixels exceeds 50 % of the original image. We describe different strategies for reconstructing the missing information blocks. In general, it is possible to implement the method of averaged neighbors using the two images obtained immediately before and after the corrupted image. For the other cases, and in particular when missing blocks overlapped in three images, we developed an original procedure of weighted interpolation along radial profiles from the center of the Sun that intercept the missing block(s). This procedure is also adequate for the saturated images of bright planets (such as Venus) that bleed along the neighboring pixels. Missing blocks in polarized images may generally be reconstructed using the associated unpolarized image of the same format. But in the case of overlapping missing blocks, we implemented our procedure of weighted interpolation. All tests performed on numerous LASCO-C2 images at various periods of solar activity ( i.e. varying complexity of the structure of the corona) demonstrate the excellent performance of these new procedures, with results vastly superior to the methods implemented so far in the pipeline-processing of the LASCO images.

  8. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  9. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms. PMID:26396350

  10. Understanding Network Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Robert

    A survey of a range of introductory university level textbooks in the social sciences found little use of network diagrams (NDs), i.e., graphic representations of processes, organizations, systems, and mechanisms. NDs can be viewed as a text/picture hybrid medium with titles and captions serving to qualify and identify the meaning and status of…

  11. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  12. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  13. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  14. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C

    2015-11-01

    Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and comminution processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different comminution and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated. PMID:26168872

  15. Application of ISO22000, failure mode, and effect analysis (FMEA) cause and effect diagrams and pareto in conjunction with HACCP and risk assessment for processing of pastry products.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2011-09-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of pastry processing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the pastry industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (pastry processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over pastry processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the Risk Priority Number (RPN) per identified processing hazard. Storage of raw materials and storage of final products at -18°C followed by freezing were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, and 144 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a pastry processing industry is considered imperative. PMID:21838557

  16. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-01

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  17. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring.

    PubMed

    Soumya, I; Rahman, M Zia Ur; Reddy, D V Rama Koti; Lay-Ekuakille, A

    2015-03-01

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence. PMID:25832268

  18. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  19. Scaffolding Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes in Low Verbal Ability Learners: Use of Diagrams in Computer-Based Training Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Oser, Randall L.

    2002-01-01

    This study of undergraduates investigated how scaffolding instructional strategies can support learners' knowledge acquisition and metacomprehension of complex systems in a computer-based training environment. Results showed that incorporating diagrams facilitated performance on measures of integrative knowledge and facilitated the development of…

  20. Process-dependent Nanostructure and Crystallinity Competition in All-Conjugated Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hao; Verduzco, Rafael; Verduzco Lab Team

    2013-03-01

    The nanostructure of active layer in organic photovoltaic (OPV) is critical to charge transfer and power conversion efficiency (PCE). This study elucidates a model example of crystallinity competition and process-dependent nanostructures in various composition of an all-conjugated block copolymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene)- b-poly(9',9'-dioctylfluorene) (P3HT- b-PF) synthesized from a combination of Grignard metathesis and Suzuki-Miyaura polycondensation. In contrast to previous studies of P3HT-based all-conjugated block copolymer where P3HT typically dominates the final morphology through crystallization. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) measurements verify that thermally annealed P3HT-b-PF spun-cast films show a morphology dominated by crystallization of P3HT or PF, depending on the size of block ratios. However, all solvent annealed films show primarily an out-of-plane stacking (q ~ 0.15n Å-1 where n =1,2,3,4,5,6,7) on the substrate and with strong (020) π-stacking parallel to substrate surface. This expanded small lamellar domain is about 4 nm which is designated to alkyl-chain stacking within block copolymer. Subsequent thermal annealing at high temperatures results in loss of the expanded spacing, indicating that the observed orientation and structure of P3HT- b-PF is in non-equilibrium status so that proper processing condition is important in determining final nanostructure and potentially enhanced PCE in all-polymer OPVs.

  1. When block copolymer self-assembly in hierarchically ordered honeycomb films depicts the breath figure process.

    PubMed

    Escalé, Pierre; Save, Maud; Billon, Laurent; Ruokolainen, Janne; Rubatat, Laurent

    2016-01-21

    Nowadays, a challenge in the preparation of hierarchically ordered materials is the control of concomitant and interacting self-organization processes occurring in time at different length scales. In the present paper, the breath figure process is combined with block copolymer nano-phase segregation to elaborate hierarchically structured honeycomb porous films. Copolymer ordering, at the nanometer length scale, is observed and described in detail with respect to the array of pores of micrometer dimension, hence pointing out the structural interplays between both length-scales. The study is focused on two diblock copolymers made of polystyrene and poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) with compositions producing lamellae or hexagonal packing of cylinders at thermodynamical equilibrium. Transmission Electron Microscopy completed with Small and Ultra-Small Angle Scattering are performed to evidence the inner morphologies of the honeycomb. The structural data are discussed in the light of the honeycomb film formation process establishing the interest in using kinetically trapped block copolymer self-organization as an imprint to elucidate the complex breath figure process. PMID:26528753

  2. Analysis of backward error recovery for concurrent processes with recovery blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    1982-01-01

    Three different methods of implementing recovery blocks (RB's). These are the asynchronous, synchronous, and the pseudo recovery point implementations. Pseudo recovery points so that unbounded rollback may be avoided while maintaining process autonomy are proposed. Probabilistic models for analyzing these three methods under standard assumptions in computer performance analysis, i.e., exponential distributions for related random variables were developed. The interval between two successive recovery lines for asynchronous RB's mean loss in computation power for the synchronized method, and additional overhead and rollback distance in case PRP's are used were estimated.

  3. Instantaneous Formation of Block Copolymer Patterns via Solvo-Thermal Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyun Jung; Woo, Sanghoon; Huh, June; Bang, Joona

    2015-03-01

    A self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) exhibits one of the most promising alternative methods for the next-generation lithography. Many semiconductor companies have explored the possibility of implementing this process in actual chip process, whereas the critical challenges such as feature size control, defect density, and long processing time need to be overcome. Regarding the BCP process, the formation of BCP patterns usually requires long processing time via thermal or solvent annealing. Herein we developed a simple processing method to promote a microphase separation of BCPs using solvo-thermal spin casting process. Spin casting has a very similar mechanism to solvent vapor annealing but its short process time prevents BCP chains from reaching equilibrium morphology. To maximize the chain mobility, we employed a high boiling point solvent and also applied the heat during spin casting. As a result, a well ordered BCP patterns were obtained within less than 5 min via solvo-thermal casting process without further additional annealing step.

  4. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  5. Neutral wetting brush layers for block copolymer thin films using homopolymer blends processed at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, M; Palermo, M; Ferrarese Lupi, F; Seguini, G; Perego, M; Zuccheri, G; Phadatare, S D; Antonioli, D; Gianotti, V; Sparnacci, K; Laus, M

    2015-10-16

    Binary homopolymer blends of two hydroxyl-terminated polystyrene (PS-OH) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-OH) homopolymers (Mn ∼ 16000 g mol(-1)) were grafted on SiO2 substrates by high-temperature (T > 150 °C), short-time (t < 600 s) thermal treatments. The resulting brush layer was tested to screen preferential interactions of the SiO2 substrate with the different symmetric and asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymers deposited on top of the grafted molecules. By properly adjusting the blend composition and the processing parameters, an efficient surface neutralization path was identified, enabling the formation, in the block copolymer film, of homogeneous textures of lamellae or cylinders perpendicularly oriented with respect to the substrate. A critical interplay between the phase segregation of the homopolymer blends and their grafting process on the SiO2 was observed. In fact, the polar SiO2 is preferential for the PMMA-rich phase that forms a homogeneous layer on the substrate, while the PS-rich phase is located at the polymer-air interface. During the thermal treatment, phase segregation and grafting proceed simultaneously. Complete wetting of the PS rich phase on the PMMA rich phase leads to the formation of a PS/PMMA bilayer. In this case, the progressive diffusion of PS chains toward the polymer-SiO2 interface during the thermal treatment allows tuning of the brush layer composition. PMID:26404164

  6. Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Namiki, Shu

    2014-06-30

    A novel carrier recovery scheme for demodulating optical M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) signals is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed scheme treats a certain number of consecutive symbols as a processing block for which linear evolution of the carrier phases in time is assumed. The Kalman filter algorithm is employed to simultaneously estimate the carrier-frequency offset and carrier phases of the symbols in each block from the observation result. Consequently, an optimal carrier recovery operation with minimum mean squared error can be obtained, and large phase errors due to optical noise and large carrier-frequency offsets can be tolerated. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme in demodulating optical 16- and 64-QAM signals, confirming its stable operation for carrier-frequency offsets even larger than 10% of the symbol rate of the signal. We also demonstrate 160-km transmission of a single-channel, single-polarization 64-QAM signal by using the proposed scheme in the demodulation process. PMID:24977798

  7. Neutral wetting brush layers for block copolymer thin films using homopolymer blends processed at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresoli, M.; Palermo, M.; Ferrarese Lupi, F.; Seguini, G.; Perego, M.; Zuccheri, G.; Phadatare, S. D.; Antonioli, D.; Gianotti, V.; Sparnacci, K.; Laus, M.

    2015-10-01

    Binary homopolymer blends of two hydroxyl-terminated polystyrene (PS-OH) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-OH) homopolymers (Mn ˜ 16000 g mol-1) were grafted on SiO2 substrates by high-temperature (T > 150 °C), short-time (t < 600 s) thermal treatments. The resulting brush layer was tested to screen preferential interactions of the SiO2 substrate with the different symmetric and asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymers deposited on top of the grafted molecules. By properly adjusting the blend composition and the processing parameters, an efficient surface neutralization path was identified, enabling the formation, in the block copolymer film, of homogeneous textures of lamellae or cylinders perpendicularly oriented with respect to the substrate. A critical interplay between the phase segregation of the homopolymer blends and their grafting process on the SiO2 was observed. In fact, the polar SiO2 is preferential for the PMMA-rich phase that forms a homogeneous layer on the substrate, while the PS-rich phase is located at the polymer-air interface. During the thermal treatment, phase segregation and grafting proceed simultaneously. Complete wetting of the PS rich phase on the PMMA rich phase leads to the formation of a PS/PMMA bilayer. In this case, the progressive diffusion of PS chains toward the polymer-SiO2 interface during the thermal treatment allows tuning of the brush layer composition.

  8. Autoplan: A self-processing network model for an extended blocks world planning environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dautrechy, C. Lynne; Reggia, James A.; Mcfadden, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Self-processing network models (neural/connectionist models, marker passing/message passing networks, etc.) are currently undergoing intense investigation for a variety of information processing applications. These models are potentially very powerful in that they support a large amount of explicit parallel processing, and they cleanly integrate high level and low level information processing. However they are currently limited by a lack of understanding of how to apply them effectively in many application areas. The formulation of self-processing network methods for dynamic, reactive planning is studied. The long-term goal is to formulate robust, computationally effective information processing methods for the distributed control of semiautonomous exploration systems, e.g., the Mars Rover. The current research effort is focusing on hierarchical plan generation, execution and revision through local operations in an extended blocks world environment. This scenario involves many challenging features that would be encountered in a real planning and control environment: multiple simultaneous goals, parallel as well as sequential action execution, action sequencing determined not only by goals and their interactions but also by limited resources (e.g., three tasks, two acting agents), need to interpret unanticipated events and react appropriately through replanning, etc.

  9. Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers: a computer simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marcus; Sun, De-Wen

    2015-05-01

    The free-energy landscape of self-assembling block copolymer systems is characterized by a multitude of metastable minima and concomitant protracted relaxation times of the morphology. Tailoring rapid changes (quench) of thermodynamic conditions, one can reproducibly trap the ensuing kinetics of self-assembly in a specific metastable state. To this end, it is necessary to (1) control the generation of well-defined, highly unstable states and (2) design the unstable state such that the ensuing spontaneous kinetics of structure formation reaches the desired metastable morphology. This process-directed self-assembly provides an alternative to fine-tuning molecular architecture by synthesis or blending, for instance, in order to fabricate complex network structures. Comparing our simulation results to recently developed free-energy techniques, we highlight the importance of non-equilibrium molecular conformations in the starting state and motivate the significance of the local conservation of density.

  10. Versatile process for the stereodiverse construction of 1,3-polyols: iterative chain elongation with chiral building blocks.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, Angela; Wegener, Michael; Hummel, Sara; Hring, Andreas P; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2016-01-21

    A versatile process for the construction of 1,3-polyols, a key structural element of polyketide-type natural products, is presented. The modular synthesis strategy involves the iterative chain elongation with novel four-carbon building blocks to access all possible stereoisomers of a growing 1,3-polyol chain. These chiral building blocks are designed to install four carbon atoms with two stereogenic centres by performing only four experimentally simple steps per elongation cycle, thus making these building blocks attractive for the realization of a universal platform from which to access a diverse range of polyketidic molecules. PMID:26673147

  11. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed. PMID:25760697

  12. A progress report for the large block test of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.

    1994-10-01

    This is a progress report on the Large Block Test (LBT) project. The purpose of the LBT is to study some of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near field of a nuclear waste repository under controlled boundary conditions. To do so, a large block of Topopah Spring tuff will be heated from within for about 4 to 6 months, then cooled down for about the same duration. Instruments to measure temperature, moisture content, stress, displacement, and chemical changes will be installed in three directions in the block. Meanwhile, laboratory tests will be conducted on small blocks to investigate individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The fractures in the large block will be characterized from five exposed surfaces. The minerals on fracture surfaces will be studied before and after the test. The results from the LBT will be useful for testing and building confidence in models that will be used to predict TMHC processes in a repository. The boundary conditions to be controlled on the block include zero moisture flux and zero heat flux on the sides, constant temperature on the top, and constant stress on the outside surfaces of the block. To control these boundary conditions, a load-retaining frame is required. A 3 x 3 x 4.5 m block of Topopah Spring tuff has been isolated on the outcrop at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Pre-test model calculations indicate that a permeability of at least 10{sup -15} m{sup 2} is required so that a dryout zone can be created within a practical time frame when the block is heated from within. Neutron logging was conducted in some of the vertical holes to estimate the initial moisture content of the block. It was found that about 60 to 80% of the pore volume of the block is saturated with water. Cores from the vertical holes have been used to map the fractures and to determine the properties of the rock. A current schedule is included in the report.

  13. Processing-structure-mechanical Property Relationships of Semicrystalline Polyolefin-based Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Deplace, F.; Wang, Z; Lynd, N; Hotta, A; Rose, J; Hustad, P; Tian, J; Ohtaki, H; Coates, J; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    The incremental plastic deformation of the crystals of block copolymers made of semicrystalline polypropylene endblocks and amorphous ethylene-r-propylene midblocks occurring during step cycle tensile tests has dramatic effects on the stress-strain curves. This can be understood from the evolution of the morphology and of the microstructure of the crystalline blocks revealed by X-ray scattering experiments.

  14. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  15. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  16. Block-based spatial prediction and transforms based on 2D Markov processes for image and video compression.

    PubMed

    Kamisli, Fatih

    2015-04-01

    Conventional intraframe coding is performed in two steps. First, a block of pixels are predicted by copying previously reconstructed neighbor pixels of the block along an angular direction inside the block. Then, the prediction residual block is transform coded with the well-known 2D discrete cosine transform (DCT). Recently, it has been shown that transforming the intraprediction residuals with the odd type-3 discrete sine transform along the prediction direction and the DCT along the perpendicular direction improves the compression performance. More recently, a recursive prediction approach has been proposed to improve intra prediction performance. Both of these recent approaches utilize Markov processes to develop improvements in either the transform or the prediction step but not in both. In this paper, both the intraprediction and the transform steps are obtained based on 2D Markov processes. The derived overall intraframe coding approaches can generalize the mentioned two approaches, provide improved coding gains and produce less blocking effects at low bitrates. PMID:25675456

  17. Block bootstrap methods for the estimation of the intensity of a spatial point process with confidence bounds.

    PubMed

    Mattfeldt, T; Häbel, H; Fleischer, F

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the intensity of a planar point process on the basis of a single point pattern, observed in a rectangular window. If the model assumptions of stationarity and isotropy hold, the method of block bootstrapping can be used to estimate the intensity of the process with confidence bounds. The results of two variants of block bootstrapping are compared with a parametric approximation based on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the numbers of points in deterministic subwindows of the original pattern. The studies were performed on patterns obtained by simulation of well-known point process models (Poisson process, two Matérn cluster processes, Matérn hardcore process, Strauss hardcore process). They were also performed on real histopathological data (point patterns of capillary profiles of 12 cases of prostatic cancer). The methods are presented as worked examples on two cases, where we illustrate their use as a check on stationarity (homogeneity) of a point process with respect to different fields of vision. The paper concludes with various methodological discussions and suggests possible extensions of the block bootstrap approach to other fields of spatial statistics. PMID:23701816

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks V and VI, Classroom Course 13-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the third section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block V, Inert Gas Shielded Welding of High…

  19. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks I and II, Classroom Course 13-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the first section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block I, Introduction to Oxyacetylene Welding,…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks III and IV, Classroom Course 13-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the second section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block III, Introduction to Metallic Arc Welding,…

  1. List blocking and longer retention intervals reveal an influence of gist processing for lexically ambiguous critical lures

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Jaimie; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined veridical and false memory for lists of associates from two meanings (e.g., stumble, trip, harvest, pumpkin, etc.) that converged upon a single, lexically ambiguous critical lure (e.g., fall), in order to compare the activation-monitoring and fuzzy-trace false memory accounts. In Experiment 1, we presented study lists that were blocked or alternated by meaning (within subjects), followed by a free recall test completed immediately or after a 2.5-min delay. Correct recall was greater for blocked than for alternated lists. Critical-lure false recall was greater for blocked lists on an immediate test, whereas both list types produced equivalent false recall on a delayed test. In Experiment 2, lists blocked and alternated by meaning were presented via a between-subjects design, in order to eliminate possible list-type carryover effects. Correct recall replicated the result from Experiment 1; however, blocking lists increased false recall on delayed, but not on immediate, tests. Across the experiments, clustering correct recall by meaning increased across the delay selectively for the alternated lists. Our results suggest that thematic (i.e., gist) processes are influential for false recall, especially following a delay, a pattern consistent with fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:26105976

  2. List blocking and longer retention intervals reveal an influence of gist processing for lexically ambiguous critical lures.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; McNabb, Jaimie; Hutchison, Keith A

    2015-11-01

    In two experiments, we examined veridical and false memory for lists of associates from two meanings (e.g., stumble, trip, harvest, pumpkin, etc.) that converged upon a single, lexically ambiguous critical lure (e.g., fall), in order to compare the activation-monitoring and fuzzy-trace false memory accounts. In Experiment 1, we presented study lists that were blocked or alternated by meaning (within subjects), followed by a free recall test completed immediately or after a 2.5-min delay. Correct recall was greater for blocked than for alternated lists. Critical-lure false recall was greater for blocked lists on an immediate test, whereas both list types produced equivalent false recall on a delayed test. In Experiment 2, lists blocked and alternated by meaning were presented via a between-subjects design, in order to eliminate possible list-type carryover effects. Correct recall replicated the result from Experiment 1; however, blocking lists increased false recall on delayed, but not on immediate, tests. Across the experiments, clustering correct recall by meaning increased across the delay selectively for the alternated lists. Our results suggest that thematic (i.e., gist) processes are influential for false recall, especially following a delay, a pattern consistent with fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:26105976

  3. Matched designs and causal diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

    2013-01-01

    We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

  4. Bite-Block Perturbation in People Who Stutter: Immediate Compensatory and Delayed Adaptive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal; De Nil, Luc

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated sensory-motor mechanisms in five people who stutter (PWS) and five people who do not (PNS). Lip kinematic and coordination data were recorded as they produced bi-syllabic nonwords at two rates (normal and fast) in three conditions (jaw-free, immediately after insertion of a bite-block, and after a 10-min…

  5. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  6. Integrating Diagrams and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on diagrams giving overviews of complex technical information as facilitators for adult subjects using computers to learn about the business activities of a fictitious family. Finds that features of the author's control over the reader's encounter with the diagram influences whether readers will interrupt their reading to study the…

  7. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  8. The thermal process diagram and equipment of the secondary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station unit based on the BREST-OD-300 reactor installation for subcritical steam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Yu. V.; Lisyanskii, A. S.; Makarova, E. I.; Bal'Va, L. Ya.; Prikhod'Ko, P. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    The 300-MWe power unit based on an experimental-demonstration two-circuit 700-MWt reactor installation with lead coolant is briefly described. The thermal process diagram of the secondary coolant circuit for the subcritical steam conditions 17 MPa and 505°C at the outlet from steam generators is presented.

  9. Implementation of a knowledge-based methodology in a decision support system for the design of suitable wastewater treatment process flow diagrams.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Reif, Rubén; Hernández, Francesc; Poch, Manel

    2012-12-15

    In light of rapid global change, the demand for wastewater treatment is increasing rapidly and will continue to do so in the near future. Wastewater management is a complex puzzle for which the proper pieces must be combined to achieve the desired solution, requiring the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic, social and environmental issues. In this context, a knowledge-based methodology (KBM) for the conceptual design of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process flow diagrams (PFDs) and its application for two scenarios is presented in this paper. The core of the KBM is composed of two knowledge bases (KBs). The first, a specification knowledge base (S-KB), summarizes the main features of the different treatment technologies: pollutants removal efficiency, operational costs and technical reliability. The second, a compatibility knowledge base (C-KB), contains information about the different interactions amongst the treatment technologies and determines their degree of compatibility. The proposed methodology is based on a decision hierarchy that uses the information contained in both KBs to generate all possible WWTP configurations, screening and selecting appropriate configurations based on user-specified requirements and scenario characteristics. The design of the most adequate treatment train for small and medium sized wastewater treatment plants (2000 and 50,000 p.e. respectively) according to different restrictions (space constraints, operation simplicity and cost optimization) was the example in order to show the usefulness of the KBM. PMID:22982697

  10. Ground-state phase diagram and magnetization process of the exactly solved mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnyi, Bohdan; Strečka, Jozef

    2013-11-01

    The ground state and magnetization process of the mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain are exactly solved by employing the generalized decoration-iteration mapping transformation and the transfer-matrix method. The decoration-iteration transformation is first used in order to establish a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths chain in a non-zero magnetic field, which is subsequently exactly treated within the framework of the transfer-matrix technique. It is shown that the ground-state phase diagram includes just four different ground states and the low-temperature magnetization curve may exhibit an intermediate plateau precisely at one half of the saturation magnetization. Our rigorous results disprove recent Monte Carlo simulations of Xin et al. [Z. Xin, S. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324 (2012) 3704], which imply an existence of the other magnetization plateaus at 0.283 and 0.426 of the saturation magnetization.

