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1

A high-level block-diagram signal processing language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of discrete-time computation underlying most block diagram languages makes them inappropriate for many important signal processing algorithms. A conceptual framework for a general high-level block diagram programming system is proposed. This framework, the closure model, is motivated by the representation of functions used in applicative languages such as LISP. An experimental block diagram language, BDL, based on this

G. Kopec

1979-01-01

2

Generalized Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventions and rules for generalized block diagram representation are developed and the relationships between generalized block diagrams and network graphs discussed. The generalized block diagram as developed here should prove of value in the computer-aided study of complex systems.

A. G. J. MACFARLANE

1967-01-01

3

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

4

Conventions for Block Diagram Representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of block diagrams to represent various systems is very widespread, there are no standard conventions for the drawing of block diagrams. This is particularly true when such diagrams are used to represent complex nonlinear systems, and most practical systems of interest are of this type. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an approach to the

A. Bose; P. M. Anderson; C. Concordia; A. A. Fouad; P. Kundur; R. P. Schulz

1986-01-01

5

Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

1975-01-01

6

Steps towards a GPSS block diagram system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first note that block diagrams have been important for the learning of GPSS and have been used in most GPSS text books. The full value of block diagrams is obtained first when they can be automatically generated from program code and that block diagrams in turn can generate code. The computer generation of block diagrams requires, however, very exact

Ingolf Ståhl

2006-01-01

7

An extensible system for drawing block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system whose purpose is to accept input in a variety of languages and to produce block diagrams, such as flowcharts, as output. A special feature of the system is its use of syntax directed compilation techniques to process the various input languages. Through the use of incremental compilation, the system is able to offer extensibility of

H. E. Kulsrud

1972-01-01

8

Visualizing cognitive systems: getting past block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualisations play an important part in the development of ideas. They make ingredients and relations explicit, guide thinking processes of the designer or scientist, and support communications, often across the boundaries of disciplines. In the fields of cognitive psychology and human-machine interaction, block diagrams have been a dominant means for representing cognitive systems. However, we believe that this form of

Pieter Jan Stappers; John M. Flach

2004-01-01

9

Extending Reliability Block Diagrams to Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams focus on components and connectors as do software architectures. However, some architectural styles possess characteristics which make traditional reliability block diagrams unusable as an analysis technique. In order to use the diagrams, they must be extended to reflect common architectural choices such as concurrency, distribution, dynamism, and implicit connectors.

Ahmed Abd-Allah

1997-01-01

10

On hardware description from block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a systematic way to describe the logical architecture of the system implementing a given algorithm by means of an extended block diagram, and develop a standard notation to describe each block. We then show a technique for correctly transforming a block diagram into a physical circuit description by introducing the notion of time into the

H. Jagadish; T. Kailath; J. Newkirk; R. Mathews

1984-01-01

11

Towards IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

After having sketched the different techniques enabling to check properties of discrete event systems control software, we present in this article a formal method for IEC 61499 function blocks diagrams verification. This method is based on a formal representation of the behaviour of function blocks diagrams and takes benefit of verification tools developed from the SIGNAL synchronous language.

C. Schnakenbourg; J.-M. Faure; J.-J. Lesage

2002-01-01

12

Block diagram modeling of quantum laser sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for modeling quantum laser sources. Quantum cascaded (QC), quantum dot (QD) and quantum dot cascaded (QDC) lasers are studied. Their block diagram models are devised. VisSim environment is used to achieve this purpose. Block diagram simulation results are validated against experimental published work and full agreements are obtained. Using of graphical user interface allows a

Imbaby I. Mahmoud

2010-01-01

13

A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

2008-01-01

14

Blockm-a block diagram modelling interface and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MATLAB-based menu-driven multi-input multi-output linear system block diagram modeling program called BLOCKM is presented. This program can be used very easily to enter complicated models described in block diagram form. The state-space representation of the system can then easily be found and processed in the MATLAB environment. The F-14 benchmark problem is used as an example to show the

D. Xue; D. P. Atherton

1992-01-01

15

ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

Schmitz, Gregory V.

2001-01-01

16

Block diagram generation and parsing based on graph grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram is a graphical model with which it is possible to concisely visualize a system structure and is widely used in control engineering and other fields. However, there are few studies that try to formulate a syntax of block diagrams. In this research, we define a block diagram grammar which generates block diagrams by means of subgraph rewriting

Koushi Anzai; Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1997-01-01

17

Multistate Block Diagrams and Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to model a multistate system with multistate components using binary variables. This modeling technique allows current binary algorithms for block diagrams and fault trees to be applied to multistate systems. Several multistate examples are presented, and some cases in which computational efficiency can be enhanced are discussed.

Alan P. Wood

1985-01-01

18

A generalized reliability block diagram (RBD) simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate a computer simulation yielding reliability and maintainability information for any system based on the failure and repair distributions of the individual components. The information needed to link the various components together is taken directly from the reliability block diagram (RBD), thereby negating the need for writing specialized programs. Final results display 90% confidence intervals for four key

K. D. Figiel; D. R. Sule

1990-01-01

19

TEP process flow diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is

R Scott Wilms; Bryan Carlson; James Coons; William Kubic

2008-01-01

20

Block diagram-based modeling of manufacturing systems using  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to modeling of manufacturing systems is proposed. The model is based on block diagrams. The block can be a single machine, a single part or a factory. The interconnection of blocks in the block diagram correspond to routing of parts and resources through the manufacturing subsystems. The model is hierarchial - a network of blocks can be

Aleksey Imaev; Robert P. Judd

2009-01-01

21

Modeling process flow using diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such

Benjamin Kemper; Jeroen de Mast; Michel Mandjes

2010-01-01

22

Functional block diagrams and automated construction of event trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional block diagrams are introduced as graphical representations of the function of a system. A functional block provides the output of a system as the outcome of a joint event defined by the inputs to the system and its various states. Functional blocks corresponding to different subsystems are combined together to form a functional block diagram representing the functional characteristics

Ioannis A. Papazoglou

1998-01-01

23

Multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar for a block diagram with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs is formalized in terms of a context-sensitive graph grammar. This grammar is defined by adding to the single-input, single-output block diagram grammar we proposed previously dummy nodes and new productions for dealing with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs. A parser based on the multi-input\\/multi-output block

Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1998-01-01

24

Block Diagrams: A Tutorial Alternative to Dynamical Analogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational advantages and disadvantages of dynamical analogy and block-diagram models for interdisciplinary systems are discussed. If the system equations are known, a block-diagram is a useful tutorial alternative to the conventional dynamical analogy. It is easily drawn and yields a direct, graphical representation of the system equations with block elements that are not required to be physical elements of a

D. Preis

1976-01-01

25

Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions of the Synchronous Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synchronous machine can be represented by a simple and easily surveyed block diagram from which can be derived all possible transfer functions. Because of the introduction of complex representation of input and output quantities, this block diagram is valid for the positive as well as for the negative-sequence system of the stator. These transfer functions for the positive and

I. M. Canay

1966-01-01

26

BLOCKER: A block diagram editing utility, release notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BLOCKER block diagram utility was written in the interest of promoting better software documentation. It allows the user to easily create block diagrams which can be stored within software source text files and printed out with standard line printing devices. In this way, sketches which are often drawn on paper during software coding can be kept in an organized

1986-01-01

27

Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams VS Dynamic Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams (RBD), and fault trees (FT) are the most widely used formalisms in system reliability modeling. They implement two different approaches: in a reliability block diagram, the system is represented by components connected according to their function or reliability relationships, while fault trees show which combinations of the components failures will result in a system failure. Although RBD

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2007-01-01

28

Scheduling for optimum data memory compaction in block diagram oriented software synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of complex digital signal processing systems, block diagram oriented synthesis of real time software for programmable target processors has become an important design aid. The synthesis approach discussed in the paper is based on multirate block diagrams with scalable synchronous dataflow (SSDF) semantics. For this class of dataflow graphs the authors present scheduling techniques for optimum data

S. Ritz; M. Willems; H. Meyr

1995-01-01

29

New Working Diagram for Membrane Separation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

First a short presentation of the work diagram for rectification processes (McCabe-Thiele-diagram) is given. Then a new work diagram suitable for membrane separation processes is developed. The application in pervaporation and gas separation under cross f...

K. Hattenbach

1985-01-01

30

RF library based on block diagram and behavioral descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a RF behavioral library. The objective of this library is to validate the future RF transceiver system, for example for BER specifications. The library includes key RF blocks such as Low Noise Amplifier, Channel, Mixers, Power Amplifier, Filters, used in RF transceivers. The model is based on block diagram and behavioral descriptions. The models present two aspects,

B. Nicolle; W. Tatinian; G. Jacquemod; J.-J. Mayol; J. Oudinot

2007-01-01

31

Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

Collier, J. W.

1989-01-01

32

Analysis of Reliability Block Diagrams by Boolean Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliability block diagram for complex systems is often analyzed by applying the series\\/parallel product laws or, where this is not possible, by using a conditional probability result (Bayes theorem). In both cases, the analysis is conducted in the probabilistic domain and, for complex systems, is lengthy. An alternative method is to consider the component reliability parameters to be Boolean

R. G. Bennetts

1982-01-01

33

DRBD: DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY MODELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid advances of computer-based technology in mission- critical domains such as aerospace, military, and power industries, critical systems exhibit more complex, dependent, and dynamic behaviours. Such dynamic system behaviours cannot be fully captured by existing reliability modelling tools. In this paper, we introduce a new reliability modelling tool, called dynamic reliability block diagrams (DRBD), to model dynamic relationships

H. Xu; L. Xing; R. Robidoux

2009-01-01

34

Block diagram in undergraduate engineering courses other than control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional control system topics have included block diagrams and Mason's Gain Theorem. Flow charts have been used in computer programming classes and in planning techniques in industry. This paper proposes the introduction of a systems approach to other parts of the engineering curriculum. It would not require additional mathematics. It would introduce a different interpretation of the phenomena investigation. Functionality

L. M. Hideg

1998-01-01

35

Reliability Block Diagram Modeling - Comparisons of Three Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of commercially available software for analyzing reliability block diagrams (RBD) has become the rule for the vast majority of reliability analysts and engineers. After a model has been developed and checked, a software package is generally used to evaluate the model. For the evaluation of system maintenance, especially in complex redundancy schemes, simulation is required to resolve the

A. Brall; W. Hagen; H. Tran

2007-01-01

36

Block diagram modeling of quantum dot infrared photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). The tools that we are used are the VisSim environment, along with the block diagram programming procedures. The benefits of using this modeling language are the simplicity of carrying out the performance's measurement through computer simulation instead of setting up a practical procedure

Mohamed S. El Tokhy; Imbaby I. Mahmoud; Hussein A. Konber

2011-01-01

37

Evaluation of the Synthoil process. Volume III. Unit block flow diagrams for a 100,000 barrel\\/stream day facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume consists of individual block flowsheets for the various units of the Synthoil facility, showing the overall flows into and out of each unit. Material balances for the following units are incomplete because these are proprietary processes and the information was not provided by the respective vendors: Unit 24-Claus Sulfur Plant; Unit 25-Oxygen Plant; Unit 27-Sulfur Plant (Redox Type);

R. Salmon; M. S. Edwards; W. C. Ulrich

1977-01-01

38

On-Line Simulation of Block-Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a general approach to the on-line simulation of block-diagram systems. These systems may be analog, digital, or hybrid; memory or memoryless; explicit or implicit (i.e., possessing loops of memoryless elements); vector or scalar; or of a more specialized nature, such as dynamic systems with integrators as memory elements; and simulation may be conducted in one

M. L. Dertouzos; M. E. Kaliski; K. P. Polzen

1969-01-01

39

Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants\\u000a at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics\\u000a of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that\\u000a they are beneficial

Jacobus Venter

2006-01-01

40

Dependability Evaluation with Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams and Dynamic Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependability evaluation is an important often-mandatory step in designing and analyzing (critical) systems. Introducing control and\\/or computing devices to automate processes increases the system complexity, with an impact on the overall dependability. This occurs as a consequence of interferences, dependencies, and other similar effects that cannot be adequately managed through formalisms such as reliability block diagrams (RBDs), fault trees (FTs),

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2009-01-01

41

Network Legos: Building Blocks of Cellular Wiring Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Publicly available datasets provide detailed and large-scale information,on multiple types of molecular,interaction networks,in a number,of model,organisms. The wiring diagrams composed,of these interaction networks,capture a static view of cellular state. An important challenge,in systems,biology,is obtaining,a dynamic,perspective on these networks,by integrating,them,with gene,expression,measurements,taken,under,multiple,conditions. We present a top-down,computational,approach,to identify building blocks of molecular interaction networks,by: (i) integrating gene,expression,measurements,for a particular disease state (e.g.,

T. M. Murali; Corban G. Rivera

2008-01-01

42

Network legos: building blocks of cellular wiring diagrams.  

PubMed

Publicly available datasets provide detailed and large-scale information on multiple types of molecular interaction networks in a number of model organisms. The wiring diagrams composed of these interaction networks capture a static view of cellular state. An important challenge in systems biology is obtaining a dynamic perspective on these networks by integrating them with gene expression measurements taken under multiple conditions. We present a top-down computational approach to identify building blocks of molecular interaction networks by: (i) integrating gene expression measurements for a particular disease state (e.g., leukemia) or experimental condition (e.g., treatment with growth serum) with molecular interactions to reveal an active network, which is the network of interactions active in the cell in that disease state or condition; and (ii) systematically combining active networks computed for different experimental conditions using set-theoretic formulae to reveal network legos, which are modules of coherently interacting genes and gene products in the wiring diagram. We propose efficient methods to compute active networks, systematically mine candidate legos, assess the statistical significance of these candidates, arrange them in a directed acyclic graph (DAG), and exploit the structure of the DAG to identify true network legos. We describe methods to assess the stability of our computations to changes in the input and to recover active networks by composing network legos. We analyze two human datasets using our method. A comparison of three leukemias demonstrates how a biologist can use our system to identify specific differences between these diseases. A larger-scale analysis of 13 distinct stresses illustrates our ability to compute the building blocks of the interaction networks activated in response to these stresses. Source code implementing our algorithms is available under version 2 of the GNU General Public License at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/ murali/software/network-lego. PMID:18707557

Murali, T M; Rivera, Corban G

2008-09-01

43

Block diagram compilation and graphical editing of DSP algorithms in the QuickSig system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The QuickSig system is an experimental integrated software environment for digital signal processing, based on the use of the Common Lisp language and object-oriented programming. The authors describe the approach of using a block diagram compiler and an interactive graphical editor in digital signal processor software development. The object-oriented approach on the Common Lisp language is well suited to the

Matti Karjalainen; Seppo Helle

1988-01-01

44

Reliability block diagrams to model the management of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

The present study aims to show how various medical and nonmedical components contribute to success and failure in the management of colorectal cancer. The first encounter, subsequent diagnosis, and surgical therapy of a patient with Dukes B sigmoid cancer is modeled as a reliability block diagram with a serial and parallel arrangement of various components. The overall probability of a patient with new-onset colorectal cancer to visit a physician, be correctly diagnosed, and undergo successful therapy is 69%. The reduction in the overall success, despite the fact that the majority of components are assumed to function with failure rates of 5% or less, is a reflection of the multitude of serial subsystems involved in the management of the patient. In contrast, the parallel arrangement of subsystems results in a relative insensitivity of the overall system to failure, a greater stability, and an improved performance. Since no medical system functions perfectly, redundancy associated with parallel subsystems assures a better overall outcome. System analysis of health care provides a means to improve its performance. PMID:10063917

Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M

1999-02-01

45

Block diagram grammar and signal flow graph grammar with their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram grammar and a signal flow graph grammar were previously defined as a theoretical and practical foundation for the computerized analysis and design of control systems and filters by using block diagrams and\\/or signal flow graphs. They are formalized on the basis of a context-sensitive graph grammar. In this research, a knowledge representation method in order to generate

Y. Adachi; S. Kobayashi; Y. Suda; K. Tsuchida

1999-01-01

46

Extended block diagram method for a multi-state system reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented method extends the classical reliability block diagram method to a repairable multi-state system. It is very suitable for engineering applications since the procedure is well formalized and based on the natural decomposition of the entire multi-state system (the system is represented as a collection of its elements). Until now, the classical block diagram method did not provide the

Anatoly Lisnianski

2007-01-01

47

A block diagram model of the thickness mode piezoelectric transducer containing dual oppositely polarized piezoelectric zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unidimensional, linear systems, block diagram model of a two-layer thickness mode piezoelectric transducer is presented. The layers are subject to opposing piezoelectric polarization and the device is assumed to be loaded by semi-infinite isotropic media at the two principal faces. Block diagram representations of the transducer acting as both a generator and a receiver of ultrasound are developed in

Yasser Estanbouli; Gordon Hayward; N. Ramadas; Joseph Cyril Barbenel

2006-01-01

48

Fine grain code synthesis within a block diagram oriented code generation environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code generation for a system specified by a block diagram facilitates the fast and efficient evaluation of the design space. As a drawback, automatically generated code includes a certain amount of data management overhead compared to handwritten code, especially When the block diagram includes fine granular structures. The authors present a strategy how to overcome certain types of overhead by

Markus Willems; Matthias Pankert; Sebastian Ritz

1995-01-01

49

Block diagrams for measuring systems of substance physicochemical composition and properties with “simple” measuring channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagrams of measuring systems for physicochemical composition and properties of substances with “simple” measuring channels\\u000a are considered. The interrelationship of technical and economic indices and their block diagrams is demonstrated, and its\\u000a features are noted.

V. A. Buzanovskii

2009-01-01

50

Block Diagrams and Torque-Angle Loop Analysis of Synchronous Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagrams of synchronous machines supplying an infinite bus or lumped parameter load are develQped for large and small-signals. This representation includes the effects of saliency, the amortisseurs, variable speed operation, positive and negative sequence components of the infinite bus voltage and an approximate treatment of the saturation. The paper illustrates the application of the block diagram technique. First, the

I. Nagy

1971-01-01

51

Program listing for the reliability block diagram computation program of JPL Technical Report 32-1543  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program listing for the reliability block diagram computation program described in Reliability Computation From Reliability Block Diagrams is given. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is currently running on a Univac 1108. Each subroutine contains a description of its function.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

1971-01-01

52

Direct synthesis of optimized DSP assembly code from signal flow block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagrams with signal flow semantics have proven their utility in system simulation and algorithm development. They can also be used as high-level languages for real-time system implementation and design. An approach to synthesizing optimized assembly code for programmable DSPs from block diagrams is described. The extensible block library defines code segments in a meta-assembly language that uses the syntax

Douglas B. Powell; Edward A. Lee; William C. Newman

1992-01-01

53

THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIA THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIA THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIA THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIA THE USE OF SIMULINK BLOCK DIAGRAM GRAM GRAM GRAM GRAM T T T  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of

N. M. Ghasem; M. A. Hussain; I. M. Mujtaba

54

Flight control systems properties and problems. Volume 2: Block diagram compendium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compendium of stability augmentation system and autopilot block diagrams is presented. Descriptive materials for 48 different types of aircraft systems are provided. A broad representation of the many mechanical approaches which have been used for aircraft control is developed.

Johnston, D. E.

1975-01-01

55

The block diagram method for designing the particle swarm optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the block diagram method of the dispersed control system is proposed for designing or improving the normal\\u000a particle swarm optimization algorithms (PSO), that is, it uses the Jury-test of the control theory to compare the block diagrams\\u000a getting from existing particle swarm optimization methods and finds out some defects of the existing particle swarm optimization\\u000a methods, for

Lu Baiquan; Gao Gaiqin; Lu Zeyu

2012-01-01

56

Efficient Block Diagram Synthesis of DSP Kernels for the TMS320C6701  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an overview of rapid prototyping system using MATLAB RTW and TMS320C6701-EVM is presented. The MATLAB RTW generated ANSI C -code from block diagram has very poor real-time implementation benchmarks for DSP kernels. To improve the performance, we have developed an efficient method for direct synthesis of block diagram programming using optimised C-assembly DSP code for real-time signal

K H Hong; W S Gan; Y K Chong; S E Tan

57

Using interleaved execution to resolve cyclic dependencies in time-based block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-based block diagrams are a convenient formalism for describing dynamic systems such as those found in control system design. The block-diagram model of the control system is used to capture implementation effects such as sample rates and fixed-point data types. One implementation decision concerns the desired software partitioning used in performing simulation and program synthesis. This paper shows how software

Pieter J. Mosterman; John E. Ciolfi

2004-01-01

58

Interleaved execu tion to resolve cyclic dependencies in time-based block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Time-based block diagrams are a convenient for-malism for describing dynamic systems such as those found in control system design. The block-diagram model of the control system is used to capture implementation effects such as sample rates and fixed-point data types. One implementation decision concerns the desired software partitioning used in performing simulation and program synthesis. This paper shows how

Pieter J. Mosterman; John E. Ciolfi

2004-01-01

59

Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a rigorous baseline for the functional architecture.

White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

2007-01-01

60

The CBP parameter-a useful annotation to aid block-diagram compilers for DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory consumption is an important metric during software synthesis from block-diagram specifications of DSP applications. Conventionally, no assumption is made about when, during the execution of a functional block (actor), the associated data values (tokens) are actually consumed and produced. However, we show in this paper that it is possible to concisely and precisely capture key properties pertaining to the

Shuvra S. Bhaffacharyyat; Praveen K. Murthfl

2000-01-01

61

Parameterized GSPN model and extended dependability block diagram for reliability evaluation of embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we focus on the specification and evaluation of parameterized generalized and stochastic Petri net (GSPN) models for reliability and safety estimates of embedded systems. The embedded system to be modeled is specified using the extended dependability block diagram (EDBD), a high-level system specification model, which is composed of several and diverse blocks: functional, decision, standby spare, multiple

PRM Maciel; Paulo Romero Martins Maciel

2006-01-01

62

Block voter model: phase diagram and critical behavior.  

PubMed

We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of N(PCS) spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighboring counterparts. We consider the collective behavior of the entire system with varying PCS size. When N(PCS)>2, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter q(c) which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that a larger PCS has more power of persuasion, when compared to a smaller one. It also seems that the resulting critical behavior is Ising-like independent of the range of interaction. PMID:22181394

Sampaio-Filho, C I N; Moreira, F G B

2011-11-01

63

Block voter model: Phase diagram and critical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of NPCS spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighboring counterparts. We consider the collective behavior of the entire system with varying PCS size. When NPCS>2, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter qc which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that a larger PCS has more power of persuasion, when compared to a smaller one. It also seems that the resulting critical behavior is Ising-like independent of the range of interaction.

Sampaio-Filho, C. I. N.; Moreira, F. G. B.

2011-11-01

64

Condition\\/event signal interfaces for block diagram modeling and analysis of hybrid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram methodology is introduced for modeling hybrid systems with well-defined continuous-time signal connections between the discrete and continuous subsystem blocks. This facilitates the construction of models of hybrid systems using standard tools for computer-aided system analysis, design, and simulation. The problem of creating strictly discrete models of the complete hybrid system dynamics is considered using the formalism of

B. H. Krogh

1993-01-01

65

Block diagrams for information measuring systems of physicochemical composition and substance properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagrams for information measuring systems of physicochemical composition and substance properties are considered and\\u000a it is noted that within their composition there should be first level systems that are either independent measuring systems,\\u000a or measuring sub-systems of a second level system, or management information measuring systems.

V. A. Buzanovskii

2008-01-01

66

Block-Diagram Based SIMULINK Analysis for the Drop Impact Response of a Mobile Electronic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the block diagram based SIMULINK models were developed to evaluate the dynamic response of a portable electronic product with various impact configurations. The visual interfaces of the developed models present results in a way that people can immediately identify the effects of changing system parameters. It was found that time durations of the input profiles play an

Jiang Zhou; P. Corder; R. Niraula

2007-01-01

67

Stream and State-Based Semantics of Hierarchy in Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagrams are often used in embedded system design for modeling both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling, respectively. Though easy to use, advanced users and implementers of these languages often run afoul of subtle semantic problems these seemingly simple languages can have. Based on the stream- and state-based approaches, this paper discusses how the specialized state-based

Ben DencklaPieter; J. Mosterman

68

FORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid advances in computer science and technology, cr itical computer-based systems, such as those in aerospace, military, and power industries exhibit more complex dependent and dynamic behaviors, which cannot be fully captured by existing reliability modeling tools. In this paper, we introduce a new reliability modeling tool, called dynamic reliability block diagrams (DRBD), for modeling dynamic relationships between

Haiping Xu; Liudong Xing

69

Block diagram method for analyzing multi-state systems with uncovered failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper suggests a modification of the generalized reliability block diagram (RBD) method for evaluating reliability and performance indices of multi-state systems with uncovered failures. Such systems (or their subsystems) can fail to perform their task in the case of undetected failure of any one of their elements. Examples of this effect can be found in computing systems, electrical power

Gregory Levitin

2007-01-01

70

Simulation of mixed bond graphs and block diagrams on personal computers using TUTSIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TUTSIM simulation program for continuous dynamic systems accepts (nonlinear) block diagrams, bond graphs or a free mix of both. The simulation is “hands on” interactive, providing a direct contact with the model. The implementation of the program on existing personal computers (Apple II, IBM PC) requires small memory size and has a high computational speed, due to its assembler

J. J. A. J. Beukeboom; J. J. Van Dixhoorn; J. W. Meerman

1985-01-01

71

Formalizing Causal Block Diagrams for Modeling a Class of Hybrid Dynamic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to formalize the semantics of causal block diagrams, a language that is extensively used in the design of technical systems. The formalization is based on lambda calculus, and implemented in the declarative functional language Haskell. Specifically, the combination of discrete-time and continuous-time computations, hybrid dynamic systems, is concentrated on. It shows how in many cases this combination

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

2005-01-01

72

X-windows based computer software for block-diagram manipulation and system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on recent development of a computer aided teaching software facility in the University of Melbourne's Control Systems Laboratory. The software runs under X-Windows, and can be easily ported to most UNIX workstations. It enables students to perform, on line, complex tasks such as block diagram manipulation and reduction, and system analysis. The software is interfaceable with MATLAB

T. J. Morgan; M. Aldeen

1994-01-01

73

Selection of PST control signal using block diagram transfer function model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection method of locally available signals that can be used as a feedback control signal for phase shift transformer is proposed. In order to identify an effective signal the frequency characteristics analysis of system block diagram transfer function model is carried out. Conditions to be fulfilled by characteristics are defined. Also a set of five measurements available at the

S. Robak; D. D. Rasolomampionona

2003-01-01

74

Dynamic modeling of thickness-mode piezoelectric transducer using the block diagram approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide an alternative method to determine the characteristics of a piezoelectric transducer from measurement. A block diagram approach is proposed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of a thickness-mode piezoelectric transducer at its resonance frequency. Based on the feedback loop framework, the input–output relations of the electromechanical interaction of the transducer are described in terms of linear

Sheng-He Wang; Mi-Ching Tsai

2011-01-01

75

Reliability block diagram with general gates and its application to system reliability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For those systems that can be modeled with perfect nodes and unreliable arcs such as communication systems, a reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) was developed. Similarly, for more efficient system reliability analysis of those systems that can be modeled with unreliable nodes and perfect arcs, a reliability block diagram with general gates (RBDGG) was developed as an intuitive and

Man Cheol Kim

2011-01-01

76

The new block diagram compiler for simulation of sampled-data systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block diagram compiler known as BLØDI was put into use at Bell Laboratories in 1959 and reported in the Bell System Technical Journal in 1961. The compiler has been completely rewritten to provide substantially increased flexibility. The new program is called BLØDIB.