  11. [Identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams].

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-hong

    2008-08-01

    In acu-moxibustion literature, there are two kinds of diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams. Because they are very similar in outline, and people now have seldom seen the typical ancient meridian diagrams, meridian-acupoint diagrams have been being incorrectly considered to be the meridian diagrams for a long time. It results in confusion in acu-moxibustion academia. The present paper stresses its importance in academic research and introduces some methods for identifying them correctly. The key points for identification of meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams are: the legend of diagrams and the drawing style of the ancient charts. In addition, the author makes a detailed explanation about some acu-moxibustion charts which are easily confused. In order to distinguish meridian-acupoint diagrams and meridian diagrams correctly, he or she shoulnd understand the diagrams' intrinsic information as much as possible and make a comprehensive analysis about them. PMID:18928123

  12. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for large block testing of coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wunan

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the technical basis and programmatic requirements for a scientific investigation plan that governs tests on a large block of tuff for understanding the coupled thermal- mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes. This study is part of the field testing described in Section 8.3.4.2.4.4.1 of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain Project. The first, and most important objective is to understand the coupled TMHC processes in order to develop models that will predict the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The block and fracture properties (including hydrology and geochemistry) can be well characterized from at least five exposed surfaces, and the block can be dismantled for post-test examinations. The second objective is to provide preliminary data for development of models that will predict the quality and quantity of water in the near-field environment of a repository over the current 10,000 year regulatory period of radioactive decay. The third objective is to develop and evaluate the various measurement systems and techniques that will later be employed in the Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT).

  13. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density function of moment tensor's eigenvalues P(λ1, λ2, λ3) depends only on the scalar moment [(λ12+λ22+λ32)/2]0.5. Even if this is not the real case, the easiness of calculating the areal density is useful when we compare the results of analyzing real data with that of analyzing background noise.

  14. Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Block Island Sound, offshore Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Blankenship, M.A.; Glomb, K.A.; Wright, D.B.; Smith, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 634 square kilometers of sea floor in Block Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic surveys H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12033, H12137, and H12139, these combined acoustic data and the sea-floor sediment sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them during U.S. Geological Survey cruise 2011-006-FA (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf.

  15. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  16. Potential lack of "standardized" processing techniques for production of allogeneic and xenogeneic bone blocks for application in humans.

    PubMed

    Ghanaati, S; Barbeck, M; Booms, P; Lorenz, J; Kirkpatrick, C J; Sader, R A

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the structure of two allogeneic and three xenogeneic bone blocks, which are used in dental and orthopedic surgery, were histologically analyzed. The ultimate goal was to assess whether the components postulated by the manufacturer can be identified after applying conventional histological and histochemical staining techniques. Three samples of each material, i.e. allogeneic material-1 and -2 as well as xenogeneic material-1, -2 and -3, were obtained commercially. After decalcification and standardized embedding processes, conventional histological staining was performed in order to detect inorganic matrix, cellular or organic matrix components. Allogeneic material-1 showed trabecular bone-like structures, which were free of cellular components as well as of organic matrix. The allogeneic material-2 showed trabecular bone structures, in which connective tissue and cellular remnants were embedded. Additionally, some connective tissue, which resembled fat-like tissue, was found within this material. The xenogeneic material-1 showed trabecular bone-like structures and contained organic components comparable to that demonstrated for the allogeneic material-2. The xenogeneic material-2 showed trabecular bone structures with single cells located in lacunae. The xenogeneic material-3 also showed trabecular structures. Neither cellular nor organic matrix components were found within this material. According to the data of the present study, the allogeneic material-1 and the xenogeneic material-3 were the only investigated materials for which the obtained histological data were in accordance with the manufactureŕs advertised information. The remaining three materials showed discrepancies-although the manufacturers of all five bone substitute materials stated that their blocks were free of organic/cellular remnants. These data are of great clinical and material science interest. It seems that even patented processing techniques are not always able to deliver reproducible materials. Although the manufacturers of all five bone blocks stated that their blocks were free of organic/cellular remnants, our histological analysis revealed that three out of five bone blocks did contain such remnants. Such specimens might be able to induce an immune response within the recipient. PMID:24769111

  17. Transfer function verification and block diagram simplification of a very high-order distributed pole closed-loop servo by means of non-linear time-response simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Linear frequency domain methods are inadequate in analyzing the 1975 Viking Orbiter (VO75) digital tape recorder servo due to dominant nonlinear effects such as servo signal limiting, unidirectional servo control, and static/dynamic Coulomb friction. The frequency loop (speed control) servo of the VO75 tape recorder is used to illustrate the analytical tools and methodology of system redundancy elimination and high order transfer function verification. The paper compares time-domain performance parameters derived from a series of nonlinear time responses with the available experimental data in order to select the best possible analytical transfer function representation of the tape transport (mechanical segment of the tape recorder) from several possible candidates. The study also shows how an analytical time-response simulation taking into account most system nonlinearities can pinpoint system redundancy and overdesign stemming from a strictly empirical design approach. System order reduction is achieved through truncation of individual transfer functions and elimination of redundant blocks.

  18. Block Copolymer Metastability: Scientific Nightmare or Engineering Dream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.

    1997-03-01

    Most experimental studies and almost all theories that deal with block copolymers, or mixtures of block copolymers and homopolymers, have been designed from an equilibrium perspective. Yet a myriad of factors conspire to retard approach to equilibrium in these systems, including: subtle features in the free energy surface that are controlled by ordered state symmetry; a coupling between microphase separation and entanglement dynamics; complex molecular architectures such as multiblock, starblock, and miktoarm. Even unentangled low molecular weight diblock copolymers, the simplest and dynamically least encumbered materials, exhibit long-lived metastable states that confound attempts to validate equilibrium theories. However, this apparent dilemma can be exploited through clever processing strategies. This lecture will address two opposing consequences of block copolymer metastability. The first is a potential nightmare: Can we ever establish universal block copolymer phase diagrams? The second is the stuff of dreams: Self-assembled thermoset nanocomposites.

  19. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributions. Gravity wave transmission diagrams for different horizontal wavelengths in simple background horizontal winds with constant vertical shear indicate that the effects of the turning level reflection are significant and strongly dependent on the horizontal wavelength.

  20. Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block-matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple graphical processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture computing engine. The implemented block-matching algorithm uses summed absolute difference error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation, we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and noninteger search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a noninteger search grid. The additional speedup for a noninteger search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition, we compared the execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized nonfull grid search CPU-based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and simplified unsymmetrical multi-hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720 × 480 pixels in resolution commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

  1. Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards.

    PubMed

    Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) computing engine. The implemented block matching algorithm (BMA) uses summed absolute difference (SAD) error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and non-integer search grids.The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a non-integer search grid. The additional speedup for non-integer search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable.In addition we compared execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized non-full grid search CPU based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and Simplified Unsymmetrical multi-Hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation.We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720×480 pixels in resolution, commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards. PMID:22347787

  2. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  3. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and

  4. Reading Diagrams. Pipefitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go…

  5. Reading Diagrams. E & I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the area of electrical and instrumentation contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. The objective for the lesson is for the student to learn to locate and apply…

  6. Reading Diagrams. Millwright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of millwright contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go with…

  7. On Argument and Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    1978-01-01

    Responds to Charles Willard's recommendations (in an article in "Communication Monographs," November 1976) that argument be viewed as an attempt to establish formal relationships among symbolic structures. Demonstrates flaws in this redefinition and shows argument diagrams to be theoretically and practically justifiable. (JMF)

  8. A novel algorithm for blending process monitoring of Angong Niuhuang intermediate using vector operation moving block standard deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanshan; Wu, Zhisheng; Feng, Xin; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to introduce a novel approach named Vector Operation Moving Block Standard Deviation (VO-MBSD) to characterize the original powder blend uniformity of Angong Nuihuang intermediate using NIR technology, including 400g Rhizoma Coptidis, 400g Radix Scutellariae, 400g Radix Curcumae and 400g Fructus Gardeniae. A novel blending evaluation method named VO-MBSD compared with Moving Block Standard Deviation (MBSD) was applied to characterize the blending of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) original powder including Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae, Radix Curcumae and Fructus Gardeniae. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis demonstrated these observations perfectly. OV-MBSD is the rate of change by time, which not only represents the scalar change but also the vector change. The identification accuracy of blend uniformity and end-point via VO-MBSD was the same with classical HPLC method. This method is more accuracy than original MBSD method. Compared with classical MBSD, it is appropriate for the determination of blending end-point and could be successfully implemented as an on-line monitoring tool for blending process.

  9. Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the two reference materials under the high contact stress, especially at the elevated temperature.

  10. Simulation of plasma based semiconductor processing using block structured locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    We have described a new numerical method for plasma simulation. Calculations have been presented which show that the method is accurate and suggest the regimes in which the method provides savings in CPU time and memory requirements. A steady state simulation of a four centimeter domain was modeled with sheath scale (150 microns) resolution using only 40 grid points. Simulations of semiconductor processing equipment have been performed which imply the usefulness of the method for engineering applications. It is the author`s opinion that these accomplishments represent a significant contribution to plasma simulation and the efficient numerical solution of certain systems of non-linear partial differential equations. More work needs to be done, however, for the algorithm to be of practical use in an engineering environment. Despite our success at avoiding the dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions the algorithm is still conditionally stable and requires timesteps which are relatively small. This represents a prohibitive runtime for steady state solutions on high resolution grids. Current research suggests that these limitations may be overcome and the use of much larger timesteps will be possible.

  11. Pentagalloylglucose Blocks the Nuclear Transport and the Process of Nucleocapsid Egress to Inhibit HSV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fujun; Ma, Kaiqi; Chen, Maoyun; Zou, Muping; Wu, Yanting; Li, Feng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-23

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a widespread virus, causes a variety of human viral diseases worldwide. The serious threat of drug-resistance highlights the extreme urgency to develop novel antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with significant anti-HSV activity; however, the mechanisms underlying its antiviral activity need to be defined by further studies. In this study, we found that PGG treatment delays the nuclear transport process of HSV-1 particles by inhibiting the upregulation of dynein (a cellular major motor protein) induced by HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, PGG treatment affects the nucleocapsid egress of HSV-1 by inhibiting the expression and disrupting the cellular localization of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34, which are indispensable for HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress from the nucleus. However, the over-expression of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34 could decrease the antiviral effect of PGG. In this study, for the first time, the antiviral activity of PGG against acyclovir-resistant virus was demonstrated in vitro, and the possible mechanisms of its anti-HSV activities were identified based on the inhibition of nuclear transport and nucleocapsid egress in HSV-1. It was further confirmed that PGG could be a promising candidate for HSV therapy, especially for drug-resistant strains. PMID:26166506

  12. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists.2 These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams,3 energy bar charts,4 electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and animations.5 However, instructors have limited choices when they want to help their students understand impulse and momentum. One of the only available options is the impulse-momentum bar chart.6 The bar charts can effectively show the magnitude of the momentum as well as help students understand conservation of momentum, but they do not easily show the actual direction. This paper highlights a new representation instructors can use to help their students with momentum and impulse—the impulse-momentum diagram (IMD).

  13. Cryptococcus gattii Capsule Blocks Surface Recognition Required for Dendritic Cell Maturation Independent of Internalization and Antigen Processing.

    PubMed

    Huston, Shaunna M; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Xiang, Richard F; Ogbomo, Henry; Stack, Danuta; Li, Shu Shun; Timm-McCann, Martina; Kyei, Stephen K; Oykhman, Paul; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Mody, Christopher H

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging fungal pathogen on the west coast of Canada and the United States that causes a potentially fatal infection in otherwise healthy individuals. In previous investigations of the mechanisms by which C. gattii might subvert cell-mediated immunity, we found that C. gattii failed to induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation, leading to defective T cell responses. However, the virulence factor and the mechanisms of evasion of DC maturation remain unknown. The cryptococcal polysaccharide capsule is a leading candidate because of its antiphagocytic properties. Consequently, we asked if the capsule of C. gattii was involved in evasion of DC maturation. We constructed an acapsular strain of C. gattii through CAP59 gene deletion by homologous integration. Encapsulated C. gattii failed to induce human monocyte-derived DC maturation and T cell proliferation, whereas the acapsular mutant induced both processes. Surprisingly, encapsulation impaired DC maturation independent of its effect on phagocytosis. Indeed, DC maturation required extracellular receptor signaling that was dependent on TNF-? and p38 MAPK, but not ERK activation, and the cryptococcal capsule blocked this extracellular recognition. Although the capsule impaired phagocytosis that led to pH-dependent serine-, threonine-, and cysteine-sensitive protease-dependent Ag processing, it was insufficient to impair T cell responses. In summary, C. gattii affects two independent processes, leading to DC maturation and Ag processing. The polysaccharide capsule masked extracellular detection and reduced phagocytosis that was required for DC maturation and Ag processing, respectively. However, the T cell response was fully restored by inducing DC maturation. PMID:26740109

  14. Energy Efficient Heat Treatment for Linerless Hypereutectic Al-Si Engine Blocks Made Using Vacuum HPDC Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Sokolowski, J. H.; Yamagata, H.; Aniolek, M.; Kurita, H.

    2011-02-01

    Heat treatment standards developed by the aluminum industry over the last several decades are often not well optimized when applied to components cast by high cooling rate processes such as High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC), Low Pressure Permanent Mold (LPPM), Squeeze Casting, etc. The inherently finer as-cast structures should not require long solution times for the effective dissolution of intermetallic phases and the adequate thermal modification of structural constituents. Hence, long and expensive T6 and T7 treatments should not be required. Heat treatment studies involving as-cast laboratory samples with SDAS = 13.6 μm (equivalent to a thick-section HPDC casting) were conducted. Traditional and modified solution and aging treatments were compared. These studies suggest that a reduction of up to 92% in thermal processing time is possible while maintaining and/or improving the cast component's metallurgical characteristics including hardness (≥75 HRB), dissolution of secondary phases, and spheroidization of the eutectic Si as well as overall homogeneity. Vacuum HPDC of an actual hypereutectic Al-20%Si motorcycle engine block confirmed the potential for significantly reduced heat treatment times, energy consumption, and overall costs.

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  16. Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics » Heart Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk ... is a problem that occurs with the heart's electrical system. This system controls the rate and rhythm of ...

  17. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining

  18. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  19. Diagrams of airplane stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batemen, H

    1921-01-01

    In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.

  20. Liquid-crystalline ordering helps block copolymer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haifeng; Kobayashi, Takaomi; Yang, Huai

    2011-08-01

    Interaction between liquid-crystalline elastic deformation and microphase separation in liquid-crystalline block copolymers enables them to supramolecularly assemble into ordered nanostructures with high regularity. With the help of liquid-crystalline alignment, parallel and perpendicular patterning of nanostructures is fabricated with excellent reproducibility and mass production, which provides nanotemplates and nanofabrication processes for preparing varieties of nanomaterials. Furthermore, nanoscale microphase separation improves the optical performance of block-copolymer fi lms by eliminating the scattering of visible light, leading to advanced applications in optical devices and actuators. Recent progress in liquid-crystalline block copolymers, including their phase diagram, structure-property relationship, nanostructure control and nanotemplate applications, is reviewed. PMID:21910267

  1. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  2. Impact decision support diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report Defending Planet Earth can be generalized to a notional Impact Decision Support Diagram by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  3. Additive-Driven Assembly of Block Copolymer-Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials for Solution Processable Floating Gate Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Lin, Ying; Anderson, Eric; Briseno, Alejandro; Gido, Samuel; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    The preparation of well-ordered hybrid materials at nanoscale is not only fundamentally interesting but also of significant importance for the development of next generation functional devices. In this study, we present a simple approach for the preparation of well-ordered polymer/NP composites through the concept of additive-driven assembly, and its application for the fabrication of floating gate organic FET memory devices. The addition of gold NPs that selectively hydrogen bond with pyridine in poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) is shown to induce an ordered structure. This enables the fabrication of well-ordered hybrid materials with lamellar domains at Au NP loadings of more than 40 wt%. The fabrication of floating gate memory devices was demonstrated by the ordered Au NPs / block copolymer hybrid film as a charge trapping layer, which is sandwiched between a SiO2 dielectric layer and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer. This approach enables us to fabricate well-ordered charge storage layers by solution processing and to achieve facile control of the memory windows by changing the density of gold NPs. The devices show high carrier mobility (> 0.1 cm^2/Vs), controllable memory windows (0˜50V), high on/off ratio (>10^5) between memory states and long retention times (>10^4 s). This approach is potentially suitable for roll-to-roll printing techniques to make flexible, large area and high density devices.

  4. Self-organized Mn2+-Block Copolymer Complexes and Their Use for In Vivo MR Imaging of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pothayee, Nikorn; Chen, Der-Yow; Aronova, Maria A.; Qian, Chunqi; Bouraoud, Nadia; Dodd, Stephen; Leapman, Richard D.; Koretsky, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese-block copolymer complexes (MnBCs) that contain paramagnetic Mn ions complexed with ionic-nonionic poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(methacrylate) have been developed for use as a T1-weighted MRI contrast agent. By encasing Mn ion within ionized polymer matrices, r1 values could be increased by 250–350 % in comparison with free Mn ion at relative high fields of 4.7 to 11.7 T. MnBCs were further manipulated by treatment with NaOH to achieve more stable complexes (iMnBCs). iMnBCs delayed release of Mn2+ which could be accelerated by low pH, indeed by cellular uptake via endocytosis into acidic compartments. Both complexes exhibited good T1 contrast signal enhancement in liver following intravenous infusion. The contrast was observed in gallbladder due to the clearance of Mn ion from liver to biliary process. iMnBCs, notably, showed a delayed contrast enhancement profile in gallbladder, which was interpreted to be due to degradation and excretion of Mn2+ ions into the gallbladder. Intracortical injection of iMnBCs into the rat brain also led to delayed neuronal transport to thalamus. The delayed enhancement feature may have benefits for targeting MRI contrast to specific cells and surface receptors that are known to be internalized by endocytosis. PMID:25364506

  5. Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

  6. Releasing Activity Disengages Cohesin’s Smc3/Scc1 Interface in a Process Blocked by Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Beckouët, Frederic; Srinivasan, Madhusudhan; Roig, Maurici Brunet; Chan, Kok-Lung; Scheinost, Johanna C.; Batty, Paul; Hu, Bin; Petela, Naomi; Gligoris, Thomas; Smith, Alexandra C.; Strmecki, Lana; Rowland, Benjamin D.; Nasmyth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sister chromatid cohesion conferred by entrapment of sister DNAs within a tripartite ring formed between cohesin’s Scc1, Smc1, and Smc3 subunits is created during S and destroyed at anaphase through Scc1 cleavage by separase. Cohesin’s association with chromosomes is controlled by opposing activities: loading by Scc2/4 complex and release by a separase-independent releasing activity as well as by cleavage. Coentrapment of sister DNAs at replication is accompanied by acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1, which blocks releasing activity and ensures that sisters remain connected. Because fusion of Smc3 to Scc1 prevents release and bypasses the requirement for Eco1, we suggested that release is mediated by disengagement of the Smc3/Scc1 interface. We show that mutations capable of bypassing Eco1 in Smc1, Smc3, Scc1, Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3 subunits reduce dissociation of N-terminal cleavage fragments of Scc1 (NScc1) from Smc3. This process involves interaction between Smc ATPase heads and is inhibited by Smc3 acetylation. PMID:26895425

  7. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 3 — The contemporary tai-chi diagram, the yuan-chi diagram and the Fu Xi's eight trigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes in a rotating device presented in parts 1 and 2 is further developed for the contemporary tai-chi diagram and in the yuan-chi diagram. The contemporary tai-chi diagram shown in Fig.1 is a simplification form of the ancient tai-chi diagram presented in Reference [2]. There are two semi-circles forming the interface curve between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram. By knowing the location of the interface between the yin and yang in the contemporary tai-chi diagram, the requirement for the simulation model is to find the condition to match the interface location. The simplification changes not only the structure but also the physical insight of the ancient tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the present study. The yuan-chi diagram shown in Fig.2 is the combination of the Master Chen’s tai-chi diagram presented in References [1,2] and the contemporary tai-chi diagram. The formulation of the yuan-chi diagram is similar to that of contemporary tai-chi diagram. The Fu Xi’s eight trigrams present three levels of yin-yang relation that are a natural result from the contemporary tai-chi diagram, which will be described in the last part of this study.

  8. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  9. Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

    Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

  10. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  11. 76 FR 63654 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Availability of revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental...

  12. Genomic instability induced by 50Hz magnetic fields is a dynamically evolving process not blocked by antioxidant treatment.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Luukkonen, Jukka; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2015-12-01

    Increased level of micronuclei was observed in SH-SY5Y cells in a previous study at 8 and 15 days after exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF), indicating possible induction of genomic instability in the progeny of the exposed cells. The aim of this study was to further explore the induction of genomic instability by ELF MFs by increasing the follow-up time up to 45 days after exposure. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to a 50Hz, 100μT MF for 24h with or without co-exposure to menadione (MQ), a chemical agent that increases cellular superoxide production. Micronuclei, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured at 15, 30 and 45 days after exposure. To study the possible causal role of ROS in the delayed effects of MF, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered before MF exposure. Consistently with the previous study, the level of micronuclei was statistically significantly elevated 15 days after exposure. A similar effect was observed at 30 days, but not at 45 days after exposure. The level of LPO was statically significantly decreased 30 and 45 days after exposure. Consistently with our previous findings, the MF effect did not depend on co-exposure to MQ. Treatment with NAC effectively decreased cellular ROS level and suppressed the effect of MQ on ROS, but it did not block the MF effect, indicating that increase in ROS is not needed as a causal link between MF exposure and induction of delayed effects. The results presented here are consistent with genomic instability that persists in the progeny of MF-exposed cells up to at least 30 days after exposure. Changes in LPO observed at 30 and 45 days after exposure indicates that the MF-initiated process may continue up to at least 45 days after exposure. PMID:26653983

  13. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  14. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle

  15. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size

  16. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  17. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  18. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  19. Adaptive techniques for signal processing in communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claasen, T. A. C. M.; Mecklenbraeuker, W. F. G.

    1985-11-01

    The basic characteristics of adaptive signal processing techniques are described. Consideration is given to adaptive equalization; adaptive echo cancellation; adaptive noise cancellation; and linear predictive coding. The principle classes of signal processing systems are discussed, including: adaptive systems identification systems; signal estimation systems; and signal correction systems. The main components of adaptive processing routines are also described, with attention given to a priori knowledge; quality criteria; adaptive signal processing algorithms; and gradients methods. Block diagrams of the different adaptive processing systems are provided.

  20. The orientation of microdomains and the progression of shear alignment in block copolymer films: The roles of key material, film, and process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Raleigh Lloyd

    Block copolymers provide attractive templates for nanopatterning at size scales inaccessible to conventional fabrication techniques. To serve effectively for most applications, however, the need to impart well-defined orientational and/or positional order to these microdomains is paramount. Shear alignment, has the powerful ability to macroscopically align microdomains in the direction of the applied shear simply by applying a stress at the film's surface. The primary goal of this dissertation is to investigate the influence of key material, film, and process parameters on the ease and quality of alignment in sheared block copolymer films. One important parameter which influences block copolymer thin film morphology is film thickness. To probe this effect rapidly and systematically, a film casting technique known as flowcoating was utilized. Previously, the quantitative relationship between the film thickness profile and the flowcoating process parameters was unclear. We illuminate this process by comparing experimental film thicknesses with a model based on a Landau-Levich treatment; the model thus provides a design approach which allows a user to produce polymer thin films of virtually any desired thickness profile. Via flowcoating, the influence of film thickness on block copolymer thin film morphology was then investigated using a series of polystyrene-poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PS-PHMA) diblocks varying in composition and molecular weight. The influence of additional material, film, and process parameters was then investigated using the same series of PS-PHMAs. To quantitatively compare the alignment process across the different block copolymer films, a melting-recrystallization model was fit to the data, which allowed for the determination of two key alignment parameters: the critical stress needed for alignment, and an orientation rate constant. Collectively, these results provide useful scaling rules which enable predictions of the level of alignment which will occur under particular shearing conditions. Lastly, a separate aim of this dissertation was to explore a means for manipulating block copolymer film morphology, not through shear, but by controlling the environmental conditions at the film's surface during thermal processing in order to generate polymeric coatings with thermally switchable wetting properties (i.e., hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic).

  1. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  2. Computing operating diagrams of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, S

    1999-05-28

    The operating diagram of a bioreactor is an illustrative way to present the effect that the operating conditions have on its long-term behavior. It can be constructed if a mathematical model of the bioreactor is available. The procedure for constructing the operating diagram consists in analyzing the dynamic behavior of the system of the differential equations of the model. Some methods are described that can be used in computing operating diagrams of bioreactors. They are based on numerical bifurcation techniques for systems of differential equations. Both cases of bioreactors with constant and periodically varying operating conditions are considered. PMID:10483097

  3. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  4. Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2003-10-01

    An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution program and exploration of variations in evolutionary physics is left for future versions. The program has miscellaneous refinements, such as allowing for distributions of chemical composition and interstellar extinction, as well as inclusion of binary star evolution, but so far not all have been tried in solutions. An algorithm is described for dealing with field stars directly in terms of , but has not yet been actively implemented. A synthetic globular cluster with known properties is analysed to demonstrate parameter convergence, solution consistency and comparison with known answers.

  5. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  6. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  7. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  8. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  9. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  10. Phase diagrams of decomposing nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirinyan, A. S.; Gusak, A. M.

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamics of nucleation and decomposition in small isolated particles are considered. There exist three possibilities: phase separation, prohibition of decomposition and a metastable state. We investigate the peculiarities of phase diagrams related to depletion of the nanosize parent phase even at the nucleation stage. For small particles the equilibrium diagram becomes split (and shifted and size dependent). Concentration, size and temperature hystereses take place. Size-dependent 'critical supersaturation', increasing with decreasing size, has been analysed.

  11. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a PAMI of a parallel computer is disclosed. The PAMI is composed of data communications endpoints, each including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications through the PAMI. The parallel application establishes a data communications geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI by associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry; registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation; and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  12. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-18

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer are provided. Embodiments include establishing by a parallel application a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI, including associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry. Embodiments also include registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  13. The effect of different component ratios in block polymers and processing conditions on electrodeposition efficiency onto titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Yusuke; Kyuzo, Megumi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nagai, Akiko; Chen, Peng; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-11-01

    2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for electrodeposition to titanium surfaces were synthesized. The polymers were block-type copolymers composed of a poly(MPC) segment and a poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate (AEMA)) segment, which could electronically adsorb to a titanium oxide film on the titanium surface. The polymer was synthesized as expected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. In a 0.26 mmol L-1 PMbA solution adjusted to pH 11, -3.0 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode) was applied to a titanium substrate for 300 s. We evaluated the effects of the molecular structure of poly(MPC-block-AEMA) (PMbA) with a different polymerization degree of MPC unit, whereas the polymerization degree of the AEMA units was fixed. The 15-min electrodeposition of PMbA100 was the most efficient condition in this study. On the other hand, the results of the water contact angle and the amount of adsorbed protein did not change, even when altering the MPC unit number and electrodeposition time. This indicates that the immobilization by electrodeposition of PMbA is important for the inhibition of protein adsorption, while the polymerization degree of the MPC unit and the electrodeposition time do not influence them. This study will enhance the understanding of effective polymer structures for electrodeposition and electrodeposition conditions.

  14. The time course of information extraction from instructional diagrams.

    PubMed

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina; Schüler, Anne

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated which information is extracted from a brief glance at an instructional diagram to assess its possible contribution for learning with text and diagrams. An experimental paradigm from scene perception research was used to study diagrams. University students (N = 20) saw pictures showing a scene or instructional diagrams for four different presentation times (50 msec. vs 250 msec. vs 1,000 msec. vs 3,000 msec.). Following presentation of a picture or diagram, respectively, participants were asked to verify a statement about its gist, details, and the functioning (for diagrams only). Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to analyze verification accuracy for statements about gist, details, and the functioning as well as the eye movements (i.e., fixation durations and saccade amplitudes) during picture inspection. In both scenes and instructional diagrams, gist but not details were accurately identified from a first glance at the picture (i.e., at 50 msec. and 250 msec.). In contrast, verification accuracy for gist and details increased at a slower rate in instructional diagrams than in scene pictures over presentation times. Moreover, the characteristic function of increasing fixation durations with increasing inspection time was found in scenes, but not in instructional diagrams. Taken together, results suggest that both types of illustrations are processed differently at longer inspection times; however, patterns of early information extraction are similar, namely that the gist but far less information about details is extracted. Results imply people are able to extract an instructional diagram's global spatial structure from a first glance, which may be helpful to learning from text. PMID:23409583

  15. Block Busters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A number of college publications editors and designers share their secrets for coping with writer's block and other forms of creative anxiety. Suggested techniques include a change of scenery, guarding one's time, sharing ideas with others, thorough research, and organization. (MSE)

  16. Global quantum Hall phase diagram from visibility diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandelier, F.; Georgelin, Y.; Masson, T.; Wallet, J.-C.

    2002-09-01

    Starting from a framework encoding rather simple symmetry principle based on modular subgroups, we construct a zero temperature global phase diagram for the QHE. This phase diagram is found to involve two insulating phases. One noticeable prediction is the possibility to have direct transitions from an insulting phase to any integer ν as well as ν=1/(2 k+1) ( k∈ N) fractional quantum Hall liquid phases which seems to agree with some recent experimental observations. We also propose selection rules for the possible plateau-plateau (and plateau-insulator) transitions which may constitute testable predictions.

  17. Macrocell Builder: IP-Block-Based Design Environment for High-Throughput VLSI Dedicated Digital Signal Processing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zergainoh, Nacer-Eddine; Tambour, Ludovic; Urard, Pascal; Jerraya, Ahmed Amine

    2006-12-01

    We propose an efficient IP-block-based design environment for high-throughput VLSI systems. The flow generates SystemC register-transfer-level (RTL) architecture, starting from a Matlab functional model described as a netlist of functional IP. The refinement model inserts automatically control structures to manage delays induced by the use of RTL IPs. It also inserts a control structure to coordinate the execution of parallel clocked IP. The delays may be managed by registers or by counters included in the control structure. The flow has been used successfully in three real-world DSP systems. The experimentations show that the approach can produce efficient RTL architecture and allows to save huge amount of time.

  18. Implicit and explicit processing in deep dyslexia: Semantic blocking as a test for failure of inhibition in the phonological output lexicon.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Annette; Buchanan, Lori

    2006-12-01

    The failure of inhibition hypothesis posits a theoretical distinction between implicit and explicit access in deep dyslexia. Specifically, the effects of failure of inhibition are assumed only in conditions that have an explicit selection requirement in the context of production (i.e., aloud reading). In contrast, the failure of inhibition hypothesis proposes that implicit processing and explicit access to semantic information without production demands are intact in deep dyslexia. Evidence for intact implicit and explicit access requires that performance in deep dyslexia parallels that observed in neurologically intact participants on tasks based on implicit and explicit processes. In other words, deep dyslexics should produce normal effects in conditions with implicit task demands (i.e., lexical decision) and on tasks based on explicit access without production (i.e., forced choice semantic decisions) because failure of inhibition does not impact the availability of lexical information, only explicit retrieval in the context of production. This research examined the distinction between implicit and explicit processes in deep dyslexia using semantic blocking in lexical decision and forced choice semantic decisions as a test for the failure of inhibition hypothesis. The results of the semantic blocking paradigm support the distinction between implicit and explicit processing and provide evidence for failure of inhibition as an explanation for semantic errors in deep dyslexia. PMID:16129479

  19. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  20. Phase diagrams and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkrbec, Jan

    1980-04-01

    Phase diagrams are briefly treated as generalized property-composition relationships, with respect to crystal technology optimization. The treatment is based on mutual interaction of three systems related to semiconductors: (a) the semiconducting material systems, (b0 the data bank, (c) the system of crystallization methods. A model is proposed enabling optimatization on the path from application requirements to the desired material. Further, several examples of the selection as to the composition of LED and laser diode material are given. Some of molten-solution-zone methods are being successfully introduced for this purpose. Common features of these methods, the application of phase diagrams, and their pecularities compared with other crystallization methods are illustrated by schematic diagrams and by examples. LPE methods, particularly the steady-state LPE methods such as Woodall's ISM and Nishizawa's TDM-CVP, and the CAM-S (Crystallization Method Providing Composition Autocontrol in Situ) have been chosen as examples. Another approach of exploiting phase diagrams for optimal material selection and for determination of growth condition before experimentation through a simple calculation is presented on InP-GaP solid solutions. Ternary phase diagrams are visualized in space through calculation and constructions based on the corresponding thermodynamic models and anaglyphs. These make it easy to observe and qualitatively analyze the crystallization of every composition. Phase diagrams can be also used as a powerful tool for the deduction of new crystallization methods. Eutectic crystallization is an example of such an approach where a modified molten-solution-zone method can give a sandwich structure with an abrupt concentration change. The concentration of a component can range from 0 to 100% in the different solid phases.

  1. Diagram of Zeolite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  2. Effects of temperature, packaging and electron beam irradiation processing conditions on the property behaviour of Poly (ether-block-amide) blends.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kieran A; Kennedy, James E; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2014-06-01

    The radiation stability of Poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBA) blended with a multifunctional phenolic antioxidant and a hindered amide light stabiliser was examined under various temperatures, packaging and electron beam processing conditions. FTIR revealed that there were slight alterations to the PEBA before irradiation; however, these became more pronounced following irradiation. The effect of varying the temperature, packaging and processing conditions on the resultant PEBA properties was apparent. For example, rheology demonstrated that the structural properties could be enhanced by manipulating the aforementioned criteria. Mechanical testing exhibited less radiation resistance when the PEBA samples were vacuum packed and exposed to irradiation. MFI and AFM confirmed that the melting strength and surface topography could be reduced/increased depending on the conditions employed. From this study it was concluded that virgin PEBA submerged in dry ice with non-vacuum packaging during the irradiation process, provided excellent radiation resistance (20.9% improvement) in contrast to the traditional method. PMID:24863239

  3. Structural geometry and kinematic processes at the intracontinental Daloushan mountain chain: Implications for tectonic transfer in the Yangtze Block interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bin; Li, Zhi-Wu; Liu, Shu-Gen; Wang, Guo-Zhi; Li, Shuang-Jian; Qin, Zuo-Pen; Li, Jing-Xi; Jansa, Luba

    2016-02-01

    The Daloushan mountain chain, located in the centre of the upper Yangtze continental block, is considered to represent the locus of the tectonic shortening resulting from the eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau and NW-thrusting of the Xuefeng Orogen. Structural data and apatite fission-track ages have been used to decipher the geometry and the kinematic evolution of the Daloushan. The latter is subdivided into two domains: the eastern domain, governed by west- to NW-verging thrusting and deformation with dextral transpression, and a western domain, governed by south-verging thrusting and deformation. Both domains experienced four episodes of deformation, synchronous with the four stages of post-Cretaceous denudation, marked by rapid cooling propagating eastward from 20 to 5 Ma, at a rate of ∼0.1 mm/year. In particular, the last two episodes of denudation are closely related to the growth of the Tibetan Plateau. This indicates an intra-continental transfer of tectonic forcing from the Palaeo-Pacific to the Tethys-Himalayan Tectonic Domain across the Daloushan.

  4. Dynamic phase diagram of soft nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sudipta; Camargo, Manuel; Stellbrink, Jörg; Allgaier, Jürgen; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Likos, Christos N.; Richter, Dieter

    2015-08-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 <= φ <= 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids.We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 <= φ <= 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SANS, DLS and Rheology data modeling. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR03702F

  5. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  6. Dynamic phase diagram of soft nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudipta; Camargo, Manuel; Stellbrink, Jörg; Allgaier, Jürgen; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Likos, Christos N; Richter, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 ≤ϕ≤ 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids. PMID:26219628

  7. Neuraminidase Ribbon Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Ribbons is a program developed at UAB used worldwide to graphically depict complicated protein structures in a simplified format. The program uses sophisticated computer systems to understand the implications of protein structures. The Influenza virus remains a major causative agent for a large number of deaths among the elderly and young children and huge economic losses due to illness. Finding a cure will have a general impact both on the basic research of viral pathologists of fast evolving infectious agents and clinical treatment of influenza virus infection. The reproduction process of all strains of influenza are dependent on the same enzyme neuraminidase. Shown here is a segmented representation of the neuraminidase inhibitor compound sitting inside a cave-like contour of the neuraminidase enzyme surface. This cave-like formation present in every neuraminidase enzyme is the active site crucial to the flu's ability to infect. The space-grown crystals of neuraminidase have provided significant new details about the three-dimensional characteristics of this active site thus allowing researchers to design drugs that fit tighter into the site. Principal Investigator: Dr. Larry DeLucas

  8. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  9. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  10. The Butterfly Diagram internal structure .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    A new graphic representation of the spotgroup distribution with respect to time and latitude is presented. At variance with Maunder's Butterfly Diagram, which registers the mere presence of spotgroups, the diagram presented here accounts for the spotgroup area. It shows that spotgroups aggregate in a few small, heavenly spotted portions (``knots'') of the diagram. Each knot is the signature of a photospheric region tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. The butterfly diagram is but a cluster of knots and the spot zone is the latitude range inside which knots activate. The cycle is a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. Even though knots show the overall tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes as the cycle goes on, a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones. The examination of the knot distribution inside the ``butterfly wings'' suggests that - at any cycle and at any hemisphere - two ``activity waves" drift equatorward at a rate roughly twice the drift rate of the spot zone as a whole.

  11. Standard services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized telemetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William H.

    1989-01-01

    Standard functional services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized data are discussed with particular reference to the future implementation of packet processing systems, such as those for the Space Station Freedom. The major functions are listed under the following major categories: input processing, packet processing, and output processing. A functional block diagram of a packet data processing facility is presented, showing the distribution of the various processing functions as well as the primary data flow through the facility.

  12. Block Oriented Simulation System (BOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, Jaimie

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation is assuming greater importance as a flexible and expedient approach to modeling system and subsystem behavior. Simulation has played a key role in the growth of complex, multiple access space communications such as those used by the space shuttle and the TRW-built Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). A powerful new simulator for use in designing and modeling the communication system of NASA's planned Space Station is being developed. Progress to date on the Block (Diagram) Oriented Simulation System (BOSS) is described.

  13. Ecohydrological Processes in Cutover Peatlands: The Impact of Peatland Restoration (Rewetting) on the Site Hydrology and Water Balance of an Abandoned Block-cut bog in Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcheson, S. J.; Price, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    Artificial drainage networks established throughout peatlands during the peat extraction process often remain active following abandonment, maintaining a water table relatively far from the surface of the peat and hindering the survival and reestablishment of Sphagnum mosses. In an effort to restore a suitable hydrological regime, the primary drainage network of an abandoned cutover peatland (the Cacouna bog) was blocked with a series of peat dams, resulting in a site-averaged water table rise of 32 cm. The components of the water balance and site hydrology were monitored over three consecutive study periods (2005-2006 prior to rewetting; 2007 following rewetting), permitting quantification of the altered hydrologic conditions due to rewetting. Following ditch blocking, runoff was reduced from 23 to 10% of precipitation during the 2005/2006 (two-year average) and 2007 seasons, respectively. The higher water table and blocked drainage network resulted in increased runoff variability, dependant upon antecedent conditions (capacity to retain additional water on-site) and event-based precipitation dynamics. Evapotranspiration (ET) remained the major water loss from the site in each year, comprising 91, 77 and 91% of total outputs during the 2005, 2006 and 2007 seasons, respectively. ET rates were 25% higher in 2007 following rewetting (3.6 mm/day), compared to pre-restoration ET rates of 2.7 mm/day during both the 2005 and 2006 study periods. Storage changes were restricted following rewetting, due to reduced runoff losses limiting water table drawdown, thereby constraining peat compression and preventing undue drying of the unsaturated zone. An average surface level rebound of 3 cm was observed, increasing the mean hydraulic conductivity by an order of magnitude. There is a need to understand the impact of site rewetting on the system hydrology, to facilitate a timely return to a functioning ecohydrological state following disturbance. The intention of this presentation is to provide an overview of the hydrological regime prior to, and following, rewetting.

  14. Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

  15. Block Copolymers with a Twist

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, R.; Chiang, Y; Chen, C; Wang, H; Hasegawa, H; Akasaka, S; Thomas, E; Burger, C; Hsiao, B

    2009-01-01

    Chiral block copolymers (BCPs*) comprising chiral entities were designed to fabricate helical architectures (i.e., twisted morphologies) from self-assembly. A new helical phase (H*) with P622 symmetry was discovered in the self-assembly of poly(styrene)-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) BCPs*. Hexagonally packed, interdigitated PLLA helical microdomains in a PS matrix were directly visualized by electron tomography. The phase diagram of the PS-PLLA BCPs* was also established. Phase transitions from the H* phase to the stable cylinder and gyroid phases were found after long-time annealing, suggesting that the H* is a long-lived metastable phase. In contrast to racemic poly(styrene)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) BCPs, chiral interaction significantly enhances the incompatibility between achiral PS and chiral PLLA blocks in the PS-PLLA BCPs* and can be estimated through the determination of the interaction parameter.

  16. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|?|^2} , where {?} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {?} . As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  17. Unveiling the butterfly diagram structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-06-01

    A Butterfly Diagram showing the spotted area distribution is presented. The diagram reveals that most of the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the butterfly wings. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is questioned. In a relevant number of cases, knots appear to be arranged in two roughly parallel, oblique streams, the ``spot mean latitude'' being located in the underspotted band lying between these streams.

  18. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions ("knots") of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique "chains", separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) "activity streams" approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  19. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|ω|^2}, where {ω} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {ω}. As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  20. INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

    1989-10-01

    As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (γ)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ≈19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ≈9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ≈22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ≈0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic γ, followed by (2) a γ/NbC eutectic at ≈1250°C, followed by (3) continued γ solidification, followed by (4) a γ/Laves phase eutectic at ≈1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

  1. The effect of the processing and formulation parameters on the size of nanoparticles based on block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with and without hydrolytically sensitive groups.

    PubMed

    Neradovic, D; Soga, O; Van Nostrum, C F; Hennink, W E

    2004-05-01

    Block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic block and N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) or poly (NIPAAm-co-N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-dilactate) (poly(NIPAAm-co-HPMAm-dilactate)) as a thermosensitive block, are able to self-assemble in water into nanoparticles above the cloud point (CP) of the thermosensitive block. The influence of processing and the formulation parameters on the size of the nanoparticles was studied using dynamic light scattering. PNIPAAm-b-PEG 2000 polymers were not suitable for the formation of small and stable particles. Block copolymers with PEG 5000 and 10000 formed relatively small and stable particles in aqueous solutions at temperatures above the CP of the thermosensitive block. Their size decreased with increasing molecular weight of the thermosensitive block, decreasing polymer concentration and using water instead of phosphate buffered saline as solvent. Extrusion and ultrasonication were inefficient methods to size down the polymeric nanoparticles. The heating rate of the polymer solutions was a dominant factor for the size of the nanoparticles. When an aqueous polymer solution was slowly heated through the CP, rather large particles (> or = 200 nm) were formed. Regardless the polymer composition, small nanoparticles (50-70 nm) with a narrow size distribution were formed, when a small volume of an aqueous polymer solution below the CP was added to a large volume of heated water. In this way the thermosensitive block copolymers rapidly pass their CP ('heat shock' procedure), resulting in small and stable nanoparticles. PMID:14741606

  2. Focusing by blocking: Repeatedly generating central density peaks in self-propelled particle systems by exploiting diffusive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few years the displacement statistics of self-propelled particles has been intensely studied, revealing their long-time diffusive behavior. Here, we demonstrate that a concerted combination of boundary conditions and switching on and off the self-propelling drive can generate and afterwards arbitrarily often restore a non-stationary centered peak in their spatial distribution. This corresponds to a partial reversibility of their statistical behavior, in opposition to the above-mentioned long-time diffusive nature. Interestingly, it is a diffusive process that mediates and makes possible this procedure. It should be straightforward to verify our predictions in a real experimental system.