B. J. Karafin

1965-01-01

77

Phase Diagram of Systems: Block Copolymer-Preferential Solvent of One Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied by small angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimeter different systems block copolymer\\/preferential solvent of one block.For copolymers owning two amorphous blocks such as polystyrene-polybutadiene, in solution in toluene, we have only one liquid-crystalline structure which disappears at about 180°C; this structure is lamellar if the copolymer contains between 35 and 60% of polybutadiene.For copolymers owning an

Monique Gervais; André Douy; Bernard Gallot

1971-01-01

78

Dynamic modeling of thickness-mode piezoelectric transducer using the block diagram approach.  

PubMed

This paper aims to provide an alternative method to determine the characteristics of a piezoelectric transducer from measurement. A block diagram approach is proposed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of a thickness-mode piezoelectric transducer at its resonance frequency. Based on the feedback loop framework, the input-output relations of the electromechanical interaction of the transducer are described in terms of linear block diagram models. Furthermore, the closed-loop relations from external force to vibration velocity and electric current from generated voltage are easily found by Mason's rule to characterize the equivalent mechanical admittance and electrical impedance, respectively. An example of a Langevin transducer with 28.15kHz resonance frequency is illustrated for dynamics analysis. The frequency responses of the piezoelectric transducer, resulting from a force and current input, are respectively measured to identify the system parameters of the feedback model. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:21292292

Wang, Sheng-He; Tsai, Mi-Ching

2011-07-01

79

REDUCE 2: A computer program for the symbolic reduction of large block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

REDUCE 2 is reported as a FORMAC program which symbolically calculates the transfer function(s) of any linear-block-diagram output variable to any or all input variables. The program requires as input a set of algebraic expressions representing the block diagram, the desired transfer function(s), and a string of variables indicating the desired order of reduction. The solution is presented in the compact form of a set of nested functions (super G's). The program can handle systems as large as 600 equations and is intended as a tool for the analysis of complex control and dynamic systems. A companion FORTRAN program, EVAL 2, which numerically evaluates the solution set to obtain amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of frequency is also presented.

Lorenzo, C. F.; Riehl, J. P.

1974-01-01

80

Automated Test Coverage Measurement for Reactor Protection System Software Implemented in Function Block Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present FBDTestMeasurer, an automated test coverage measurement tool for function block diagram (FBD) programs which are increasingly used in implementing\\u000a safety critical systems such as nuclear reactor protection systems. We have defined new structural test coverage criteria\\u000a for FBD programs in which dataflow-centric characteristics of FBD programs were well reflected. Given an FBD program and a\\u000a set of test

Eunkyoung Jee; Suin Kim; Sung Deok Cha; Insup Lee

2010-01-01

81

Towards Computational Hybrid System Semantics for Time-Based Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the core of Model-Based Design, computational models have caused an autocat- alytic trend to use computation in design by unlocking the potential of model transformations. Precisely specifying a computational transformation requires well-defined semantics of the source and target representations. In this regard, continuous-time behavior is an essential aspect of time-based block diagrams that is typically approximated by numerical integration.

Pieter J. MostermanJustyna Zander; Gregoire Hamon; Ben Denckla

82

A Microprocessor-Based Digital Filter Programed in a Block Diagram Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmable digital filter with arbitrary characteristics and configurations for on-line, real-time applications is easily implemented by using a micro-processor. The program language used here is directly based on a block diagram representing the digital dilter which is familiar to many control engineers. The hardware and software used for the implementation of system are described. Practical examples of the filter

Tatsuo Higuchi; Tsutomu Saito; Akio Kanomata

1977-01-01

83

Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect

Isobaric, isothermal phase diagrams are a molar representation of condensed phases in equilibrium with each other at a fixed temperature, pressure, and composition. Since three or four elements are usually involved at a fabricated interface in a semiconductor device, knowledge of the appropriate ternary or quaternary phase diagram is important for optimizing the processing parameters and designing long term stability of devices. While the use of phase diagrams is well-established in the fields of metallurgy, ceramics and mineralogy, only recently have phase diagrams been employed to provide a framework for understanding thin film reactions on a substrate, encountered in semiconductor processing. Even though there are many examples of applications of ternary phase diagrams in the semiconductor literature (for instance, metallization of GaAs, the use of refractory metal silicides for metallization layers in VLSI devices and oxidation of III-V compounds), the same is not true for quaternary phase diagrams. To date, the only application is oxidation of mercury cadmium telluride. This lack of examples is not warranted, as four elements are often involved at a critical interface in compound semiconductor processing and devices. This paper reports on the progress made to remedy this situation by considering the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Moreover, for the first time, solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems.

Sinclair, R.

1994-10-01

84

Surface Morphology Diagram for Cylinder-Forming Block Copolymer Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of annealing temperature (T), film thickness (hf) on the surface morphology of flow coated films of a cylinder forming block copolymer, poly (styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). Surface morphology transitions from a perpendicular to a parallel cylinder orientation with respect to the substrate with increasing hf are observed in these model frustrated-interaction films where the substrate interaction is preferential for one of the blocks (PMMA) and nearly neutral for the other interface (polymer-air). In these films a transition occurs from cylinders oriented parallel to the substrate to a mixed or hybrid state where the two orientations coexist followed by a transition to cylinders oriented perpendicularly to the polymer-air interface for larger hf. The characteristic values of hf defining these surface morphological transitions depend on T and we construct a surface morphology diagram as a function of hf and T. The surface morphology diagram is found to depend on the method of film formation (flow coated versus spun cast films) so non-equilibrium effects evidently have a large effect on the surface pattern morphology. In particular, the residual solvent within the film (quantified by neutron reflectivity measurements) in the context of physics of glass-formation can have a large effect on the surface morphology diagram.

Zhang, Xiaohua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Berry, Brian C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Yager, Kevin G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kim, Sangcheol [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Jones, Ronald L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Satija, Sushil [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Douglas, Jack F> [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Karim, Alamgir [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2008-01-01

85

An Algebra for Data Flow Diagram Process Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data flow diagram process decomposition, as applied in the analysis phase of software engineering, is a top-down method that takes a process, and its input and output data flows, and logically implements the process as a network of smaller processes. The decomposition is generally performed in an ad hoc manner by an analyst applying heuristics, expertise, and knowledge to the

Mike Adler

1988-01-01

86

Closing the software gap for interactive mini\\/microcomputation: Direct execution of microprogrammed block-diagram primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block-diagram programs, for instrumentation, control, and simulation systems are especially easy to translate, since no explicit precedence analysis is needed. Block-diagram primitives range from simple adders to complete real-time controllers. They are pure-procedure, reentrant microprograms or threaded code in read-only memory, which may be pre-programmed and plugged in for s pecial applications. I n a ddition to hand \\

Granino A. Korn

1978-01-01

87

Investigation of local load effect on damping characteristics of synchronous generator using transfer-function block-diagram model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aree, P. Investigation of local load effect on damping characteristics of synchronous generator using transfer-function block-diagram model Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(4) : 827-838 The transfer-function block-diagram model of single-machine infinite-bus power system has been a popular analytical tool amongst power engineers for explaining and assessing synchronous generator dynamic behaviors. In previous studies, the effects of local load together

Pichai Aree

88

Activity Diagram Patterns for Modeling Quality Constraints in Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management is an important aspect of business processes. Organizations must implement quality requirements, e.g., according to standards like ISO 9001. Existing approaches on business process modeling provide no explicit means to enforce such requirements. UML Activity Diagrams are a well recognized way of representing those business processes. In this paper, we present an approach for enforcing quality requirements in

Alexander Foerster; Gregor Engels; Tim Schattkowsky

2005-01-01

89

Stereo Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is an introduction to stereo diagrams. Students draw stereo diagrams for various models, determine the point group and crystal system of certain crystal shapes, and determine which block models match given stereo diagrams.

Perkins, Dexter

90

Dataflow diagram representation of biological process: DNA, RNA, and protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new method of modeling tool for a biological process -central dogma. The data-flow diagram is used as a representation of the whole data input and output, which enables us to simulate, analyze, and manipulate (in the future) at our disposal. From DNA to protein via RNA is the one of most well-known biological process,

Joe W. Yeol; W. Samarrai; I. Barjis; Y. S. Ryu

2005-01-01

91

Morphology and phase diagram of complex block copolymers: ABC linear triblock copolymers.  

PubMed

Using a real space implementation of the self-consistent field theory for the polymeric system, we explore microphases of ABC linear triblock copolymers. For the sake of numerical tractability, the calculation is carried out in a two-dimensional (2D) space. Seven microphases are found to be stable for the ABC triblock copolymer in 2D, which include lamellae, hexagonal lattice, core-shell hexagonal lattice, tetragonal lattice, lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phase with beads at the interface. By systematically varying the composition, triangle phase diagrams are constructed for four classes of typical triblock polymers in terms of the relative strengths of the interaction energies between different species. In general, when both volume fractions and interaction energies of the three species are comparable, lamellar phases are found to be the most stable. While one of the volume fractions is large, core-shell hexagonal or tetragonal phases can be formed, depending on which of the blocks dominates. Furthermore, more complex morphologies, such as lamellae with beads inside, lamellae with beads at the interface, and hexagonal phases with beads at the interface compete for stability with lamellae structures, as the interaction energies between distinct blocks become asymmetric. Our study provides guidance for the design of microstructures in complex block copolymers. PMID:15089315

Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

2004-03-01

92

Activated sludge process control--development of operational diagrams.  

PubMed

Hindered batch settling experiments were performed on activated sludge generated from dairy wastewater and combined (Dairy-Domestic mixture 1:3) wastewater for different initial Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentrations from 2g/L to 20 g/L for varied Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT) for 5 to 15 days. Bio kinetic coefficients of combined wastewater were determined using a bench scale Continues Flow Stirred Tank Reactor (CFSTR). Vesilind parameters were also determined experimentally. Operational diagrams for long-term fluctuations in plant inflow and substrate concentration have been prepared. The allowable overflow rate to prevent process failure can be predicted from the chart. The adjustments to be made in recycling ratio and MCRT in case of fluctuations could also be predicted from the operational diagrams. From the operating diagrams plotted for both dairy and combined wastewater, it was noticed that, combined wastewater treatment provide greater operational flexibility than treating dairy waste separately. PMID:17365299

Jeyanthi, J; Saseetharan, M K

2007-02-15

93

The use of a block diagram simulation language for rapid model prototyping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed this summer focussed on the development of a predictive model for the loading of liquid oxygen (LO2) into the external tank (ET) of the shuttle prior to launch. A predictive model can greatly aid the operational personnel since instrumentation aboard the orbiter and ET is limited due to weight constraints. The model, which focuses primarily on the orbiter section of the system was developed using a block diagram based simulation language known as VisSim. Simulations were run on LO2 loading data for shuttle flights STS50 and STS55 and the model was demonstrated to accurately predict the sensor data recorded for these flights. As a consequence of the simulation results, it can be concluded that the software tool can be very useful for rapid prototyping of complex models.

Whitlow, Jonathan E.

1995-01-01

94

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

95

Exact phase diagram for an asymmetric avalanche process.  

PubMed

The Bethe ansatz method and an iterative procedure based on detailed balance are used to obtain exact results for an asymmetric avalanche process on a ring. The average velocity of particle flow, v, is derived as a function of the toppling probabilities and the density of particles, rho. As rho increases, the system shows a transition from intermittent to continuous flow, and v diverges at a critical point rho(c) with exponent alpha. The exact phase diagram of the transition is obtained and alpha is found to depend on the toppling rules. PMID:11497944

Priezzhev, V B; Ivashkevich, E V; Povolotsky, A M; Hu, C K

2001-08-20

96

What can we learn by comparing students' diagram-construction processes with the mathematical conceptions inferred from their explanations with completed diagrams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite recent research interest in student-created diagrams, little research has systematically investigated students' diagram-construction processes, meaning the order and manner in which students create markings as they physically generate diagrams. In this study, we characterize the various processes students use to create diagrams that represent a quadratic motion situation involving increasing speed, and we explore how these diagram-construction processes are related to students' conceptions of speed as inferred from their explanations with their completed diagrams. Previous literature suggests contrasting predictions regarding whether or not students' diagram-construction processes are closely related (from our perspective as researchers) to students' inferred conceptions. We see the study as having value for research and practice by raising new questions related to diagram-construction processes, pointing to the potential formative assessment value of attending to diagram-construction processes, and demonstrating the need for the development of theory to explain the relationships identified by this study.

Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Diamond, Jaime Marie

2014-01-01

97

Fuel Retrieval System Process Flow Diagrams Mass Balance Calculations for K West Basin  

SciTech Connect

This calculation justifies the numbers used for the material balance on the process flow diagrams for the KW Basin Fuel Retrieval Subproject. The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances that are documented in the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Process Flow Diagrams for future reference. The attached mass calculations were prepared in support of revising the fuel retrieval system process flow diagrams for the 105K West Basin. The calculations refer to diagram H-1-81164.

REED, A.V.

2000-01-03

98

Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL; Bhattacharya, Sambit [North Carolina Fayetteville State University; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL

2012-01-01

99

Observed Human Errors in Interpreting 3D visualizations: implications for Teaching Students how to Comprehend Geological Block Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block diagrams are commonly used to communicate three dimensional geological structures and other phenomena relevant to geological science (e.g., water bodies in the ocean). However, several recent studies have suggested that these 3D visualizations create difficulties for individuals with low to moderate spatial abilities. We have therefore initiated a series of studies to understand what it is about the 3D structures that make them so difficult for some people and also to determine if we can improve people’s understanding of these structures through web-based training not related to geology or other underlying information. Our first study examined what mistakes subjects made in a set of 3D block diagrams designed to represent progressively more difficult internal structures. Each block was shown bisected by a plane either perpendicular or at an angle to the block sides. Five low to medium spatial subjects were asked to draw the features that would appear on the bisecting plane. They were asked to talk aloud as they solved the problem. Each session was videotaped. Using the time it took subjects to solve the problems, the subject verbalizations of their problem solving and the drawings that were found to be in error, we have been able to find common patterns in the difficulties the subjects had with the diagrams. We have used these patterns to generate a set of strategies the subjects used in solving the problems. From these strategies, we are developing methods of teaching. A problem found in earlier work on geology structures was not observed in our study, that is, one of subjects failing to recognize the 2D representation of the block as 3D and drawing the cross-section as a combined version of the visible faces of the object. We attribute this to our experiment introduction, suggesting that even this simple training needs to be carried out with students encountering 3D block diagrams. Other problems subjects had included difficulties in perceptually recognizing variations in layer thicknesses, difficulties in recognizing an internal structure from the visible cues on the block walls, difficulties in mentally constructing objects and intersections that were not perpendicular, and difficulties in keeping track of the number of folds of a layer, and thus, the number of intersections of the layer with the bisecting plane. All of these problems suggest that web-based games giving mass practice with these variations in block diagram representations are likely to give any person appropriate skills in their interpretation. The time to complete the drawings and the errors in the drawings were also correlated with quantifiable properties of the diagrams, e.g., number of layers, number of folds in the layers, angle of bisection of the plane, etc. These will be used in further research to organize the training from easy to hard problems following what is known already about mass practice and developing abstracted skill sets. The plan is to also make the training adaptive, that is, to provide practice in those areas where an individual user is having the most problems.

Bemis, K. G.; Pirl, E.; Chiang, J.; Tremaine, M.

2009-12-01

100

Lifting business process diagrams to 2.5 dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we describe our visualization approach for business processes using 2.5 dimensional techniques (2.5D). The idea of 2.5D is to add the concept of layering to a two dimensional (2D) visualization. The layers are arranged in a three-dimensional display space. For the modeling of the business processes, we use the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). The benefit of connecting BPMN with a 2.5D visualization is not only to obtain a more abstract view on the business process models but also to develop layering criteria that eventually increase readability of the BPMN model compared to 2D. We present a 2.5D Navigator for BPMN models that offers different perspectives for visualization. Therefore we also develop BPMN specific perspectives. The 2.5D Navigator combines the 2.5D approach with perspectives and allows free navigation in the three dimensional display space. We also demonstrate our tool and libraries used for implementation of the visualizations. The underlying general framework for 2.5D visualizations is explored and presented in a fashion that it can easily be used for different applications. Finally, an evaluation of our navigation tool demonstrates that we can achieve satisfying and aesthetic displays of diagrams stating BPMN models in 2.5D-visualizations.

Effinger, Philip; Spielmann, Johannes

2010-01-01

101

Study of the Effect and Design Criteria of the Input Filter for Buck Converters With Peak Current-Mode Control Using a Novel System Block Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect and design criteria of the input filter for buck converters with peak current-mode (PCM) control are researched using a novel system block diagram. With this diagram, a novel current loop transfer function is proposed to derive the design criteria that apply to designing the input filter. However, the input filter that is added to reduce electromagnetic interference will

Shen-Yaur Chen; Jin-Jia Chen

2008-01-01

102

Applying state diagrams to food processing and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

1991-01-01

103

Fuel Retrieval System Process Flow Diagrams Mass Balance Calculations for K West Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This calculation justifies the numbers used for the material balance on the process flow diagrams for the KW Basin Fuel Retrieval Subproject. The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances that are documented in the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Process Flow Diagrams for future reference. The attached mass calculations were prepared in support of revising the fuel

2000-01-01

104

Property Blocks: Games and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

105

Retrofitting for DME process by energy-flow framework diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a graphic tool for thermodynamic analysis to be used in energy analysis and integration of systems. The proposed tool, known as the energy-flow framework diagram (EFD), provides a new representation of an energy-flow scheme by nodes and node partners between utility buses and energy loss buses, based on the second law analysis, the exergy concept and dividing

Danxing Zheng; Wen Cao

2007-01-01

106

Block Least Mean Squares processing of noise radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise radars usually employ correlation processing of waveforms. However, vulnerability to clutter is a serious disadvantage of this approach. This paper considers using Least Squares (LS) based methods. In particular, highly efficient Block Least Mean Squares (Block LMS) algorithm is studied in details. The formula for integration gain of Block LMS is derived. Compared to analogue quantity for correlation processing,

Michaø Meller; Stanisøaw Tujaka

2009-01-01

107

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

KLEM, M.J.

2000-05-11

108

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

2000-01-01

109

MAP Algorithms for Decoding Linear Block Codes Based on Sectionalized Trellis Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm is a trellis-based MAP decoding algorithm. It is the heart of turbo (or iterative) decoding that achieves an error performance near the Shannon limit. Unfortunately, the implementation of this algorithm requires large computation and storage. Furthermore, its forward and backward recursions result in long decoding delay. For practical applications, this decoding algorithm must be simplified and its decoding complexity and delay must be reduced. In this paper, the MAP algorithm and its variations, such as log-MAP and max-log-MAP algorithms, are first applied to sectionalized trellises for linear block codes and carried out as two-stage decodings. Using the structural properties of properly sectionalized trellises, the decoding complexity and delay of the MAP algorithms can be reduced. Computation-wise optimum sectionalizations of a trellis for MAP algorithms are investigated. Also presented in this paper are bidirectional and parallel MAP decodings.

Lui, Ye; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc P. C.

2000-01-01

110

Map Algorithms for Decoding Linear Block codes Based on Sectionalized Trellis Diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MAP algorithm is a trellis-based maximum a posteriori probability decoding algorithm. It is the heart of the turbo (or iterative) decoding which achieves an error performance near the Shannon limit. Unfortunately, the implementation of this algorithm requires large computation and storage. Furthermore, its forward and backward recursions result in long decoding delay. For practical applications, this decoding algorithm must be simplified and its decoding complexity and delay must be reduced. In this paper, the MAP algorithm and its variations, such as Log-MAP and Max-Log-MAP algorithms, are first applied to sectionalized trellises for linear block codes and carried out as two-stage decodings. Using the structural properties of properly sectionalized trellises, the decoding complexity and delay of the MAP algorithms can be reduced. Computation-wise optimum sectionalizations of a trellis for MAP algorithms are investigated. Also presented in this paper are bi-directional and parallel MAP decodings.

Lin, Shu

1999-01-01

111

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for...

2002-01-01

112

Comparisons of block diagram and Markov method system reliability and mean time to failure results for constant and non-constant unit failure rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of system reliability and mean time to failure results obtained using two different methods (i.e. block diagram and Markov) for the same system with constant and non-constant unit failures rates. The device of stages approach is used to obtain the non-constant unit failure rate when using the Markov method.

B. S. Dhillon; N. Yang

1997-01-01

113

Process logic flow diagram write up for the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) is planning a facility to disassemble pits and convert the plutonium in the pits into a form suitable for international inspection. The facility, called the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Facility, must handle much of the 38.2 metric tons of plutonium declared excess to national security needs in ten years of operation. A process logic flow diagram for the ARIES Facility is presented here. This flow diagram is based on and supported by a library of fact sheets on topics that impact the design of the facility. Developing the flow diagram raised issues that significantly impact the design of the facility. These issues are discussed later in this document, and for some issues, discussed in greater detail in the appropriate fact sheets. The flow diagram is designed to show requirements that dictate the need for space and/or equipment. In physically designing the facility, the same space or equipment may be used to meet several requirements. The flow diagram merely shows the activities that need to occur to meet requirements for the facility. The flow diagram is not associated with any DOE site. The requirements shown on the flow diagram may be met by an existing facilities at a given site. The flow diagram and this write up do not contain a great deal of detail on how each step in the diagram is performed. At this stage of design, the flow diagram merely identifies the need for the activity. Examples for some of the activities are given in the appropriate fact sheet. How the steps are performed becomes more defined as the design of the facility progresses.

Zygmunt, S.J.

1997-05-01

114

Automatic identification of structural process weaknesses in flow chart diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Financial institutions have been engaged in numerous business process reengineering (BPR) projects to make their organizations more efficient. However, the success of BPR projects in banks varies significantly and it remains a challenge to systematically discover weaknesses in business process landscapes. Based on the flow chart notation language this paper seeks to argue for the definition of weakness

Axel Winkelmann; Burkhard Weiß

2011-01-01

115

Automation of process accountability flow diagrams at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial processes (including reprocessing activities; nuclear fuel fabrication; and material storage, measurement and transfer) make use of process flow diagrams. These flows can be used for material accountancy and for data analysis. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Technical Area (TA)-55 Plutonium Facility is home to various research and development activities involving the use of special nuclear material

P. Knepper; R. Whiteson; R. Strittmatter; K. Mousseau

1999-01-01

116

Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in

Lacey Colligan; Janet E Anderson; Henry WW Potts; Jonathan Berman

2010-01-01

117

Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding.  

PubMed

The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic blocks at the age of 2 years and 7 months. The other two infants began stacking up blocks at 3 years and 1 month, although only after the introduction of training by a human tester who rewarded stacking behavior. Cylindrical blocks were then introduced to assess physical understanding in object-object combinations in three infant (aged 3-4) and three adult chimpanzees. The flat surfaces of cylinders are suitable for stacking, while the rounded surface is not. Block manipulation was described using sequential codes and analyzed focusing on failure, cause, and solution in the task. Three of the six subjects (one infant and two adults) stacked up cylindrical blocks efficiently: frequently changing the cylinders' orientation without contacting the round side to other blocks. Rich experience in stacking cubes may facilitate subjects' stacking of novel, cylindrical shapes from the beginning. The other three subjects were less efficient in stacking cylinders and used variable strategies to achieve the goal. Nevertheless, they began to learn the effective way of stacking over the course of testing, after about 15 sessions (75 trials). PMID:16909233

Hayashi, Misato

2007-04-01

118

Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram  

PubMed Central

Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. Methods A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Results Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. Conclusions The results indicated that the layout of a process map does influence perceptions of quality and safety problems in a process. In quality improvement work it is important to carefully consider the type of process map to be used and to consider using more than one map to ensure that different aspects of the process are captured.

2010-01-01

119

Molecular systems biology: data-flow diagram modeling of process in protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new method of modeling tool for a biological process - central dogma. The data-flow diagram is used as a representation of the whole data input and output, which enables us to simulate, analyze, and manipulate (in the future) at our disposal. From DNA to protein via RNA is the one of most well-known biological

J. W. Yeol; I. Barjis; Y. S. Ryu

2005-01-01

120

Mathematics Teaching and Learning as a Mediating Process: The Case of Tape Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how visual representations may mediate the teaching and learning of mathematics over time in Japanese elementary classrooms. Using the Zone of Proximal Development Mathematical Learning Model (Murata & Fuson, 2006; Fuson & Murata, 2007), the process of mediation is explicated. The tape diagram, a central visual representation…

Murata, Aki

2008-01-01

121

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Multi-Canister Overpack Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future r...

M. J. Klem M. J. Packer

2000-01-01

122

Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time biologists have used visual representations of biochemical networks to gain a quick overview of important structural properties. Recently SBGN, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation, has been developed to standardise the way in which such graphical maps are drawn in order to facilitate the exchange of information. Its qualitative Process Diagrams (SBGN-PD) are based on an implicit

Laurence Loewe; Stuart Moodie; Jane Hillston

2009-01-01

123

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference.

2000-01-01

124

Kinetic Process Graphs : Building Intuitive and Parsimonious Material Stock-Flow Diagrams with Modified Bond Graph Notations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new graphical modelling language extending the stock-flow (SF) diagrams used in System Dynamics (SD). It introduces a new kind of graphs, the «Kinetic Process Graphs or KPGs». A KPG groups in a single flow-process some mechanisms representing flows modelled separately in a SF diagram but cognitively linked in our mental models as belonging to a single

Jacques LeFèvre; Ecole Centrale de Lille

125

Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a long time biologists have used visual representations of biochemical\\u000anetworks to gain a quick overview of important structural properties. Recently\\u000aSBGN, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation, has been developed to standardise\\u000athe way in which such graphical maps are drawn in order to facilitate the\\u000aexchange of information. Its qualitative Process Diagrams (SBGN-PD) are based\\u000aon an implicit

Laurence Loewe; Stuart Moodie; Jane Hillston

2009-01-01

126

Dealing with graphic output from diagram processing tasks: Approaches to characterisation and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current relative lack of detailed knowledge about how learners interact with the types of diagrams used in instructional\\u000a materials is partly due to the research difficulties in characterising the cognitive structures and processes involved in\\u000a these interactions. One of these difficulties arises from the lack of research tools specifically designed for the collection\\u000a and meaningful analysis of relevant data.