  3. Self-assembly in block polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2011-02-01

    The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) complemented with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation is employed to explore self-assembly of polyelectrolyte copolymers composed of charged blocks A and neutral blocks B. We have extended SCFT to dissociating triblock copolymers and demonstrated our approach on three characteristic examples: (1) diblock copolymer (AB) melt, (2) symmetric triblock copolymer (ABA) melt, (3) triblock copolymer (ABA) solution with added electrolyte. For copolymer melts, we varied the composition (that is, the total fraction of A-segments in the system) and the charge density on A blocks and calculated the phase diagram that contains ordered mesophases of lamellar, gyroid, hexagonal, and bcc symmetries, as well as the uniform disordered phase. The phase diagram of charged block copolymer melts in the charge density - system composition coordinates is similar to the classical phase diagram of neutral block copolymer melts, where the composition and the Flory mismatch interaction parameter χ _{AB} are used as variables. We found that the transitions between the polyelectrolyte mesophases with the increase of charge density occur in the same sequence, from lamellar to gyroid to hexagonal to bcc to disordered morphologies, as the mesophase transitions for neutral diblocks with the decrease of χ _{AB}. In a certain range of compositions, the phase diagram for charged triblock copolymers exhibits unexpected features, allowing for transitions from hexagonal to gyroid to lamellar mesophases as the charge density increases. Triblock polyelectrolyte solutions were studied by varying the charge density and solvent concentration at a fixed copolymer composition. Transitions from lamellar to gyroid and gyroid to hexagonal morphologies were observed at lower polymer concentrations than the respective transitions in the similar neutral copolymer, indicating a substantial influence of the charge density on phase behavior.

  4. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  5. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  6. Phase diagram and magnetization structures of spin-3/2 bond-alternating Ising chains with single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Dou, Jun-Ya; Tian, Guang-Shan

    2016-02-01

    By the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) algorithm, the magnetization process of the spin-3/2 bond-alternating Ising chain with single-ion anisotropy (D) is investigated. Magnetization plateaus including detailed magnetization structures of three different cases are uncovered, and three rich ground-state phase diagrams are explicitly determined. Especially, for the uniform antiferromagnetic case, a phase transition line at D=J, which divides the Mz=0 (Mz =1/2) plateau into two phases, are detected by the magnetization structure and the ground-state energy, and a updated phase diagram is proposed. Such a transition line was not recognized by the average magnetization previously. A same transition line (D=J) is also detected in the phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic alternating case. Magnetization plateaus are found to be easily induced for the classical Ising systems without quantum fluctuations, and the single-ion anisotropy plays a key role in the formation of Mz = 1/2 and 1 plateaus in the present model.

  7. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.

  8. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  9. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  10. The butterfly diagram internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2010-07-01

    This work originates from the need of getting a picture of the spot zone that is sharp enough to efficiently help us place tighter and more realistic constraints than we would usually do on dynamo models, in order to improve their predictive performance. This paper questions the confidence in Maunder’s Butterfly Diagram (BD) as the fundamental tool for describing the magnetic flux large-scale distribution and presents a new version of the time-latitude diagram for cycles 21 through 23, where spot groups are given proportional relevance to their area. The diagram presented here confirms the active regions’ well-known tendency to repeatedly appear in a few photospheric regions (“ activity nests”) tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. Activity nests leave their signature in the BD, in the form of small portions (“ knots”) characterized by the spotted area high density. The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward, even though the knot’s prevalent tendency is to appear at lower and lower latitudes. A careful inspection of the BD suggests that its intricate fine structure may be (partially) disentangled by recognizing that, in any hemisphere, the activity is split into two or more distinct “activity waves” (out of phase compared to each other), drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole. Preliminary computations confirm this suggestion.

  11. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  12. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  13. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagrammore » and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.« less

  14. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    PubMed

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool for the technical and environmental evaluation of this recycling process, bacterial and daphnid tests being more sensitive than algae and fish tests. PMID:21959139

  15. Cell flipping in permutation diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim

    Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.

  16. Magnetized effective QCD phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernández, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Zamora, R.

    2015-11-01

    The QCD phase diagram in the temperature vs quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the critical end point approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are closer on average and thus the strength of their interaction decreases due to asymptotic freedom.

  17. Adapting Diagrams from Physics Textbooks: A Way to Improve the Autonomy of Blind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, A. G.; Martins, A. O.; Ferreira, A. C.; Andrade, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    We devise and test a set of tactile symbols to represent elements frequently used in mechanics diagrams, such as vectors, ropes, pulleys, blocks and surfaces, that can be used to adapt drawings of physics situations in textbooks for blind students. We also investigate how figures are described for blind students in classroom activities and exams,…

  18. Partial Fe-Ti alloy phase diagrams at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Toshimi; Hisayuki, Koji; Nakao, Riyuichiro; Minamino, Yoritoshi; Araki, Hideki; Hirao, Keiichi

    1999-11-01

    Recently, high pressure treatments such as hot isostatic pressing have become more familiar in industrial processes. The high pressure induces changes of both the phase equilibrium and the kinetics of the phase transformation in alloys. The iron-rich phase diagrams under high pressure have been previously reported in the Fe-Mo, Fe-W, Fe-Cr, Fe-V, and Fe-Si systems, which have the {gamma} loop in the iron-rich side at the ordinary pressure. These systems exhibit the astonishing changes in phase equilibrium under high pressure: the {gamma} loop expands under high pressure, and especially the {gamma} loop type phase diagrams of Fe-Mo and Fe-W systems transform to the {gamma} shrink type phase diagram at higher pressures. So, it is very interesting to investigate the effect of high pressure on phase equilibrium in the {gamma} loop phase diagram of the Fe-Ti system, which is practically important for hydrogen storage alloys, titanium clad steels, and so on. Therefore, the authors have established the iron-rich Fe-Ti phase diagrams at the high pressure up to 2.7 GPa.

  19. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. Results The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. Discussion This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems. PMID:26153893

  20. Design of Interactive Diagrams Structured upon Generic Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmy, Michal; Naftaliev, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to study the emerging questions about design of mathematical tasks that could support the solving of challenging problems, we designed two settings of interactive diagrams that share an example represented as an animation of multi-process motion but differ in their organizational functions. The interactive settings, each comprising…

  1. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  2. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  3. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  4. Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

  5. Basic primitives for molecular diagram sketching

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A collection of primitive operations for molecular diagram sketching has been developed. These primitives compose a concise set of operations which can be used to construct publication-quality 2 D coordinates for molecular structures using a bare minimum of input bandwidth. The input requirements for each primitive consist of a small number of discrete choices, which means that these primitives can be used to form the basis of a user interface which does not require an accurate pointing device. This is particularly relevant to software designed for contemporary mobile platforms. The reduction of input bandwidth is accomplished by using algorithmic methods for anticipating probable geometries during the sketching process, and by intelligent use of template grafting. The algorithms and their uses are described in detail. PMID:20923555

  6. Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

  7. Mathematical review on source-type diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.

  8. A Working Model of Protein Synthesis Using Lego(TM) Building Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Mark A.; Fetters, Marcia K.

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lego building blocks to improve the effectiveness of teaching about protein synthesis. Provides diagrams and pictures for a 2-3 day student activity. Discusses mRNA, transfer RNA, and a protein synthesis model. (MVL)

  9. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  10. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

  11. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C. PMID:24320387

  12. A Regime Diagram for Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction regimes are generated primarily as a product of two mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the competition between the weight of the slab and the strength of the plate, which can be understood in terms of the applied bending moment, and this competition results in a particular radius of curvature (for which we provide a simple scaling theory). The second mechanism is the interaction between the slab and the more viscous lower mantle, which produces each regime's distinct slab morphology. Thus, the emergence of five distinct styles of subduction is a direct consequence of the presence of the modest barrier to flow into the lower mantle. Although only 2 of these styles presently operate on Earth, the possibility exists that other modes may have been the predominant mode in the past. Based on these models, we propose that the lithosphere is the primary factor in describing key elements of the plate tectonics system over time, rather than the convecting mantle. We discuss the various factors that may have influenced secular changes in Earth's tectonic behavior, some of which may have interesting consequences for the geochemical evolution of the Earth.

  13. Satake diagrams of affine Kac Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, L. K.; Pati, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras (untwisted and twisted) are obtained from their Dynkin diagrams. These diagrams give a classification of restricted root systems associated with these algebras. In the case of simple Lie algebras, these root systems and Satake diagrams correspond to symmetric spaces which have recently found many physical applications in quantum integrable systems, quantum transport problems, random matrix theories etc. We hope these types of root systems may have similar applications in theoretical physics in future and may correspond to symmetric spaces analogue of affine Kac-Moody algebras if they exist.

  14. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in Tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device part 2 ---the similarity and characteristic of Tai-chi diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang; Huo, Yuhua

    2002-05-01

    The physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the Tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device presented in reference [1] is further developed. The system of equations formulating the melting and freezing processes is transformed to a dimensionless form. The advantage of dimensionless equations not only reduces a significant number of parameters involved in the problem but also provides physical insight of the Tai-chi diagram. The solution of dimensionless equations offers the similarity and characteristic of the Tai-chi diagram[1].

  15. Block relaxation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.

    1980-01-01

    It is desired to solve the linear system Ax = b, where the matrix A is n x n block tridiagonal with block size m. This system is to be solved by block line relaxation when the largest block problem with block size m that can be cheaply solved directly is l x l. Iteration steps, strategies, and results are summarized. It is concluded that the convergence rate of some block relaxation strategies is much faster than that of the strategies generally used. (RWR)

  16. Making Data Flow Diagrams Accessible for Visually Impaired Students Using Excel Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of Excel tables to convey information to blind students that would otherwise be presented using graphical tools, such as Data Flow Diagrams. These tables can supplement diagrams in the classroom when introducing their use to understand the scope of a system and its main sub-processes, on exams when answering questions…

  17. On the Different Ways That Mathematicians Use Diagrams in Proof Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samkoff, Aron; Lai, Yvonne; Weber, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The processes by which individuals can construct proofs based on visual arguments are poorly understood. We investigated this issue by presenting eight mathematicians with a task that invited the construction of a diagram, and examined how they used this diagram to produce a formal proof. The main findings were that participants varied in the…

  18. Learning from Text with Diagrams: Promoting Mental Model Development and Inference Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Kirsten R.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated learning outcomes and comprehension processes when students learned about the heart and circulatory system using (a) text only, (b) text with simplified diagrams designed to highlight important structural relations, or (c) text with more detailed diagrams reflecting a more accurate representation. Experiment 1 found…

  19. Managing access block.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study. PMID:12404967

  20. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution.

    PubMed

    Grzelakowski, M; Kita-Tokarczyk, K

    2016-03-17

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. PMID:26948963

  1. Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

  2. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  3. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  4. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  5. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindslev, Henrik

    2004-07-01

    A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates, the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non-experts. JET and ITER like plasmas are used, but the method is generic.

  6. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers; Fig. S6: Large vesicles from carboxylated ABA polymer. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06866e

  7. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  8. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  9. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  10. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Nonperiodic Rail Operation Diagram Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yongsheng; Wang, Bingbing; Zeng, Junwei; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper succeeded in utilizing cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the process of the train operation under the four-aspect color light system and getting the nonperiodic diagram of the mixed passenger and freight tracks. Generally speaking, the concerned models could simulate well the situation of wagon in preventing trains from colliding when parking and restarting and of the real-time changes the situation of train speeds and displacement and get hold of the current train states in their departures and arrivals. Finally the model gets the train diagram that simulates the train operation in different ratios of the van and analyzes some parameter characters in the process of train running, such as time, speed, through capacity, interval departing time, and departing numbers. PMID:25435863

  12. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  13. A Phase Diagram for Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Winter, Lisa; Pernak, Rick

    2015-04-01

    Using the data from the NOAA/GOES X-ray observations of ~50,000 flares, we develop a Phase Diagram for solar flares. Such a Solar Flare Phase Diagram helps to trace the underlying energy structure of solar flares, and provides a prediction framework. The temperature (maximum ratio of short (0.5 - 4 A) to long band (1-8 A) band) and background solar x-ray radiation (at 1-8 A band) forms the basis of the phase diagram. Using the phase diagram and relevant statistical analysis, we derive insights into the eruptive nature of flares during the solar-cycle ramp (ramp up to and ramp down from solar maximum) phases and peak phase of the solar cycle.

  14. Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign

    SciTech Connect

    Nicinski, T.

    1992-02-01

    The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

  15. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  16. Automatic generation of optical initial configuration based on Delano diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Yuan; Yuan, Xiang-Yan; Cui, Xiang-Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to automatically initialize an optical system based on the Delano diagram. The process to generate the optical initial configuration is constrained by the control points, which are deduced from parameters related to basic design requirements. We present the theory and method to generate the optical initial configuration automatically when the basic design requirements are known. Two optical systems are taken as examples to demonstrate the proposed method.

  17. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  18. An Excel Macro to Plot the HFE-Diagram to Identify Sea Water Intrusion Phases.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Sánchez San Román, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) is a multirectangular diagram, which is a useful tool in the interpretation of sea water intrusion processes. This method note describes a simple method for generating an HFE-D plot using the spreadsheet software package, Microsoft Excel. The code was applied to groundwater from the alluvial coastal plain of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy), which is characterized by a complex salinization process in which sea water mixes with sulfate or bicarbonate recharge water. PMID:25269423

  19. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  20. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  1. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  2. Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of an Early Cretaceous intrusive suite in northeastern Jiangxi Province, South China Block: Implications for petrogenesis, crust/mantle interactions and geodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhengbin; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Lifei; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Pengtao; Luo, Ping; Guo, Boran

    2014-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous Tieshan intrusive suite, in northeastern Jiangxi Province along the northern margin of the Eastern Cathaysia Block, is composed of diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, syenite porphyries, quartz monzonites, monzogranites and granite porphyries. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses reveal that this intrusive complex was emplaced between 142 Ma and 117 Ma. The ~ 135 Ma diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, and syenite porphyries are characterized by low to moderate SiO2 and MgO contents, with high K2O and total alkaline contents. These rocks exhibit slightly to strongly fractionated REE patterns and upper crust-like multi-element patterns with depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti, and show strongly negative εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to - 11.8. All these patterns are identical to those of the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros in the east, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites in the west. These geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic features indicate that their magmatic precursors were generated by 0.2%-2% partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by sediments. The ~ 117 Ma quartz monzonite has slightly higher εHf (t) values (- 5.6 to - 8.7) like those of the Honggong syenites, indicating an interaction between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The ~ 142-134 Ma granite porphyries and monzogranites are characterized by high SiO2 levels but low concentrations of refractory elements, and show enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, with variable negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr, P and Ba in multi-element diagrams normalized by primitive mantle. The monzogranite exhibits strongly negative εHf (t) values of - 10.5 to - 13.3 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1849-2023 Ma, and the granite porphyries display relatively wide εHf (t) values of - 7.2 to - 13.4 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1645-2043 Ma, indicating that these monzogranites and granite porphyries are highly fractionated granites derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic basement with involvement of enriched mantle-derived magmas or juvenile components, and the primary magma experienced fractionation of K-feldspar, plagioclase, monazite, allanite and zircon during magma ascent and emplacement. The Tieshan intrusive suite, together with the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites, forms a highly enriched shoshonitic rock belt in the northeastern margin of the Cathaysia Block. Integrating with previously published data, we propose that the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate extended into the central South China Block in the Middle Jurassic, and experienced slab rollback during the Early Cretaceous.

  3. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  4. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Heart Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk ... II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. It also shows what happens during second- ...

  5. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree heart block and ... people who have second-degree heart block need pacemakers. These devices use electrical pulses to prompt the ...

  6. NeuroBlocks--Visual Tracking of Segmentation and Proofreading for Large Connectomics Projects.

    PubMed

    Ai-Awami, Ali K; Beyer, Johanna; Haehn, Daniel; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In the field of connectomics, neuroscientists acquire electron microscopy volumes at nanometer resolution in order to reconstruct a detailed wiring diagram of the neurons in the brain. The resulting image volumes, which often are hundreds of terabytes in size, need to be segmented to identify cell boundaries, synapses, and important cell organelles. However, the segmentation process of a single volume is very complex, time-intensive, and usually performed using a diverse set of tools and many users. To tackle the associated challenges, this paper presents NeuroBlocks, which is a novel visualization system for tracking the state, progress, and evolution of very large volumetric segmentation data in neuroscience. NeuroBlocks is a multi-user web-based application that seamlessly integrates the diverse set of tools that neuroscientists currently use for manual and semi-automatic segmentation, proofreading, visualization, and analysis. NeuroBlocks is the first system that integrates this heterogeneous tool set, providing crucial support for the management, provenance, accountability, and auditing of large-scale segmentations. We describe the design of NeuroBlocks, starting with an analysis of the domain-specific tasks, their inherent challenges, and our subsequent task abstraction and visual representation. We demonstrate the utility of our design based on two case studies that focus on different user roles and their respective requirements for performing and tracking the progress of segmentation and proofreading in a large real-world connectomics project. PMID:26529725

  7. The Block Scheduling Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen

    Block scheduling encourages increased comprehensive immersion into subject matter, improved teacher-student relationships, and decreased disciplinary problems. While block scheduling may offer many advantages, moving to a block schedule from conventional scheduling can be a major adjustment for both students and teachers. This guide is intended to…

  8. Untwisting the Campbell diagrams of weakly anisotropic rotor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, O. N.

    2009-08-01

    A brake can be modeled as an axi-symmetric rotor perturbed by dissipative, conservative, and non-conservative positional forces originated at the frictional contact with the anisotropic stator. The Campbell diagram of the unperturbed system is a mesh-like structure in the frequency-speed plane with double eigenfrequencies at the nodes. The diagram is convenient for the analysis of the traveling waves in the rotating elastic continuum. Computing sensitivities of the doublets we find that at every particular node the untwisting of the mesh into the branches of complex eigenvalues is generically determined by only four 22 sub-blocks of the perturbing matrix. Selection of the unstable modes that cause self-excited vibrations in the subcritical speed range, is governed by the exceptional points at the corners of the singular eigenvalue surface-`double coffee-filter'-which is typical also in the problems of electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in non-rotating anisotropic chiral media. As a mechanical example a model of a rotating shaft is studied in detail.

  9. Regulating block copolymer phases via selective homopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuang E-mail: eqchen@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zhen; Hu, Nan; Chen, Er-Qiang E-mail: eqchen@pku.edu.cn; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-03-28

    The phase behavior of strongly segregated AB diblock copolymer and selective C homopolymer blends is examined theoretically using a combination of strong stretching theory (SST) and self-consistent field theory (SCFT). The C-homopolymer is immiscible with the B-blocks but strongly attractive with the A-blocks. The effect of homopolymer content on the order-order phase transitions is analyzed. It is observed that, for AB diblock copolymers with majority A-blocks, the addition of the C-homopolymers results in lamellar to cylindrical to spherical phase transitions because of the A/C complexation. For diblock copolymers with minor A-blocks, adding C-homopolymers leads to transitions from spherical or cylindrical morphology with A-rich core to lamellae to inverted cylindrical and spherical morphologies with B-rich core. The results from analytical SST and numerical SCFT are in good agreement within most regions of the phase diagram. But the deviation becomes more obvious when the composition of A-blocks is too small and the content of added C-homopolymers is large enough, where the SCFT predicts a narrow co-existence region between different ordered phases. Furthermore, it is found that the phase behavior of the system is insensitive to the molecular weight of C-homopolymer.

  10. Case History of an 8-Block Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the process undertaken by one school district in Missouri to explore and then implement a schedule change (in particular a block program)--a process involving parents, teachers, administrators, school board members, and students. (SR)

  11. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  12. Block LU factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU factorization, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU factorization is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU factorization can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth factor for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU factorization is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.

  13. Harmonic blocking converter system

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, W.

    1995-08-29

    A harmonic blocking converter system for converting power between an AC source and a DC source includes a harmonic blocking transformer and a converter which generates undesirable harmonic currents including fifth and seventh harmonic components. The harmonic blocking transformer includes a polyphase main transformer and a harmonic blocker coupled with wye and delta secondary windings of the main transformer, so as to substantially block passage of the fifth and seventh harmonic currents to the AC source. A waveform enhancer may couple the harmonic blocking transformer with the converter. The converter may be constructed for 2-level operation, or, with the addition of auxiliary diodes, for 3-level operation. Such a harmonic blocking transformer and a method of blocking undesirable harmonic currents are also provided. 45 figs.

  14. Si-Ge-metal ternary phase diagram calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    Solution crystal growth and doping conditions of Si-Ge alloys used for high-temperature thermoelectric generation are determined here. Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) has been successfully employed recently to obtain single-crystalline homogeneous layers of Si-Ge solid solutions from a liquid metal solvent. Knowledge of Si-Ge-metallic solvent ternary phase diagrams is essential for further single-crystal growth development. Consequently, a thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to calculate the phase diagrams of the Si-Ge-M systems, including solid solubilities, where M is Al, Ga, In, Sn, Pb, Sb, or Bi. Good agreement between calculated liquidus and solidus data and experimental DTA and microprobe results was obtained. The results are used to compare the suitability of the different systems for crystal growth (by LPE-type process).

  15. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of each glass were isothermally heat treated for 1 to 768 hours at temperatures between 500 C to 1000 C. Each of the heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Maximum crystallization was detected in samples treated at 700 C and 600 C for more than 96 hours in both glasses. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, aegirine, lithium silicate, trevorite (spinel based), krinovite, and calcium magnesium iron silicon oxide. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or alkali transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. The conclusions of this study were consistent with previous studies. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. Only extremely significant changes in composition resulting from processing strategy changes would require generating more TTT diagrams.

  16. Identification of polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display by chromaticity diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Ling-Yung; Ku, Po-Jen; Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Liu, Chu-Yu; Sugiura, Norio

    2012-04-01

    We reported an identification method of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) display status by using Commission International de l'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The BPLC was injected into in-plane-switch (IPS) cell, polymer stabilized (PS) by ultraviolet cured process and analyzed by luminance colorimeter. The results of CIE chromaticity diagram showed a remarkable turning point when polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal II (PSBPLC-II) formed in the IPS cell. A mechanism of CIE chromaticity diagram identify PSBPLC display status was proposed, and we believe this finding will be useful to application and production of PSBPLC display.

  17. Non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao

    2015-06-01

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  18. Controlled self-assembly of conjugated rod-coil block copolymers for applications in organic optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yuefei

    Organic electronics are of great interest in manufacturing light weight, mechanical flexible, and inexpensive large area devices. While significant improvements have been made over the last several years and it is now clear that morphology on the lengthscale of exciton diffusion (10nm) is of crucial importance, a clear relationship between structure and device properties has not emerged. This lack of understanding largely emerges from an inability to control morphology on this lengthscale. This thesis will center around an approach, based on block copolymer self-assembly, to generate equilibrium nanostructures on the 10 nm lengthscale of exciton diffusion and study their effects on device performance. Self-assembly of semiconducting block copolymers is complicated by the non-classical chain shape of conjugated polymers. Unlike classical polymers, the chains do not assume a Gaussian coil shape which is stretched near block copolymer interfaces, instead the chains are elongated and liquid crystalline. Previous work has demonstrated how these new molecular interactions and shapes control the phase diagram of so-called rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we will focus on controlling domain size, orientation, and chemical structure. While domain size can be controlled directly through molecular weight, this requires significant additional synthesis of domain size is to be varied. Here, the domain size is controlled by blending homopolymers into a self-assembling rod-coil block copolymer. When coil-like blocks are incorporated, the domains swell, as expected. When rod-like blocks are incorporated, they interdigitate with the rods of the block copolymers. This results in an increase in interfacial area which forces the coils to rearrange and an overall decrease in domain size with increasing rod content. Control over lamellar orientation is crucial in order to design and control charge transport pathways and exciton recombination or separation interfaces. While numerous techniques have been demonstrated for classical block copolymers, the pi conjugation in the rod blocks allow for additional control mechanisms. Liquid crystals are traditionally aligned in magnetic fields. Here, it is demonstrated that if the rod-like blocks are aligned unidirectionally, the block copolymer interfaces follow to create macroscopic alignment of the nanostructures. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are generally composed of electron transporting and hole transporting moieties to balance charge recombination. Here, a new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing the hole transporting and electron transporting materials is synthesized. Self-assembly of this new block copolymer results in 15nm lamellae oriented in grains both parallel and perpendicula to the anode. The self-assembled block copolymer shows superior device performance to controls consisting of a luminescent, analogous homopolymer, and a blend of the two component homopolymers. The effects of the morphologies and chemical structure on photovoltaics is explored with a rod-coil block copolymer, (poly(3-hexylthiophene-b-acrylic perylene)). By varying the kinetics of self-assembly through processing, the block copolymer can be disordered, ordered with only short range registry between the nanodomains, or with long-range order. The short range ordered samples showed the best device performance suggesting that the connectivity that is a biproduct of poor order is beneficial for device performance.

  19. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  20. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,

  1. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  2. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for

  3. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  4. The Use of Computational Diagrams and Nomograms in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Richard K.; Simpson, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computational diagrams and nomographs for the calculations that frequently occur in college administration is examined. Steps in constructing a nomograph and a four-dimensional computational diagram are detailed, and uses of three- and four-dimensional diagrams are covered. Diagrams and nomographs are useful in the following cases: (1)…

  5. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how

  6. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

  7. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  8. Sunset Science. II. A useful diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.; Kattawar, George W.

    1998-06-01

    We present diagrams that show how layers in atmospheric thermal structure are related to the altitudes at which they are seen tangentially. These dip diagrams show that the inferior mirage greatly magnifies the apparent angular size of the lowest few centimeters of atmosphere. Conversely, inversion layers below eye level are compressed even to zero apparent thickness, in ducts. The diagrams show that, even when distant objects are miraged, the ray crossings occur beyond the lowest point on each ray where the line of sight is tangent to a horizontal surface in the atmosphere. Therefore the apparent altitudes of these tangent points are a monotonic function of their actual heights in the atmosphere. This monotonicity explains an apparent paradox in low-Sun images.

  9. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  10. Blocking Losses on an Optical Communications Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2011-01-01

    Many photon-counting photo-detectors have the property that they become inoperative for some time after detection event. We say the detector is blocked during this time.Blocking produces losses when using the detector as a photon-counter to detect a communications signal. In this paper, we characterize blocking losses for single detectors and for arrays of detectors. For arrays, we discuss conditions under which the output may be approximated as a Poisson point process, and provide a simple approximation to the blocking loss. We show how to extend the analysis to arrays of non-uniformly illuminated arrays.

  11. Theoretical phase diagrams for solid H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surh, Michael P.; Runge, K. J.

    1994-07-01

    Possible phase diagrams for solid molecular para-hydrogen in the 0-200 GPa pressure regime are constructed on the basis of ab initio calculations. Structures for the broken symmetry phase (BSP) and H-A phase have recently been proposed under the assumption that the molecules are centered on sites of a hexagonal close-packed lattice with the ideal c/a ratio, i.e., only molecular orientational and electronic changes are allowed. Symmetry considerations then dictate the simplest phase diagrams consistent with experimental observations, although the possibility of additional transitions cannot be ruled out. A simple model is introduced to describe the BSP and H-A transitions.

  12. Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1988-05-01

    Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

  13. B-Fe-U Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

    2014-04-01

    The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

  14. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

  15. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  16. Building Blocks and Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Alexis; Mireles, Víctor; Monsivais, Daniel; Stephens, Christopher R.; Alcalá, Sergio Antonio; Cervantes, Francisco

    The concept of “building block” has played an important role in science and also at a more formal level in the notion of search, especially in the context of Evolutionary Computation. However, there is still a great deal that is not understood about why, or even if, building blocks help in search. In this paper we introduce an elementary search problem and a class of search algorithms that use building blocks. We consider how the use of building blocks affects the efficiency of the search and moreover how the characteristics of the building blocks - the number of types and their sizes - greatly influences the search.

  17. The Khoros software development environment for image and signal processing.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, K; Rasure, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data flow visual language systems allow users to graphically create a block diagram of their applications and interactively control input, output, and system variables. Khoros is an integrated software development environment for information processing and visualization. It is particularly attractive for image processing because of its rich collection of tools for image and digital signal processing. This paper presents a general overview of Khoros with emphasis on its image processing and DSP tools. Various examples are presented and the future direction of Khoros is discussed. PMID:18291923

  18. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  19. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  20. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  1. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials

  2. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  3. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,

  4. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters - excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  5. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to

  6. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  7. Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2005-06-15

    Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

  8. Enhanced Pomeron diagrams: Resummation of unitarity cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapchenko, S.

    2008-02-01

    Unitarity cuts of enhanced Pomeron diagrams are analyzed in the framework of the Reggeon field theory. Assuming the validity of the Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules, we derive a complete set of cut nonloop enhanced graphs and observe important cancellations between certain subclasses of the latter. We demonstrate also how the present method can be generalized to take into consideration Pomeron loop contributions.

  9. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  10. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  11. Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-05-01

    We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models.

  12. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  13. deepBlockAlign: a tool for aligning RNA-seq profiles of read block patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Stadler, Peter F.; Hoffmann, Steve; Gorodkin, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing methods allow whole transcriptomes to be sequenced fast and cost-effectively. Short RNA sequencing provides not only quantitative expression data but also an opportunity to identify novel coding and non-coding RNAs. Many long transcripts undergo post-transcriptional processing that generates short RNA sequence fragments. Mapped back to a reference genome, they form distinctive patterns that convey information on both the structure of the parent transcript and the modalities of its processing. The miR-miR* pattern from microRNA precursors is the best-known, but by no means singular, example. Results: deepBlockAlign introduces a two-step approach to align RNA-seq read patterns with the aim of quickly identifying RNAs that share similar processing footprints. Overlapping mapped reads are first merged to blocks and then closely spaced blocks are combined to block groups, each representing a locus of expression. In order to compare block groups, the constituent blocks are first compared using a modified sequence alignment algorithm to determine similarity scores for pairs of blocks. In the second stage, block patterns are compared by means of a modified Sankoff algorithm that takes both block similarities and similarities of pattern of distances within the block groups into account. Hierarchical clustering of block groups clearly separates most miRNA and tRNA, and also identifies about a dozen tRNAs clustering together with miRNA. Most of these putative Dicer-processed tRNAs, including eight cases reported to generate products with miRNA-like features in literature, exhibit read blocks distinguished by precise start position of reads. Availability: The program deepBlockAlign is available as source code from http://rth.dk/resources/dba/. Contact: gorodkin@rth.dk; studla@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22053076

  14. Linking the Budyko framework and the Dunne diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Larsen, Joshua R.; McAlpine, Clive; McVicar, Tim R.; Phinn, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of climate, soils, topography and vegetation control the water and energy balances among catchments. Two well-known hydrological theories underpinning these processes are the Budyko framework and the Dunne diagram. Relating the scaling of water-energy balances (Budyko) and runoff generation mechanisms (Dunne) raises some important catchment comparison questions, namely: (i) how do streamflow characteristics vary according to the annual water and energy balances?; (ii) to what extent do biophysical drivers of runoff explain the observed streamflow variability?; and (iii) are there quantifiable process overlaps between these two approaches, and can they offer insights into the mechanics of catchment co-evolution? This study addresses these questions by analysing daily streamflow and precipitation time series data to quantify hydrological similarity across 355 catchments located along a tropical-temperate climatic gradient in eastern Australia. We used eight hydrological metrics to describe the hydrological response over a 33-year period (1980-2013). Hierarchical cluster, ordination analysis, the Budyko framework, and generalized additive models were used to evaluate hydrological similarity, extract the dominant response, and examine how the landscape and climatic characteristics of catchments influence the dominant streamflow response. The catchments were classified into five clusters based on the analysis of their hydrological characteristics and similarity, which vary along the annual water and energy balances gradient in the Budyko framework. Furthermore, we show that the streamflow similarity is explained by six catchment-specific biophysical factors that overlap with those described by the Dunne diagram for runoff generation, which in this case have the following order of relative importance: (i) Dryness Index; (ii) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation; (iii) Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity; (iv) Soil Depth; (v) Maximum Slope and (vi) Fraction of Woody Vegetation Cover. The research advances our understanding of the role of biophysical controls on hydrologic similarity and formal process links between the Budyko Framework and Dunne diagram of runoff mechanisms.

  15. Soft-Decision Decoding of Binary Linear Block Codes Based on an Iterative Search Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Moorthy, H. T.

    1997-01-01

    This correspondence presents a suboptimum soft-decision decoding scheme for binary linear block codes based on an iterative search algorithm. The scheme uses an algebraic decoder to iteratively generate a sequence of candidate codewords one at a time using a set of test error patterns that are constructed based on the reliability information of the received symbols. When a candidate codeword is generated, it is tested based on an optimality condition. If it satisfies the optimality condition, then it is the most likely (ML) codeword and the decoding stops. If it fails the optimality test, a search for the ML codeword is conducted in a region which contains the ML codeword. The search region is determined by the current candidate codeword and the reliability of the received symbols. The search is conducted through a purged trellis diagram for the given code using the Viterbi algorithm. If the search fails to find the ML codeword, a new candidate is generated using a new test error pattern, and the optimality test and search are renewed. The process of testing and search continues until either the MEL codeword is found or all the test error patterns are exhausted and the decoding process is terminated. Numerical results show that the proposed decoding scheme achieves either practically optimal performance or a performance only a fraction of a decibel away from the optimal maximum-likelihood decoding with a significant reduction in decoding complexity compared with the Viterbi decoding based on the full trellis diagram of the codes.

  16. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26529723

  17. A Solution-Processable (Tetraaniline-b-Polyethylene Glycol)3 Star-Shaped Rod-Coil Block Copolymer with Enhanced Electrochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyu; Gong, Chen; Yang, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    A novel electroactive star-shaped rod-coil copolymer composed of a benzene core and three symmetrically positioned tetraaniline-b-poly(ethylene glycol) arms, (TAni-b-PEG)3 rod-coil block copolymer, is synthesized successfully and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, (1) H NMR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Uniform and high-quality (TAni-b-PEG)3 thin films onto indium tin oxide-coated glass surface are fabricated simply from its DMF solution. Resulting (TAni-b-PEG)3 copolymer thin films possess excellent electrochromic properties with a high optical contrast of 73.3%, superb coloration efficiency of 318.5 cm(2) C(-1) at 750 nm. Very short switching times, that is, 2.11 s and 2.14 s for coloring and bleaching times, respectively, are observed as well. The mechanism of these impressive electrochromic properties of (TAni-b-PEG)3 thin films possessed is proposed based on the atomic force microscopy investigation, star-shaped molecular geometry, synergetic electronic and ionic conductivity and amphiphilic self-assembly feature of (TAni-b-PEG)3 copolymer, which can self-assemble to form cylinder pattern consisting of quick pathways for electronic charges and ionic species, respectively. PMID:26663524

  18. The SAMPEX Data Processing Unit. [solar anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, D. J.; Hansel, S. J.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses salient features of the SAMPEX Data Processing Unit (DPU), the primary function of which is to collect sensor data to create telemetry packets for transmission to the solid-state recorder located within the Small Explorer Data System. Particular attention is given to the sensor interface electronics, the space command interface, the spacecraft telemetry interface, and the memory mapper of the DPU system; the task scheduling concept; and system reconfiguring. A block diagram of the DPU system is included.

  19. Analyses of requirements for computer control and data processing experiment subsystems: Image data processing system (IDAPS) software description (7094 version), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A description of each of the software modules of the Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) is presented. The changes in the software modules are the result of additions to the application software of the system and an upgrade of the IBM 7094 Mod(1) computer to a 1301 disk storage configuration. Necessary information about IDAPS sofware is supplied to the computer programmer who desires to make changes in the software system or who desires to use portions of the software outside of the IDAPS system. Each software module is documented with: module name, purpose, usage, common block(s) description, method (algorithm of subroutine) flow diagram (if needed), subroutines called, and storage requirements.

  20. Characterization of blocked isocyanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirčeva, A.; Janežič, M.; Žigon, M.; Malavašič, T.

    1992-03-01

    An ionomer crosslinker on the basis of partly blocked hexamethylene isocyanurate was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and by gel permeation chromatography. To determine the selectivity of the blocking reaction. model compounds were also prepared. Deblocking and curing courses were studied by FTIR thermal methods. The selectivity of the blocking reaction was found to be poor and therefore the obtained ionomer crosslinker consisted of different monomer and oligomer components. Deblocking and curing were highly temperature dependent. Curing was more efficient in one-pack systems consisting of the ionomer crosslinker and of an OH groups rich ionomer polyurethane resin.

  1. Fractional Modeling Method of Cognition Process in Teaching Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunna; Wu, Minhua; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Liming; Li, Yingshun

    Cognition process has been translated into other quantitative indicators in some assessment decision systems. In teaching evaluation system a fractional cognition process model is proposed in this paper. The fractional model is built on fractional calculus theory combining with classroom teaching features. The fractional coefficient is determined by the actual course information. Student self-parameter is decided by the actual situation potential of each individual student. The detailed descriptions are displayed through building block diagram. The objective quantitative description can be given in the fractional cognition process model. And the teaching quality assessments will be more objective and accurate based on the above quantitative description.

  2. A binary-decision-diagram-based two-bit arithmetic logic unit on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Quan; Kasai, Seiya; Shiratori, Yuta; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2009-06-17

    A two-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) was successfully fabricated on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology. This fundamental building block of central processing units can be implemented on a regular nanowire network structure with simple circuit architecture based on graphical representation of logic functions using a binary decision diagram and topology control of the graph. The four-instruction ALU was designed by integrating subgraphs representing each instruction, and the circuitry was implemented by transferring the logical graph structure to a GaAs-based nanowire network formed by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. A path switching function was implemented in nodes by Schottky wrap gate control of nanowires. The fabricated circuit integrating 32 node devices exhibits the correct output waveforms at room temperature allowing for threshold voltage variation. PMID:19468164

  3. Phase diagrams of diblock copolymers in electric fields: a self-consistent field theory study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Wang, Xianghong; Ji, Yongyun; He, Linli; Li, Shiben

    2016-04-21

    We investigated the phase diagrams of diblock copolymers in external electrostatic fields by using real-space self-consistent field theory. The lamella, cylinder, sphere, and ellipsoid structures were observed and analyzed by their segment distributions, which were arranged to two types of phase diagrams to examine the phase behavior in weak and strong electric fields. One type was constructed on the basis of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and volume fraction. We identified an ellipsoid structure with a body-centered cuboid arrangement as a stable phase and discussed the shift of phase boundaries in the electric fields. The other type of phase diagrams was established on the basis of the dielectric constants of two blocks in the electric fields. We then determined the regions of ellipsoid phase in the phase diagrams to examine the influence of dielectric constants on the phase transition between ellipsoidal and hexagonally packed cylinder phases. A general agreement was obtained by comparing our results with those described in previous experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:27020849

  4. Effect of Polymer Blocking Layer and Processing Method on the Breakdown Strength and the Extractable Energy Density of Barium Titanate/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite Thin Film Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunsang; Kathaperumal, Mohanalingam; Smith, O'neil; Pan, Ming-Jen; Perry, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Polymer-metal oxide nanocomposites are of great interest because of their high energy density and easy processability, which make them candidate materials for energy storage applications. Although loading of high-k filler in polymer matrix is desirable to maximize energy density of nanocomposites, the decrease of breakdown strength at higher loading compromises a potential gain in energy density. In this work, we investigate the effect of a fluoropolymer (CYTOP) blocking layer in BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) nanocomposite films on the improvement of breakdown strength and energy storage density. The introduction of blocking layer may serve to prevent moisture absorption and charge injection from electrode, thereby decreasing the probability of catastrophic breakdown events. We also examine the influence of processing method, i.e. spin- or blade-casting, on the performance of bilayer films. The charge-discharge method shows about a twofold increase in extractable energy density (from 2 to 3.7 J/cm3) of bilayer films fabricated by blade-casting compared to single layer film by spin-casting because of improved breakdown strength. The results will be discussed in regards to morphology, electric field distribution, and loss of bilayer films.

  5. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  6. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  7. Krajewski diagrams and the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2009-04-15

    This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

  8. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  9. Pions in the quark matter phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Zablocki, D.; Blaschke, D.; Anglani, R.

    2008-08-29

    The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

  10. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  11. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  12. Data Science Innovations That Streamline Development, Documentation, Reproducibility, and Dissemination of Models in Computational Thermodynamics: An Application of Image Processing Techniques for Rapid Computation, Parameterization and Modeling of Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Computational thermodynamics (CT) represents a collection of numerical techniques that are used to calculate quantitative results from thermodynamic theory. In the Earth sciences, CT is most often applied to estimate the equilibrium properties of solutions, to calculate phase equilibria from models of the thermodynamic properties of materials, and to approximate irreversible reaction pathways by modeling these as a series of local equilibrium steps. The thermodynamic models that underlie CT calculations relate the energy of a phase to temperature, pressure and composition. These relationships are not intuitive and they are seldom well constrained by experimental data; often, intuition must be applied to generate a robust model that satisfies the expectations of use. As a consequence of this situation, the models and databases the support CT applications in geochemistry and petrology are tedious to maintain as new data and observations arise. What is required to make the process more streamlined and responsive is a computational framework that permits the rapid generation of observable outcomes from the underlying data/model collections, and importantly, the ability to update and re-parameterize the constitutive models through direct manipulation of those outcomes. CT procedures that take models/data to the experiential reference frame of phase equilibria involve function minimization, gradient evaluation, the calculation of implicit lines, curves and surfaces, contour extraction, and other related geometrical measures. All these procedures are the mainstay of image processing analysis. Since the commercial escalation of video game technology, open source image processing libraries have emerged (e.g., VTK) that permit real time manipulation and analysis of images. These tools find immediate application to CT calculations of phase equilibria by permitting rapid calculation and real time feedback between model outcome and the underlying model parameters.

  13. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  14. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  15. On the Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive look at the Senate and House bills that call for funding work force education through block grants to the states and how they could affect vocational-technical education programs. (SK)

  16. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  17. Blocked Urethral Valves

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder ... the bladder. These membranes are called posterior urethral valves and can have life-threatening consequences by causing ...

  18. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  1. Disruption of ribosome assembly in yeast blocks cotranscriptional pre-rRNA processing and affects the global hierarchy of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Talkish, Jason; Biedka, Stephanie; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Zhang, Jingyu; Tang, Lan; Strahler, John R; Andrews, Philip C; Maddock, Janine R; Woolford, John L

    2016-06-01

    In higher eukaryotes, pre-rRNA processing occurs almost exclusively post-transcriptionally. This is not the case in rapidly dividing yeast, as the majority of nascent pre-rRNAs are processed cotranscriptionally, with cleavage at the A2 site first releasing a pre-40S ribosomal subunit followed by release of a pre-60S ribosomal subunit upon transcription termination. Ribosome assembly is driven in part by hierarchical association of assembly factors and r-proteins. Groups of proteins are thought to associate with pre-ribosomes cotranscriptionally during early assembly steps, whereas others associate later, after transcription is completed. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized phenotype observed upon disruption of ribosome assembly, in which normally late-binding proteins associate earlier, with pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA. As previously observed by many other groups, we show that disruption of 60S subunit biogenesis results in increased amounts of 35S pre-rRNA, suggesting that a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally. Surprisingly, we found that early pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA also contain proteins previously thought to only associate with pre-ribosomes after early pre-rRNA processing steps have separated maturation of the two subunits. We believe the shift to post-transcriptional processing is ultimately due to decreased cellular division upon disruption of ribosome assembly. When cells are grown under stress or to high density, a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally and follow an alternative processing pathway. Together, these results affirm the principle that ribosome assembly occurs through different, parallel assembly pathways and suggest that there is a kinetic foot-race between the formation of protein binding sites and pre-rRNA processing events. PMID:27036125

  2. Diagnostic Diagrams of Electron Density Versus Excitation for Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesgo-Tirado, H.; López, J. A.