Richard K. Lowe

1992-01-01

127

Automatic Translation of a Process Level Petri-Net to a Ladder Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major part of discrete industrial automation hardware is controlled by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). While Petri-nets (PNs) have been proposed by many researchers for modelling shop floor discrete control, the majority of the world PLCs are programmed using ladder diagrams (LD) and significant portion of them cannot be programmed using another language. This paper proposes hierarchical approach to translating PN to LD: for describing the high level process, it introduces automatic translation technique of process level PN, while utilizing a recently developed method (for translating PN to Boolean logic) for translating the embedded tasks to a LD. Interestingly, the generated LD code enables the reconstruction of the original Petri-net.

Cohen*, Yuval; Wang, Ming-En; Bidanda, Bopaya

128

A new approach to construct generalized local Voronoi diagrams via digital image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot navigating in an unknown environment depends on its sensors to obtain distance information of the obstacles with which it encounters. By using the collected distance information, a point robot is able to construct Generalized Local Voronoi Diagram (GLVD) of the area that is lying in vicinity of itself. In this paper, a method is proposed to build GLVDs via processing the digital images captured by a camera attached to a point robot which remains on a constant height platform. The robot under consideration collects several discrete images around itself. These images are processed by an algorithm which extracts the distance information of the three dimensional obstacles around the robot and constructs discrete images which are parts of the top view of the area. The resulting discrete images are then assembled to build a complete image of the top view of the region around the robot, at the center of which the robot is located. This local panoramic image is then used to construct the GLVD of the area under consideration. A case study is presented to demonstrate and verify the capabilities of the approach introduced. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study which employs a camera attached to the robot itself and digital image processing to create Generalized Local Voronoi Diagrams.

Yümer, M. Ersin; Koçer, Bilge; Tosun, M. Bilgehan

2010-02-01

129

76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy...Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams...Diagram (OPD) and Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams (SOBDs) located in the...

2011-01-18

130

Venn diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online resources offer varied opportunities to work with Venn diagrams, one of many tools used in logic and reasoning. Their use is especially helpful in learning foundational notions of definition and set theory. One of the five Process Standards promoted by NCTM, Reasoning and Proof requires middle school students to sharpen such skills as they learn to develop mathematical argument.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

131

Problems of improving engineering procedures and processing flow diagrams for low- and medium-level liquid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

were implemented. In the Soviet Union comprehensive process flow diagrams for liquid radioactive waste disposal have come into use. These include the operations of waste conditioning, precipitation, ion-exchange treatment, evaporation, and solidificationby cementation and bituminization. This approach to solving problems of the processing of low- and medium-level liquid waste makes it possible to purify liquid waste to acceptable concentrations and

A. S. Polyakov; B. V. Martynov; V. V. Tugolukov; B. E. Ryabchikov; V. S. D'yakov; I. A. Sobolev; A. S. Dmitriev; Yu. V. Kuznetsov; N. A. Rakov; V. A. Kichik; A. P. Darienko; V. E. Vyatkin; N. F. Kuleshov; A. A. Svittsov

1989-01-01

132

Structure of Block Copolymer Hydrogel Formed by Complex Coacervate Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex coacervation occurs when oppositely charged polyelectrolytes associate in solution, forming dense micron-sized droplets. Hydrogels with coacervate block domains were formed by mixing two ABA and A'BA' triblock copolymer solutions in water where the A and A' blocks are oppositely charged. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the structure of hydrogels formed by ABA triblock copolymers (A block: poly(allyl glycidyl ether) functionalized with guanidinium (A) or sulfonate (A'), B block: poly(ethylene oxide)). By using an appropriate fitting model, structural information such as coacervate core block radius and water volume fraction w can be extracted from SANS data. The results reveal that w in the coacervate core block was significantly higher than in conventional triblock copolymer hydrogels where microphase separation is driven by the hydrophobicity of the core-forming blocks.

Choi, Soohyung; Ortony, Julia; Krogstad, Daniel; Spruell, Jason; Lynd, Nathaniel; Han, Songi; Kramer, Edward

2012-02-01

133

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concerning the technology of the process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits...

2009-07-01

134

40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concerning the technology of the process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram; (ii) Process chemistry; (iii) Maximum intended inventory; (iv) Safe upper and lower limits...

2010-07-01

135

Diblock copolymer phase diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adaptation of the Matsen and Bates BCP phase diagram predicted using Mean-field Theory. * Matsen MW, Bates FS, ''http://pubs3.acs.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in_doi=10.1021/ma951138i Unifying weak- and strong-segregation block copolymer theories. Diblock copolymer phase diagram as calculated using Mean-field Theory by Matsen and Bates, where fA is the Block fraction, Ï is the Flory-Huggins Chi Parameter, and N is the length of the block.

Iacovella, Christopher R.

2006-11-20

136

Highly Asymmetric Phase Diagram of a Poly(1,2-octylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Diblock Copolymer System Comprising a Brush-Like Poly(1,2-octylene oxide) Block.  

PubMed

The phase diagram of a series of poly(1,2-octylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (POO-PEO) diblock copolymers is determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was measured by small-angle neutron scattering. The phase diagram is highly asymmetric due to large conformational asymmetry that results from the hexyl side chains in the POO block. Non-lamellar phases (hexagonal and gyroid) are observed near f(PEO) ?=?0.5, and the lamellar phase is observed for f(PEO) ???0.5. PMID:21638508

Hamley, Ian W; O'Driscoll, Ben M D; Lotze, Gudrun; Moulton, Claire; Allgaier, Jürgen; Frielinghaus, Henrich

2009-12-16

137

Decomposition of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data flow diagrams are an important design aid in system development. CASE tools allow data flow diagram construction and modification to be automated. Decomposition is the top-down development of a data flow diagram starting with the system inputs and the system outputs. Decomposition may also be automated, resulting in an interactive process for data flow diagram design. Adler (1988) described

Timothy Arndt; Angela Guercio

1992-01-01

138

Large and various shapes block processing in HEVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) which is joint team by ITU-T SG 16 Q.6 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 (MPEG) was established and started to define new video coding standard called as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). This paper introduces block partitioning structure of HEVC standard and presents its analysis results. Among many technical aspects of HEVC, the block partitioning structure has been considered as a key factor of its significant coding efficiency improvement. Compared with the macroblock structure of the fixed size 16x16 in H.264/AVC, HEVC defines three flexible size units according to their functionalities. Coding unit (CU) defines a region sharing the same prediction scheme between spatial and temporal predictions and it is represented by the leaf node of the quadtree structure. Moreover, prediction unit (PU) defines a region sharing the same prediction information and transform unit (TU), which is specified by another quadtree, defines a region sharing the same transformation. This paper introduces technical details of the block partitioning structure of HEVC with emphasis on the consistently designed framework by combining three different units together. Provided experimental results justifies each component of the block partitioning structure.

Kim, Il-Koo; Min, Junghye; Lee, Tammy; Han, Woo-Jin; Park, JeongHoon

2012-10-01

139

Rates of Metamorphic and Tectonic Processes Derived From Garnet Chemistry and Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sm and Nd isotope data for the interior parts of a garnet crystal (core) and the whole rock can be used to calculate the timing of initial growth. Isotope data for the external parts of a garnet crystal (rim) and the rock matrix can be used to calculate the timing of final growth. Similarly, major element chemistry can be used to calculate pressures (P) and temperatures (T) of metamorphism for initial and final garnet growth. Combination of these data allows estimation of garnet growth, heating, and loading rates. Sm-Nd isochrons were constructed for garnet core and whole rock, and for garnet rim and rock matrix (whole rock minus garnet). For core and rim ages that are indistinguishable, uncertainties for a single isochron constrain the duration of garnet growth. P and T were estimated from the intersection of garnet chemical isopleths on P-T phase diagrams for specific rocks (pseudosections), and garnet rim thermobarometry and/or pseudosection peak mineral stability fields. Results from Cretaceous contact and regional metamorphic environments provide preliminary data for comparison. Schist from Garnet Ledge, AK. 20 mm garnet crystals in pelite less than 1 km from a diorite pluton grew during contact metamorphism over ca. 0.5 m.y. during a 70°C increase in T and 0.6 kbar increase in P. Growth, heating, and loading rates are 20 mm/m.y., 140°C/m.y., 1.2 kbar/m.y., respectively. Chiwaukum Schist from near the Mount Stuart batholith, WA. 14 mm garnet crystals in pelite less than 2 km from the Mt. Stuart batholith grew during regional metamorphism over <1.4 m.y. during a 75°C increase in T and 1.2 kbar increase in P. Growth, heating, and loading rates are 5 mm/m.y., 54°C/m.y., 0.9 kbar/m.y., respectively. 5 mm garnet crystals in pelite adjacent to orthogneiss grew during contact metamorphism over <1.8 m.y. while T and P increased to peak conditions of 630°C and 6.8 kbar. Pembroke granulite from Fiordland, New Zealand. 16 mm peritectic garnet crystals in lower-crustal mafic migmatite grew during partial melting over <1.3 m.y. at about 14 kbar and presumably during little or no change in T. Garnet growth durations range from ca. 0.5 to 6.6 m.y. Growth and heating rates for the contact metamorphic garnet are >double those for regional metamorphism; however, additional data are needed to confirm general differences. In addition, uncertainties in the above ages and rates are generally similar to the absolute differences between core and rim ages, and the derived rates. Therefore, the precision on isotopic ages clearly needs to be improved in order to better constrain rates of metamorphic processes.

Stowell, H. H.

2005-12-01

140

Mollier-I, S-Diagrams for Combustion Gases in Data Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to have all the thermal and caloric states of combustion gases accessible in a computer, closed mathematical approximation equations were established for the real factors, the enthalpy and the entropy of a real combustion gas. The equations approximate the various effects of molecular forces real gas influence and dissociation - at temperatures of 200 K to 6,000 K, pressures of 0.001 to 1,000 bar, and in the range from stoichiometric composition to air. A system of subprograms is listed in FORTRAN, by means of which thermodynamic calculations can be carried out in the same manner as with Mollier I,S diagrams.

Zacharias, F.

1982-01-01

141

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are given a Venn diagram with certain rules and an element. They must then determine where in the Venn diagram the element belongs. This activity allows students to practice placing elements in Venn diagrams as well as reviewing mathematical terms associated with the different rules. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

142

Lucidchart: Diagramming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For all those who have wrestled with creating charts and diagrams in word processors, the Google Chrome application Lucidchart may be a long-awaited answer. Users can start using the intuitive drag-and-drop interface right away, although a free signup is required to save diagrams. By sharing a link with coworkers, project collaborators can work on the same diagram at the same time. This application is compatible with all computers running Google Chrome.

2012-08-24

143

Carroll Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this number sorting activity students must use a Carroll Diagram to determine which two categories each number fits into. This activity can be completed in pairs or groups on printable versions or it can be completed as a whole class using the interactive white board (IWB). Included with this resource are printable versions of the Carroll Diagrams, guiding questions, extension and support suggestions, and a link to more challenging "More Carroll Diagrams".

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

144

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive problem provides an opportunity for children to become familiar with Venn diagrams, while reinforcing knowledge of number properties. Students must place the numbers from 1 to 40 into a Venn diagram of two sets with an intersection. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-09-01

145

76 FR 63654 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...Official Protraction Diagram (OPD), Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagrams...OCS Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official OCS Shelf...

2011-10-13

146

Hovmoller Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hovmoller diagrams are great for displaying large amounts of data in a meaningful and understandable form. The image on the left graphical shows the El Nino signal in the equatorial Pacific (100 W to 140 E ...

147

Acquisition of weak GNSS signals using a new block averaging pre-processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new approach for the acquisition of weak GNSS signals. For the GPS L1 signal, we utilize the replication property of the C\\/A code within each data bit to introduce a block averaging pre-processing (BAP) approach for improving receiver robustness against undesired signals. A large number of weighted signal blocks is coherently accumulated and synchronously

Mohamed Sahmoudi; Moeness G. Amin; R. Landry

2008-01-01

148

Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience  

PubMed Central

Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy.

Velasco, Elizabeth; Ilasi, Nicholas T.

2010-01-01

149

Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience.  

PubMed

Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy. PMID:23386924

McDonald, Sandra A; Velasco, Elizabeth; Ilasi, Nicholas T

2010-12-01

150

The directed assembly of block copolymer-homopolymer ternary blend films: Materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New methods for fabricating nanoscale features are essential for enabling technological advances in many fields including microelectronics, energy processes, and medicine. In this work, materials and processes for the directed assembly of block copolymer films were investigated. Cylinder- and lamellae-forming block copolymer-homopolymer ternary blends of poly(styrene)- block-poly(methyl methacrylate) with the respective homopolymers were studied in a variety of directed assembly schemes. Blends of cylinder-forming block copolymers and homopolymers were studied to determine their domain scaling laws and understand the factors affecting defect formation. Cylinder-forming ternary blends could be swollen up to 150% of their original size while still maintaining hexagonal ordering. A low molecular weight homopolymer blend caused the domains to shrink and orient uniformly perpendicular to the substrate. Cylinder-forming ternary blends were assembled on topographic and chemical patterns, forming sub-lithographic block copolymer patterns in both cases. The blends were demonstrated to allow the domain spacing (D) to be tuned to the pattern spacing (LS) for both topographic and chemical patterns. On topographic patterns, the blends showed better uniformity than spheres for creating hexagonal dot patterns. In addition, the directed assembly of lamellae-forming block copolymer-homopolymer ternary blends was investigated by transmission small-angle x-ray scattering (TSAXS). A model of the assembly process was developed as an extension to an earlier hypothesis proposed from molecular simulations. Ternary blend films assembled on chemical patterns differently than pure block copolymers, with order taking longer to develop. For a blend film on a chemical pattern, the order induced by the substrate propagated through the film, ordering the few nanometers at the free surface last. Finally, the effect of x-ray scattering damage on block copolymer assembly was investigated, revealing some of the challenges of combining hard x-rays and soft materials.

Stuen, Karl O.

151

An Iterative Process Involving Interlacing and Decoposition in the Devlopment of a Block Cipher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper, we have developed a block cipher by introducing the basic concepts interlacing and decomposition. Here, we have taken the key in the form of matrices, and the plaintext as column vectors, wherein all are containing binary bits. In the process of encryption, we have employed an iterative procedure. In the process of decryption, we have used

S. Udaya Kumar; V. U. K. Sastry; A. Vinaya

2006-01-01

152

New Modular Ultrasonic Signal Processing Building Blocks for Real-Time Data Acquisition and Post Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of basic signal processors has been developed. These basic building blocks can be cascaded together to form more complex processors without the need for programming. The data structures between each of the processors are handled automatically. This allows a processor built for one purpose to be applied to any type of data such as images, waveform arrays and single values. The processors are part of Winspect Data Acquisition software. The new processors are fast enough to work on A-scan signals live while scanning. Their primary use is to extract features, reduce noise or to calculate material properties. The cascaded processors work equally well on live A-scan displays, live gated data or as a post-processing engine on saved data. Researchers are able to call their own MATLAB or C-code from anywhere within the processor structure. A built-in formula node processor that uses a simple algebraic editor may make external user programs unnecessary. This paper also discusses the problems associated with ad hoc software development and how graphical programming languages can tie up researchers writing software rather than designing experiments.

Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion

2003-03-01

153

Phase Diagrams in Vivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses three experiments for students to construct a phase diagram; the experiments have been videotaped and can be seen online. The purpose of this laboratory as designed is to gain familiarity with simple phase diagrams, their construction, and their applications to the understanding of geological and environmental problems. Subsidiary objectives include development of strategies for data processing including evaluation of assumptions and sources of errors, as well as honing of computer, spreadsheet, presentation (tabular and graphical), and report writing skills.

154

Higgs production and decay processes via loop diagrams in various 6D Universal Extra Dimension models at LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate loop-induced Higgs production and decay processes which are relevant for the LHC in various six-dimensional Universal Extra Dimension models. More concretely, we focus on the Higgs production through gluon fusion and the Higgs decay into two photons induced by loop diagrams. They are one-loop leading processes and the contribution of Kaluza-Klein particles is considered to be significant. These processes are divergent in six dimensions. Therefore, we employ a momentum cutoff, whose size is fixed from the validity of perturbative calculation through naive dimensional analysis. In these six-dimensional Universal Extra Dimension models, the Higgs production cross section through gluon fusion is highly enhanced and the Higgs decay width into two photons is suppressed. In particular in the case of the compactification on Projective Sphere, these effects are remarkable. The deviation of the h (0) ? 2? signal from the prediction of the Standard model is much greater than that in the case of the five-dimensional minimal UED model. We also consider threshold corrections in the two processes and these effect are noteworthy even when we take a higher cutoff and/or a heavy KK scale. Comparing our calculation to the recent LHC results which were published at the Lepton-Photon 2011 and at the December of 2011 is performed briefly.

Nishiwaki, Kenji

2012-05-01

155

Process Flow Diagram of an Ammonia Plant as a Complex Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex networks have attracted increasing interests in almost all disciplines of natural and social sciences. However, few efforts have been afforded in the field of chemical engineering. We present in this work an example of complex technological network, investigating the process flow of an ammonia plant (AP). We show that the AP network is a small-world network with scale-free distribution

Zhi-Qiang Jiang; Wei-Xing Zhou; Bin Xu; Wei-Kang Yuan

2005-01-01

156

On the development of an integrated circuit for parallel processing of digital filter flow-diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In various areas of application of digital filtering there is interest in a flexible integrated circuit for digital filtering which is easily programmable and operates fast enough for real time applications. The most important characteristics of such a circuit, such as: Structure, Types of instructions, Speed of operation in parallel processing Number of pins, etc., are discussed. In the case

R. Nouta

1980-01-01

157

Process flow diagram of an ammonia plant as a complex network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex networks have attracted increasing interests in almost all\\u000adisciplines of natural and social sciences. However, few efforts have been\\u000aafforded in the field of chemical engineering. We present in this work an\\u000aexample of complex technological network, investigating the process flow of an\\u000aammonia plant (AP). We show that the AP network is a small-world network with\\u000ascale-free distribution

Zhi-Qiang Jiang; Wei-Xing Zhou; Bing Xu; Wei-Kang Yuan

2007-01-01

158

Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing. Progress report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Examples, listed in a table, include semiconductor/insulator/semiconductor (SIS) layered structures, II-VI/II-VI and III-V/II-VI epitaxial heterojunctions and oxidation of ternary compounds. Solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems. Using free energies of formation, a method to calculate the quaternary phase diagrams was developed. The Ga-As-II-VI and Cd-Te-Zn-O phase diagrams are reviewed as examples of quaternary phase diagrams without and with solid solubility.

Schwartzman, A.

1988-12-31

159

Educational Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Peirce, diagrammatic constructions are represented by words in a sentence, an algebraic formula, or a graphic display. They are the basis of all valid reasoning and provide significant means for discovering unexpected truths. Sources and uses of diagrams in education are discussed in relation to Peirce's ideas. Nineteen references are…

Moxley, Roy

1983-01-01

160

Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

161

Human Development Aspects of Aging. Module A-3. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional module on human development aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Two sections present…

Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

162

Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Block VII, Classroom Course 13-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These curriculum materials are the fourth section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block VII deals with heat treating, hardness…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

163

Simplified Cu/Polyimide Damascene Approach Based on Imprint Process of Soluble Block Copolymer Polyimide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Cu/polyimide damascene approach based on an imprint technique was demonstrated aiming at developing a low-cost fabrication process for high-density interconnections in polyimide. First, a UV-assisted thermal imprint process that utilizes the high formability and low shrinkage of a soluble block copolymer polyimide was proposed as a high precision patterning process for polyimide. As a result, fine patterns (line widths ranging from 3 to 50 ?m) with rectangular cross sections and clear line edges were fabricated in soluble block copolymer polyimide films by UV-assisted thermal imprinting followed by curing. Additionally, Cu damascene structures with a minimum line width of 3 ?m were fabricated in the polyimide by performing subsequent Cu electroplating and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), and the feasibility of the process was verified.

Park, Sang-Cheon; Youn, Sung-Won; Hiroshima, Hiroshi; Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro; Kato, Takahisa

2013-10-01

164

Ternary diagram plots  

SciTech Connect

A ternary diagram uses an equilateral triangle to graphically depict the relationship among three data values which sum to a constant value. Geologists in many fields use ternary diagrams for a variety of purposes: identification and classification of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks; classification of soils; chemical and molecular representation of minerals; representation of the fractional crystallization of igneous rock-forming minerals. Traditionally, constructing a ternary diagram involves calculating the normalized values from the raw data for the three components to be plotted, then plotting the point that represents these values on an equilateral triangle. This can be a tedious and time-consuming process, especially if many samples must be plotted, or many combinations of components represented. Ternary is a program that allows manipulation of large amounts of data to create accurate ternary diagrams. The program allows input of data for hundreds of samples, each containing up to 20 components, any three of which can be combined to form a ternary diagram. Each component can be given a label up to five characters long for ease in identification. Data are entered in raw form (i.e. parts per million, percentages, real or whole numbers), normalized internally to 100, and plotted on a ternary diagram that can be printed to the screen or dot matrix printer.

Scott, A.J.; Guth, P.L.

1987-11-01

165

Microglia processes block the spread of damage in the brain and require functional chloride channels.  

PubMed

Microglia cells exhibit two forms of motility, constant movement of filopodia probing surrounding brain tissue, and outgrowth of larger processes in response to nearby damage. The mechanisms and functions of filopodia sensing and process outgrowth are not well characterized but are likely critical for normal immune function in the brain. Using two photon laser scanning microscopy we investigated microglia process outgrowth in response to damage, and explored the relationship between process outgrowth and filopodia movement. Further, we examined the roles of Cl(-) or K(+) channel activation, as well as actin polymerization in these two distinct processes, because mechanistic understanding could provide a strategy to modulate microglia function. We found that volume sensitive Cl(-) channel blockers (NPPB, tamoxifen, DIDS) prevented the rapid process outgrowth of microglia observed in response to damage. In contrast, filopodia extension during sensing was resistant to Cl(-) channel inhibitors, indicating that these motile processes have different cellular mechanisms. However, both filopodia sensing and rapid process outgrowth were blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization. Following lesion formation under control conditions, rapidly outgrowing processes contacted the damaged area and this was associated with a 37% decrease in lesion volume. Inhibition of process outgrowth by Cl(-) channel block, prevention of actin polymerization, or by selectively ablating microglia all allowed lesion volume to increase and spread into the surrounding tissue. Therefore, process outgrowth in response to focal brain damage is beneficial by preventing lesion expansion and suggests microglia represent a front line defence against damage in the brain. PMID:19382211

Hines, Dustin J; Hines, Rochelle M; Mulligan, Sean J; Macvicar, Brian A

2009-11-15

166

Flow Diagram Simulator for the Cement Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important aspect of work performed in a process engineering department is the development of process flow diagrams. These diagrams display the results of energy and material balances and equipment rating calculations for a complex process plant. The development, features, and implementation of a computerized flow diagram simulation program named Fuller's interactive simulator for process engineering calculations (FISPEC) are

Bruce S. Knoll; William J. Berry

1984-01-01

167

Imprints of Archean to Neoproterozoic crustal processes in the Madurai Block, Southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Madurai Block, the largest crustal block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of Peninsular India, preserves the imprints of multistage tectonic evolution. Here, we present U-Pb and Hf isotope data on zircons from a charnockite-granite suite in the north-western part of this block. The oscillatory zoning, and the LREE to HREE enriched patterns of the zircons with positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies suggest that the zircon cores are of magmatic origin, with ages in the range of 2634-2435 Ma implying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic magmatism followed by subsequent metamorphism and protocontinent formation in the north-western part of the Madurai Block. A regional 550-500 Ma metamorphic overprint is also preserved in the zircons coinciding with the final amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent. The Hf isotopic data suggest that the granite and charnockite were derived from isotopically heterogeneous juvenile crustal domains and the charnockites show a significant contribution of mantle-derived components. Therefore, the Hf isotopic data reflect mixing of crustal and mantle-derived sources for the generation of Neoarchean crust in the north-western Madurai Block, possibly in a suprasubduction zone setting during continent building processes.

Bhattacharya, Shrema; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Huang, He; Banerjee, Amlan; George, P. M.; Sajeev, K.

2014-07-01

168

Transverse Process and Needles of Medial Branch Block to Facet Joint as Landmarks for Ultrasound-Guided Selective Nerve Root Block  

PubMed Central

Background Selective lumbar nerve root block (SNRB) is generally accepted as an effective treatment method for back pain with sciatica. However, it requires devices producing radioactive materials such as C-arm fluoroscopy. This study evaluated the usefulness of the longitudinal view of transverse process and needles for medial branch block as landmarks under ultrasonography. Methods We performed selective nerve root block for 96 nerve roots in 61 patients under the guidance of ultrasound. A curved probe was used to identify the facet joints and transverse processes. Identifying the lumbar nerve roots under the skin surface and ultrasound landmarks, the cephalad and caudal medial branch blocks were undertaken under the transverse view of sonogram first. A needle for nerve root block was inserted between the two transverse processes under longitudinal view, while estimating the depth with the needle for medial branch block. We then injected 1.0 mL of contrast medium and checked the distribution of the nerve root with C-arm fluoroscopy to evaluate the accuracy. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to access the clinical results. Results Seven SNRBs were performed for the L2 nerve root, 15 for L3, 49 for L4, and 25 for L5, respectively. Eighty-six SNRBs (89.5%) showed successful positioning of the needles. We failed in the following cases: 1 case for the L2 nerve root; 2 for L3; 3 for L4; and 4 for L5. The failed needles were positioned at wrong leveled segments in 4 cases and inappropriate place in 6 cases. VAS was improved from 7.6 ± 0.6 to 3.5 ± 1.3 after the procedure. Conclusions For SNRB in lumbar spine, the transverse processes under longitudinal view as the ultrasound landmark and the needles of medial branch block to the facet joint can be a promising guidance.

Kim, Daehee; Choi, Donghyuk; Kim, Chungyoung; Kim, Jeongseok

2013-01-01

169

Exan™ Pro: Process visualization tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exan Pro is a powerful tool for the visualization of process modeling results, which can be obtained using Aspen Plus™ or other flowsheeting packages. Clear Exergy, Energy, Molar, Mass, Volume, Process and Block flow diagrams can be created in an automatic way. In a flow diagram, the width of a stream schematically represents its contents. Exan Pro especially allows you

A. J. G. G. Graveland

1999-01-01

170

Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

Rubin, D. K.

1964-01-01

171

Scaffolding Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes in Low Verbal Ability Learners: Use of Diagrams in Computer-Based Training Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of undergraduates investigated how scaffolding instructional strategies can support learners' knowledge acquisition and metacomprehension of complex systems in a computer-based training environment. Results showed that incorporating diagrams facilitated performance on measures of integrative knowledge and facilitated the development of…

Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.; Oser, Randall L.