    2002-02-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of electron density-excitation for a sample of 613 Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are presented. New empirical limits for these diagrams are derived from the H alpha /[N II] and H alpha /[S II] ratios.

  3. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  4. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  5. Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-06-01

    In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.

  6. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  7. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  8. GPU-based optical propagation simulator of a laser-processed crystal block for the X'tal cube PET detector.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuma; Ohnishi, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a next-generation DOI detector for PET that we are developing to offer higher resolution and higher sensitivity than is available with present detectors. It is constructed from a cubic monolithic scintillation crystal and silicon photomultipliers which are coupled on various positions of the six surfaces of the cube. A laser-processing technique is applied to produce 3D optical boundaries composed of micro-cracks inside the monolithic scintillator crystal. The current configuration is based on an empirical trial of a laser-processed boundary. There is room to improve the spatial resolution by optimizing the setting of the laser-processed boundary. In fact, the laser-processing technique has high freedom in setting the parameters of the boundary such as size, pitch, and angle. Computer simulation can effectively optimize such parameters. In this study, to design optical characteristics properly for the laser-processed crystal, we developed a Monte Carlo simulator which can model arbitrary arrangements of laser-processed optical boundaries (LPBs). The optical characteristics of the LPBs were measured by use of a setup with a laser and a photo-diode, and then modeled in the simulator. The accuracy of the simulator was confirmed by comparison of position histograms obtained from the simulation and from experiments with a prototype detector composed of a cubic LYSO monolithic crystal with 6 × 6 × 6 segments and multi-pixel photon counters. Furthermore, the simulator was accelerated by parallel computing with general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit. The calculation speed was about 400 times faster than that with a CPU. PMID:23896989

  9. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  10. Enhancing Learning Effectiveness through Connectance Diagrams: A New Tool for Learning Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sirirat Sae; Tan, Kim Hua; Platts, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a particular approach for increasing knowledge creation in organisation. The paper provides a discussion of related concepts, processes, and a tool. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes the reasons for drawing connectance diagrams, the process and the software. It also…

  11. Data Flow Diagramming Skills Acquisition: Impact of Cooperative versus Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anne; Bordoloi, Bijoy; Ryan, Sherry D.

    2007-01-01

    Information systems (IS) process modeling using the technique of Data Flow Diagramming (viz., Systems Analysis) can be defined as a complex task for IS designers. This study draws from the domains of educational psychology and organizational behavior in examining the training of novices in conceptual process modeling. Specifically, an experiment…

  12. Dissolution patterns on caramel blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    We investigate erosion by dissolution processes. We perform laboratory experiments on hard caramel bodies, which dissolve on a short timescale, compared to geological material such as limestone. We put a block of caramel, tilted from the horizontal, in a water tank without flow. The dissolution syrup, which is denser than pure water, sinks and the flow detaching from the surface creates patterns underneath the caramel block. These patterns result from the coupled dynamics of the flow detaching and the eroding surface and are reminiscent of scallops observed in the walls of phreatic cave passages. We investigate the mechanisms of formation of these structures and their evolution depending on several parameters such as the fluid density or the flow velocity. We finally parallel the formation of patterns on melting iceberg.

  13. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  14. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  16. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

  17. Block Play: It's Not Just for Boys Anymore--Strategies for Encouraging Girls' Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarz, Barb

    2008-01-01

    While block play is essential for both boys' and girls' social, cognitive, language, and motor development, girls do not engage in block play as frequently as boys. This situation can be attributed to the socialization process--children learn societal expectations for behavior and materials for both boys and girls--lack of experience for girls…

  18. The Atom - The Final Link in the Division Process or the First Building Block? Pre-Instructional Conceptions about the Structure of Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfundt, Helga

    The hypothesis as to the atomic structure of any given substance is introduced in many physics and chemistry textbooks by conveying the idea of repetitive division of a given amount of substance, for example, by grinding, dissolving, or evaporating. The rationale for this approach is the assumption of students inferring that this process of…

  19. Episodic memories as building blocks of identity processing styles and life domains satisfaction: Examining need satisfaction and need for cognitive closure in memories.

    PubMed

    Bouizegarene, Nabil; Philippe, Frederick L

    2016-05-01

    The interconnection between identity and memory is widely accepted, but the processes underlying this association remain unclear. The present study examined how specific experiential components of self-defining memories relate to identity processing styles. We also investigated whether those relationships occurred in a domain-specific manner. Participants (n = 583) completed the Identity Style Inventory-3, which we adapted to measure identity in the school and friend domains, as well as scales assessing their friend and school satisfaction. They then described a memory related to each of these domains and rated the level of need satisfaction and need for cognitive closure characterising each memory. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that need satisfaction in the school-related memory was positively associated with an informational identity style at school and with satisfaction at school, whereas need satisfaction in the friend-related memory was positively associated with an informational identity style in both the school and friend domain, and with satisfaction with friends. In addition, need for cognitive closure in both the friend- and school-related memory was associated with normative friend and school identity processing styles. These findings reveal that specific experiential components of self-defining memories are associated with certain identity processing styles. Furthermore, this relationship appears to be mostly domain-specific. PMID:25955020

  20. INLAND DISSOLVED SALT CHEMISTRY: STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF BIVARIATE AND TERNARY DIAGRAM MODELS FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

  1. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands-block number pooling is a process by which the 10,000 numbers in a central office code (NXX) are... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thousands-block number pooling. 52.20...

  2. A substitution at His-120 in the LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa blocks enzymatic activity without affecting propeptide processing or extracellular secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, J K; Kessler, E; Ohman, D E

    1996-01-01

    The LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade elastin and is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of this organism. LasA (20 kDa) is a member of the beta-lytic endopeptidase family of extracellular bacterial proteases, and it shows high-level staphylolytic activity. We sequenced the lasA gene from strain FRD1 and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli. The lasA gene encodes a precursor, known as pre-proLasA, of 45,582 Da. Amino-terminal sequence analysis allowed the identification of the signal peptidase cleavage site and revealed that the 31-amino-acid signal peptide was removed in E. coli. The remaining proLasA (42 kDa) did not undergo autoproteolytic processing and showed little staphylolytic activity. However, it was readily processed to a 20-kDa active staphylolytic protease by incubation with trypsin or with the culture filtrate of a P. aeruginosa lasAdelta mutant. Thus, removal of the propeptide (22 kDa) was required to convert proLasA into an active protease. Although LasA protease was critical for staphylolytic activity, other proteases like elastase were found to enhance staphylolysis. Under the control of an inducible trc promoter, lasA was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa and the processing intermediates were examined. Compared with wild-type cells, the overproducing cells accumulated more 42-kDa proLasA species, and the culture supernatants of the overproducing cells showed increased levels of active 20-kDa LasA protease. Small amounts of a 25-kDa extracellular LasA-related protein, which could represent a potential processing intermediate, were also observed. To better understand the structure-function relationships in LasA protease, we tested whether His-120-X-His-122 in the mature portion of LasA plays a role in activity. This motif and surrounding sequences are conserved in the related beta-lytic protease of Achromobacter lyticus. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change His-120 to Ala-120, thus forming the lasA5 allele. The product of lasA5 expressed from the chromosome of P. aeruginosa was processed to a stable, secreted 20-kDa protein (designated LasA-H120A) which was devoid of staphylolytic activity. This suggests that His-120 is essential for LasA activity and favors the possibility that proLasA processing and secretion in P. aeruginosa can proceed via mechanisms which do not involve autoproteolysis. PMID:8932318

  3. Block-based scalable wavelet image codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yiliang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a high performance block-based wavelet image coder which is designed to be of very low implementational complexity yet with rich features. In this image coder, the Dual-Sliding Wavelet Transform (DSWT) is first applied to image data to generate wavelet coefficients in fixed-size blocks. Here, a block only consists of wavelet coefficients from a single subband. The coefficient blocks are directly coded with the Low Complexity Binary Description (LCBiD) coefficient coding algorithm. Each block is encoded using binary context-based bitplane coding. No parent-child correlation is exploited in the coding process. There is also no intermediate buffering needed in between DSWT and LCBiD. The compressed bit stream generated by the proposed coder is both SNR and resolution scalable, as well as highly resilient to transmission errors. Both DSWT and LCBiD process the data in blocks whose size is independent of the size of the original image. This gives more flexibility in the implementation. The codec has a very good coding performance even the block size is (16,16).

  4. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Kendall A.; Lin, Yen -Hao; Mok, Jorge W.; Yager, Kevin G.; Strzalka, Joseph; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Verduzco, Rafael

    2015-11-03

    All-conjugated block copolymers may be an effective route to self-assembled photovoltaic devices, but we lack basic information on the relationship between molecular characteristics and photovoltaic performance. Here, we synthesize a library of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) block poly((9,9-dialkylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(alkylthiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT) donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers and carry out a comprehensive study of processing conditions, crystallinity, domain sizes, and side-chain structure on photovoltaic device performance. We find that all block copolymers studied exhibit an out-of-plane crystal orientation after deposition, and on thermal annealing at high temperatures the crystal orientation flips to an in-plane orientation. By varying processing conditions on polymer photovoltaic devices, we show thatmore » the crystal orientation has only a modest effect (15-20%) on photovoltaic performance. The addition of side-chains to the PFTBT block is found to decrease photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies by at least an order of magnitude. Through grazing-incidence X-ray measurements we find that the addition of side-chains to the PFTBT acceptor block results in weak segregation and small (< 10 nm) block copolymer self-assembled donor and acceptor domains. This work is the most comprehensive to date on all-conjugated block copolymer systems and suggests that photovoltaic performance of block copolymers depends strongly on the miscibility of donor and acceptor blocks, which impacts donor and acceptor domain sizes and purity. Lastly, strategies for improving the device performance of block copolymer photovoltaics should seek to increase segregation between donor and acceptor polymer domains.« less

  5. A non-fullerene electron acceptor based on fluorene and diketopyrrolopyrrole building blocks for solution-processable organic solar cells with an impressive open-circuit voltage.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemlata; Zu, Wang Xi; Gupta, Akhil; Chellappan, Vijila; Bilic, Ante; Sonar, Prashant; Rananaware, Anushri; Bhosale, Sidhanath V; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2014-11-21

    A novel solution-processable non-fullerene electron acceptor 6,6'-(5,5'-(9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene-2,7-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione) (DPP1) based on fluorene and diketopyrrolopyrrole conjugated moieties was designed, synthesized and fully characterized. DPP1 exhibited excellent solubility and high thermal stability which are essential for easy processing. Upon using DPP1 as an acceptor with the classical electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene), solution processable bulk-heterojunction solar cells afforded a power conversion efficiency of 1.2% with a high open-circuit voltage (1.1 V). As per our knowledge, this value of open circuit voltage is one of the highest values reported so far for a bulk-heterojunction device using DPP1 as a non-fullerene acceptor. PMID:25274538

  6. Colored HOMFLY polynomials of knots presented as double fat diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, An.; Ramadevi, P.; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Many knots and links in S 3 can be drawn as gluing of three manifolds with one or more four-punctured S 2 boundaries. We call these knot diagrams as double fat graphs whose invariants involve only the knowledge of the fusion and the braiding matrices of four -strand braids. Incorporating the properties of four-point conformal blocks in WZNW models, we conjecture colored HOMFLY polynomials for these double fat graphs where the color can be rectangular or non-rectangular representation. With the recent work of Gu-Jockers, the fusion matrices for the non-rectangular [21] representation, the first which involves multiplicity is known. We verify our conjecture by comparing with the [21] colored HOMFLY of many knots, obtained as closure of three braids. The conjectured form is computationally very effective leading to writing [21]-colored HOMFLY polynomials for many pretzel type knots and non-pretzel type knots. In particular, we find class of pretzel mutants which are distinguished and another class of mutants which cannot be distinguished by [21] representation. The difference between the [21]-colored HOMFLY of two mutants seems to have a general form, with A-dependence completely defined by the old conjecture due to Morton and Cromwell. In particular, we check it for an entire multi-parametric family of mutant knots evaluated using evolution method.

  7. Extrinsic germanium Blocked Impurity Bank (BIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy N.; Huffman, James E.; Watson, Dan M.

    1989-01-01

    Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors with long wavelength thresholds greater than 190 microns and peak quantum efficiencies of 4 percent, at an operating temperature of 1.8 K, have been fabricated. These proof of concept devices consist of a high purity germanium blocking layer epitaxially grown on a Ga-doped Ge substrate. This demonstration of BIB behavior in germanium enables the development of far infrared detector arrays similar to the current silicon-based devices. Present efforts are focussed on improving the chemical vapor deposition process used to create the blocking layer and on the lithographic processing required to produce monolithic detector arrays in germanium. Approaches to test the impurity levels in both the blocking and active layers are considered.

  8. Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, T. H.; O'Brien, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: One of the fundamental questions concerning the formation of the Earth is what is it made out of. The Earth appears to have condensed out of material from the solar nebula. We sample this "primitive" material in the form of chondritic meteorites. One of the most important constraints on possible building blocks for the Earth is the Earth#s oxygen iso-topic composition. Rocks from the Earth and Moon plot along a line (the terrestrial fractionation line) in diagrams of delta(sup 17)O (% relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water or SMOW) versus delta(sup 18)O (% relative to SMOW). Chondritic meteorites fall above and below this line. Distances from this line are given as Delta(sup 17)O (%) (= delta(sup 17)O - 0.52 x delta(sup 18)O).

  9. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

  10. Domain-specific languages and diagram customization for a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, B.; Dubos, G.; Banazadeh, P.; Reh, J.; Case, K.; Wang, Y.; Jones, S.; Picha, F.

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are severa- inefficiencies that arise from this situation. The first is that a customer team must wait two weeks to a month (which is 2-4 times the duration of most Team X studies themselves) for a finalized, detailed design description. Another is that this information must be re-entered by hand into the set of engineering artifacts and design tools that the mission concept team uses after a study is complete. Further, there is no persistent connection to Team X or institutionally shared formulation design tools and data after a given study, again reducing the direct reuse of designs created in a Team X study. This paper presents the underpinnings of subsystem DSLs as they were developed for this pilot. This includes specialized semantics for different domains as well as the process by which major categories of objects were derived in support of defining the DSLs. The feedback given to us by the domain experts on usability, along with a pilot study with the partial inclusion of these tools is also discussed.

  11. Random Block Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Werner; Metzger, Bernd; Müller, Peter

    2011-06-01

    We study fundamental spectral properties of random block operators that are common in the physical modelling of mesoscopic disordered systems such as dirty superconductors. Our results include ergodic properties, the location of the spectrum, existence and regularity of the integrated density of states, as well as Lifshits tails. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities arising from the block structure such as the occurrence of a robust gap in the middle of the spectrum. Without randomness in the off-diagonal blocks the density of states typically exhibits an inverse square-root singularity at the edges of the gap. In the presence of randomness we establish a Wegner estimate that is valid at all energies. It implies that the singularities are smeared out by randomness, and the density of states is bounded. We also show Lifshits tails at these band edges. Technically, one has to cope with a non-monotone dependence on the random couplings.

  12. Darwin's diagram of divergence of taxa as a causal model for the origin of species.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, Juan L

    2014-03-01

    On the basis that Darwin's theory of evolution encompasses two logically independent processes (common descent and natural selection), the only figure in On the Origin of Species (the Diagram of Divergence of Taxa) is often interpreted as illustrative of only one of these processes: the branching patterns representing common ancestry. Here, I argue that Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa represents a broad conceptual model of Darwin's theory, illustrating the causal efficacy of natural selection in producing well-defined varieties and ultimately species. The Tree Diagram encompasses the idea that natural selection explains common descent and the origin of organic diversity, thus representing a comprehensive model of Darwin's theory on the origin of species. I describe Darwin's Tree Diagram in relation to his argumentative strategy under the vera causa principle, and suggest that the testing of his theory based on the evidence from the geological record, the geographical distribution of organisms, and the mutual affinities of organic beings can be framed under the hypothetico-deductive method. Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa therefore represents a broad conceptual model that helps understanding the causal construction of Darwin's theory of evolution, the structure of his argumentative strategy, and the nature of his scientific methodology. PMID:24672902

  13. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  14. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  15. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  16. A Diagram Editor for Efficient Biomedical Knowledge Capture and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bohua; Jakupovic, Elvis; Wilson, Justin; Dai, Manhong; Xuan, Weijian; Mirel, Barbara; Athey, Brian; Watson, Stanley; Meng, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying complex disorders requires the integration of data and knowledge from different sources including free text literature and various biomedical databases. To facilitate this process, we created the Biomedical Concept Diagram Editor (BCDE) to help researchers distill knowledge from data and literature and aid the process of hypothesis development. A key feature of BCDE is the ability to capture information with a simple drag-and-drop. This is a vast improvement over manual methods of knowledge and data recording and greatly increases the efficiency of the biomedical researcher. BCDE also provides a unique concept matching function to enforce consistent terminology, which enables conceptual relationships deposited by different researchers in the BCDE database to be mined and integrated for intelligible and useful results. We hope BCDE will promote the sharing and integration of knowledge from different researchers for effective hypothesis development. PMID:21347131

  17. On the Cu-Nb Phase Diagram and Solidified Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, D.; Robinson, M. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    Container and containerless processing was employed to determine liquidus temperatures and to examine microstructural development in the Cu-Nb system. The Cu-Nb phase diagram of an S-shaped, near-horizontal liquidus, has been confirmed by both the temperature-time profiles and resultant microstructures with only Nb dendrites in a Cu matrix, which were obtained from crucible experiments under clean conditions. However, the microstructural pathways of Cu-Nb alloys are particularly sensitive to processing variables. By the addition of oxygen impurities or rapid solidification, droplet-shaped morphology was observed for some compositions, implying occurrence of a liquid-phase separation. The effects of impurities and cooling rates are analyzed in connection with a stable and metastable liquid miscibility gap, respectively.

  18. Toward a phase diagram for stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, K.

    1999-08-01

    A display of the tentatively basic parameters of stocks, i.e. the daily closing price and the daily transaction volume is presented eliminating the time variable between them. The “phase diagram” looks like a triangular region similar to the two-phase region of traffic diagrams. The data is taken for two companies (SGP and OXHP) which present different long-range correlations in the closing price value as examined by the linearly Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method. Substructures are observed in the “phase diagram” as due to changes in management policy, e.g. stock splits.

  19. Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, L.; Vannimenus, J.; Nadal, J.-P.

    2009-07-01

    The collective behavior in a variant of Schellings segregation model is characterized with methods borrowed from statistical physics, in a context where their relevance was not conspicuous. A measure of segregation based on cluster geometry is defined and several quantities analogous to those used to describe physical lattice models at equilibrium are introduced. This physical approach allows to distinguish quantitatively several regimes and to characterize the transitions between them, leading to the building of a phase diagram. Some of the transitions evoke empirical sudden ethnic turnovers. We also establish links with spin-1 models in physics. Our approach provides generic tools to analyze the dynamics of other socio-economic systems.

  20. Diagram of Saturn V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a good cutaway diagram of the Saturn V launch vehicle showing the three stages, the instrument unit, and the Apollo spacecraft. The chart on the right presents the basic technical data in clear detail. The Saturn V is the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in the United States. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multistage, multiengine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams. Development of the Saturn V was the responsibility of the Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville, Alabama, directed by Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  1. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  2. Group Theory Factors for Feynman Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ritbergen, T.; Schellekens, A. N.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    We present algorithms for the group independent reduction of group theory factors of Feynman diagrams. We also give formulas and values for a large number of group invariants in which the group theory factors are expressed. This includes formulas for various contractions of symmetric invariant tensors, formulas and algorithms for the computation of characters and generalized Dynkin indices and trace identities. Tables of all Dynkin indices for all exceptional algebras are presented, as well as all trace identities to order equal to the dual Coxeter number. Further results are available through efficient computer algorithms.

  3. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system". PMID:828004

  4. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional dilute binary alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, G.K.; Yaldram, K.; Sadiq, A.

    1997-04-01

    Phase diagrams of two-dimensional binary alloy with vacancies (ABV) is studied with pairwise interaction {epsilon}{sub AA}, {epsilon}{sub BB}, and {epsilon}{sub AB} between the nearest neighbors. Attention is focussed on the case where the vacancies are annealed and {epsilon}{sub BA} = {epsilon}, {epsilon}{sub AA} = {epsilon}{sub BB} = 0. For vacancy concentrations c{sub v} < 0.2, the critical temperature decreases linearly with c{sub v}. The vacancies remain randomly distributed within the A and B phase separated regions. For c{sub v} > 0.2 the critical temperature no longer shows this linear trend and falls to zero very sharply at c{sub v} = 0.39. This critical vacancy concentration is slightly lower than the one expected for quenched vacancies, where the percolation threshold of atomic species is 0.59 (c{sub v} = 0.41). The mobility of vacancies and the nature of atomic interactions makes it energetically favorable for the vacancies to occupy the boundary layers between A and B phase separated regions, thus making the process of phase separation difficult. This lowers the critical temperature below that of the case where the vacancies are quenched. Salient features of the phase diagram are discussed by comparison with previously studied similar systems with different interaction energies.