2002-01-01

172

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

173

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

2007-09-13

174

Translation from the Quantified Implicit Process Flow Abstraction in SBGN-PD Diagrams to Bio-PEPA Illustrated on the Cholesterol Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For a long time biologists have used visual representations of biochemical networks to gain a quick overview of important\\u000a structural properties. Recently SBGN, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation, has been developed to standardise the way in\\u000a which such graphical maps are drawn in order to facilitate the exchange of information. Its qualitative Process Description\\u000a (SBGN-PD) diagrams are based on an

Laurence Loewe; Maria Luisa Guerriero; Steven Watterson; Stuart Moodie; Peter Ghazal; Jane Hillston

175

Phase Diagram of Catalytic Oxidation of CO on the Surface Subsurface of a Body-Centred Cubic Structure with Eley Rideal Process: A Monte Carlo Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore the effects of the Eley-Rideal (ER) process on the phase diagram of the Langmuir Hinshelwood (LH) type monomer dimer (CO O2) catalytic reaction on the surface and subsurface of a body-centred cubic structure, which extends to only two layers in the z-direction. The dimer (O2) is adsorbed in such a way that it

A. U. Qaisrani; M. Khalid; Baloch Musa Kaleem

2004-01-01

176

Evolution of lateral ordering in symmetric block copolymer thin films upon rapid thermal processing.  

PubMed

This work reports experimental findings about the evolution of lateral ordering of lamellar microdomains in symmetric PS-b-PMMA thin films on featureless substrates. Phase separation and microdomain evolution are explored in a rather wide range of temperatures (190-340 °C) using a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system. The maximum processing temperature that enables the ordering of block copolymers without introducing any significant degradation of macromolecules is identified. The reported results clearly indicate that the range of accessible temperatures in the processing of these self-assembling materials is mainly limited by the thermal instability of the grafted random copolymer layer, which starts to degrade at T > 300 °C, inducing detachment of the block copolymer thin film. For T ? 290 °C, clear dependence of correlation length (?) values on temperature is observed. The highest level of lateral order achievable in the current system in a quasi-equilibrium condition was obtained at the upper processing temperature limit after an annealing time as short as 60 s. PMID:24960172

Ceresoli, Monica; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Seguini, Gabriele; Sparnacci, Katia; Gianotti, Valentina; Antonioli, Diego; Laus, Michele; Boarino, Luca; Perego, Michele

2014-07-11

177

Process-controlled multiscale morphologies in metal-containing block copolymer thin films.  

PubMed

Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a scaffold for nanoporous membranes and as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and remarkable stability, which aid in the development of robust nanoporous networks or high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (> 100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops a discontinuous lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies. PMID:24745279

Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Kilbey, S Michael; Darling, Seth B

2014-03-01

178

Forming Limit Diagrams of Zircaloy4 and Zirlo Sheets for Stamping Process of Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Rod  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the theoretical forming limit models for Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo used for spacer grid of nuclear fuel rods. Tensile tests were performed to obtain stress-strain curves and anisotropic coefficients, such as r-values. The experimental forming limit diagrams (FLD) for two materials were obtained by dome stretching tests following the specification of NUMISHEET 96. Theoretical FLD depends on forming limit

Yunmi Seo; Hong Chul Hyun; Hyungyil Lee; Naksoo Kim

2011-01-01

179

Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices  

SciTech Connect

Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These serve to analyze stability problems that arise in these systems. The authors then use them as building blocks to arrive at ion diagrams for complete devices. This allows analyses of (dis)coloration kinetics.

Varsano, F. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces]|[Univ. di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Cahen, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces; Decker, F. [Univ. di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Guillemoles, J.F. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Materials and Interfaces]|[CNRS, Paris (France). Lab. d`Electrochimie; Masetti, E. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Sezione Dispositivi Ottici

1998-12-01

180

Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter.  

PubMed

A novel carrier recovery scheme for demodulating optical M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) signals is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed scheme treats a certain number of consecutive symbols as a processing block for which linear evolution of the carrier phases in time is assumed. The Kalman filter algorithm is employed to simultaneously estimate the carrier-frequency offset and carrier phases of the symbols in each block from the observation result. Consequently, an optimal carrier recovery operation with minimum mean squared error can be obtained, and large phase errors due to optical noise and large carrier-frequency offsets can be tolerated. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme in demodulating optical 16- and 64-QAM signals, confirming its stable operation for carrier-frequency offsets even larger than 10% of the symbol rate of the signal. We also demonstrate 160-km transmission of a single-channel, single-polarization 64-QAM signal by using the proposed scheme in the demodulation process. PMID:24977798

Inoue, Takashi; Namiki, Shu

2014-06-30

181

Semantics of the Domain of Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A domain of flow diagrams similar to that proposed by Scott, a domain of linear flow diagrams proposed by Goguen et al , a domain of decision table diagrams involving mfimtary branching, and a domain of processes based on the ideas of Milner and Beklc are each provided with a direct semantics, closely related to partial-function semantics, and a continuation

John C. Reynolds

1977-01-01

182

Retrieving Information from Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reverse engineering, we need tools that can extract information from documents written before routine digital storage was feasible. Documents contain both text and diagrams; data flow diagrams play a prominent role in software documents. Using current techniques, it is possible to recover the information in a data flow diagram by scanning the printed document and processing the data obtained.

Gregory Butler; Peter Grogono; Rajjan Shinghal; Indra A. Tjandra

1995-01-01

183

Novel surface treatment materials for aligning block-co-polymer in directed self-assembly processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) process is one of the attractive processes for creating the very fine pitch pattern. Especially, the contact hole shrink processes with block-co-polymer (BCP) or polymer blend materials were attractive processes for creating very small size hole patterns with better CD uniformity compare to general photo-lithography patterning. In general contact hole shrink process, the pattern of Spin-on Carbon Hardmask (SOC) or the photo Resist pattern created by Negative-Tone Development (NTD) process were selected for guide patterns. Since the alignment property of BCP was affected by the surface of these guide materials, it is important to control the surface condition of guide in order to obtain good shrunk contact hole patterns. In this study, we will report the surface treatment materials to control the surface condition of guide patterns such as SOC or NTD resist to achieve the better contact hole shrink performance. These materials were attached to guide pattern surface and controlled the surface energy.

Someya, Yasunobu; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

2014-03-01

184

Combining Stressors That Individually Impede Long-Term Memory Blocks All Memory Processes  

PubMed Central

The effects of stress on memory are typically assessed individually; however, in reality different stressors are often experienced simultaneously. Here we determined the effect that two environmentally relevant stressors, crowding and low calcium availability, have on memory and neural activity following operant conditioning of aerial respiration in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We measured aerial breathing behaviour and activity of a neuron necessary for memory formation, right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), in the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiration in untrained animals, and assessed how these traits changed following training. In naïve animals both crowding and combined stressors significantly depressed burst activity in RPeD1 which correlated with a depression in aerial breathing behaviour, whereas low calcium availability had no effect on RPeD1 activity. Following training, changes in burst activity in RPeD1 correlated with behavioural changes, decreasing relative to their naïve state at 3 h and 24 h in control conditions when both intermediate-term memory (ITM: 3 h) and long-term memory (LTM: 24 h) are formed, at 3 h but not 24 h when exposed to individual stressors when only ITM is formed, and did not change in combined stressors (i.e. when no memory is formed). Additionally, we also found that Lymnaea formed short-term memory (STM: 10 min) in the presence of individual stressors or under control conditions, but failed to do so in the presence of combined stressors. Our data demonstrate that by combining stressors that individually block LTM only we can block all memory processes. Therefore the effects of two stressors with similar individual affects on memory phenotype may be additive when experienced in combination.

Teskey, Morgan Lee; Lukowiak, Ken

2013-01-01

185

Inhibition of glycoprotein processing blocks assembly of spicules during development of the sea urchin embryo  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have implicated an 130-kD glycoprotein containing complex, N-linked oligosaccharide chain(s) in the process of spicule formation in sea urchin embryos. To ascertain whether the processing of high mannose oligosaccharides to complex oligosaccharides is necessary for spiculogenesis, intact embryos and cultures of spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells were treated with glycoprotein processing inhibitors. In both the embryonic and cell culture systems 1- deoxymannojirimycin (1-MMN) and, to a lesser extent, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) inhibited spicule formation. These inhibitors did not affect gastrulation in whole embryos or filopodial network formation in cell cultures. Swainsonine (SWSN) and castanospermine (CSTP) had no effect in either system. Further analysis revealed the following: (a) 1-MMN entered the embryos and blocked glycoprotein processing in the 24-h period before spicule formation as assessed by a twofold increase in endoglycosidase H sensitivity among newly synthesized glycoproteins upon addition of 1-MMN; (b) 1-MMN did not affect general protein synthesis until after its effects on spicule formation were observed; (c) Immunoblot analysis with an antibody directed towards the polypeptide chain of the 130-kD protein (mAb A3) demonstrated that 1- MMN did not affect the level of the polypeptide that is known to be synthesized just before spicule formation; (d) 1-MMN and 1-DNJ almost completely abolished (greater than 95%) the appearance of mAb 1223 reactive complex oligosaccharide moiety associated with the 130-kD glycoprotein; CSTP and SWSN had much less of an effect on expression of this epitope. These results indicate that the conversion of high mannose oligosaccharides to complex oligosaccharides is required for spiculogenesis in sea urchin embryos and they suggest that the 130-kD protein is one of these essential complex glycoproteins.

1990-01-01

186

Interlayer dielectric process for LSI circuits using positive photosensitive polyimide synthesized by block-copolymerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosensitive polyimide is expected as a future interlayer dielectric material in LSI circuits. In this paper, we propose a new interlayer dielectric process using a positive photosensitive polyimide directly synthesized from aromatic dianhydride and aliphatic diamine by block-copolymerization. Photosensitive polyimide solution was prepared with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent. A diazonaphthoquinone PC-5 was used as a photosensitizer. The thin film was spin-coated with changing polyimide concentration and rotation speed. The uniformity of the coated film was achieved less than +/- 0.9 % on a 3-inch wafer of silicon. A 0.5 micrometers line and space pattern was obtained by i-line lithography. The (gamma) value of the contrast was evaluated to 1.05. The dielectric constant of the base polyimide was measured for a thick film by the cavity perturbation method. The values from 2.4 to 3.0 were obtained within the frequency range from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. The break down voltage was measured to be 107 kV/mm without high-temperature heat treatment.

Aoyagi, Masahiro; Segawa, Shigemasa; Jung, Eun-Sil; Itatani, Taro; Komuro, Masanori; Sakamoto, Tsuenenori; Itatani, Hiroshi; Miyamura, Masataka; Matsumoto, Shunichi

2001-08-01

187

An algebra approach to the deduction of data flow diagrams and object oriented diagrams from a set of specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Software Engineering processes usually lack formal mathematical foundations. This paper presents a formal approach for the development of Specifications, Data Flow Diagrams and Object Oriented Diagrams using algebraic theory. The use of algebraic theory allows the check for completeness and consistency and the generation of automatic procedures for translating specifications into Data Flow Diagrams or Object Oriented Diagrams.

Federico Vazquez

1995-01-01

188

Block bootstrap methods for the estimation of the intensity of a spatial point process with confidence bounds.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the estimation of the intensity of a planar point process on the basis of a single point pattern, observed in a rectangular window. If the model assumptions of stationarity and isotropy hold, the method of block bootstrapping can be used to estimate the intensity of the process with confidence bounds. The results of two variants of block bootstrapping are compared with a parametric approximation based on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the numbers of points in deterministic subwindows of the original pattern. The studies were performed on patterns obtained by simulation of well-known point process models (Poisson process, two Matérn cluster processes, Matérn hardcore process, Strauss hardcore process). They were also performed on real histopathological data (point patterns of capillary profiles of 12 cases of prostatic cancer). The methods are presented as worked examples on two cases, where we illustrate their use as a check on stationarity (homogeneity) of a point process with respect to different fields of vision. The paper concludes with various methodological discussions and suggests possible extensions of the block bootstrap approach to other fields of spatial statistics. PMID:23701816

Mattfeldt, T; Häbel, H; Fleischer, F

2013-07-01

189

Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks V and VI, Classroom Course 13-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These curriculum materials are the third section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block V, Inert Gas Shielded Welding of High…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

190

Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks I and II, Classroom Course 13-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These curriculum materials are the first section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block I, Introduction to Oxyacetylene Welding,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

191

Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks III and IV, Classroom Course 13-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These curriculum materials are the second section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block III, Introduction to Metallic Arc Welding,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

192

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lecture that introduces the HR diagram. The HR diagram is a plot of luminosity in solar units on the Y axis and stellar temperature on the X axis. The HR diagram is a key tool in tracing the evolution of stars. The lecture discusses the location of different stars on the diagram. It also includes a discussion of thermonuclear fusion and the neutrino problem. A quiz follows the lecture.

Schombert, Jim

2008-12-15

193

Virus infection blocks the processing and presentation of exogenous antigen with the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.  

PubMed

Helper T cell recognition of antigen requires that antigen be processed and presented by class II expressing antigen-presenting cells (APC). Many antigens presented by the immune system are part of infectious organisms, for example, bacteria and viruses, which themselves may affect APC function. Here we show that infection of B cell lines as APC with viruses of two different families, namely, influenza A or vaccinia, completely block processing and presentation of an exogenous globular protein antigen pigeon cytochrome c. The block appears to be primarily within the processing pathway, as virus infection has little effect on the presentation of an antigenic peptide of pigeon cytochrome c which does not require processing. It is likely that several steps in the processing pathway are affected. Only live infectious virus, not UV-inactivated virus blocks APC function, indicating that there is no competition of viral particles with cytochrome c for the class II processing machinery. As compared to uninfected cells, virus-infected cells internalize less antigen bound to surface Ig but degrade a similar portion of that which enters the cell. Virus infection results in reduced protein synthesis in APC which may also be a factor in decreasing APC function. Significantly, we show that the processing of a high affinity evolutionary variant of cytochrome c from Drosophila melanogaster is reduced less by virus infection as compared to c. Such knowledge may guide the selection of antigenic epitopes in vaccine design. PMID:1379185

Domanico, S Z; Pierce, S K

1992-08-01

194

An Interconnection between Combined Classical Block Diagrams and Linear Fractional Transformation Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will establish the relationship between a specific family of classical control systems and the linear fractional transformations. Those classical control systems may always be represented by linear fractional transformations, and vice versa, subject to certain conditions. A mathematical proof for this relationship is provided

Pantazis Houlis; Victor Sreeram

2006-01-01

195

Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

196

Bite-Block Perturbation in People Who Stutter: Immediate Compensatory and Delayed Adaptive Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated sensory-motor mechanisms in five people who stutter (PWS) and five people who do not (PNS). Lip kinematic and coordination data were recorded as they produced bi-syllabic nonwords at two rates (normal and fast) in three conditions (jaw-free, immediately after insertion of a bite-block, and after a 10-min…

Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal; De Nil, Luc

2008-01-01

197

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student

David Rosengrant; Alan van Heuvelen; Eugenia Etkina

2005-01-01

198

Transition rate diagrams - A new approach to the study of selective excitation processes: The spectrum of manganese in a Grimm-type glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission spectra of manganese observed using a Grimm-type glow discharge in pure argon, argon with 0.3% v/v hydrogen and pure neon were studied in order to identify major excitation and ionization processes of manganese in the plasma. A new procedure is proposed, in which each observed emission line is associated with the corresponding transition between different states of the Mn atom or Mn ion, and, by considering all the observed transitions from and into a specific state, a measure of the total rate is determined at which this state is radiatively populated and depopulated. These resulting population/depopulation rates are then plotted as function of level energy. Such plots, called here “transition rate diagrams”, show the role of individual states in the formation of the observed spectrum and can be used to identify possible selective excitation processes. Also, cascade excitation by radiative decay of higher excited states can be conveniently evaluated in this way. A detailed description of the observed Mn I and Mn II spectra is given for Ar, Ar-H2 and Ne plasmas and relevant excitation/ionization mechanisms are discussed. Matrix effects in analysis of manganese by glow discharge spectroscopy are discussed. A list of important Mn I and Mn II lines excited in the glow discharge plasma is given.

Weiss, Zden?k; Steers, Edward B. M.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Mushtaq, Sohail

2014-02-01

199

Hybrid isolation process with deep diffusion and V-groove for reverse blocking IGBTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We newly developed a 1200V Reverse Blocking (RB)- IGBT used to form bi-directional switches in advanced Neutral- Point-Clamped (A-NPC) 3-Level modules. It featured a hybrid through-silicon isolation structure combining wafer front-side boron deep diffusion with back-side V-groove etching. Collector layer was implanted into the back-side and the surface of the V- grooves, and electrically connected to the front-side boron diffusion

Haruo Nakazawa; Masaaki Ogino; Hiroki Wakimoto; Tsunehiro Nakajima; Yoshikazu Takahashi; David Hongfei Lu

2011-01-01

200

Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

2012-07-01

201

The thermal process diagram and equipment of the secondary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station unit based on the BREST-OD-300 reactor installation for subcritical steam conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 300-MWe power unit based on an experimental-demonstration two-circuit 700-MWt reactor installation with lead coolant is briefly described. The thermal process diagram of the secondary coolant circuit for the subcritical steam conditions 17 MPa and 505°C at the outlet from steam generators is presented.

Nesterov, Yu. V.; Lisyanskii, A. S.; Makarova, E. I.; Bal'Va, L. Ya.; Prikhod'Ko, P. Yu.

2011-06-01

202

Phase Diagram of Catalytic Oxidation of CO on the Surface Subsurface of a Body-Centred Cubic Structure with Eley Rideal Process: A Monte Carlo Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore the effects of the Eley-Rideal (ER) process on the phase diagram of the Langmuir Hinshelwood (LH) type monomer dimer (CO O2) catalytic reaction on the surface and subsurface of a body-centred cubic structure, which extends to only two layers in the z-direction. The dimer (O2) is adsorbed in such a way that it takes one surface site whereas the second site is from the subsurface. For this mechanism, an interesting situation develops. The production rate of CO2 is found to be consistent with experiment. The qualitative trend of the surface oxygen coverage is not consistent with the experimental situation in one model while it is found to be consistent with that in another model, i.e. the coverage of surface oxygen decreases slowly with increase of concentration of CO (yCO). Moreover, the production of CO2 can be predicted in the form of a mathematical relation.

Qaisrani, A. U.; Khalid, M.; Musa Kaleem, Baloch

2004-09-01

203

Implementation of a knowledge-based methodology in a decision support system for the design of suitable wastewater treatment process flow diagrams.  

PubMed

In light of rapid global change, the demand for wastewater treatment is increasing rapidly and will continue to do so in the near future. Wastewater management is a complex puzzle for which the proper pieces must be combined to achieve the desired solution, requiring the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic, social and environmental issues. In this context, a knowledge-based methodology (KBM) for the conceptual design of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process flow diagrams (PFDs) and its application for two scenarios is presented in this paper. The core of the KBM is composed of two knowledge bases (KBs). The first, a specification knowledge base (S-KB), summarizes the main features of the different treatment technologies: pollutants removal efficiency, operational costs and technical reliability. The second, a compatibility knowledge base (C-KB), contains information about the different interactions amongst the treatment technologies and determines their degree of compatibility. The proposed methodology is based on a decision hierarchy that uses the information contained in both KBs to generate all possible WWTP configurations, screening and selecting appropriate configurations based on user-specified requirements and scenario characteristics. The design of the most adequate treatment train for small and medium sized wastewater treatment plants (2000 and 50,000 p.e. respectively) according to different restrictions (space constraints, operation simplicity and cost optimization) was the example in order to show the usefulness of the KBM. PMID:22982697

Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Reif, Rubén; Hernández, Francesc; Poch, Manel

2012-12-15

204

Revise Through Diagrams: Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a 72 page book organized in seven major sections covering the present GCSE physics syllabuses and the physics component of the present GCSE double-award science syllabuses. Each page consists of several boxed features covering the key aspects of a single topic within each section. Each feature box contains one or more diagrams and related text. The diagrams are

Jim Breithaupt

1997-01-01

205

Compact explosion diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system to automatically generate compact explosion diagrams. Inspired by handmade illustrations, our approach reduces the complexity of an explosion diagram by rendering an exploded view only for a subset of the assemblies of an object. However, the exploded views are chosen so that they allow inference of the remaining unexploded assemblies of the entire 3D model.

Markus Tatzgern; Denis Kalkofen; Dieter Schmalstieg

2010-01-01

206

Diagrams in the Mind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearly we can solve problems by thinking about them. Sometimes we have the impression that in doing so we use words, at other times diagrams or images. Often we use both. What is going on when we use mental diagrams or images? This question is addressed in relation to the more general multi-pronged question: what are representations, what are they

Aaron Sloman

207

Mollier Diagram for Nitrogen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermodynamic data for nitrogen are presented in Mollier diagram form covering the temperature range of 30K to 15,000K and the density range of 0.0000001 to 1000 amagat. Data for the solid and liquid regions are included. The diagram contains all availabl...

C. H. Piper R. L. Humphrey

1967-01-01

208

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity teaches students about the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The students will first describe differences between near and bright stars. Then they will discern a relationship between temperature and brightness. Finally they will correlate the evolution of stars to plotting the H-R diagram.

Slater, Tim P.

2004-07-16

209

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input\\/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161

Honea

1985-01-01

210

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-11-30

211

Potential lack of "standardized" processing techniques for production of allogeneic and xenogeneic bone blocks for application in humans.  

PubMed

In the present study, the structure of two allogeneic and three xenogeneic bone blocks, which are used in dental and orthopedic surgery, were histologically analyzed. The ultimate goal was to assess whether the components postulated by the manufacturer can be identified after applying conventional histological and histochemical staining techniques. Three samples of each material, i.e. allogeneic material-1 and -2 as well as xenogeneic material-1, -2 and -3, were obtained commercially. After decalcification and standardized embedding processes, conventional histological staining was performed in order to detect inorganic matrix, cellular or organic matrix components. Allogeneic material-1 showed trabecular bone-like structures, which were free of cellular components as well as of organic matrix. The allogeneic material-2 showed trabecular bone structures, in which connective tissue and cellular remnants were embedded. Additionally, some connective tissue, which resembled fat-like tissue, was found within this material. The xenogeneic material-1 showed trabecular bone-like structures and contained organic components comparable to that demonstrated for the allogeneic material-2. The xenogeneic material-2 showed trabecular bone structures with single cells located in lacunae. The xenogeneic material-3 also showed trabecular structures. Neither cellular nor organic matrix components were found within this material. According to the data of the present study, the allogeneic material-1 and the xenogeneic material-3 were the only investigated materials for which the obtained histological data were in accordance with the manufacturer?s advertised information. The remaining three materials showed discrepancies-although the manufacturers of all five bone substitute materials stated that their blocks were free of organic/cellular remnants. These data are of great clinical and material science interest. It seems that even patented processing techniques are not always able to deliver reproducible materials. Although the manufacturers of all five bone blocks stated that their blocks were free of organic/cellular remnants, our histological analysis revealed that three out of five bone blocks did contain such remnants. Such specimens might be able to induce an immune response within the recipient. PMID:24769111

Ghanaati, S; Barbeck, M; Booms, P; Lorenz, J; Kirkpatrick, C J; Sader, R A

2014-08-01

212

Bibliographic Notes on Voronoi Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a comprehensive annotated bibliography on various theoretical and algorithmic aspects of Voronoi diagrams and related diagrams. Bibliographic notes on the relationship between Voronoi diagrams and solutions to the Euclidean traveling sa...

J. Bernal

1993-01-01

213

Satellite Venn Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use the background information they have read to organize a list of sources and objects, putting each item given in the appropriate part of the Venn diagram, depending on which instrument will study that item. Students will demonstrate their understanding of spectra, astronomical observations, and have read the background material on Chandra, Astro-E and the microcalorimeter, and the Constellation X-ray Observatory. They will write a five minute summary of the capabilities of the three observatories, based on their Venn diagram. Students' understanding of the background material will be evaluated based on the accuracy of their Venn diagrams and the interpretation of the information on the Venn diagrams from their closure paper.

2007-03-24

214

Diagram of Computer Keyboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a line drawing of a Windows PC keyboard complete with labels for each key. This diagram is used on tests where students are asked to circle the keys that would be used to perform various functions.

Ward, Charles

2011-01-21

215

Transformation from Data Flow Diagram to UML2.0 activity diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model transformations are frequently applied in business process modeling to bridge between languages on a different level of abstraction and formality This paper proposes a model transformation from Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) which have been used widely in structure requirement analysis phase to UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) which have been used widely in various phases of Object Oriented Development Method.

Fanchao Meng; Dianhui Chu; Dechen Zhan

2010-01-01

216

Venn Diagram Shape Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore attributes of objects by sorting different sized, colored, shapes into Venn Diagrams. The user chooses the type of Venn Diagram including 2 intersecting circles, 2 non-intersecting circles, or a single circle. Two modes include "make the rule," where users create the rules of the circles and then sort, or "guess the rule," where users attempt to sort the shapes into the circles in order to guess the rule the computer has chosen.

2005-01-01

217

Temporal Verification Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Most formal approaches to the verification of temporal propertiesof reactive programs infer temporal conclusions from verificationconditions that are state formulas, i.e., contain no temporal operators.These proofs can often be effectively presented by the use of verification diagrams. In this paper, we present a self-contained presentation ofverification diagrams for proving various temporal properties.Beginning with safety properties, we present WAIT-FOR and

Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1994-01-01

218

The diagram of pH values in the liquid and steam phases during a change in the aggregate state of H2O in the process circuit of nuclear and thermal power stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data on the effect the pH value of liquid film has on the rate of erosion-corrosion processes in the metal of thermal and nuclear power station elements operating with two-phase flows. We also suggest a calculation diagram and an engineering procedure for determining the pH value of liquid phase in the wet-steam paths of power units depending on the concentration of corrective additions, steam wetness ratio, and temperature.

Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

2010-07-01

219

Block Copolymer Metastability: Scientific Nightmare or Engineering Dream?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most experimental studies and almost all theories that deal with block copolymers, or mixtures of block copolymers and homopolymers, have been designed from an equilibrium perspective. Yet a myriad of factors conspire to retard approach to equilibrium in these systems, including: subtle features in the free energy surface that are controlled by ordered state symmetry; a coupling between microphase separation and entanglement dynamics; complex molecular architectures such as multiblock, starblock, and miktoarm. Even unentangled low molecular weight diblock copolymers, the simplest and dynamically least encumbered materials, exhibit long-lived metastable states that confound attempts to validate equilibrium theories. However, this apparent dilemma can be exploited through clever processing strategies. This lecture will address two opposing consequences of block copolymer metastability. The first is a potential nightmare: Can we ever establish universal block copolymer phase diagrams? The second is the stuff of dreams: Self-assembled thermoset nanocomposites.

Bates, Frank S.

1997-03-01

220

Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) computing engine. The implemented block matching algorithm (BMA) uses summed absolute difference (SAD) error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and non-integer search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a non-integer search grid. The additional speedup for non-integer search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition we compared execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized non-full grid search CPU based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and Simplified Unsymmetrical multi-Hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720×480 pixels in resolution, commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

2012-01-01

221

Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) computing engine. The implemented block matching algorithm (BMA) uses summed absolute difference (SAD) error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and non-integer search grids.The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a non-integer search grid. The additional speedup for non-integer search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable.In addition we compared execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized non-full grid search CPU based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and Simplified Unsymmetrical multi-Hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation.We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720×480 pixels in resolution, commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards. PMID:22347787

Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G

2011-07-01

222

Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block-matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple graphical processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture computing engine. The implemented block-matching algorithm uses summed absolute difference error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation, we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and noninteger search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a noninteger search grid. The additional speedup for a noninteger search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition, we compared the execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized nonfull grid search CPU-based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and simplified unsymmetrical multi-hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720 × 480 pixels in resolution commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

2011-07-01

223

Transfer function verification and block diagram simplification of a very high-order distributed pole closed-loop servo by means of non-linear time-response simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Linear frequency domain methods are inadequate in analyzing the 1975 Viking Orbiter (VO75) digital tape recorder servo due to dominant nonlinear effects such as servo signal limiting, unidirectional servo control, and static/dynamic Coulomb friction. The frequency loop (speed control) servo of the VO75 tape recorder is used to illustrate the analytical tools and methodology of system redundancy elimination and high order transfer function verification. The paper compares time-domain performance parameters derived from a series of nonlinear time responses with the available experimental data in order to select the best possible analytical transfer function representation of the tape transport (mechanical segment of the tape recorder) from several possible candidates. The study also shows how an analytical time-response simulation taking into account most system nonlinearities can pinpoint system redundancy and overdesign stemming from a strictly empirical design approach. System order reduction is achieved through truncation of individual transfer functions and elimination of redundant blocks.

Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

1975-01-01

224

Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

2014-04-01

225

Sub-10 nm feature size PS-b-PDMS block copolymer structures fabricated by a microwave-assisted solvothermal process.  

PubMed

Block copolymer (BCP) microphase separation at surfaces might enable the generation of substrate features in a scalable, manufacturable, bottom-up fashion provided that pattern structure, orientation, alignment can be strictly controlled. A further requirement is that self-assembly takes place within periods of the order of minutes so that continuous manufacturingprocesses do not require lengthy pretreatments and sample storageleading to contamination and large facility costs. We report here microwave-assisted solvothermal (in toluene environments) self-assembly and directed self-assembly of a very low molecular weight cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) BCP on planar and patterned silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates. Good pattern ordering was achieved in the order of minutes. Factors affecting BCP self-assembly, notably anneal time and temperature were studied and seen to have significant effects. Graphoepitaxy to direct self-assembly in the BCP yielded promising results producing BCP patterns with long-range translational alignment commensurate with the pitch period of the topographic patterns. This rapid BCP ordering method is consistent with the standard thermal/solvent anneal processes. PMID:23421383

Borah, Dipu; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

2013-03-01

226

Coating Bores of Light Metal Engine Blocks with a Nanocomposite Material using the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Thermal Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine blocks of modern passenger car engines are generally made of light metal alloys, mostly hypoeutectic AlSi-alloys. Due to their low hardness, these alloys do not meet the tribological requirements of the system cylinder running surface—piston rings—lubricating oil. In order to provide a suitable cylinder running surface, nowadays cylinder liners made of gray cast iron are pressed in or cast into the engine block. A newer approach is to apply thermal spray coatings onto the cylinder bore walls. Due to the geometric conditions, the coatings are applied with specifically designed internal diameter thermal spray systems. With these processes a broad variety of feedstock can be applied, whereas mostly low-alloyed carbon steel feedstock is being used for this application. In the context of this work, an iron-based wire feedstock has been developed, which leads to a nanocrystalline coating. The application of this material was carried out with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc system. AlMgSi0.5 liners were used as substrates. The coating microstructure and the properties of the coatings were analyzed.

Bobzin, K.; Ernst, F.; Zwick, J.; Schlaefer, T.; Cook, D.; Nassenstein, K.; Schwenk, A.; Schreiber, F.; Wenz, T.; Flores, G.; Hahn, M.

2008-09-01

227

Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the two reference materials under the high contact stress, especially at the elevated temperature.

Zhang, Peng

228

Acquired Atrioventricular Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many causes of atrioventricular (AV) block but progressive idiopathic fibrosis of the conduction system related\\u000a to an aging process of the cardiac skeleton is the most common cause of chronic acquired AV block. Barring congenital AV block,\\u000a Lyme disease is the most common cause of reversible third-degree AV block in young individuals and it is usually AV nodal.

S. Serge Barold; Bengt Herweg

229

Block decision feedback equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the conventional decision feedback equalizer (DFE) based on block processing and maximum a posteriori decisions is presented. This block DFE is indexed by two parameters depending on the block length p and the number of decisions q⩽p made at each iteration. The block DFE emulates: the conventional DFE when p=q=1; the maximum likelihood sequence estimator when

Darrell Williamson; Rodney A. Kennedy; Graham W. Pulford

1992-01-01

230

The projection diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a diagram, named the projection diagram (PD), that can be used for the interpretation of fringe projection operations in a similar way as the Holodiagram is used in holography and other branches in optics. It is obtained as a Moiré pattern between two spoke targets that mimic central projections, the same as those in a projection and observation system or two projection systems. N. Abramson [Academic, London (1981)] has already proposed its use in systems with two observation points (i.e., stereoscopic observation). By using this PD, several interesting features dealing with fringe projection are highlighted. Information on the sensitivity vector and the geometry of the contouring surfaces can be straightforwardly obtained in a graphical way. The effect of defocusing can also be included in the diagram.

Muramatsu, Mikaya; Torroba, Patricia; Cap, Nelly; Rabal, Hector

2003-08-01

231

Minkowski Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minkowski Diagram model displays the spacetime diagrams for two inertial observers. One or two events may be displayed and moved with the mouse. Optionally, the corresponding light cones may be shown, as well as the simultaneity lines in both reference frames. The spacetime interval is automatically computed. The simulation may be used to discuss simultaneity and causality in special relativity. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Minkowski Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_special_relativity_minkowski.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2011-09-09

232

Organophosphorus neuropathy target esterase inhibitors selectively block outgrowth of neurite-like and cell processes in cultured cells.  

PubMed

This study compares two direct-acting neuropathy target esterase (NTE) inhibitors (mipafox and 2-octyl-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxophosphorin 2-oxide (OBDPO)), a metabolic precursor to an NTE inhibitor (tri-o-cresyl phosphate or TOCP) and a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos oxon or CPO) for their effects on outgrowth of neurite-like and cell processes and on viability in differentiated cultured cells (rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC-12) and brain glial tumor (C6)). The direct-acting NTE inhibitors block process outgrowth by 50% or more at 50-100 microM for OBDPO and 100-200 microM for mipafox, well below their cytotoxic levels (EC50 values, 445-474 microM for OBDPO and 1021-1613 microM for mipafox). In contrast, the effects on process development for TOCP and CPO parallel their cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that inhibition of neurite-like and cell process outgrowth by OBDPO and mipafox may be associated with NTE inhibition. PMID:9788582

Li, W; Casida, J E

1998-09-15

233

An improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering that the application of traditional Voronoi diagram in spatial division ignores the impact of road hierarchy, speed, road-block, one-way and some other influential factors on proximity, an improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory is proposed in this paper by introducing different influential factors into the construction of Voronoi diagram in order to enhance the accuracy of spatial division and to meet application requirements. The idea of our improved Voronoi diagram model can be summarized as follows: Firstly, initial Voronoi diagram is built via point by point insertion algorithm. Secondly, fuzzy interval on all Voronoi edges is generated via geometric algorithm and is further used to represent each edge of Voronoi polygons. The size of fuzzy interval is determined by taking all influential factors into consideration. Thirdly, an improved Voronoi diagram with fuzzy boundaries is provided in which the proximity relationships between points in the fuzzy interval and the sites of Voronoi polygons which own a public edge are all proposed to be the nearest. Finally, the validity and performance of our improved Voronoi diagram is demonstrated through a typical application in emergency response system, in which the actual path distance is acted as influential factor. Experimental results show that with our improved Voronoi diagram optimal attendance station can be localized quickly and emergency response efficiency can be enhanced obviously. Besides, classification accuracy can be increased more than 20% compared with traditional Voronoi diagram.

Yan, Beibei; Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Qimin

2009-10-01

234

Processing Effects on Block-Copolymer Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to investigate how the variables in the hot-melt coating process affect the microstructure and properties of pressure-sensitive adhesives based on a styrene isoprene styrene triblock copolymer. This polymer is a thermoplastic elastomer, able to be coated at high temperatures and physically crosslinked at lower temperatures. Adhesive tape samples have been made through hot-melt and solvent coating methods. Hot-melt coatings are prepared at speeds up to 110 feet/minute. Materials with the same thermal history have been coated using both methods and then tested for comparison of properties. PSA properties are strongly dependent on the time scale of application and debonding, as revealed by shear rheology data, and three types of performance tests (tack, peel, and shear holding power) are used to capture the various responses. Solvent-coated tape has superior shear strength, while hot-melt-coated tape performs better in peel tests. It is expected that the varying flow and deformation histories of the samples will lead to distinct chain orientations, while the rate of cooling of hot-melt-coated samples may influence the degree of phase separation achieved. These factors will cause the adhesive coatings to have different microstructures and therefore different properties.

O'Connor, A. E.; Macosko, C. W.

2000-03-01

235

Simulation of plasma based semiconductor processing using block structured locally refined grids  

SciTech Connect

We have described a new numerical method for plasma simulation. Calculations have been presented which show that the method is accurate and suggest the regimes in which the method provides savings in CPU time and memory requirements. A steady state simulation of a four centimeter domain was modeled with sheath scale (150 microns) resolution using only 40 grid points. Simulations of semiconductor processing equipment have been performed which imply the usefulness of the method for engineering applications. It is the author`s opinion that these accomplishments represent a significant contribution to plasma simulation and the efficient numerical solution of certain systems of non-linear partial differential equations. More work needs to be done, however, for the algorithm to be of practical use in an engineering environment. Despite our success at avoiding the dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions the algorithm is still conditionally stable and requires timesteps which are relatively small. This represents a prohibitive runtime for steady state solutions on high resolution grids. Current research suggests that these limitations may be overcome and the use of much larger timesteps will be possible.

Wake, D.D.

1998-01-01

236

CUEMAP: A tool for generating hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams  

SciTech Connect

CUEMAP is a preprocessor to the MAPPER program, which generates report quality visual aids. CUEMAP uses text blocks, symbols, and line connectors to lay out hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams. A grid is specified as a reference point on which the labels and symbols can be placed. Connectors are added to complete the diagram. Modifications and enhancements require knowledge of the MAPPER syntax. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Lee, J.W.

1987-12-01

237

NOTES ON FEYNMAN DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce in a pedagogical manner how to compute probability amplitudes from Feynman diagrams, starting with 4 model. We introduce the notion of renormalization in this model at the one-loop level. Then we review the Dirac equation, and introduce QED. We then perform several example calculations in QED. The appendices gives a survey of Gamma matrices and use of Feynman

ALEX NELSON

2009-01-01

238

Venn Diagrams and Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math lesson from Illuminations uses Venn diagrams to illustrate direct, indirect and transitive reasoning. Students will learn the definitions of direct, indirect and transitive reasoning and give examples of each. Several student activity sheets are included. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 and a half class periods to complete.

2011-01-04

239

Interactive Molecular Orbital Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is an application for constructing the molecular orbital electron configurations of heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Energy level diagrams are given for the two different cases encountered in heteronuclear diatomics of the first short period (Li2 - Ne2). This is a useful tool for having students explore questions of bond order, magnetic properties and numbers of unpaired electrons.

240

Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model uses light-trajectories to show the effect of relative motion when observing (recording) events in special relativity. In the default scenario, an explosion (an event) at the center of a right-moving stick occurs at t=0 and the arrival of the explosion light signal at each end is recorded. The arrival event at the left end occurs before the arrival event at the right end because the stick is moving. How do the location and time of these events change if they are observed in a reference frame (the Other Frame) in which the stick is stationary?   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was written for the study of special relativity the Lorentz transformation using spacetime diagrams and is a supplemental simulation for an article by Sebastien Cromier and Richard Steinberg "The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts" in the The Physics Teacher 48 (9), 598-601 (2010). Initial conditions, such as the locations of the explosion and the detectors, can be adjusted by dragging before the simulation is run. The slider can be used to change the speed of the stick. A third view shows the stick and the wavefront in space. More importantly, a checkbox allows users to compare the predictions of Galilean and special relativity in order to observe how the assumption of a constant speed of light leads to the relativity of simultaneity.   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_sr_SimultaneitySpacetimeDiagram.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-07

241

The sensitivity of random polymer brush-lamellar polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate block copolymer systems to process conditions.  

PubMed

The use of random copolymer brushes (polystyrene-r-polymethylmethacrylate--PS-r-PMMA) to 'neutralise' substrate surfaces and ordain perpendicular orientation of the microphase separated lamellae in symmetric polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymers (BCPs) is well known. However, less well known is how the brushes interact with both the substrate and the BCP, and how this might change during thermal processing. A detailed study of changes in these films for different brush and diblock PS-b-PMMA molecular weights is reported here. In general, self-assembly and pattern formation is altered little, and a range of brush molecular weights are seen to be effective. However, on extended anneal times, the microphase separated films can undergo dimension changes and loss of order. This process is not related to any complex microphase separation dynamics but rather a degradation of methacrylate components in the film. The data suggest that care must be taken in interpretation of structural changes in these systems as being due to BCP only effects. PMID:23218235

Borah, Dipu; Rasappa, Sozaraj; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

2013-03-01

242

Predicting process windows for pattern density multiplication using block copolymer directed self-assembly in conjunction with chemoepitaxial guiding layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern density multiplication using directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a technique capable of producing patterns with small pitches utilizing guiding template patterns printed as larger feature sizes and pitches. One method for achieving this density multiplication is to utilize chemoepitaxy based on a guiding underlayer that is nominally topographically flat but which is composed of a pinning region, or stripe if referring to lamellae, which will chemically prefer one microphase of the BCP, as well as a second region that is often referred to as "neutral" to both phases of the BCP. In most conceptions of such a chemoepitaxial approach for alignment of lamellae patterns, the pinning stripe is typically the width of a single lamellae of the phase separated BCP, while the neutral stripe is some odd number of lamellae widths. In this work, detailed simulation studies have been performed to elucidate the effects of variables such as guiding stripe size, chemical composition of the neutral stripes, and small topography on the process window of DSA pitch sub-division patterning processes. A simple but novel technique has been developed and utilized to quantify the level of alignment of a simulated BCP film to an underlying guiding pattern. Such process windows and lithographic parameters have been studied for different pitch sub-division conditions including 1:3 and 1:5 pinning stripe:neutral stripe width ratios. It is found that the center of the processing window occurs at a composition of the "neutral stripe" such that it is slightly to somewhat strongly preferential to the type of polymer of opposite type to that attracted by the pinning stripe, and that this ideal "neutral stripe" composition becomes more neutral as the density multiplication increases.

Nation, Benjamin D.; Peters, Andrew; Lawson, Richard A.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.

2014-03-01

243

Flow Diagram Decomposition Using Graph Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge of model transformations in model-driven development is in transforming higher-level abstract models into more concrete ones that can be used to generate implementation level models, including executable business process representations and program code. Many of the modelling languages (like UML Activity Diagrams or BPMN) use unstructured flow graphs to describe the operation sequence of a business process.

A. Rensink; M. V. Zimakova

2009-01-01

244

An Introduction to Tree Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes the use of tree diagrams in calculating probabilities. The author provides examples of how tree diagrams are used to calculate specific probabilities and why the language chosen relates to the operations used to find the probability.

Cork, Stu

2014-01-01

245

Pattern Recognition of Logic Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the development of line following and line analysis pattern recognition routines to automatically computer read hand-drawn logic diagrams. The decision criterion used was based on a tree analysis of segmented lines. The logic diagrams ...

D. A. Naegele

1973-01-01

246

Additive-Driven Assembly of Block Copolymer-Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials for Solution Processable Floating Gate Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of well-ordered hybrid materials at nanoscale is not only fundamentally interesting but also of significant importance for the development of next generation functional devices. In this study, we present a simple approach for the preparation of well-ordered polymer/NP composites through the concept of additive-driven assembly, and its application for the fabrication of floating gate organic FET memory devices. The addition of gold NPs that selectively hydrogen bond with pyridine in poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) is shown to induce an ordered structure. This enables the fabrication of well-ordered hybrid materials with lamellar domains at Au NP loadings of more than 40 wt%. The fabrication of floating gate memory devices was demonstrated by the ordered Au NPs / block copolymer hybrid film as a charge trapping layer, which is sandwiched between a SiO2 dielectric layer and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer. This approach enables us to fabricate well-ordered charge storage layers by solution processing and to achieve facile control of the memory windows by changing the density of gold NPs. The devices show high carrier mobility (> 0.1 cm^2/Vs), controllable memory windows (0˜50V), high on/off ratio (>10^5) between memory states and long retention times (>10^4 s). This approach is potentially suitable for roll-to-roll printing techniques to make flexible, large area and high density devices.

Wei, Qingshuo; Lin, Ying; Anderson, Eric; Briseno, Alejandro; Gido, Samuel; Watkins, James

2012-02-01

247

Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

NONE

1996-07-01

248

Epidural block  

MedlinePLUS

An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) in the back. It numbs or causes a loss of ... The block or shot is given into an area over your lower back or spine. You may lie on ...

249

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

250

The experimental research of apparent resistivity, elastic wave and acoustic emission in the rupture process of large scale specimens and rock blocks in-situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with observations and features of experiments of apparent resistivity (denoted by ?s), elastic wave and acoustic emission in large scale concrete blocks (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m 3) under the condition of triaxial stress, large scale granite rock specimens (1.0 × 1.0 × 0.85 m 3) in the process of slowly expansional rupture, and in rock blocks in-situ (in a mine tunnel) under the condition of local stress disturbance due to the mine excavation. The changes in apparent resistivity, elastic wave and acoustic emission and stress-strain measurements both in the stressed large scale specimen and in the rock block in-situ, could be divided into several stages which are associated with different features of deformation inside the specimens or rock blocks. All these results show the good prospects for applying these measurements to synthetic research on determining the mechanical properties of construction material and detecting the stability of concrete blocks in-situ such as in mine engineering. It is especially pointed out that the application of a specific loading source-the static burst agent in the experiment, makes it possible to do the loading test on large scale rock specimens and to understand its complex rupturing process of large scale rock specimens, which is very significant for research on earthquake mechanics and earthquake precursory mechanism as well as rock mechanics itself.

Lu Yangquan; Qian Jiadong; Liu Jianyi

251

Conservative generalized bifurcation diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifurcation cascades in conservative systems are shown to exhibit a generalized diagram, which contains all relevant informations regarding the location of periodic orbits (resonances), their width (island size), irrational tori and the infinite higher-order resonances, showing the intricate way they are born. Contraction rates for islands sizes, along period-doubling bifurcations, are estimated to be ?I?3.9. Results are demonstrated for the standard map and for the continuous Hénon-Heiles potential. The methods used here are very suitable to find periodic orbits in conservative systems, and to characterize the regular, mixed or chaotic dynamics as the nonlinear parameter is varied.

Manchein, Cesar; Beims, Marcus W.

2013-04-01

252

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) in the first commercial coal-to-SNG synthetic fuel plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the DOE ASPEN computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

253

Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact

Ravi Rastogi; Dianne T. V Pawluk

2012-01-01

254

Heterochromatin Blocks Constituting the Entire Short Arms of Acrocentric Chromosomes of Azara's Owl Monkey: Formation Processes Inferred From Chromosomal Locations  

PubMed Central

Centromeres and telomeres of higher eukaryotes generally contain repetitive sequences, which often form pericentric or subtelomeric heterochromatin blocks. C-banding analysis of chromosomes of Azara's owl monkey, a primate species, showed that the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes consist mostly or solely of constitutive heterochromatin. The purpose of the present study was to determine which category, pericentric, or subtelomeric is most appropriate for this heterochromatin, and to infer its formation processes. We cloned and sequenced its DNA component, finding it to be a tandem repeat sequence comprising 187-bp repeat units, which we named OwlRep. Subsequent hybridization analyses revealed that OwlRep resides in the pericentric regions of a small number of metacentric chromosomes, in addition to the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes. Further, in the pericentric regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, OwlRep was observed on the short-arm side only. This distribution pattern of OwlRep among chromosomes can be simply and sufficiently explained by assuming (i) OwlRep was transferred from chromosome to chromosome by the interaction of pericentric heterochromatin, and (ii) it was amplified there as subtelomeric heterochromatin. OwlRep carries several direct and inverted repeats within its repeat units. This complex structure may lead to a higher frequency of chromosome scission and may thus be a factor in the unique distribution pattern among chromosomes. Neither OwlRep nor similar sequences were found in the genomes of the other New World monkey species we examined, suggesting that OwlRep underwent rapid amplification after the divergence of the owl monkey lineage from lineages of the other species.

Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Chaiprasertsri, Nampech; Terada, Shoko; Hirai, Yuriko; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

2013-01-01

255

Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

1986-01-01

256

Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.  

PubMed

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged. PMID:23527429

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

2013-01-01

257

Network Legos: Building Blocks of Cellular Wiring Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicly-available data sets provide detailed and large-scale information on multiple types of molecular interaction networks in a number of model organisms. These multi-modal universal networks cap- ture a static view of cellular state. An important challenge in systems biology is obtaining a dynamic perspective on these networks by inte- grating them with gene expression measurements taken under multiple conditions. We

T. M. Murali; Corban G. Rivera

2007-01-01

258

A Computer Graphics System for Block Diagram Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally it is easier to express complex ideas symbolically by sketching them on paper rather than by using other means of communication. When such two-dimensional representations were applied to computer output, they resulted in the development of computer graphics.' But they are only now being applied to the input. We anticipate an evolution in input from one-dimensional character strings to

Laszlo A. Belady; Mike W. Blasgen; Carlo J. Evangelisti; Robert D. Tennison

1971-01-01

259

A simple reliability block diagram method for safety integrity verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEC 61508 requires safety integrity verification for safety related systems to be a necessary procedure in safety life cycle. PFDavg must be calculated to verify the safety integrity level (SIL). Since IEC 61508-6 does not give detailed explanations of the definitions and PFDavg calculations for its examples, it is difficult for common reliability or safety engineers to understand when they

Haitao Guo; Xianhui Yang

2007-01-01

260

Java simulation platform for control system based on block diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new efficient method for modeling and simulation of control systems using an adjacency matrix in graph theory. A Java simulation platform, which has been developed based on the proposed method, is introduced. It provides an interactive graphical environment for modeling and simulation of control systems

Masanobu Koga; Yusuke Tsutsui; Jun Yabuuchi

2006-01-01

261

Dynamic reliability block diagrams: Overview of a methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependability evaluation is an important, often indispensable, step in design and analyze (crit- ical) systems, acquiring importance with the systems complexity growth. When the complexity of a system is high and\\/or increases, for example automizing or expanding some parts, dynamic effects, not present or mani- fested before, could arise or become significant in terms of reliability\\/availability.The system could be affected

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2007-01-01

262

A mesh network reliability analysis using reliability block diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, numerous wireless networks had been developed providing various services to promote improved communication quality in our daily lives. The problem of system and network reliability in providing stable services has become more important because these services will be terminated if the system and network reliability is unstable. Mesh networks is one of important topologies in wireless networks. The paper

Cheng-Min Lin; Hui-Kang Teng; Cheng-Chih Yang; Hwei-Li Weng; Ming-Cheng Chung; Chiu-Chiao Chung

2010-01-01

263

Block Diagrams as a Syntactic Extension to Haskell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often, the semantics of languages are defined by the prod- ucts that support their usage. The semantics are then determined by the source code of those products, which often is a general-purpose pro- gramming language. This may lead to complications in defining a clean semantics, for example because imperative notions slip into a declara- tive language. It is illustrated how

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

264

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

265

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

266

Formal semantics for SA style data flow diagram specification languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using operational semantic techniques, we present a formal semantics for an extended variant of structured analysis style data flow diagrams. This semantics is intended to serve as a semantic foundation for many different specification languages that specify concurrent systems using a graphical notation similar to data flow diagrams. Besides allowing one to specify how information is processed, it allows one

Gary T. Leavens; Tim Wahls; Albert L. Baker

1999-01-01

267

Automated Analysis of Doppler Ultrasound Velocity Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly automated method for the identification and quantization of maximum blood velocity curves from Doppler ultrasound flow diagrams is presented. The method uses an image processing scheme to analyze video-recorded image sequences of flow diagrams. The sequences are acquired, a sequence of images relating to chronological cardiac cycles is extracted, and a maximum blood velocity envelope is determined and

Juerg Tschirren; Ronald M. Lauer; Milan Sonka

2001-01-01

268

Paravertebral blocks.  

PubMed

PVB remains an underused block. It is easy to perform reliable and effective blocks for a wide variety of applications both for acute or chronic pain. As evidence continues to be published showing the advantages of PVB versus traditional methods of pain control, it is hoped that PVB will become part of the standard repertoire of blocks used in teaching hospitals and in private practice. PMID:22227423

Greengrass, Roy A; Duclas, Reynold

2012-01-01

269

Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

270

Behind the folding funnel diagram.  

PubMed

This Commentary clarifies the meaning of the funnel diagram, which has been widely cited in papers on protein folding. To aid in the analysis of the funnel diagram, this Commentary reviews historical approaches to understanding the mechanism of protein folding. The primary role of free energy in protein folding is discussed, and it is pointed out that the decrease [corrected] in the configurational entropy as the native state is approached hinders folding, rather than guiding it. Diagrams are introduced that provide a less ambiguous representation of the factors governing the protein folding reaction than the funnel diagram. PMID:21685880

Karplus, Martin

2011-07-01

271

A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

272

Ionic Blocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

2008-01-01

273

Failure diagrams for unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative toughness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does not provide information about the extent of interface cracking or the onset of fiber bridging. An alternative failure diagram that depicts composite fracture processes, such as matrix yielding followed by fiber fracture, interface cracking, and fiber bridging, is proposed. Development of the composite failure diagram via micromechanical modeling of individual mechanisms is presented together with experimental results from the literature. Good correlation between theory and experiment suggests that the composite failure diagram might be used for tailoring composite properties through control of the dominant fracture mechanism.