  5. Measurement and analysis of SHCCT diagram for CLAM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuming; Chen, Xizhang; Shen, Zheng; Madigan, Bruce; Yucheng, Lei; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is a leading candidate material for construction of the Chinese fusion reactor Test Blanket Module. The Simulated HAZ Continuous Cooling Transformation (SHCCT) diagram is developed via physical simulation, and the effects of thermal history on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld coarse-grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) in CLAM steel are evaluated. The results of thermal cycle simulation show that grain size increases and hardness decreases gradually with increasing heat input. Under certain conditions, especially when cooling times from 800 °C to 500 °C (T8/5) are larger than 136 s, delta ferrite may form which is deleterious for the TBM application. The amounts of delta ferrite are given under different T8/5. A SHCCT diagram of CLAM steel is developed using dilatometry and it predicts the AC1, AC3 and the Ms temperatures. With decreased cooling rate (larger T8/5), martensite laths widen and carbide precipitates grow. The results indicate that welding heat input should be taken into consideration and controlled in practical CLAM steel welding process applications.

  6. Traffic dynamics: Its impact on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Victor L.; van Lint, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-11-01

    Literature shows that-under specific conditions-the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole network. Recent works describe hysteresis effects: systematic deviations from the MFD as a result of loading and unloading. This article proposes a two dimensional generalization of the MFD, the so-called Generalized Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (GMFD), which relates the average flow to both the average density and the (spatial) inhomogeneity of density. The most important contribution is that we show this is a continuous function, of which the MFD is a projection. Using the GMFD, we can describe the mentioned hysteresis patterns in the MFD. The underlying traffic phenomenon explaining the two dimensional surface described by the GMFD is that congestion concentrates (and subsequently spreads out) around the bottlenecks that oversaturate first. We call this the nucleation effect. Due to this effect, the network flow is not constant for a fixed number of vehicles as predicted by the MFD, but decreases due to local queueing and spill back processes around the congestion "nuclei". During this build up of congestion, the production hence decreases, which gives the hysteresis effects.

  7. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  8. Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-05-01

    We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.

  9. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  10. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

  11. Phase diagram of a quantum Coulomb wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferr, G.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the quantum phase diagram of a one-dimensional Coulomb wire obtained using the path-integral Monte Carlo method. The exact knowledge of the nodal points of this system permits us to find the energy in an exact way, solving the sign problem which spoils fermionic calculations in higher dimensions. The results obtained allow for the determination of the stability domain, in terms of density and temperature, of the one-dimensional Wigner crystal. At low temperatures, the quantum wire reaches the quantum-degenerate regime, which is also described by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Increasing the temperature, the system transforms to a classical Boltzmann gas, which we simulate using classical Monte Carlo. At large enough density, we identify a one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas which remains quantum up to higher temperatures than in two- and three-dimensional electron gases. The obtained phase diagram and the energetic and structural properties of this system are relevant to experiments with electrons in quantum wires and to Coulomb ions in one-dimensional confinement.

  12. Magnetic phase diagrams of UNiGe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakotte, H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A.H.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    1997-11-01

    UNiGe undergoes two magnetic transitions in zero field. Here, the magnetic diagrams of UNiGe for B {parallel} b and B {parallel} c are reported. We performed temperatures scans of the magnetization in static magnetic fields up to 19.5T applied along the b and c axes. For both orientations 3 magnetic phases have been identified in the B-T diagrams. We confirmed the previously reported phase boundaries for B {parallel} c, and in addition we determined the location of the phase boundaries for B {parallel} b. We discuss a possible relationship of the two zero-field antiferromagnetic phases (commensurate: T<42K; incommensurate: 42K

  13. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  14. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  15. A New Process for Maleic Anhydride Synthesis from a Renewable Building Block: The Gas-Phase Oxidehydration of Bio-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    Pavarelli, Giulia; Velasquez Ochoa, Juliana; Caldarelli, Aurora; Puzzo, Francesco; Cavani, Fabrizio; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the synthesis of maleic anhydride by oxidehydration of a bio-alcohol, 1-butanol, as a possible alternative to the classical process of n-butane oxidation. A vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst was used to explore the one-pot reaction, which involved two sequential steps: 1) 1-butanol dehydration to 1-butene, catalysed by acid sites, and 2) the oxidation of butenes to maleic anhydride, catalysed by redox sites. A non-negligible amount of phthalic anhydride was also formed. The effect of different experimental parameters was investigated with chemically sourced 1-butanol, and the results were then confirmed by using genuinely bio-sourced 1-butanol. In the case of bio-1-butanol, however, the purity of the product remarkably affected the yield of maleic anhydride. It was found that the reaction mechanism includes the oxidation of butenes to crotonaldehyde and the oxidation of the latter to either furan or maleic acid, both of which are transformed to produce maleic anhydride. PMID:26073302

  16. Charge transport studies in donor-acceptor block copolymer PDPP-TNT and PC71BM based inverted organic photovoltaic devices processed in room conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shashi B.; Sonar, Prashant; Singh, Samarendra P.

    2015-07-01

    Diketopyrrolopyrole-naphthalene polymer (PDPP-TNT), a donor-acceptor co-polymer, has shown versatile behavior demonstrating high performances in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this paper we report investigation of charge carrier dynamics in PDPP-TNT, and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) bulk-heterojunction based inverted OPV devices using current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics, space charge limited current (SCLC) measurements, capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, and impedance spectroscopy (IS). OPV devices in inverted architecture, ITO/ZnO/PDPP-TNT:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag, are processed and characterized at room conditions. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these devices are measured ˜3.8%, with reasonably good fill-factor 54.6%. The analysis of impedance spectra exhibits electron's mobility ˜2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1, and lifetime in the range of 0.03-0.23 ms. SCLC measurements give hole mobility of 1.12 × 10-5 cm2V-1s-1, and electron mobility of 8.7 × 10-4 cm2V-1s-1.

  17. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  18. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  19. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  20. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of

  1. Principles for the development of automatic optimization of the basic processes of coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, V.I.; Levchenko, I.I.; Vlasov, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    The input and output variables of the jigging and flotation methods of coal cleaning were considered. The factors of interest in the jigging operation were capacity, contamination of concentrate, and depth of the bed. Mathematical expressions were derived for the optimization of this process. Also studied was the flotation process of coal cleaning. Variables of interest in this process were ash content of the tailings and concentrate, and the consumption of frothing and collector reagents. Mathematical expressions and a block diagram for optimization of this process were given.

  2. The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

  3. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of blocking ridges is frequently observed. Fields of significantly positive skewness are found in higher latitude regions where mature blocking episodes often interrupt the smaller fluctuations about the normal geopotential height. The final objective is to examine the association between the first six harmonics of the long wave pattern and the temporal and spatial characteristics of concurrent blocking episodes. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of school.) UMI.

  4. Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Joohyun; Ferlauto, A. S.; Rovira, P. I.; Wronski, C. R.; Collins, R. W.

    1999-10-01

    Real-time optical studies have been applied to develop phase diagrams that characterize plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon thin films at low temperature (200 °C). The deposition phase diagrams describe regimes over which predominantly amorphous and microcrystalline Si phases are obtained as a function of the accumulated thickness and the hydrogen-to-silane gas flow ratio R=[H2]/[SiH4] in the PECVD process. The diagrams for different substrates provide insights into optimization of amorphous Si materials and solar cells.

  5. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-04-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory (calculus-based) physics course in a novel context—tracking the distribution of energy in a system as it transforms among three categories (e.g., gravitational, kinetic, and thermal) or transfers among three objects (e.g., inductor, capacitor, and resistor). The ternary diagram has some significant advantages over other graphical representations of energy distributions: an entire scenario can appear in a single plot, even when using very small time steps. This also means that the plot can be used to compare relative rates of energy change during various processes. Our goal for this paper is to introduce the ternary diagram and discuss these advantages in hopes that this will stimulate broader use of ternary diagrams and further research into their educational utility.

  6. Teaching Electron--Positron--Photon Interactions with Hands-on Feynman Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontokostas, George; Kalkanis, George

    2013-04-01

    Feynman diagrams are introduced in many physics textbooks, such as those by Alonso and Finn 1 and Serway,2 and their use in physics education has been discussed by various authors.3-5 They have an appealing simplicity and can give insight into events in the microworld. Yet students often do not understand their significance and often cannot combine the basic units of interaction—points where the world lines of two fermions and one boson meet—to construct diagrams for observed processes.

  7. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. An Evaluation of Substrates for Tactile Maps and Diagrams: Scanning Speed and Users' Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehoel, Sandra; Ungar, Simon; McCallum, Don; Rowell, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative suitability of a range of base materials for producing tactile maps and diagrams via a new ink-jet process. The visually impaired and sighted participants tactilely scanned arrays of symbols that were printed on seven substrate materials, including paper, plastic, and aluminum. In general, the rougher substrates…

  9. Phase diagram of an ising model with long-range frustrating interactions: A theoretical analysis

    PubMed

    Grousson; Tarjus; Viot

    2000-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the phase diagram of a frustrated Ising model with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interactions and long-range (Coulombic) antiferromagnetic interactions. For nonzero frustration, long-range ferromagnetic order is forbidden, and the ground state of the system consists of phases characterized by periodically modulated structures. At finite temperatures, the phase diagram is calculated within the mean-field approximation. Below the transition line that separates the disordered and the ordered phases, the frustration-temperature phase diagram displays an infinite number of "flowers," each flower being made by an infinite number of modulated phases generated by structure combination branching processes. The specificities introduced by the long-range nature of the frustrating interaction and the limitation of the mean-field approach are finally discussed. PMID:11138054

  10. Novel UNC-44 AO13 ankyrin is required for axonal guidance in C. elegans, contains six highly repetitive STEP blocks separated by seven potential transmembrane domains, and is localized to neuronal processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Anthony J; Boontrakulpoontawee, Pratumtip; Rebeiz, Natalie; Domanus, Marc; Otsuka, Dawn; Velamparampil, Nena; Chan, Sabrina; Vande Wyngaerde, Marshall; Campagna, Sarah; Cox, Andrea

    2002-03-01

    Conventional ankyrins are cortical cytoskeletal proteins that form an ankyrin-spectrin meshwork underlying the plasma membrane. We report here the unusual structure of a novel ankyrin (AO13 ankyrin, 775,369 Da, 6994 aa, pI = 4.45) that is required for proper axonal guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans. AO13 ankyrin contains the ANK repeat and spectrin-binding domains found in other ankyrins, but differs from all others in that the acidic carboxyl region contains six blocks of serine/threonine/glutamic acid/proline rich (STEP) repeats separated by seven hydrophobic domains. The STEP repeat blocks are composed primarily of sequences related to ETTTTTTVTREHFEPED(E/D)X(n)VVESEEYSASGSPVPSE (E/K)DVE(H/R)VI, and the hydrophobic domains contain sequences related to PESGEESDGEGFGSKVLGFAKK[AGMVAGGVVAAPVALAAVGA]KAAYDALKKDDDEE, which includes a potential transmembrane domain (in brackets). Recombinant protein fragments of AO13 ankyrin were used to prepare polyclonal antisera against the spectrin-binding domain (AO271 Ab), the conventional ankyrin regulatory domain (AO280 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP domain (AO346 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP + hydrophobic domain (AO289 Ab), and against two carboxyl terminal domain fragments (AO263 Ab and AO327 Ab). Western blot analysis with these Ab probes demonstrated multiple protein isoforms. By immunofluorescence microscopy, the antispectrin-binding and regulatory domain (AO271 and AO280) antibodies recognized many cell types, including neurons, and stained the junctions between cells. The AO13 ankyrin-specific (AO289 and AO346) antibodies showed a neurally restricted pattern, staining nerve processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies. These results are consistent with a role for AO13 ankyrin in neural development. PMID:11891667

  11. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE: COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Makarova, Lidia

    2009-08-15

    The color-magnitude diagrams/tip of the red giant branch (CMDs/TRGB) section of the Extragalactic Distance Database contains a compilation of observations of nearby galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. Approximately 250 (and increasing) galaxies in the Local Volume have CMDs and the stellar photometry tables used to produce them available through the Web. Various stellar populations that make up a galaxy are visible in the CMDs, but our primary purpose for collecting and analyzing these galaxy images is to measure the TRGB in each. We can estimate the distance to a galaxy by using stars at the TRGB as standard candles. In this paper, we describe the process of constructing the CMDs and make the results available to the public.

  12. Sliding stiff diagrams: A sophisticated ground water analytical tool

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, D.J.; Heil, J.H.; Black, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Stiff diagrams are a multivariate method of analysis used to describe the chemical state of ground water. The use of stiff diagrams to describe multiconstituent contamination sites, such as landfills, has distinct advantages over single constituent analyses. Problems associated with traditional Stiff diagram analyses, such as diagram attenuation, can be addressed by allowing the scale of the diagram to vary with the ionic strength of the analyzed sample. The use of these sliding scale Stiff diagrams reveals the chemical state of the ground water over wide ranges of constituent concentrations and thus allows for sensitive and sophisticated depictions of complicated contamination sites in a fashion that is extremely difficult to replicate with single constituent analyses. This approach has possible applications for understanding and tracing the mixing and chemical changes in uncontaminated settings.

  13. Phase diagram of magnetic vortex dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. Y.; Galkiewicz, A. T.; Crowell, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of a magnetic vortex are influenced profoundly by nonlinear effects at large and small amplitudes. For example, a strongly driven magnetic vortex is unstable with respect to internal deformation, leading to reversal of its core magnetization. At small amplitudes, a nonlinear response is associated with pinning of the vortex core. Given these phenomena, there is an acute need for a global picture of vortex dynamics over a wide range of excitation amplitudes and frequencies. We have constructed a phase diagram of vortex dynamics in permalloy (Ni80Fe20) disks by probing the response spectrum over four orders of magnitude in excitation power. We identify the boundary separating pinned and unpinned dynamics in a phase space of amplitude and frequency. Our approach allows for a highly quantitative analysis of the pinning potential for localized defects and can be used to trace the dynamics of a single vortex from deep in the pinning regime to the onset of core reversal.

  14. The Phase Diagram of Superionic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiming; Clark, Bryan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Using the variable cell Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method, we study the phase diagram of superionic ice from 200GPa to 2.5TPa. We present evidence that at very high pressure the FCC structure of the oxygen sublattice may become unstable allowing for a new superionic ice phase, in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P21 structure found in zero-temperature total energy calculations. We also report on how the melting temperature of the hydrogen sublattice is affected by this new crystalline structure of the oxygen sublattice. This work was supported by the NSF under grant DMS-1065894(J.S. and R.C.) and PHY11-25915(B.C.).

  15. Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-04-01

    The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.

  16. Phase diagram of nondegenerate twisted mass fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkel, Derek P.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2014-11-01

    We determine the phase diagram and pion spectrum for Wilson and twisted-mass fermions in the presence of nondegeneracy between the up and down quarks and discretization errors, using Wilson and twisted-mass chiral perturbation theory. We find that the C P -violating phase of the continuum theory (which occurs for sufficiently large nondegeneracy) is continuously connected to the Aoki phase of the lattice theory with degenerate quarks. We show that discretization effects can, in some cases, push simulations with physical masses closer to either the C P -violating phase or another phase not present in the continuum, so that at sufficiently large lattice spacings physical-point simulations could lie in one of these phases.

  17. Global Phase Diagram in Layered Organic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Yaowu

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic superconductors serve as model systems for Mott physics with geometrical frustration. The global phase diagram of such system is obtained by using Gutzwiller variational method to study a Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term. Five possible candidates of ground state are obtained respectively, including a spin liquid insulating state at large on-site Coulomb repulsion U and large lattice frustration t'/t, an antiferromagnetic state at large U and small t'/t , two Gossamer superconducting states at medium U with either gapless dx 2 - y 2-wave (small t'/t) or gapped d +id-wave symmetry (large t'/t) , and a metallic Fermi liquid state at small U. Moreover, we study the evolution of double occupancy number d in terms of different U and t'/t parameters mimicking the pressure effect. Our results are qualitatively consistent with main experimental results in organic superconductors. -/abstract- Billing ID: 814549 Member I

  18. Phase diagram in the entanglement PNJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, A.; Kalinovsky, Y.; Toneev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the vector interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop are studied in combination with the entanglement interaction between the quark and pure gauge sectors. We investigate the QCD phase diagram and find that the first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon chemical potentials and its critical endpoint disappear for sufficiently large values of the vector interaction constant Gv. The presence of an entanglement interaction between quark and pure gauge sectors leads to an increase of the value Gv for which the first order transition disappears. The influence of a nonzero Gv on the curvature of the crossover boundary in the T - ? plane nearby ?= 0 is also examined for both cases.

  19. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. PMID:26050889

  20. Developing grain boundary diagrams as a materials science tool: A case study of nickel-doped molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiaomeng; Luo Jian

    2011-07-01

    Impurity-based, premelting-like, grain boundary (GB) ''phases'' (complexions) can form in alloys and influence sintering, creep, and microstructural development. Calculation of Phase Diagrams (CalPhaD) methods and Miedema-type statistical interfacial thermodynamic models are combined to forecast the formation and stability of subsolidus quasiliquid GB phases in binary alloys. This work supports a long-range scientific goal of developing ''GB (phase) diagrams'' as a new materials science tool to help controlling the materials fabrication processing and resultant materials properties. Using nickel-doped molybdenum as a model system, a type of GB diagram (called ''{lambda} diagram'') is computed to represent the temperature- and composition-dependent thermodynamic tendency for general GBs to disorder. Subsequently, controlled sintering experiments are conducted to estimate the GB diffusivity as a function of temperature and overall composition, and the experimental results correlate well with the computed GB diagram. Although they are not yet rigorous GB-phase diagrams with well-defined transition lines, the predictability and usefulness of such {lambda} diagrams are demonstrated. Related interfacial thermodynamic models and computational approaches are discussed.

  1. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  2. Phase diagram of twisted mass lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2004-11-01

    We use the effective chiral Lagrangian to analyze the phase diagram of two-flavor twisted mass lattice QCD as a function of the normal and twisted masses, generalizing previous work for the untwisted theory. We first determine the chiral Lagrangian including discretization effects up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in a combined expansion in which m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}/(4{pi}f{sub {pi}}){sup 2}{approx}a{lambda} (a being the lattice spacing, and {lambda}={lambda}{sub QCD}). We then focus on the region where m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}/(4{pi}f{sub {pi}}){sup 2}{approx}(a{lambda}){sup 2}, in which case competition between leading and NLO terms can lead to phase transitions. As for untwisted Wilson fermions, we find two possible phase diagrams, depending on the sign of a coefficient in the chiral Lagrangian. For one sign, there is an Aoki phase for pure Wilson fermions, with flavor and parity broken, but this is washed out into a crossover if the twisted mass is nonvanishing. For the other sign, there is a first order transition for pure Wilson fermions, and we find that this transition extends into the twisted mass plane, ending with two symmetrical second order points at which the mass of the neutral pion vanishes. We provide graphs of the condensate and pion masses for both scenarios, and note a simple mathematical relation between them. These results may be of importance to numerical simulations.

  3. Time-temperature-transformation diagrams with more than one nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The structures of time-temperature-transformation diagrams of glasses which crystallize the combined homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization mechanisms are examined. Considerations are given to the factors which might produce more than one extremum in such diagrams. Specific nucleation and growth models are used, and the influence of the parameters which appear in the nucleation and growth rate expressions upon the structure of the diagrams is evaluated.

  4. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  5. Intraocular radiation blocking.

    PubMed

    Finger, P T; Ho, T K; Fastenberg, D M; Hyman, R A; Stroh, E M; Packer, S; Perry, H D

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application. PMID:2211021

  6. Anatomy Of A Code Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Edward

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a short definition of a MIL-STD-782 code block, to introduce the advantage of using a code block, to discuss the generation of a code block, and to identify two problems that have limited the wide-spread use of code block data annotation: the rate of information retrieval through-put, and the error rate associated with this information retrieval. Finally, an automatic code block reader, useful in alleviating these two problems is identified. With the introduction of the automatic reader, the use of the code block, long held in its infancy, can grow to full maturity.

  7. Application of influence diagrams to prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jrgen; Phillips, Mark H.; Cho, Paul S.; Kalet, Ira; Doctor, Jason N.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose is to incorporate clinically relevant factors such as patient-specific and dosimetric information as well as data from clinical trials in the decision-making process for the selection of prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. The approach is to incorporate the decision theoretic concept of an influence diagram into the solution of the multiobjective optimization inverse planning problem. A set of candidate IMRT plans was obtained by varying the importance factors for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organ-at-risk (OAR) in combination with simulated annealing to explore a large part of the solution space. The Pareto set for the PTV and OAR was analysed to demonstrate how the selection of the weighting factors influenced which part of the solution space was explored. An influence diagram based on a Bayesian network with 18 nodes was designed to model the decision process for plan selection. The model possessed nodes for clinical laboratory results, tumour grading, staging information, patient-specific information, dosimetric information, complications and survival statistics from clinical studies. A utility node was utilized for the decision-making process. The influence diagram successfully ranked the plans based on the available information. Sensitivity analyses were used to judge the reasonableness of the diagram and the results. In conclusion, influence diagrams lend themselves well to modelling the decision processes for IMRT plan selection. They provide an excellent means to incorporate the probabilistic nature of data and beliefs into one model. They also provide a means for introducing evidence-based medicine, in the form of results of clinical trials, into the decision-making process.

  8. On the nonequilibrium diagram technique: derivation, some features, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arseev, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    We review the succession of ideas underlying the emergence of the nonequilibrium diagram technique (Keldysh diagram technique). Simple examples are used to illustrate the implementation of the technique and to demonstrate possible difficulties and the ways to overcome them. Together with well-known facts, some lesser-discussed details are considered, in particular, whether the so-called three-component technique is necessary. Several applications of the nonequilibrium diagram technique are discussed including, notably, tunneling systems and linear response problems. We hope that some parts of the review can be useful even for the reader familiar with the nonequilibrium diagram technique.