Chan, K.S. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States))

1993-07-01

274

Self-assembly of high-resolutions PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers: processes capabilities and integration on 300mm track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Careful control and reproducibility of BCP's synthesis are mandatory parameters to push-down PS-b-PMMA block-copolymer systems toward its lowest dimensions for microelectronic applications. The self-assembly process optimization of different high-resolution cylindrical PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers (i.e. L0 period below 25 nm) is studied to highlight processes-variations as regard to more classical PS-b-PMMA systems while the characterizations of bulk materials provide deeper insights on the parameters addressing the self-assembly of such materials. The integration of a high-resolution BCP on 300 mm track is then studied to check the capabilities of such materials in terms of lithographic applications. CD uniformity measurements in contact hole shrink approach, as well as the transfer of the BCP mask into typical industrial under-layer stacks leading to aggressive features, show that these materials exhibit promising potentials for advanced lithographic nodes.

Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Tiron, R.; Gharbi, A.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Jullian, K.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Argoud, M.; Peyre, J.-L.; Van Spaandonk, R.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Navarro, C.

2014-03-01

275

Physiology Flow-Diagram Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of physiology flow-diagrams for the cardiovascular system, cardiac auto-rhythmic cell, cardiac contractile cell, respiratory system, coagulation/hemostasis, digestive system, excretion, and autonomic nervous system. These flow-diagrams show cause-and-effect markup and have accompanying tutorials.

PhD Sandra J Bruner (Polk Community College Biology)

2005-10-04

276

Potential-pH Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

Barnum, Dennis W.

1982-01-01

277

Iron–titanium oxide minerals in block-and-ash-flow deposits: implications for lava dome oxidation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ikeshiro pyroclastic-flow deposit at Yufu volcano, Kyushu in Japan, consists of typical block-and-ash flows generated by collapse of the Ikeshiro lava dome erupted ca. 2000 years ago. Lava clasts in the Ikeshiro pyroclastic-flow deposit were previously found to consist to two types of rock sample with different magnetic mineral assemblages established by rock magnetic experiments [Saito et al., 2003,

Takeshi Saito; Naoto Ishikawa; Hiroki Kamata

2004-01-01

278

Phase diagram effects in rapid thermal processing of REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}  

SciTech Connect

Recent investigations of rapid thermal processing of REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} by drop tube melting, laser surface treatment and shock compaction have shown that the microstructure resulting from these processes is a complex mixture of non-equilibrium phases. While it is tempting to ascribe the variations in microstructure to variations in quench rates between the processes, we will demonstrate that with the exception of extremely rapid solidification from above the liquidus, the microstructure and phase distribution results from the heating rather than the cooling part of the curve. Since all of the above processes induce non-uniform heating, different parts of the sample reach different maximum temperatures. The maximum temperature reached, and the time spent near that maximum, uniquely determine the starting state of the quench. If the entire sample is not above the liquidus the sluggishness of the peritectic reactions results in similar microstructure regardless of the quench rate. Upon annealing the final microstructure is much more dependent on the number of nucleation sites than on the type of site resulting in a uniform REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} microstructure over a broad range of processing parameters.

McCallum, R.W.; Kramer, M.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Weir, S.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-08-24

279

Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Honea, F.I.

1985-09-01

280

TOPICAL REVIEW: The Hopf algebra approach to Feynman diagram calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hopf algebra structure underlying Feynman diagrams which governs the process of renormalization in perturbative quantum field theory is reviewed. Recent progress is briefly summarized with an emphasis on further directions of research.

Kurusch Ebrahimi-Fard; Dirk Kreimer

2005-01-01

281

Molecular crystal global phase diagrams. I. Method of construction.  

PubMed

A method is described to produce global phase diagrams for single-component molecular crystals with separable internal and external modes. The phase diagrams present the equilibrium crystalline phase as a function of the coefficients of a general intermolecular potential based on rotational symmetry-adapted basis functions. It is assumed that phase transitions are driven by orientational ordering of molecules with a fixed time-averaged shape. The mean-field approximation is utilized and the process begins in a high-temperature disordered reference state, then spontaneous symmetry-breaking phase transitions and phase structure information at lower temperature are sought. The information is mapped onto phase diagrams using the intermolecular expansion coefficients as independent variables. This is illustrated by global phase diagrams for molecules having tetrahedral symmetry (e.g. carbon tetrachloride, adamantane and white phosphorus). Uses of global phase diagrams include crystal structure data mining, guidance for crystal design and enumeration of likely or missing polymorphic structures. PMID:15507746

Mettes, Jonathan A; Keith, J Brandon; McClurg, Richard B

2004-11-01

282

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-03-31

283

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2010-06-29

284

Angular Momentum Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the simplest possible building blocks--a ket, a bra, a time-reversed ket, and a time-reversed bra--a diagrammatic formalism is developed for angular momentum coupling problems. The formalism comprises Clebsch-Gordan coefficients as well as 3jm-symbols. The idea of constructing invariants (internal lines) by contracting contragredient pairs of quantities is emphasized throughout. The Clebsch-Gordan series, and its extension to the coupling of more than two angular momenta, is introduced algebraically and diagrammatically. Recoupling between bases obtained in different coupling schemes is introduced and the connection between recoupling coefficients and irreducible 3nj-symbols is derived diagrammatically. The well-known diagrammatic rules due to Jucys and co-workers are derived by group theoretical means and simple rules for their practical exploitation are presented.

Wormer, Paul E. S.; Paldus, Josef

285

Development and application of a rubric for analysis of novice students' laboratory flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a scheme for the analysis of flow diagrams. The flow diagrams in question are a schematic representation of written instructions that require students to process the text of their practical manual. It was hoped that an analysis of the flow diagrams would provide insight into students' understanding of the manual.

Bette Davidowitz; Marissa Rollnick; Cynthia Fakudze

2005-01-01

286

Development and Application of a Rubric for Analysis of Novice Students' Laboratory Flow Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a scheme for the analysis of flow diagrams. The flow diagrams in question are a schematic representation of written instructions that require students to process the text of their practical manual. It was hoped that an analysis of the flow diagrams would provide insight into students'…

Davidowitz, Bette; Rollnick, Marissa; Fakudze, Cynthia

2005-01-01

287

Breaking bad news--a flow diagram.  

PubMed

Breaking bad news is neither an easy nor a popular task. Properly handled, however, it can be given in a positive way that the individual can both accept and understand. There may be a range of emotions and concerns following the telling of bad news. These need to be explored and worked through with each individual. This flow diagram describes the steps in this important process. PMID:8081554

Faulkner, A; Maguire, P; Regnard, C

1994-01-01

288

Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution program and exploration of variations in evolutionary physics is left for future versions. The program has miscellaneous refinements, such as allowing for distributions of chemical composition and interstellar extinction, as well as inclusion of binary star evolution, but so far not all have been tried in solutions. An algorithm is described for dealing with field stars directly in terms of , but has not yet been actively implemented. A synthetic globular cluster with known properties is analysed to demonstrate parameter convergence, solution consistency and comparison with known answers.

Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

2003-10-01

289

Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

Daniel, Michael

2006-01-01

290

Neuromuscular block.  

PubMed

Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

Bowman, W C

2006-01-01

291

Neuromuscular block  

PubMed Central

Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

Bowman, W C

2006-01-01

292

Theme: Block Scheduling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Block Scheduling" (Brannon); "Block Schedule and Agricultural Education" (Rising); "Block Scheduling: A Student Perspective" (Gilham); "What Goes around Comes around" (Baker); "Accelerated Block Schedule" (Whitson); "Block Scheduling: Students Sound Off"; "Block Scheduling: Maintaining a Complete Agriculture Program" (Agnew, Masters);…

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

1998-01-01

293

Standard services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized telemetry data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard functional services for the capture, processing, and distribution of packetized data are discussed with particular reference to the future implementation of packet processing systems, such as those for the Space Station Freedom. The major functions are listed under the following major categories: input processing, packet processing, and output processing. A functional block diagram of a packet data processing facility is presented, showing the distribution of the various processing functions as well as the primary data flow through the facility.

Stallings, William H.

1989-01-01

294

Crystallinity-driven morphological ripening processes for poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone micelles in water.  

PubMed

A set of morphological transformations induced by core crystallization within spherical micelle-like aggregates of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone (PEO-b-PCL) is described in the present article. The initial self-assembly step, in which individual copolymer chains associate to form the spheres, can be performed reproducibly; the stability of these spheres, however, seems to be limited, as both transmission electron microscopy and light scattering data suggest that the primary spheres transform slowly into elongated rod-like or ribbon-like aggregates when suspended in deionized water at room temperature. Although the sphere-to-rod transition takes place typically over a time scale of several days, the formation of individual rods from spheres is very rapid, as evidenced by the progressive increase in the number of long rods and the conspicuous absence of short rods. PMID:24668142

Rizis, Georgios; van de Ven, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Adi

2014-04-28

295

PS-b-PHOST as a high ? block copolymers for directed self assembly: optimization of underlayer and solvent anneal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) could enable high resolution patterning beyond the capabilities of current optical lithography methods via pitch multiplication from lower resolution primary lithographic patterns. For example, DSA could enable dense feature production with pitches less than 80 nm from patterns generated using 193 nm exposure tools without the need for double patterning or other schemes. According to theory, microphase separation of diblock copolymers occurs when the critical condition that ?N>10.5 is met while the pitch of the resulting polymer features scale as ~N2/3, where ? is the Flory Huggins interaction parameter and N is the total degree of polymerization for the diblock copolymer. In order to generate patterns with smaller pitches, N must be decreased while maintaining a ?N>10.5 to allow for phase separation. This requires utilization of polymers with higher ? values as N is decreased. Current materials, such as PS-b-PMMA, exhibit a relatively low ? value of ~0.04, which limits the practical pitch of DSA line-space patterns produced using PS-b-PMMA to approximately 20 nm. In this paper, we investigate alternative materials, namely poly(styrene)-b-poly(hydroxystyrene) (PS-b-PHOST), which exhibits a high ? value via hydrogen bonding interactions that can allow for production of sub-20nm pitch DSA patterns. In order to utilize any diblock copolymer for DSA, a neutral underlayer and a method for annealing the block copolymer are required. Here, a random copolymer, poly(styrene-co-hydroxystyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate), is developed and reported for use as a neutral underlayer for PS-b-PHOST. Furthermore, a solvent annealing method for PS-b-PHOST is developed and optimized using ethyl acetate to allow for uniform microphase separation of PS-b-PHOST.

Jarnagin, Nathan D.; Yeh, Wei-Ming; Cheng, Jing; Peters, Andrew; Lawson, Richard A.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

2013-03-01

296

Denitrifying sulfide removal by enriched microbial consortium: Kinetic diagram.  

PubMed

Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously removes nitrate, sulfide and organic matters in the same reactor. This study isolated eight DSR strains and composed a microbial consortium to reveal the stoichiometry and kinetics of autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic denitrification (DSR). A novel kinetic diagram based on mass and electron balances was proposed to graphically interpret the system kinetics and identify the accessible regime where DSR reactions can be applied. Demonstration of the use of the proposed diagram showed the easy assessment of DSR system performance by the status on the diagram. PMID:24874878

Lee, Duu-Jong; Wong, Biing-Teo

2014-07-01

297

Effect of polydispersity on the phase diagrams of linear ABC triblock copolymers in two dimensions.  

PubMed

By using a two-dimensional (2D) real-space self-consistent field theory, we present the phase diagrams of monodisperse ABC triblock copolymers in a three-component triangle style with the interaction energies given between the distinct blocks; this system displays richer phase behavior when compared with the corresponding diblock copolymers. Polydispersity of the end or middle blocks in the ABC linear block copolymer chains results in a completely different phase diagram. The presence of a polydisperse end block may cause strong segregation to occur among the three distinct components and larger domain sizes of the dispersed phases; a polydisperse middle block may allow a connection to form between the two phases of the two end blocks. PMID:16853727

Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiaoyan; Liang, Haojun; Shi, An-Chang

2005-11-10

298

Block People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

Peterson, Rayma

1999-01-01

299

Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum  

SciTech Connect

Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

1988-10-20

300

Effects of temperature, packaging and electron beam irradiation processing conditions on the property behaviour of Poly (ether-block-amide) blends.  

PubMed

The radiation stability of Poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBA) blended with a multifunctional phenolic antioxidant and a hindered amide light stabiliser was examined under various temperatures, packaging and electron beam processing conditions. FTIR revealed that there were slight alterations to the PEBA before irradiation; however, these became more pronounced following irradiation. The effect of varying the temperature, packaging and processing conditions on the resultant PEBA properties was apparent. For example, rheology demonstrated that the structural properties could be enhanced by manipulating the aforementioned criteria. Mechanical testing exhibited less radiation resistance when the PEBA samples were vacuum packed and exposed to irradiation. MFI and AFM confirmed that the melting strength and surface topography could be reduced/increased depending on the conditions employed. From this study it was concluded that virgin PEBA submerged in dry ice with non-vacuum packaging during the irradiation process, provided excellent radiation resistance (20.9% improvement) in contrast to the traditional method. PMID:24863239

Murray, Kieran A; Kennedy, James E; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L

2014-06-01

301

A spinor technique in symbolic Feynman diagram calculation mesons  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a recursive diagrammatic method for evaluating tree-level Feynman diagrams involving multi-fermions which interact through gauge bosons (gluons or photons). Based on this method, a package called COMPUTE, which can generate and calculate all the possible Feynman diagrams for exclusive processes in perturbative QCD, has been developed (available in both Mathematics and Maple). As an example, a calculation of the nucleon Compton scattering amplitude is given.

A. Pang; C. Ji

1994-02-17

302

Selecting samples for paleointensity measurements with FORC diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleointensity data are vital for a better knowledge of deep-earth processes. The paleointensity database is limited by the high failure rate of paleointensity analysis. Excluding thermal alteration, failure is usually caused by the presence of multi-domain (MD) grains and interactions among grains, two properties that can be identified using first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. We measured FORC diagrams on about

C. Carvallo; A. Roberts; R. Leonhardt; C. Laj; C. Kissel; M. Perrin; P. Camps

2005-01-01

303

Semantic specification and verification of data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Flow Diagram (DFD) has been widely used in Software Engineering as means of requirement analysis and system specification.\\u000a However, one defect of DFD approach remains untackled: the lack of formal semantics has brought about a lot of problems. In\\u000a this paper, we model Data Flow Diagram as networks of concurrent processes. With the use of temporal logic language XYZ\\/E,

Tong Liu; C. S. Tang

1991-01-01

304

Formation of sub-7 nm feature size PS-b-P4VP block copolymer structures by solvent vapour process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanometer range structure produced by thin films of diblock copolymers makes them a great of interest as templates for the microelectronics industry. We investigated the effect of annealing solvents and/or mixture of the solvents in case of symmetric Poly (styrene-block-4vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer to get the desired line patterns. In this paper, we used different molecular weights PS-b-P4VP to demonstrate the scalability of such high ? BCP system which requires precise fine-tuning of interfacial energies achieved by surface treatment and that improves the wetting property, ordering, and minimizes defect densities. Bare Silicon Substrates were also modified with polystyrene brush and ethylene glycol self-assembled monolayer in a simple quick reproducible way. Also, a novel and simple in situ hard mask technique was used to generate sub-7nm Iron oxide nanowires with a high aspect ratio on Silicon substrate, which can be used to develop silicon nanowires post pattern transfer.

Chaudhari, Atul; Ghoshal, Tandra; Shaw, Matthew T.; Cummins, Cian; Borah, Dipu; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

2014-03-01

305

Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

2008-01-01

306

DRAWING DIAGRAMS IN AN ONLINE EXAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study into the drawing of diagrams in an online examination. The diagrams were produced by students during an on-line examination using a simple drawing tool. The students' examination answers, which included a diagram, were submitted over the Internet to an automatic marking tool for grading and feedback. This paper describes the diagram drawing tool and discusses

Pete Thomas

307

Construction block  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A construction block is provided that includes at least one base member that includes a plurality of lower side wall receptacles. The construction block further includes a plurality of side wall assemblies. Each of the side wall assemblies includes a plurality of interconnected panels. Each of the panels is hingedly connected to each adjacent one of the panels of the respective one of the side wall assemblies. Each of the side wall assemblies defines a hollow load chamber having an open top and an open bottom. At least some of the panels of each of the side wall assemblies are angled relative to one another. Each of the lower side wall receptacles receives one of the side wall assemblies.

2010-08-03

308

Epstein-Barr Viral BNLF2a Protein Hijacks the Tail-anchored Protein Insertion Machinery to Block Antigen Processing by the Transport Complex TAP*  

PubMed Central

Virus-infected cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which recognize viral epitopes displayed on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules at the cell surface. Herpesviruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape this immune surveillance. During the lytic phase of EBV infection, the viral factor BNLF2a interferes with antigen processing by preventing peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we reveal details of the inhibition mechanism of this EBV protein. We demonstrate that BNLF2a acts as a tail-anchored protein, exploiting the mammalian Asna-1/WRB (Get3/Get1) machinery for posttranslational insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where it subsequently blocks antigen translocation by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). BNLF2a binds directly to the core TAP complex arresting the ATP-binding cassette transporter in a transport-incompetent conformation. The inhibition mechanism of EBV BNLF2a is distinct and mutually exclusive of other viral TAP inhibitors.

Wycisk, Agnes I.; Lin, Jiacheng; Loch, Sandra; Hobohm, Kathleen; Funke, Jessica; Wieneke, Ralph; Koch, Joachim; Skach, William R.; Mayerhofer, Peter U.; Tampe, Robert

2011-01-01

309

A novel one-pot de-blocking and conjugation reaction step leads to process intensification in the manufacture of PEGylated insulin IN-105.  

PubMed

Bio-catalytic in vitro multistep reactions can be combined in a single step in one pot by optimizing multistep reactions under identical reaction condition. Using this analogy, the process of making PEGylated insulin, IN-105, was simplified. Instead of taking the purified active insulin bulk powder as the starting material for the conjugation step, an insulin process intermediate, partially purified insulin ester, was taken as starting material. Process intensification (PI) was established by performing a novel de-blocking (de-esterification) of the partially purified insulin ester and conjugation at B-29 Lys residue of B chain with a short-chain methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) in a single-pot reactor. The chromatographic profile at the end of the reaction was found similar irrespective of whether both the reactions were performed sequentially or simultaneously. The conjugated product of interest, IN-105 (conjugation at LysB(29)), was purified from the heterogeneous mixture of conjugated products. The new manufacturing process was deduced to be more simplified and economical in making the insulin conjugates as several downstream purification steps could be circumvented. The physicochemical characteristics of IN-105 manufactured through this economic process was found to be indifferent from the product formed through the traditional process where the conjugation starting material was purified from bulk insulin. PMID:22453680

Hazra, Partha; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Shabandri, Qais; Adhikary, Laxmi; Dave, Nitesh; Buddha, Madhavan

2012-10-01

310

Diagram of Zeolite Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

2003-01-01

311

Block Oriented Simulation System (BOSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulation is assuming greater importance as a flexible and expedient approach to modeling system and subsystem behavior. Simulation has played a key role in the growth of complex, multiple access space communications such as those used by the space shuttle and the TRW-built Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). A powerful new simulator for use in designing and modeling the communication system of NASA's planned Space Station is being developed. Progress to date on the Block (Diagram) Oriented Simulation System (BOSS) is described.

Ratcliffe, Jaimie

1988-01-01

312

Antibodies that Inhibit Malaria Merozoite Surface Protein1 Processing and Erythrocyte Invasion Are Blocked by Naturally Acquired Human Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum un- dergoes at least two endoproteolytic cleavage events during merozoite maturation and release, and erythrocyte invasion. We have previously demonstrated that mAbs which inhibit erythro- cyte invasion and are specific for epitopes within a membrane-proximal, COOH-terminal do- main of MSP-1 (MSP-1 19 ) prevent the critical secondary processing

José A. Guevara Patiño; Anthony A. Holder; Jana S. McBride; Michael J. Blackman

313

Neuraminidase Ribbon Diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ribbons is a program developed at UAB used worldwide to graphically depict complicated protein structures in a simplified format. The program uses sophisticated computer systems to understand the implications of protein structures. The Influenza virus remains a major causative agent for a large number of deaths among the elderly and young children and huge economic losses due to illness. Finding a cure will have a general impact both on the basic research of viral pathologists of fast evolving infectious agents and clinical treatment of influenza virus infection. The reproduction process of all strains of influenza are dependent on the same enzyme neuraminidase. Shown here is a segmented representation of the neuraminidase inhibitor compound sitting inside a cave-like contour of the neuraminidase enzyme surface. This cave-like formation present in every neuraminidase enzyme is the active site crucial to the flu's ability to infect. The space-grown crystals of neuraminidase have provided significant new details about the three-dimensional characteristics of this active site thus allowing researchers to design drugs that fit tighter into the site. Principal Investigator: Dr. Larry DeLucas

2004-01-01

314

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

315

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

316

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

317

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the

Robert P. Kirshner

2004-01-01

318

Concrete and Abstract Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is

Rolf Klein

1989-01-01

319

Normalization of the Delano Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A normalization of the Delano y, y bar diagram is proposed in which the y heights are normalized by the entrance pupil height, the y bar heights by the image height. The normalization constants are expressed in terms of the system parameters, and it is se...

F. J. Lopez-Lopez

1970-01-01

320

Phase diagrams of two-lane driven diffusive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a large class of two-lane driven diffusive systems in contact with reservoirs at their boundaries and develop a stability analysis of mean-field profiles as a method to derive the phase diagrams of such systems. We illustrate the method by deriving phase diagrams for the asymmetric exclusion process coupled to various second lanes: a diffusive lane, an asymmetric exclusion process with advection in the same direction as the first lane, and an asymmetric exclusion process with advection in the opposite direction. The competing currents on the two lanes naturally lead to a very rich phenomenology and we find a variety of phase diagrams. It is shown that the stability analysis is equivalent to an 'extremal current principle' for the total current in the two lanes. We also point to classes of models where the analysis fails due to the lack of a dynamically stable current-density relation.

Evans, M. R.; Kafri, Y.; Sugden, K. E. P.; Tailleur, J.

2011-06-01

321

Concept and development of information flow diagram for literature survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Flow Diagram for Literature Survey (IFDLS) has been developed to manage information and procedure in the literature survey phase of the PTAs selection process. It is a tool utilizing information technology, which can organize, analyze, and evaluate information from literature survey and manage their process systematically. IFDLS is able to show the flow of information and data, and

Masaru Noda; Shoko Sato; Tadashi Ueda; Hiroyuki Tsuchi; Akihisa Koike

2007-01-01

322

The REA Ontology to Supplement Teaching Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems Analysis and Design is a core component of most information systems curricula, and generally includes coverage of process modeling with d ata f low diagrams. I n o rder to relate process modeling to something with w hich all students are familiar, the content of a traditional Systems Analysis and Design course can be supplemented with an ontological framework.

Kevin R. Parker; Ken Trimmer; Cindy LeRouge

2005-01-01

323

A heuristics approach to automatic data flow diagram layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heuristics method for the automatic placement of data flow diagrams (DFDs) is presented. It fulfills the whole set of aesthetics requirements for a nice DFD layout within an acceptable time bound. The system allocates the process with most data flows at the center of a 2-D grid space and effectively handles the positional preference for entities, processes, and data

K. P. Tan; G. H. Ong; P. Wong

1993-01-01

324

Towards model structuring based on flow diagram decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key challenge of model transformations in model-driven development is in transforming higher-level abstract models into more concrete ones that can be used to generate implementation level models, including executable business process representations and program code. Many of the modelling languages (like UML Activity Diagrams or BPMN) use unstructured flow graphs to describe the operation sequence of a business process.

Arend Rensink; Maria Zimakova; M. Ak?it; E. Kindler; E. Roubtsova; A. McNeile

2009-01-01

325

Phase diagram and kinetics of inhomogeneous square lattice brittle fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of brittle fracture of an inhomogeneous 2D square lattice is studied in the framework of a deterministic model. The phase diagram defining the conditions for different modes of fracture is obtained. The kinetics of the fracture processes is shown to be described by an Avrami-type relation. An equation for the durability of inhomogeneous system is proposed.

N. I. Lebovka; V. V. Mank

1992-01-01

326

Self-assembly in block polyelectrolytes.  

PubMed

The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) complemented with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation is employed to explore self-assembly of polyelectrolyte copolymers composed of charged blocks A and neutral blocks B. We have extended SCFT to dissociating triblock copolymers and demonstrated our approach on three characteristic examples: (1) diblock copolymer (AB) melt, (2) symmetric triblock copolymer (ABA) melt, (3) triblock copolymer (ABA) solution with added electrolyte. For copolymer melts, we varied the composition (that is, the total fraction of A-segments in the system) and the charge density on A blocks and calculated the phase diagram that contains ordered mesophases of lamellar, gyroid, hexagonal, and bcc symmetries, as well as the uniform disordered phase. The phase diagram of charged block copolymer melts in the charge density--system composition coordinates is similar to the classical phase diagram of neutral block copolymer melts, where the composition and the Flory mismatch interaction parameter ?(AB) are used as variables. We found that the transitions between the polyelectrolyte mesophases with the increase of charge density occur in the same sequence, from lamellar to gyroid to hexagonal to bcc to disordered morphologies, as the mesophase transitions for neutral diblocks with the decrease of ?(AB). In a certain range of compositions, the phase diagram for charged triblock copolymers exhibits unexpected features, allowing for transitions from hexagonal to gyroid to lamellar mesophases as the charge density increases. Triblock polyelectrolyte solutions were studied by varying the charge density and solvent concentration at a fixed copolymer composition. Transitions from lamellar to gyroid and gyroid to hexagonal morphologies were observed at lower polymer concentrations than the respective transitions in the similar neutral copolymer, indicating a substantial influence of the charge density on phase behavior. PMID:21303089

Yang, Shuang; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

2011-02-01

327

Block-shanno MBER beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a block processing objective function for the bit error rate (BER) cost function and present a nonlinear optimization strategy for its rapid minimization. The resulting algorithm is called the block Shanno minimum BER (BSMBER), which is conducted in the context of DS-CDMA with beamforming applications. Simulation analyses show the enhancements in convergence rate and BER performance of the

Tamer A. Samir; S. Elnoubi; A. Elnashar

2007-01-01

328

Transient processes in Stromboli's shallow basaltic system inferred from dolerite and magmatic breccia blocks erupted during the 5 April 2003 paroxysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the mineralogy, geochemistry, and mesomicrostructure of fresh subvolcanic blocks erupted during the 5 April 2003 paroxysm of Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). These blocks represent ˜50 vol.% of the total erupted ejecta and consist of fine- to medium-grained basaltic lithotypes ranging from relatively homogeneous dolerites to strongly or poorly welded magmatic breccias. The breccia components are represented by angular fragments of dolerites entrapped in a matrix of vesiculated (lava-like to scoriae) crystal-rich (CR) basalt. All of the studied blocks are cognates with the CR basalt of the normal Strombolian activity or lavas and they are often coated by a few-centimeter thick layer of crystal-poor (CP) basaltic pumice erupted during the paroxysm. We suggest that they result from the rapid increase of pressure and related subvolcanic rock failure that occurred shortly before the 5 April 2003 explosion, when the uppermost portion of the edifice inflated and suffered brecciation as the result of the sudden rise of the gas-rich CP basalt that triggered the eruption. Dolerites and magmatic matrix of the breccias show major and trace element compositions that match those of the CR basalts erupted during normal Strombolian activity and effusive events at Stromboli volcano. Dolerites consist of (a) phenocrysts normally found in the CR basalts and (b) late-stage magmatic minerals such as sanidine, An60-28 plagioclase, Fe-Mn-rich olivines (Fo68-48), phlogopite, apatite, and opaque mineral pairs (magnetite and ilmenite), most of which are never found both in lava flows and scoriae erupted during the persistent explosive activity that characterizes typical Strombolian behavior. Subvolcanic crystallization of the Stromboli CR magma, leading to slowly cooled equivalents of basalts, could result from transient drainage of the magma from the summit craters to lower levels. Fingering and engulfing of the material that collapsed from the summit crater floor into the shallow basaltic system during the late evening of 28 December 2002 coupled with the short break in the summit persistent explosions between December 2002 and March 2003 permitted the CR magma pockets to solidify as dolerites, which were confined to the uppermost portion of the system and thus not involved in the ongoing flank effusive activity. Crystal size distribution of the basaltic blocks and crystallization of the finer-grained (<0.1 mm) mafic minerals of the dolerites over a time interval of ˜100 days closely agrees with the above interpretation. Vesicle filling (miarolitic cavities) locally found in some dolerites, with minerals deposited as vapor-phase crystallization is a result of continuous gas percolation through the rocks of the uppermost portion of the volcanic system. Poorly welded magmatic breccias formed during syn-eruptive processes of 5 April 2003, when the paroxysm strongly shattered the shallow subvolcanic system and many dolerite fragments were entrapped in the CR magma. In contrast, the high degree of welding between the dolerite clasts and the CR basaltic matrix in the strongly welded magmatic breccias provides a snapshot of subvolcanic intrusions of the CR basalt into the dolerite when, after a 2-month break in activity, CR magmas started to rise again to the summit craters. Blocks similar to these subvolcanic ejecta of 5 April 2003 were also erupted during previous paroxysms (e.g., 1930) suggesting that changes in the usual Strombolian activity (e.g., short breaks in the persistent mild explosions and/or flank effusive activity) lead to transient crystallization of dolerites in the shallow plumbing system.

Renzulli, Alberto; Del Moro, Stefano; Menna, Michele; Landi, Patrizia; Piermattei, Marco

2009-09-01

329

Transient processes in the closed system of an electromechanical cascade drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block diagram of a closed-circuit electromechanical cascade drive is presented. An analog computer approach was used to study transient processes of the system for various types of disturbances. It is found that additional amplifier gain assures operation of the drive with satisfactory dynamic factors. Oscillograms are presented.

O. G. Kervalishvili; D. N. Dochviri

1979-01-01

330

Calculation of Ceramic Phase Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A data base is being developed for calculation of quasibinary and quasiternary phase diagrams of oxide and oxynitride ceramic systems. The current base covers combinations of Cr2O3, MgO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO, CaO, SiO2, Si3N4 and AlN. Lattice Stabilit...

L. Kaufman

1979-01-01

331

Phase Diagrams and Chemographic Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is a good way to get students thinking about the phase rule, metastable and stable reactions and phase diagrams. The exercise contains a lot of reading, and is suitable for in-class work or for homework. The idea is that students can do this on their own with little help from their instructor. The students only answer a few questions making this is more of a tutorial than a worksheet.

Perkins, Dexter

332

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to\\u000a generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and\\u000a scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are\\u000a used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

333

Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

2014-03-01

334

Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

Cadwallader, L.C. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

335

Triple quantum dots: Two path transport and electrostatic stability diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analysis of measurements on a triple quantum dot with a two path setup. The electron transport along both paths is recorded as well as charging data measured with a quantum point contact. The results are compared with an electrostatic model. This model allows for the full visualization of the three dimensional stability diagram for triple quantum dots. It is found that this diagram contains a central diamond shaped plane at which one specific quantum cellular automata (QCA) process occurs. Moreover quadruple points are found with four degenerate charge configurations. The QCA process defines the quadruple points and limits their number to six.

Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.

2010-02-01

336

The diagram lattice as structural principle A. New aspects for representations and group algebra of the symmetric group B. Definition of classification character, mixing character, statistical order, statistical disorder; A general principle for the time evolution of irreversible processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the aim of this paper to demonstrate the significance of the diagram lattice. This lattice was defined in order to achieve structural insight into the phenomenon of chirality in chemistry. In this context, “Theorie der Chiralitätsfunktionen” [1] may serve as reference. In the introduction of the present paper a summary of the relevant theorems and definitions is given

Ernst Ruch

1975-01-01

337

Twistor Diagrams and Quantum Field Theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis uses twistor diagram theory, as developed by Penrose (1975) and Hodges (1990c), to try to approach some of the difficulties inherent in the standard quantum field theoretic description of particle interactions. The resolution of these issues is the eventual goal of the twistor diagram program. First twistor diagram theory is introduced from a physical view-point, with the aim of studying larger diagrams than have been typically explored. Methods are evolved to tackle the double box and triple box diagrams. These lead to three methods of constructing an amplitude for the double box, and two ways for the triple box. Next this theory is applied to translate the channels of a Yukawa Feynman diagram, which has more than four external states, into various twistor diagrams. This provides a test of the skeleton hypothesis (of Hodges, 1990c) in these cases, and also shows that conformal breaking must enter into twistor diagrams before the translation of loop level Feynman diagrams. The issue of divergent Feynman diagrams is then considered. By using a twistor equivalent of the sum-over -states idea of quantum field theory, twistor translations of loop diagrams are conjectured. The various massless propagator corrections and vacuum diagrams calculated give results consistent with Feynman theory. Two diagrams are also found that give agreement with the finite parts of the Feynman "fish" diagrams of phi^4 -theory. However it is found that a more rigorous translation for the time-like fish requires new boundaries to be added to the twistor sum-over-states. The twistor diagram obtained is found to give the finite part of the relevant Feynman diagram.

O'Donald, Lewis

338

Cut diagrams for high energy scatterings  

SciTech Connect

A new approach is introduced to study QCD amplitudes at high energy and comparatively small momentum transfer. Novel cut diagrams, representing the resummation of Feynman diagrams, are used to simplify the calculation and to avoid delicate cancellations encountered in the usual approach. An explicit calculation to the sixth order is carried out to demonstrate the advantage of cut diagrams over Feynman diagrams. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Feng, Y.J.; Hamidi-Ravari, O.; Lam, C.S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, P.Q., H3A 2T8 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St., Montreal, P.Q., H3A 2T8 (CANADA)

1996-09-01

339

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

340

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (?)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ?19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ?9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ?22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ?0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic ?, followed by (2) a ?/NbC eutectic at ?1250°C, followed by (3) continued ? solidification, followed by (4) a ?/Laves phase eutectic at ?1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

1989-10-01

341

Reasoning on temporal class diagrams: Undecidability results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a temporal class diagram language useful to model temporal varying data. The atemporal portion of the language contains the core constructors available in both EER diagrams and UML class diagrams. The temporal part of the language is able to distin- guish between temporal and atemporal constructs, and it has the ability to represent dynamic constraints between classes.

Alessandro Artale

2006-01-01

342

Unjustified Assumptions Based on Diagrams in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated unjustified assumptions made by students when proving geometric statements. Geometric statements can be presented with a diagram or without. Diagrams can be accurate or sketchy. Unjustified assumptions may originate in an accompanying diagram. We thus asked whether the way in which a statement is presented has an effect on…

Dvora, Tali; Dreyfus, Tommy

2004-01-01

343

Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These

Francesca Varsano; D. Cahen; F. Decker; J. F. Guillemoles; E. Masetti

1998-01-01

344

Guelph Physics Tutorials: Free Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers a tutorial on free body diagrams. The tutorial includes an introduction to free body diagrams, example problems, a series of self-paced questions, and a free body diagram java applet. This is part of series of tutorials on physics and mathematics used in physics classes.

2007-04-23

345

Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.  

PubMed

Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool for the technical and environmental evaluation of this recycling process, bacterial and daphnid tests being more sensitive than algae and fish tests. PMID:21959139

Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2012-01-01

346

Epstein-Barr viral BNLF2a protein hijacks the tail-anchored protein insertion machinery to block antigen processing by the transport complex TAP.  

PubMed

Virus-infected cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which recognize viral epitopes displayed on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules at the cell surface. Herpesviruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape this immune surveillance. During the lytic phase of EBV infection, the viral factor BNLF2a interferes with antigen processing by preventing peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we reveal details of the inhibition mechanism of this EBV protein. We demonstrate that BNLF2a acts as a tail-anchored protein, exploiting the mammalian Asna-1/WRB (Get3/Get1) machinery for posttranslational insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where it subsequently blocks antigen translocation by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). BNLF2a binds directly to the core TAP complex arresting the ATP-binding cassette transporter in a transport-incompetent conformation. The inhibition mechanism of EBV BNLF2a is distinct and mutually exclusive of other viral TAP inhibitors. PMID:21984826

Wycisk, Agnes I; Lin, Jiacheng; Loch, Sandra; Hobohm, Kathleen; Funke, Jessica; Wieneke, Ralph; Koch, Joachim; Skach, William R; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Tampé, Robert

2011-12-01

347

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Two Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to tension forces in a system featuring an incline plane with a 30-degree angle, two blocks of known mass, and an ideal pulley. Students are required to determine the acceleration of the block moving up the incline. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, including conceptual analysis, free-body diagrams, and tips to set up the calculations. To promote critical thinking, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

348

Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

Rabello-Soares, M. C.

2013-12-01

349

Optical generation of Voronoi diagram.  

PubMed

We present results of experiments of diffraction by an amplitude screen, made of randomly distributed circular holes. By careful selection of the experimental parameters we obtain an intensity pattern strongly connected to the Voronoi diagram (VD) generated by the centers of the apertures. With the help of simulations we give a description of the observed phenomenon and elucidate the optimal parameters for its observation. Finally, we also suggest how it can be used for a fast, all-optical generation of VDs. PMID:18542580

Giavazzi, F; Cerbino, R; Mazzoni, S; Giglio, M; Vailati, A

2008-03-31

350

Qualitative Spatial Interpretation of Course-of-Action Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper demonstrates qualitative spatial reasoning techniques in a real-world diagrammatic reasoning task: Course-of-Action (COA) diagrams. COA diagrams are military planning diagrams that depict unit movements and tasks in a given region. COA diagrams...

J. R. Rasch K. D. Forbus R. W. Ferguson W. Turmel

2000-01-01

351

Managing family problems in advanced disease--a flow diagram.  

PubMed

The interaction between patient, family and professional team can sometimes make difficult situations worse rather than better. This flow diagram attempts to clarify the process by which a professional assesses situations and suggests ways in which people can gain understanding about their difficulties. Once everyone has a greater understanding of what is or is not happening, the diagram points to ways in which professionals can use questions to help patient and family create a solution that is workable both for them and for the professionals. PMID:8287199

Smith, N; Regnard, C

1993-01-01

352

Dynamic Project Risk Analysis and Management Based on Influence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a real-time process-oriented project risk analysis and management model which can be combined with the project general management, based on the hierarchical risk influence diagram which is constructed on the basis of network planning. Through network planning, it can solve the problems of the dynamic and overall identification of risk elements, and the showing and analysis of

Xiaohua Liu; Chaoyuan Yue

2009-01-01

353

Design of Interactive Diagrams Structured upon Generic Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to study the emerging questions about design of mathematical tasks that could support the solving of challenging problems, we designed two settings of interactive diagrams that share an example represented as an animation of multi-process motion but differ in their organizational functions. The interactive settings, each comprising…

Yerushalmy, Michal; Naftaliev, Elena

2011-01-01

354

Architecture of a retargetable ladder logic diagrams tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the architecture of a retargetable ladder diagram based software tool for programmable logic controllers (PLCs), which is based on the IEC 611311-3 specification. We propose here another approach of rapid prototyping process control with PLCs. The tool is designed in order to support as much as possible many embedded controller platforms or commercial PLCs. It is a

L. Ngalamou; L. Buchanan; L. Myers; V. Watt

2004-01-01

355

The three dimensionality of triple quantum dot stability diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the full three dimensionality of an electrostatically calculated stability diagram for triple quantum dots. The stability diagram maps out the favored charge configuration of the system as a function of potential shifts due to gate voltages. For triple dots only a three-dimensional visualization allows for the complete identification of all its components. Those are most notably the so-called quadruple points where four electronic configurations are degenerate, and quantum cellular automata processes. The exact positions of these features within the stability diagram are now revealed. Furthermore, the influence on transport is studied by comparing the model with a two-path triple quantum dot made with local anodic oxidation. The two-path setup allows us to study the influence of the dots' arrangement.

Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.

2009-11-01

356

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

357

Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams  

SciTech Connect

This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

Rudin, M.J.

1992-10-01

358

Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

359

Baroplastic Block copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

Hewlett, Sheldon A.

2005-03-01

360

A Working Model of Protein Synthesis Using Lego(TM) Building Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Lego building blocks to improve the effectiveness of teaching about protein synthesis. Provides diagrams and pictures for a 2-3 day student activity. Discusses mRNA, transfer RNA, and a protein synthesis model. (MVL)

Templin, Mark A.; Fetters, Marcia K.

2002-01-01

361

Modified Block Letters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Properly type a modified block style business letter. In your previous assignment, you created block style business letters. The letters, whether business or personal business, had all the content lined up on the left-hand side of the page. This is what made them block style. Today you are going to learn about modified block style letters. Modified block letters ...

Simonson, Mrs.

2009-12-05

362

Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

2007-09-01

363

Learning from Text with Diagrams: Promoting Mental Model Development and Inference Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated learning outcomes and comprehension processes when students learned about the heart and circulatory system using (a) text only, (b) text with simplified diagrams designed to highlight important structural relations, or (c) text with more detailed diagrams reflecting a more accurate representation. Experiment 1 found…

Butcher, Kirsten R.

2006-01-01

364

Formal Semantics for Structured Analysis Style Data Flow Diagram Specification Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using operational semantic techniques, we present a formal semantics for an extendedvariant of structured analysis style data flow diagrams. This semantics is intendedto serve as a semantic foundation for many different specification languages thatspecify concurrent systems using a graphical notation similar to data flow diagrams.Besides allowing one to specify how information is processed, it allows one to specifythe dynamic behavior

Gary T. Leavens; Tim Wahls

1996-01-01

365

A Service-Oriented Analysis and Design Approach Based On Data Flow Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, we analyze the shortages of service-oriented analysis and design (SOAD) methodologies, and then review the features of data flow diagram as a kind of requirement analysis technology. Finally, we propose an SOAD method using DFD diagram. Therefore, a process is provided as a guideline to aid analyst to accomplish high-quality service identification with the method. Through an

Zhao Yun; Si Huayou; Ni Yulin; Qi Hengnian

2009-01-01

366

Case Report: Case Report: Activity Diagrams for Integrating Electronic Prescribing Tools into Clinical Workflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate the future implementation of an electronic prescribing system, this case study modeled prescription management processes in various primary care settings. The Vanderbilt e-prescribing design team conducted initial interviews with clinic managers, physicians and nurses, and then represented the sequences of steps carried out to complete prescriptions in activity diagrams. The diagrams covered outpatient prescribing for patients during a

Kevin B. Johnson; Fern FitzHenry

2006-01-01

367

A layout algorithm for data flow diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A layout algorithm is presented that allows the automatic drawing of data flow diagrams, a diagrammatic representation widely used in the functional analysis of information systems. A grid standard is defined for such diagrams, and aesthetics for a good readability are identified. The layout algorithm receives as input an abstract graph, specifying connectivity relations between the elements of the diagram, and produces as output a corresponding diagram according to the aesthetics. The basic strategy is to build incrementally the layout; first, a good topology is constructed with few crossings between edges; subsequently, the shape of the diagram is determined in terms of angles appearing along edges; and finally, dimensions are given to the graph, obtaining a grid skeleton for the diagram.

Batini, C.; Nardelli, E.; Tamassia, R.

1986-04-01

368

Block relaxation strategies  

SciTech Connect

It is desired to solve the linear system Ax = b, where the matrix A is n x n block tridiagonal with block size m. This system is to be solved by block line relaxation when the largest block problem with block size m that can be cheaply solved directly is l x l. Iteration steps, strategies, and results are summarized. It is concluded that the convergence rate of some block relaxation strategies is much faster than that of the strategies generally used. (RWR)

Faber, V.

1980-01-01

369

Pattern Blocks with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a class we will be exploring fractions with pattern blocks. Each student will have a selection of pattern blocks. The students will manipulate their blocks to match mine as we discover patterns. pattern blocks explained Two work stations to choose from 1. pattern block work station 2. pattern work station pattern assignment pattern block assignment 2 Paper copies of assignments will be handed out. Students ...

Brown, Mrs.

2010-03-20

370

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.  

PubMed

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C. PMID:24320387

Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2013-12-01

371

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

2014-05-01

372

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

Kirshner, Robert P.

2004-01-01

373

Symmetric Monotone Venn Diagrams with Seven Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An n-Venn diagram consists of n curves drawn in the plane in such a way that each of the 2 n possible intersections of the interiors and exteriors of the curves forms a connected non-empty region. A k-region in a diagram is a region that is in the interior of precisely k curves. A n-Venn diagram is symmetric if it has a point of rotation about which rotations of the plane by 2?/n radians leaves the diagram fixed; it is polar symmetric if it is symmetric and its stereographic projection about the infinite outer face is isomorphic to the projection about the innermost face. A Venn diagram is monotone if every k-region is adjacent to both some (k - 1)-region (if k > 0) and also to some k + 1 region (if k < n). A Venn diagram is simple if at most two curves intersect at any point. We prove that the "Grünbaum" encoding uniquely identifies monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams and describe an algorithm that produces an exhaustive list of all of the monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams. There are exactly 23 simple monotone symmetric 7-Venn diagrams, of which 6 are polar symmetric.

Cao, Tao; Mamakani, Khalegh; Ruskey, Frank

374

Investigation of dynamic processes in the period of formation and development of the blocking anticyclone over European Russia in summer 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blocking anticyclone (BA) observed in the summer of 2010 over the European part of Russia led to enormous economical damage, substantially increased the mortality of the population, and had serious negative consequences for human health. Dynamic processes in the troposphere, i.e., wave trains, which could contribute to anticyclone formation and sustenance, are investigated. In order to study these wave trains, three-dimensional Plumb vectors have been calculated and analyzed. It is shown that, in June 2010, three wave trains propagated eastward in the troposphere over the Atlantics. The first two wave trains, having reached Europe, continued to propagate in eastern and southeastern directions. Only the third wave train, upon reaching Europe, continued to propagate toward the northeast and, on June 17-19, entered northwestern Russia. The anticyclone, which started to form on June 18 precisely in this region, subsequently developed into a stable BA observed over European Russia up to mid-August. The propagation direction of the wave trains could change due to the formation of a double structure of the zonal flow in the troposphere. The wave trains are revealed in the middle of June in regions with increased cloudiness over the northwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean and over the northwestern and northern parts of the central United States. Eastwardpropagating wave trains, which could contribute to the intensification of the corresponding BAs that brought anomalously high temperatures to European Russia, were also revealed in July and August of 2010 and 1972. The calculated 10-day backward trajectories are analyzed to determine the character of motions of air particles that penetrated into the anticyclone over the region of Moscow during the 2010 summer in the period of its development.

Vargin, P. N.; Luk'yanov, A. N.; Gan'shin, A. V.

2012-09-01

375

Efficient computation of the structural phase behavior of block copolymers.  

PubMed

A numerical implementation of self-consistent mean-field theory for the structural phase behavior of block copolymers is proposed. Our scheme does not require a priori assumptions of the underlying mesoscopic symmetries. The method potentially enables us to characterize, with high accuracy, the structural phase diagram of block copolymers with significant architectural complexity. We illustrate the method by applying it to a triblock copolymer system. PMID:12005865

Tzeremes, G; Rasmussen K, K Ø; Lookman, T; Saxena, A

2002-04-01

376

Data-Driven Implementation of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current software engineering methods employ a variety of design notations and techniques during the development process. This paper suggests a new, unified approach to developing software, termed Program\\/System Design. Programs are viewed as being made up of systems of data-coupled, data-activated processing units. Using a coherent hierarchy of data flow diagrams, complex systems are specified as compositions of successively simpler

Robert G. Babb II; R. G. II

1982-01-01

377

Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

2010-01-01

378

Project: MOBILITY: A Federally Funded Research and Design Project for Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Students. Long Range Planning Process. Management Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A management plan developed for the district-wide coordination of vocational education program planning in the State Center Community College District, California, is presented. Following a discussion of the planning process (in memo form) and a section on how to read flow-block diagrams, the mission profile and narrative description of this model…

Corrigan, Robert E.; Wood, R. Ronald

379

The voronoi diagram of three lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a complete description of the Voronoi diagram of three lines in R3. In particular, we show that the topology of the Voronoi diagram is invariant for three lines in general position, that is, that are pairwise skew and not all parallel to a common plane. The tri- sector consists of four unbounded branches of either a non-singular quartic

Hazel Everett; Sylvain Lazard; Daniel Lazard; Mohab Safey El Din

2007-01-01

380

Model Checking Activity Diagrams in TCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a brief description of our (prototype) implementation in TCM [4] of an execution al-gorithm for activity diagrams. The execution algorithm translates an activity diagram into its corresponding execution structure. This execution structure is input for a model checker. With a model checker, requirements on the execution structure can be verified. Currently, we only use our own variant of

Rik Eshuis

381

Towards the Automatic Generation of Software Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors formulate the criteria for drawing dataflow diagrams and describe the placement and routing algorithms used in a system called MONDRIAN. A generalized approach to the question of software diagrams is proposed based on the authors' experience with MONDRIAN and a metasystem approach to the creation of CASE (computer-aided software engineering) environments. A formal approach to the definition of

L. Beth Protsko; Paul G. Sorenson; J. Paul Tremblay; Douglas A. Schaefer

1991-01-01

382

Understanding Machines from Text and Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this in...

M. Hegarty M. A. Just

1987-01-01

383

Phase diagram of a random tiling quasicrystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the phase diagram of a two-dimensional random tiling model for quasicrystals. At proper concentrations the model has 8-fold rotational symmetry. Landau theory correctly gives most of the qualitative features of the phase diagram, which is in turn studied in detail numerically using a transfer matrix approach. We find that the system can enter the quasicrystal phase from many

Weixiong Li; Michael Widom

1992-01-01

384

Compiling Data Flow Diagrams into Functional Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a method for compiling an arbitrary visual language V data flow diagrams with loops into a parallel functional language Sisal functions based on token propagation over the diagram and loop collapsing into a system of (mutually) recursive functions. This com- pilation algorithm preserves a concurrence potentially present in the data flow graph.

Mikhail Auguston; Ravindra Mathur

385

Recall of the pattern, sequence, and names of concepts presented in instructional diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-one high school students studied a series of five circuit diagrams. These either showed the electronic components as standard symbols or as squares. Each component was labelled and numbered. Students either had to remember the pattern of the elements in the diagram and draw it from memory, or they had to remember the elements in sequence. It was found that students who saw diagrams with symbols performed better on the sequence task and worse on the pattern task than the students who saw the diagrams with squares, whose performance on the two tasks was the opposite. A subsequent experiment found that requiring the students to label the elements in the diagrams did not interfere with their ability to remember the patterns of the components. It was concluded that students' success in completing tasks that require holistic or analytic processing depends upon the amount of detail in the elements in instructional diagrams. It was also suggested that designers of diagrams used to teach science can exercise some control over whether students process the information holistically or analytically by varying the amount of detail in the diagrams' elements.

Winn, William

386

Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ?} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

2013-12-07

387

Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

2011-01-01

388

PAPER Special Section on Multi-carrier Signal Processing Techniques for Next Generation Mobile Communications An MMSE Multiuser Detector for Space-Time Block Coded OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper, we propose a multiuser detection (MUD) scheme for space-time block coded orthogonal frequency division mul- tiplexing (STBC-OFDM) systems. We derive the optimum weight ma- trix used to decouple simultaneously signals from active multiple access users using the minimum mean square error (MMSE) multiuser detection method. The proposed scheme provides good performance over different models of the

Xuan Nam TRAN; Tadashi FUJINO; Yoshio KARASAWA

389

Improved electrical and reliability characteristics in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with blocking oxide layers formed under the radical oxidation process.  

PubMed

We propose a Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (MONOS) structure whose blocking oxide is formed by radical oxidation on the silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer to improve the electrical and reliability characteristics. We directly compare the electrical and reliability properties of the MONOS capacitors with two different blocking oxide (SiO2) layers, which are called a "radical oxide" grown by the radical oxidation and a "CVD oxide" deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. The MONOS capacitor with a radical oxide shows a larger C-V memory window of 3.6 V at sweep voltages from 9 V to -9 V, faster program/erase speeds of 1 micros/1 ms at bias voltages of -6 V and 8 V, a lower leakage current of 7 pA and a longer data retention, compared to those of the MONOS capacitor with a CVD oxide. These improvements have been attributed to both high densification of blocking oxide film and increased nitride-related memory traps at the interface between the blocking oxide and Si3N4 layer by radical oxidation. PMID:21128482

An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Hee Dong; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Sung, Yun Mo; Koo, Sang-Mo; Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Tae Geun

2010-07-01

390

Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes of an Early Cretaceous intrusive suite in northeastern Jiangxi Province, South China Block: Implications for petrogenesis, crust/mantle interactions and geodynamic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Early Cretaceous Tieshan intrusive suite, in northeastern Jiangxi Province along the northern margin of the Eastern Cathaysia Block, is composed of diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, syenite porphyries, quartz monzonites, monzogranites and granite porphyries. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses reveal that this intrusive complex was emplaced between 142 Ma and 117 Ma. The ~ 135 Ma diabase porphyrites, monzodiorites, and syenite porphyries are characterized by low to moderate SiO2 and MgO contents, with high K2O and total alkaline contents. These rocks exhibit slightly to strongly fractionated REE patterns and upper crust-like multi-element patterns with depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti, and show strongly negative ?Hf (t) values of - 9.0 to - 11.8. All these patterns are identical to those of the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros in the east, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites in the west. These geochemical and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic features indicate that their magmatic precursors were generated by 0.2%-2% partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by sediments. The ~ 117 Ma quartz monzonite has slightly higher ?Hf (t) values (- 5.6 to - 8.7) like those of the Honggong syenites, indicating an interaction between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The ~ 142-134 Ma granite porphyries and monzogranites are characterized by high SiO2 levels but low concentrations of refractory elements, and show enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, with variable negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Ti, Sr, P and Ba in multi-element diagrams normalized by primitive mantle. The monzogranite exhibits strongly negative ?Hf (t) values of - 10.5 to - 13.3 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1849-2023 Ma, and the granite porphyries display relatively wide ?Hf (t) values of - 7.2 to - 13.4 and TDM2 (Hf) values of 1645-2043 Ma, indicating that these monzogranites and granite porphyries are highly fractionated granites derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic basement with involvement of enriched mantle-derived magmas or juvenile components, and the primary magma experienced fractionation of K-feldspar, plagioclase, monazite, allanite and zircon during magma ascent and emplacement. The Tieshan intrusive suite, together with the Caiyuan syenites, Huangtuling gabbros, and Lengshuikeng trachyandesites and quartz syenites, forms a highly enriched shoshonitic rock belt in the northeastern margin of the Cathaysia Block. Integrating with previously published data, we propose that the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate extended into the central South China Block in the Middle Jurassic, and experienced slab rollback during the Early Cretaceous.