  9. Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Peter; Zhang, Leishi; Purchase, Helen

    2012-07-01

    Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams. PMID:22577151

  10. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-15

    The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. 53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. 54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. Compare and contrast the reaction coordinate diagrams for chemical reactions and cytoskeletal force generators.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Reaction coordinate diagrams are used to relate the free energy changes that occur during the progress of chemical processes to the rate and equilibrium constants of the process. Here I briefly review the application of these diagrams to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the generation of force and motion by cytoskeletal motors and polymer ratchets as they mediate intracellular transport, organelle dynamics, cell locomotion, and cell division. To provide a familiar biochemical context for discussing these subcellular force generators, I first review the application of reaction coordinate diagrams to the mechanisms of simple chemical and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. My description of reaction coordinate diagrams of motors and polymer ratchets is simplified relative to the rigorous biophysical treatment found in many of the references that I use and cite, but I hope that the essay provides a valuable qualitative representation of the physical chemical parameters that underlie the generation of force and motility at molecular scales. In any case, I have found that this approach represents a useful interdisciplinary framework for understanding, researching, and teaching the basic molecular mechanisms by which motors contribute to fundamental cell biological processes. PMID:23408787

  15. Workflow in interventional radiology: nerve blocks and facet blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddoway, Donald; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Burgert, Oliver; Neumuth, Thomas; Watson, Vance; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Workflow analysis has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency and clinical outcomes of medical procedures. In this study, we recorded the workflow for nerve block and facet block procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in an internet browser, and allows the user to record the actions taken by the physician during a procedure. The data recorded during the procedure is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We have successfully gathered data on a number if cases using a tablet PC, and these preliminary results show the feasibility of using this software in an interventional radiology setting. We are currently accruing additional cases and when more data has been collected we will analyze the workflow of these procedures to look for inefficiencies and potential improvements.

  16. NIPER Lab WARDEN -- Descriptive panels and diagrams for NIPER Lab WARDEN software. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1994-04-01

    This report is the second volume of a two-volume series on the NIPER Lab WARDEN computer program, a modular laboratory or pilot plant automation software designed for data acquisition/control/analysis/presentation. Volume 1 of the series is the User Manual that serves all users, whereas this volume is the Reference Manual intended for advanced users examining the structure or modifying the program. Volume 1 contains a brief introduction of LabVIEW and object-oriented programming, various features of the NIPER Lab WARDEN program, instructions on how to use these features, and several example problems and their step-by-step solutions. This volume (Volume 2) contains the complete program code needed to reproduce or modify the program. It includes the position in hierarchy, the connector pane, the front panel, and the block diagram for each of the virtual instruments (VI) in NIPER Lab WARDEN. The panels and block diagrams contained herein are generated from the computer program described in Volume 1 but are arranged to show and explain the structure and interrelationship between various elements of the program.

  17. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594.301 Section 594.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked...

  18. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked...

  19. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.301 Blocked...

  20. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  2. Spectrum monitoring of electromagnetic signals from rocks to control geodynamic processes under working mine conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombizov, A. A.; Bespalko, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper considers the techniques for continuous monitoring of samples and rocks destruction using the parameters of the measured electromagnetic signals which are generated in the destructive processes. The block diagram of the recorder is presented and the methods for processing of the measured electromagnetic signals to monitor and predict the geodynamic processes in rocks or the destruction of dielectric materials under electromagnetic interference. A phase modeling of the method to extract a useful signal from the background noise and electromagnetic interference has been implemented.

  3. Experience gained from computer processing of physical experimental data during the restoration of measured values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamotko, Z. N.; Shatrovskiy, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    The processing stage in which the restored values of the physical parameters are received is described. The following main steps are discussed: estimation of the state of the telemetry data, processing of the calibration data, and determination of the errors in the data; data decommutation and analysis of the structure of measurement cycles for each instrument; decoding, estimates of the reliability of the restored data, and their agreement with the models adopted for the measurement process; and analysis of errors due to deterministic and random factors. A block diagram of the method is presented.

  4. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  5. Concept and development of information flow diagram for literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Masaru; Sato, Shoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Koike, Akihisa

    2007-07-01

    The Information Flow Diagram for Literature Survey (IFDLS) has been developed to manage information and procedure in the literature survey phase of the PTAs selection process. It is a tool utilizing information technology, which can organize, analyze, and evaluate information from literature survey and manage their process systematically. IFDLS is able to show the flow of information and data, and the history of information management processing. Information coverage and quality is not homogenous throughout the country and, in some areas, there may not even be sufficient data available to be able to reach a judgment on conformity with the site-specific evaluation factors (SSEF). Literature surveys could only be conducted on a volunteer area before it is nominated as a PIA. However, the absence of information on any factor mentioned will not constitute disqualification of the area. On the contrary, an attempt to compare these sites with analogous areas in Japan will be done to assemble sufficient data and consequently make a decision on whether to proceed further. The application of IFDLS to literature survey phase of the PIA selection process is being proposed. The concept, construction, application and evolution of IFDLS towards application phase on a trial basis are discussed. (authors)

  6. Modeling Yin-Yang balance in tai-chi diagram with a melting-freezing rotating device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sui; Chen, Tzu-Fang

    2001-10-01

    This paper develops a physical model describing the Yin-Yang balance in the tai-chi diagram via the melting and freezing processes taking place in a rotating device. First, a physical model is established for a melting and freezing rotating device applied for transferring heat from a heat source to a heat sink. The device consists of two concentric cylinders with a phase change material being filled between them. During the melting process, heat is supplied from the heat source to the device, and the phase change material in the device melts. The melting process is equivalent to yang in the tai-chi diagram. During the freezing process, heat is discharged from the device to the heat sink, and the phase change material in the device freezes. The freezing process is equivalent to yin in the tai-chi diagram. The moving phase boundaries of the melting and freezing processes form two curves, representing the interface curves between the yin and yang in the tai-chi diagram. The variation of the thermal strength in the heat source and heat sink represents the variation of the yin -yang balance in the tai-chi diagram.

  7. Nanoparticles in the environment: assessment using the causal diagram approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) cause concern for health and safety as their impact on the environment and humans is not known. Relatively few studies have investigated the toxicological and environmental effects of exposure to naturally occurring NPs (NNPs) and man-made or engineered NPs (ENPs) that are known to have a wide variety of effects once taken up into an organism. A review of recent knowledge (between 2000-2010) on NP sources, and their behaviour, exposure and effects on the environment and humans was performed. An integrated approach was used to comprise available scientific information within an interdisciplinary logical framework, to identify knowledge gaps and to describe environment and health linkages for NNPs and ENPs. The causal diagram has been developed as a method to handle the complexity of issues on NP safety, from their exposure to the effects on the environment and health. It gives an overview of available scientific information starting with common sources of NPs and their interactions with various environmental processes that may pose threats to both human health and the environment. Effects of NNPs on dust cloud formation and decrease in sunlight intensity were found to be important environmental changes with direct and indirect implication in various human health problems. NNPs and ENPs exposure and their accumulation in biological matrices such as microbiota, plants and humans may result in various adverse effects. The impact of some NPs on human health by ROS generation was found to be one of the major causes to develop various diseases. A proposed cause-effects diagram for NPs is designed considering both NNPs and ENPs. It represents a valuable information package and user-friendly tool for various stakeholders including students, researchers and policy makers, to better understand and communicate on issues related to NPs. PMID:22759495

  8. Layout pattern analysis using the Voronoi diagram of line segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sandeep Kumar; Cheilaris, Panagiotis; Gabrani, Maria; Papadopoulou, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of problematic patterns in very large scale integration (VLSI) designs is of great value as the lithographic simulation tools face significant timing challenges. To reduce the processing time, such a tool selects only a fraction of possible patterns which have a probable area of failure, with the risk of missing some problematic patterns. We introduce a fast method to automatically extract patterns based on their structure and context, using the Voronoi diagram of line-segments as derived from the edges of VLSI design shapes. Designers put line segments around the problematic locations in patterns called "gauges," along which the critical distance is measured. The gauge center is the midpoint of a gauge. We first use the Voronoi diagram of VLSI shapes to identify possible problematic locations, represented as gauge centers. Then we use the derived locations to extract windows containing the problematic patterns from the design layout. The problematic locations are prioritized by the shape and proximity information of the design polygons. We perform experiments for pattern selection in a portion of a 22-nm random logic design layout. The design layout had 38,584 design polygons (consisting of 199,946 line segments) on layer Mx, and 7079 markers generated by an optical rule checker (ORC) tool. The optical rules specify requirements for printing circuits with minimum dimension. Markers are the locations of some optical rule violations in the layout. We verify our approach by comparing the coverage of our extracted patterns to the ORC-generated markers. We further derive a similarity measure between patterns and between layouts. The similarity measure helps to identify a set of representative gauges that reduces the number of patterns for analysis.

  9. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  10. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language

  11. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  12. Multi-level bandwidth efficient block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The multilevel technique is investigated for combining block coding and modulation. There are four parts. In the first part, a formulation is presented for signal sets on which modulation codes are to be constructed. Distance measures on a signal set are defined and their properties are developed. In the second part, a general formulation is presented for multilevel modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate Euclidean distances. The distance properties, Euclidean weight distribution and linear structure of multilevel modulation codes are investigated. In the third part, several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are proposed. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of code C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C. In the last part, error performance of block modulation codes is analyzed for an AWGN channel based on soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding. Error probabilities of some specific codes are evaluated based on their Euclidean weight distributions and simulation results.

  13. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  14. Authoring Diagram-Based CBA with CourseMarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Colin A.; Bligh, Brett; Symeonidis, Pavlos; Tsintsifas, Athanasios

    2009-01-01

    The CourseMarker system has been used to assess free-response computer based assessment (CBA) exercises since 1998. The aim of the studies reported here was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of developing and deploying diagram-based exercises using DATsys, an authoring environment for diagram-based CBA, together with CourseMarker.…

  15. Using Cabri3D Diagrams for Teaching Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Cabri3D is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching 3D geometry. The dynamic nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri3D diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…

  16. Improving Students' Diagram Comprehension with Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony C.; Fitzhugh, Shannon L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Wills, Theodore W.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested whether students can be taught to better understand conventional representations in diagrams, photographs, and other visual representations in science textbooks. The authors developed a teacher-delivered, workbook-and-discussion-based classroom instructional method called Conventions of Diagrams (COD). The authors trained 1…

  17. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  18. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  19. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then

  20. Quark diagrams and the. cap omega. /sup -/ nonleptonic decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, W.A.

    1980-09-01

    The quark-diagram model for nonleptonic two-body baryon decays is discussed and applied to the decay of the ..cap omega../sup -/ particle. Current algebra is not employed, but the relation between the quark diagrams and current algebra is explored.

  1. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The

  2. Figures of Thought: The Use of Diagrams in Teaching Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends how chalkboard displays of well-designed diagrams can be used in sociology courses on the college level to complement verbal lectures. Specific advantages of diagrams are that they appeal through visual imagery to the right hemisphere of the brain and encourage a nonverbal dimension to the teacher's presentation. (Author/DB)

  3. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and...

  4. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time. PMID:20855916

  5. Diversions: Spatial Thinking Tasks--Cube Diagrams and Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…

  6. The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

  7. 27 CFR 44.88 - Description and diagram of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description and diagram of... Warehouse Proprietors § 44.88 Description and diagram of premises. The premises to be used by an export... the bond by number and street. Where such premises consist of less than an entire building, a...

  8. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  9. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  10. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  11. Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landecker, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

  12. Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Maralee

    2011-01-01

    In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

  13. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

  14. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional

  15. Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

  16. QCD Phase Diagram Using Dyson-Schwinger Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxin; Qin Sixue; Chang Lei; Roberts, Craig D.

    2011-05-24

    We describe briefly the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD and the study of the QCD phase diagram in this approach. The phase diagram in terms of the temperature and chemical potential, and that in the space of coupling strength and current-quark mass are given.

  17. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  18. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  19. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  20. Modernized system for the automatic regulation of the flotation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenman, E.S.; Bugaisen, I.M.; Deberdeev, I.Kh.; Livshits, A.B.; Nikitina, V.S.; Voitenko, B.I.; Bezlyudnyi, I.F.

    1984-01-01

    An improved system for automation of the flotation section of the Zaporozhye Coking Plant including control of the density and average particle size in the feedstock and regulation of addition of reagents in the overall flow is described. A block diagram of the system is included. The use of this automated system along with application of corrections to the reagent system at the flotation section improved the process and made it more economical. The ash content of the flotation wastes increased by 5-8%, the flotation-concentrate output increased by 0.5%, and its ash content was lowered by 0.2-0.4% using the automated system.

  1. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  2. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  3. Phase diagram of colloid-rod system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui

    2010-01-01

    The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.

  4. Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

  5. Schematic diagram of (VDT) - open throat design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Schematic diagram of Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) - open throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott note in NACA TR 416 (p. 305) that a serious fire destroyed the tunnel (not the steel shell) in August 1927. The original design had a closed-throat test section five feet in diameter. After the fire it was decided to convert to an open throat design as depicted here. Jacobs and Abbott reported that this design was not satisfactory. 'The difficulties, which included excessive vibration, unsteady velocity at the test section, a rather large pressure gradient along the axis of the test section, and excessive effects of extraneous air currents on the balance, were overcome by rebuilding parts of the tunnel.' L2742.03: After a fire in August 1927 destroyed the VDT (not the steel shell), engineers decided to replace the original closed throat design with an open throat test section. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was immediately replaced with a new closed-throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott wrote: 'The whole interior structure was changed to the closed-throat type. A new exit cone having a smaller divergence angle and a new entrance cone having a better form were built. The synchronous-drive motor was replaced by a direct-current motor. These changes were completed in December, 1930.' (NACA TR No. 416, p. 305)

  6. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  7. ELECTRON CORRELATION AND PLUTONIUM PHASE DIAGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    A. LAWSON; J. ROBERTS; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    The energy and entropy curves for unalloyed Pu mark the extent of our progress toward an understanding of the phase diagrams presented at the beginning of the paper; it is clear that there is still a long way to go. It would be desirable to evaluate the vibrational thermodynamic functions from measured phonon spectra. However, this may require the growth of single crystals, if the PDF method using powder diffraction proves impractical for Pu. The measurement of inelastic phonon densities of states from polycrystalline samples might be a practical method for all phases of Pu. Estimates of the electronic contributions to the thermodynamics have been derived from the work of Wallace (1998). It would be of interest to compare these with theoretical estimates to evaluate the role of electron correlation in the phase stability of plutonium metal. As emphasized by Wallace, this will be an ''enormous challenge'' to electronic structure theory. In particular, we need a more predictive understanding of how narrow bands in Pu stabilize idiosyncratic crystal structures (Soederlind et al., 1995 and Soederlind, 1998) Materials Properties.

  8. Updating the Nomographical Diagrams for Dimensioning the Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Maria T.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the time period needed for structures design it is strongly recommended to use nomographical diagrams. The base for formation and updating the nomographical diagrams, stands on the charts presented by different technical publications. The updated charts use the same algorithm and calculation elements as the former diagrams in accordance to the latest prescriptions and European standards. The result consists in a chart, having the same properties, similar with the nomogragraphical diagrams already in us. As a general conclusion, even in our days, the nomographical diagrams are very easy to use. Taking into consideration the value of the moment it's easy to find out the necessary reinforcement area and vice-verse, having the reinforcement area you can find out the capable moment. It still remains a useful opportunity for pre-sizing and designs the reinforced concrete sections.

  9. Operator approach to analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    The operator approach to analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of massless Feynman integrals, such as the integration-by-parts method and the method of “uniqueness” (which is based on the star-triangle relation), can be drastically simplified by using this operator approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the operator method of analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless ϕ 3 theory (analytical results for these diagrams are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms). It is shown how operator formalism can be applied to calculation of certain massive Feynman diagrams and investigation of the Lipatov integrable chain model.

  10. Operator approach to analytical evaluation of Feynman diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, A. P.

    2008-05-15

    The operator approach to analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of massless Feynman integrals, such as the integration-by-parts method and the method of 'uniqueness' (which is based on the star-triangle relation), can be drastically simplified by using this operator approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the operator method of analytical evaluation of multiloop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless {phi}{sup 3} theory (analytical results for these diagrams are expressed in terms of multiple polylogarithms). It is shown how operator formalism can be applied to calculation of certain massive Feynman diagrams and investigation of the Lipatov integrable chain model.

  11. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  12. Particle–hole ring diagrams for fermions in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, N.

    2014-11-15

    The set of particle–hole ring diagrams for a many-fermion system in two dimensions is studied. The complex-valued polarization function is derived in detail and shown to be expressible in terms of square-root functions. For a contact-interaction the perturbative contributions to the energy per particle Ē(k{sub f}) are calculated in a closed analytical form from third up to twelfth order. The resummation of the particle–hole ring diagrams to all orders is studied and a pronounced dependence on the dimensionless coupling parameter α is found. There is a substantial difference between the complete ring-sum with all exchange-type diagrams included and the standard resummation of the leading n-ring diagrams only. The spin factor S{sub n}(g) associated to the nth order ring diagrams is derived for arbitrary spin-degeneracy g.

  13. A phase diagram for fluid-driven sediment trasport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Abe

    When a fluid flows laterally over a granular bed, grains may be transported with the flow. This process shapes much of the natural world. The boundary between states with and without grain motion has been studied for decades. However, this boundary is not well understood, since the process whereby grains are transported involves the coupling of several complex phenomena: turbulent fluid flow near a rough boundary, Darcy flow through the pore structure of the granular bed, the yield strength of granular beds comprised of frictional grains with irregular shape, and inertial effects of grains that become entrained in the flow. In order to clarify the essential physics that governs the onset of granular motion, we study this process computationally by including only the minimal features and then adding complexities one by one. We start with a simple numerical model that includes only gravity, grain-grain interactions that are repulsive and frictionless, and a purely horizontal viscous fluid flow. By varying the fluid flow rate and the effective viscosity, we find behavior that is qualitatively consistent with a large collection of experimental data known as the Shields curve. Thus, our results suggest that the main features of this curve result from a competition between grain inertia and viscous damping. We find this phase diagram to be qualitatively insensitive to secondary effects, such as friction, irregular grain shape, and restitution losses. Funded by U.S. Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0005.

  14. "Building Blocks" for Early Childhood Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    Building Blocks is a National Science Foundation-funded project designed to enable all young children to build a solid foundation for mathematics. To ensure this, we used a design and development model that drew from theory and research in each phase. Our design process is based on the assumption that curriculum and software design can and should…

  15. Early Neoproterozoic multiple arc-back-arc system formation during subduction-accretion processes between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks: New constraints from the supra-subduction zone NE Jiangxi ophiolite (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Shui; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Tuo; Zhai, Qing-Guo; Xiao, Xu-Chang; Liang, Xin-Quan

    2015-11-01

    The NE Jiangxi ophiolite in the eastern Jiangnan Orogen is a tectonic mélange that mainly consists of individual tectonic blocks comprising pyroxenite, gabbro, basalt, diorite, granite and chert in a matrix of serpentinite or tuffaceous greywacke. A combined geochemical and geochronological study of the NE Jiangxi ophiolite was undertaken to constrain the timing and tectonic setting of its formation. The basalts were geochemically subdivided into three groups with different FeOt and TiO2 contents. Group 1 basalts have the lowest FeOt (12.17-13.07 wt.%) and TiO2 (1.48-1.62 wt.%) contents and the lowest Nb/Yb (0.80-0.88) and Th/Nb (0.02-0.03) ratios. Furthermore, they have normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB)-like trace element patterns, suggesting derivation from an N-MORB-type mantle source without subduction input. Group 2 Fe-Ti basalts have the highest FeOt (15.52-16.30 wt.%) and TiO2 (3.06-3.23 wt.%) contents, Nb/Yb and Th/Nb ratios from 1.75 to 1.89 and from 0.11 to 0.15, respectively, and trace element patterns similar to those of back-arc basin basalts. The geochemical characteristics suggest that Group 2 basalts were derived from a slightly enriched MORB-type mantle source with a minor subduction contribution. In contrast, Group 3 Fe-Ti basalts have moderate FeOt (12.98-13.40 wt.%) and TiO2 (2.37-2.71 wt.%) contents, and Nb/Yb and Th/Nb ratios from 1.28 to 1.45 and from 0.27 to 0.30, respectively. These basalts further display markedly negative Nb-Ta anomalies and show a geochemical affinity to island-arc basalts (IAB), indicating a slightly enriched MORB-type mantle source that was significantly influenced by subduction-derived fluids and/or melts. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on gabbros gave ages of 995 ± 22 Ma and 993 ± 12 Ma, which are interpreted as the formation age of the NE Jiangxi ophiolite. Positive zircon εHf(t) (+ 8.8 to + 13.8) values for the gabbros and whole-rock εNd(t) (+ 5.5 to + 6.6) values for the basalts indicate that the NE Jiangxi ophiolite originated from an isotopically homogeneous depleted mantle source. The diversity of MORB- to IAB-like basalts and the presence of Fe-Ti basalts favor a formation of the NE Jiangxi ophiolite during the initial rifting phase of an intra-oceanic back-arc basin between an oceanic arc (Huaiyu Terrane) and the continental margin of the Yangtze Block (Jiuling Terrane) at ca. 990 Ma. Both the present and previous studies imply that multiple arc-back-arc systems formed during long-lasting subduction-accretion processes between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks during the early Neoproterozoic.

  16. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  17. Diagnostic analysis and spectral energetics of a blocking event in the GLAS climate model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, T.-C.; Shukla, J.

    1983-01-01

    A synoptic and spectral analysis of a blocking event is presented, with attention given to the temporal evolution, maintenance, and decay of the block. The GLAS numerical climate model was used to generate a blocking event by the introduction of SST anomalies. Wavenumbers 2 and 3 became stationary around their climatological locations, and their constructive interference produced persistent blocking ridges over the west coast of North America and the other over western Europe. Time variations of the kinetic and potential energies and energy conversions during the blocking were performed. Spectrally filtered Hovmoller diagrams were developed for the winter of 1976-77, and showed that long waves were stationary over most of the interval, which featured severe weather conditions.

  18. Accuracy and reliability of rater estimates in relation to number of diagrams in a standard area diagram set

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Error in rater estimates of plant disease severity occur, and standard area diagrams (SADs) help improve accuracy and reliability. The effects of diagram number in a SAD set on accuracy and reliability is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare estimates of pecan scab severity made witho...

  19. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  20. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our