Deng, Zhengbin; Liu, Shuwen; Zhang, Lifei; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Pengtao; Luo, Ping; Guo, Boran

2014-07-01

391

Physics Classroom: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how free body diagrams are used in solving problems involving Newton's Second Law. This tutorials demonstrates how to draw free body diagrams, what the diagram means to Physics, and includes practice problems for the student. This tutorial also includes other tutorials, animations, and student activities in other concepts of Physics. The Physics Classroom is a set of resources created for learners and teachers of high school physics. It includes comprehensive tutorials, problem sets with solutions, extra help for struggling students, Shockwave animations, multimedia learning modules, labs, and photo gallery.

Henderson, Tom

2011-10-03

392

Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams  

SciTech Connect

The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles.

Mendels, E. [Schenkkade 221, The Hague, 2595 AT Den Haag (Netherlands)

2005-07-01

393

Geospatial Cluster Tessellation Through the Complete Order k Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a postclustering process that robustly computes cluster regions at different levels of granularity\\u000a through the complete Order-k Voronoi diagrams. The robustness and flexibility of the proposed method overcome the application-dependency and rigidity\\u000a of traditional approaches. The proposed cluster tessellation method robustly models monotonic and nonmonotonic cluster growth,\\u000a and provides fuzzy membership in order to represent

Ickjai Lee; Reece Pershouse; Kyungmi Lee

2007-01-01

394

On the Automatic Layout of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Data flow diagrams,have been successfully applied in the area of model-based,design of complex embedded systems. However, their creation and maintenance can be very time-consuming, because their layout must be managed by the user. Automatic di- agram,layout can significantly speed up development,processes; numerous,methods already exist for this task, with very diering outputs. Usually the underlying struc- ture is represented by

Miro Spönemann

395

TECHNIQUES FOR THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytic framework for comparing data flowdiagrams based on five dimensions: control points, process automation,data aggregation, resource usage, and raw counts. Our goal wasto develop some simple quantitative metrics that are appropriate forcomputer-aided system development tools. In addition, we argue forcomputer-aided tools that support the tandem development of alternativesystem diagrams. Simultaneous development of competing system descriptions may

Donald J. Berndt

1993-01-01

396

An ultra-small isolation area for 600V class reverse blocking IGBT with deep trench isolation process (TI-RB-IGBT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a 600 V class trench isolation RB-IGBT (TI-RB-IGBT), whose termination area is extremely small in comparison with other isolation techniques, such as diffusion isolation or silicon mesa etching. The TI area is not only very small but also almost identical for all the blocking voltage classes. Our fabricated 100 A class TI-RB-IGBT, with one micron rule planar gate

Norifumi Tokuda; Mitsuru Kaneda; Tadaharu Minato

2004-01-01

397

Exploring the forbidden zone in the Lieber diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``Lieber diagram''(M. Lieber (unpublished), but see the article by J.H. McGuire, et al.) in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Handbook, Ed. by G.W.F. Drake (AIP Press, 1996). shows the regions where varieties of the Thomas double-collision mechanism for particle capture in the process 1 + (23) arrow (12) + 3 are kinematically allowed, in terms of the masses of the three particles. The Thomas process, when allowed, is the dominant process in high energy collisions, because the Green's function denominator in the scattering amplitude is allowed to go on shell. However, for certain mass ratios, we recently showed that where the double-collision capture was kinematically forbidden, nevertheless triple-collision capture was possible.( John H. Carter and M. Lieber, APS Centennial Bulletin) 44, No. 1, Part I, p. 139, Abstract DP01 54, (1999) We have now demonstrated that when neither double nor triple collision captures are possible, capture by quadruple collisions may be possible. The boundary curves in the Lieber diagram are quadratic for double, cubic for triple, and quartic for quadruple collisions. We therefore conjecture that the forbidden region in the Lieber diagram breaks up into infinitely many bands, where successively higher order collisions are required, bounded by algebraic curves of successively higher degrees.

Carter, John H.; Lieber, M.

2000-06-01

398

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

Manipulatives, National L.

2008-12-10

399

The Art of Free-Body Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of drawing free-body diagrams which only show forces exerted on a body from its neighbors. Presents three ways a body may be modeled: a particle, rigid extended, and nonrigid extended. (MKR)

Puri, Avinash

1996-01-01

400

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

401

EEBHub Building 101 Sankey Diagram Energy Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Efficient Buildings Hub (EEBHub) uses Sankey diagrams to visually analyze energy use in the building of its headquarters, Building 101 (B101). This report describes B101 energy consumption and passive energy exchanges with the surrounding envir...

A. J. Simon S. Singer

2013-01-01

402

An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

1989-01-01

403

Soft blocking of the dc term in Fourier optical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique utilizing an electron-trapping (ET) film to block the extended dc term in a Fourier optical system film is proposed and demonstrated. Since the blocking process is actually based on the subtracting property of the ET film, it is a soft blocking, which differs from, and is better than, simple hard blocking with a stop.

Suganda Jutamulia; Don A. Gregory

1998-01-01

404

The Voronoi Diagram of Three Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a complete description of the Voronoi diagram, in ?3, of three lines in general position, that is, that are pairwise skew and not all parallel to a common plane. In particular,\\u000a we show that the topology of the Voronoi diagram is invariant for three such lines. The trisector consists of four unbounded\\u000a branches of either a nonsingular quartic

Hazel Everett; Daniel Lazard; Sylvain Lazard

2009-01-01

405

Spectroscopic Determination of Ternary Phase Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ternary phase diagrams describe phase equilibria among three components as a function of composition at constant temperature and pressure. The system of n-propanol, n-heptane, and water exhibits a simple ternary diagram with two well-demarcated regions. One region represents complete liquid miscibility at high proportions of n-propanol. The second region delineates the compositions where two immiscible liquid phases coexist--a water-rich layer

Kerry K. Karukstis; Sara K. Avrantinis; Stephanie L. Boegeman; Jeanie N. Conner; Blaine M. Hackman; Jennifer M. Lindsay; Alexander L. Mandel; Elizabeth J. Miller

2000-01-01

406

Generalized Local Voronoi Diagram of Visible Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circular robot in unknown environment, populated by non-overlapping obstacles is considered. The robot is equipped with a discrete scanner e.g. laser range scanner. We present a method for local construction of a one-dimensional structure, similar to the generalized Voronoi diagram. We call this structure a generalized local Voronoi diagram (GLVD). GLVD is constructed from scan points of the visible

Rajko Mahkovic; Tomaz Slivnik

1998-01-01

407

Algebraic decision diagrams and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present theory and experiments on the AlgebraicDecision Diagrams (ADD's). These diagrams extend BDD'sby allowing values from an arbitrary finite domain to be associatedwith the terminal nodes. We present a treatment foundedin boolean algebras and discuss algorithms and results in applicationslike matrix multiplication and shortest path algorithms.Furthermore, we outline possible applications of ADD's to logicsynthesis, formal verification,

R. Iris Bahar; Erica A. Frohm; Charles M. Gaona; Gary D. Hachtel; Enrico Macii; Abelardo Pardo; Fabio Somenzi

1993-01-01

408

AdBlockVideo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video ads can be quite a nuisance. AdBlockVideo can help users out by effectively blocking such ads. Visitors will need to download the program and they can toggle AdBlockVideo on and off as they see fit. This application is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer, Max OS 10.3 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

409

1990 CENSUS BLOCK CENTROIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The block_cen layer in the EPA New England database provides the centroids of block boundaries coverage based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Law (PL) 94-171 data. The block_cen layer is an ARC/INFO point coverage....

410

The Khoros software development environment for image and signal processing.  

PubMed

Data flow visual language systems allow users to graphically create a block diagram of their applications and interactively control input, output, and system variables. Khoros is an integrated software development environment for information processing and visualization. It is particularly attractive for image processing because of its rich collection of tools for image and digital signal processing. This paper presents a general overview of Khoros with emphasis on its image processing and DSP tools. Various examples are presented and the future direction of Khoros is discussed. PMID:18291923

Konstantinides, K; Rasure, J R

1994-01-01

411

Engineering of Validatable Automation Systems Based on an Extension of UML Combined With Function Blocks of IEC 61499  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a comprehensive engineering framework for software design for component-based distributed industrial automation based on the combination of UML with the function block concept of the newly emerging international standard IEC61499. Four UML diagram types have been used, namely: class, sequence, cooperation and state-chart diagrams. The UML design is transformed then to the executable function block specification following

Victor Dubinin; Valeriy Vyatkin; Thomas Pfeiffer

2005-01-01

412

Identification of polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display by chromaticity diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported an identification method of blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) display status by using Commission International de l'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The BPLC was injected into in-plane-switch (IPS) cell, polymer stabilized (PS) by ultraviolet cured process and analyzed by luminance colorimeter. The results of CIE chromaticity diagram showed a remarkable turning point when polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal II (PSBPLC-II) formed in the IPS cell. A mechanism of CIE chromaticity diagram identify PSBPLC display status was proposed, and we believe this finding will be useful to application and production of PSBPLC display.

Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wang, Ling-Yung; Ku, Po-Jen; Huang, Tai-Hsiang; Liu, Chu-Yu; Sugiura, Norio

2012-04-01

413

LeView: automatic and interactive generation of 2D diagrams for biomacromolecule/ligand interactions  

PubMed Central

2D diagrams are widely used in the scientific literature to represent interactions between ligands and biomacromolecules. Such schematic diagrams are very helpful to better understand the chemical interactions and biological processes in which ligands are involved. Here, a new tool for automatic and interactive generation of 2D diagrams for biomacromolecule/ligand interactions is presented. LeView (Ligand-Environment Viewer) produces customised and high-quality figures, with a good compromise between a faithful representation of the 3D data (structures and interactions) and aesthetic criteria. LeView can be freely downloaded at http://www.pegase-biosciences.com/tools/leview/.

2013-01-01

414

Geosimulation of Geographic Dynamics Based on Voronoi Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic space is typically conceptualized either as discrete objects or as continuous fields. Considerable efforts have been carried out for the representation and management of the spatial data, based on the object view of space. However, field-based data models are less developed in GIS, especially when it comes to the modeling and representation of their spatial dynamics and behaviors. The limitations of GIS are mostly related to the 2D and static nature of their spatial data structures. In this paper, we explore the potentials of Voronoi diagram as an alternative spatial data structure that can allow more realistic representation of geographic dynamics, especially of dynamic fields and processes in 2D and 3D spaces. The paper presents a review on how different types of Voronoi diagrams for points, line segments and polygons could be effectively used to represent and simulate the geographic dynamics in different contexts.

Mostafavi, Mir Abolfazl; Beni, Leila Hashemi; Mallet, Karine Hins

415

Lost Hole-Blocking Property of Blue-Emitting Alq by Inserting Detached Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors found an interesting and strange phenomenon that is inexplicable using a simple energy diagram. Blue-emitting Alq (BAlq), a hole-blocking material, exhibits an excellent hole-blocking property in an organic light-emitting diode (LED) consisting of naphthyl-substituted diamime derivative (NPD) and BAlq. Nevertheless, its hole-blocking property is lost by inserting Alq3 between BAlq and a cathode. This fact suggests that an

Tatsuo Mori; Takaaki Itoh; Yuki Iwama; Teruyoshi Mizutani

2005-01-01

416

Controlled self-assembly of conjugated rod-coil block copolymers for applications in organic optoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic electronics are of great interest in manufacturing light weight, mechanical flexible, and inexpensive large area devices. While significant improvements have been made over the last several years and it is now clear that morphology on the lengthscale of exciton diffusion (10nm) is of crucial importance, a clear relationship between structure and device properties has not emerged. This lack of understanding largely emerges from an inability to control morphology on this lengthscale. This thesis will center around an approach, based on block copolymer self-assembly, to generate equilibrium nanostructures on the 10 nm lengthscale of exciton diffusion and study their effects on device performance. Self-assembly of semiconducting block copolymers is complicated by the non-classical chain shape of conjugated polymers. Unlike classical polymers, the chains do not assume a Gaussian coil shape which is stretched near block copolymer interfaces, instead the chains are elongated and liquid crystalline. Previous work has demonstrated how these new molecular interactions and shapes control the phase diagram of so-called rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we will focus on controlling domain size, orientation, and chemical structure. While domain size can be controlled directly through molecular weight, this requires significant additional synthesis of domain size is to be varied. Here, the domain size is controlled by blending homopolymers into a self-assembling rod-coil block copolymer. When coil-like blocks are incorporated, the domains swell, as expected. When rod-like blocks are incorporated, they interdigitate with the rods of the block copolymers. This results in an increase in interfacial area which forces the coils to rearrange and an overall decrease in domain size with increasing rod content. Control over lamellar orientation is crucial in order to design and control charge transport pathways and exciton recombination or separation interfaces. While numerous techniques have been demonstrated for classical block copolymers, the pi conjugation in the rod blocks allow for additional control mechanisms. Liquid crystals are traditionally aligned in magnetic fields. Here, it is demonstrated that if the rod-like blocks are aligned unidirectionally, the block copolymer interfaces follow to create macroscopic alignment of the nanostructures. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are generally composed of electron transporting and hole transporting moieties to balance charge recombination. Here, a new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing the hole transporting and electron transporting materials is synthesized. Self-assembly of this new block copolymer results in 15nm lamellae oriented in grains both parallel and perpendicula to the anode. The self-assembled block copolymer shows superior device performance to controls consisting of a luminescent, analogous homopolymer, and a blend of the two component homopolymers. The effects of the morphologies and chemical structure on photovoltaics is explored with a rod-coil block copolymer, (poly(3-hexylthiophene-b-acrylic perylene)). By varying the kinetics of self-assembly through processing, the block copolymer can be disordered, ordered with only short range registry between the nanodomains, or with long-range order. The short range ordered samples showed the best device performance suggesting that the connectivity that is a biproduct of poor order is beneficial for device performance.

Tao, Yuefei

417

Formal Verification of Condition Data Flow Diagrams for Assurance of Correct Network Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition data flow diagrams (CDFDs) are a formalized notation resulting from the integration of Yourdon Data Flow Diagrams, Petri Nets, and pre-post notation. They are used in the SOFL (Structured Object-Oriented Formal Language) specification language to describe the architecture of formal specifications for network protocols and general dependable systems by defining data flow communications among processes. A large-scale specification is

Shaoying Liu

2003-01-01

418

High-Throughput Measurement Method for Time--Temperature-Transformation Diagram of Thin Film Amorphous Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time--temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram of amorphous alloys is important for the applications of alloys. However, measurement for it by the conventional method is a time-consuming process. We propose a high-throughput measurement method for compiling TTT diagrams of thin film amorphous alloys. For this method, a temperature gradient furnace system is used. The thin film sample is isothermally heated with a

Yuko Aono; Junpei Sakurai; Tetsuo Ishida; Akira Shimokohbe; Seiichi Hata

2010-01-01

419

Building blocks for C3 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the results of a one-year study to assess the feasibility of constructing the information processing components of C3 systems from reusable building blocks. The objective is to reduce the time, cost, and risk of acquiring and modifying C3 computer systems. Three kinds of building blocks are identified: requirements, design, and software. A data flow architecture is proposed

J. A. Clapp; M. Hazle

1978-01-01

420

Analysis of the TRIPS prototype block predictor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the performance of the TRIPS proto- type chip's block predictor. The prototype is the first imple- mentation of the block-atomic TRIPS architecture, wherein the unit of execution is a TRIPS hyperblock. The TRIPS pro- totype predictor uses a two-step prediction process: it first predicts the exit from the current hyperblock and uses the predicted exit in conjunction

Nitya Ranganathan; Doug Burger; Stephen W. Keckler

2009-01-01

421

On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Drake, J. F. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)] [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

2013-06-15

422

49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10 Transportation...Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its...

2013-10-01

423

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

424

Blocking Losses on an Optical Communications Link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many photon-counting photo-detectors have the property that they become inoperative for some time after detection event. We say the detector is blocked during this time.Blocking produces losses when using the detector as a photon-counter to detect a communications signal. In this paper, we characterize blocking losses for single detectors and for arrays of detectors. For arrays, we discuss conditions under which the output may be approximated as a Poisson point process, and provide a simple approximation to the blocking loss. We show how to extend the analysis to arrays of non-uniformly illuminated arrays.

Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino

2011-01-01

425

Block Ciphers - A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a short overview of the state of the art of secret key block ciphers. We focus on the main application\\u000a of block ciphers, namely for encryption. The most important known attacks on block ciphers are linear cryptanalysis and differential\\u000a cryptanalysis. Linear cryptanalysis makes use of so-called linear hulls i.e., the parity of a subset of

Lars R. Knudsen

1997-01-01

426

Protein based Block Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers.

Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

2011-01-01

427

An algebra approach to the deduction of data flow diagrams and object oriented diagrams from algebraic specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Software Engineering procedures usually lack formal mathematical foundations. This paper presents a formal approach for the development of Specifications, Data Flow Diagrams and Object Oriented Diagrams using algebraic theory. The use of algebraic theory allows the check for completeness and consistency and the generation of automatic procedures for translating specifications into Data Flow Diagrams or Object Oriented Diagrams.

Federico Vazquez

1996-01-01

428

B-Fe-U Phase Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

2014-04-01

429

Period Analyses Without O-C Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a versatile method appropriate for the period analyses of observations containing phase information of all kinds of periodic or nearly periodic variable stars on the basis of phenomenological modelling of their phase curves and phase functions. The approach is based on rigorous application of a non-linear weighted least-squares method exploiting all available observational data and does not need an O-C diagram as an intermediate stage for period analyses. However, this approach enables us to determine precise times of extrema of light curves, to calculate ephemerides and construct plausible O-C diagrams. We substantiate the general applicability of the method on eclipsing binaries research.

Mikulášek, Zden?k; Zejda, Miloslav; Janík, Jan

2012-04-01

430

Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.  

PubMed

Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

Abramson, N

1988-05-01

431

Asymmetric Wings of the Butterfly Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot distribution over a solar cycle. Butterfly diagrams as plots of the latitudes of emerging sunspots against time are studied in order to find similarities and differences between Northern and Southern hemispheres. Long-term anticorrelations between time lags in hemispheric leading and "magnetic equator" shifts are found. The secular variability of the North-South asynchrony on the order of 90 years is identified. The asymmetry of butterfly diagrams just before and during the Global Minimums is discussed.

Zolotova, N. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

2008-09-01

432

Discussion on the modelling and processing of signals from an acousto-optic spectrum analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the modeling of CW signals generated by an AcoustoOptic Spectrum Analyzer (AOSA). It also shows how this calculation can be related to pulse modulated signals. In its second part, it discusses the processing of those signals to detect and to estimate the carrier frequency and the power of an input radar signal. It also proposes a system block diagram to implement the former two functions.

Farley, Guy

1987-06-01

433

Analyses of requirements for computer control and data processing experiment subsystems: Image data processing system (IDAPS) software description (7094 version), volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of each of the software modules of the Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) is presented. The changes in the software modules are the result of additions to the application software of the system and an upgrade of the IBM 7094 Mod(1) computer to a 1301 disk storage configuration. Necessary information about IDAPS sofware is supplied to the computer programmer who desires to make changes in the software system or who desires to use portions of the software outside of the IDAPS system. Each software module is documented with: module name, purpose, usage, common block(s) description, method (algorithm of subroutine) flow diagram (if needed), subroutines called, and storage requirements.

1973-01-01

434

Struggling to understand abstract science topics: a Roundhouse diagram-based study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored the effects of Roundhouse diagram construction on a previously low-performing middle school science student's struggles to understand abstract science concepts and principles. It is based on a metacognition-based visual learning model proposed by Wandersee in 1994. Ward and Wandersee introduced the Roundhouse diagram strategy and showed how it could be applied in science education. This article aims at elucidating the process by which Roundhouse diagramming helps learners bootstrap their current understandings to reach the intended meaningful understanding of complex science topics. The main findings of this study are that (a) it is crucial that relevant prior knowledge and dysfunctional alternative conceptions not be ignored during new learning if low-performing science students are to understand science well; (b) as the student's mastery of the Roundhouse diagram construction improved, so did science achievement; and (c) the student's apt choice of concept-related visual icons aided progress toward meaningful understanding of complex science concepts.

Ward, Robin E.; Wandersee, James H.

2002-06-01

435

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram  

PubMed Central

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates. A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results. There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates.

2014-01-01

436

Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram.  

PubMed

Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates.A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results.There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates. PMID:24886533

Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, Anna

2014-01-01

437

Modeling of Block-Based DSP Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modeling semantics based on dataflow graphs are used widely in design tools for digital signal processing (DSP). This paper develops efficient techniques for representing and manipulating block-based operations in dataflow- based DSP design tools. In this...

D. Ko S. S. Bhattacharyya

2006-01-01

438

Thermally actuated wedge block  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

Queen, Jr., Charles C. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

439

The block replacement problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The block replacement policy requires that a unit or a block of units be replaced at specified timesk T, k = 1, 2,… and at failure. The mathematical solution to the problem of what is the optimal time Tfor replacement is well known and this paper describes this solution for the special cases of a truncated normal, gamma or Weibull

M. A. Hanscom; R. Cléroux

1975-01-01

440

Block copolymer investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time

Nataliya A. Yufa

2008-01-01

441

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

442

Segmenting dot patterns by voronoi diagram concavity.  

PubMed

This correspondence defines a signed distance, called ``internal concavity,'' on paths of the Voronoi diagram of a dot pattern. An algorithm using internal concavity to segment dot patterns is described. The segmentation algorithm produces subsets of the Dirichlet tessellation (Delaunay triangulation) of the dot pattern. PMID:21869092

Fairfield, J

1983-01-01

443

Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams  

SciTech Connect

We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-05-01

444

A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a

Hui Zhang; Jianguang Weng; Andrew J. Hanson

2011-01-01

445

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

446

The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

2006-01-01

447

Shockwave Physics Studios: Free Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity, part of The Physics Classroom tutorial collection, provides self-directed practice in constructing free-body diagrams. Twelve descriptions of physical situations are presented; the goal is to determine the type and relative magnitude of the forces acting upon the described object. Additional help is provided with one click on "Web Help".

Henderson, Tom

2011-09-27

448

Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

449

The Starfish Diagram: Statistical visualization tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Starfish Diagram is a statistical visualization tool that simultaneously displays the properties of an individual and its parent sample through a series of histograms. The code is useful for large datasets for which one needs to understand the standing or significance of a single entry.

Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.

2014-07-01

450

Dependability Assessment using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the DREDD (Dependability and Risk Evaluation using Decision Diagrams) algorithm which incorporates coverage modeling into a BDD solution of a combinatorial model. BDDs, which do not use cutsets to generate system unreliability, can be used to find exact solutions for extremely large systems. The DREDD algorithm takes advantage of the efficiency of the BDD solution approach and increases the

Stacy A. Doyle; Joanne Bechta Dugan

1995-01-01

451

Expected Linear 3-Dimensional Voronoi Diagram Algorithm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Let S be a set of n sites chosen independently from a uniform distribution in a cube in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In the paper, an expected O(n) algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram for S together with numerical results obtained from an imp...

J. Bernal

1990-01-01

452

Fission stability diagram of sup 240 Pu  

SciTech Connect

We have used an axially symmetric deformed Thomas-Fermi model to evaluate the fission barrier of {sup 240}Pu as a function of the quadrupole moment {ital Q}{sub 2} for different values of the angular momentum {ital L} and temperature {ital T}. The fission stability diagram of this nucleus is investigated.

Garcias, F.; Barranco, M.; Wio, H.S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de ses Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Ngo, C. (Laboratoire National Saturne, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France); Nemeth, J. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Eotvos University, H-1088 Budapest, Hungary)

1989-09-01

453

Asymmetric Wings of the Butterfly Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot distribution over a solar cycle. Butterfly diagrams as plots of the latitudes of emerging sunspots against time are studied in order to find similarities and differences between Northern and Southern hemispheres. Long-term anticorrelations between time lags in hemispheric leading and \\

N. V. Zolotova; D. I. Ponyavin

2008-01-01

454

Identification of complete data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structure Design is generated with Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). DFD have been used for more than ten years, and they are still popular. The main drawback of DFD is the lack of mathematical foundation. The great demand for bigger and more sophisticated computer systems makes necessary the formulation of a formal theory for DFD. This theory will provide a

Federico Vazquez

1994-01-01

455

Multimedia presentation design using data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured analysis\\/design methodology has been used in software development for many years. We propose a revised data flow diagram technique and system based on the structured analysis methodology. The system allows a multimedia presentation designer to stepwise refine his\\/her presentation toward an interactive Petri net, which defines the temporal behaviour of the presentation. The generated presentation can mutate itself at

Timothy K. Shih; C. H. Kuo; H. C. Keh; Y. H. Wang; C. S. Wang; S. K. C. Lo; Shuo-Chih Hsu

1997-01-01

456

Weight diagram construction of Lax operators  

SciTech Connect

We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-10-01

457

Study of Phase Diagrams of Ternary Semiconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this three-year project on the theoretical studies of Hg-Cd-Te phase diagram, the liquidus and solidus have been calculated using the conditions to thermal coexistence of the liquid and solid. The pair approximation of the cluster variation method is u...

R. Kikuchi

1983-01-01

458

The Iron-Praseodymium Phase Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phase diagram is proposed for the iron-praseodymium alloy system. Only one intermediate phase, Pr2Fe17, was observed in the system. Invariant points are the Pr2Fe17 peritectic point at 1105 plus or minus 8C and 89.5 at. % Fe and the eutectic point at 65...

A. E. Ray

1969-01-01

459

Near Earth Objects Program: Orbit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides access to diagrams of the orbits of a very large number of objects in the asteroid belt as well as comets that cross Earth's orbit. The collection is searchable by object name or designation and users can also browse through an extensive list of potentially hazardous asteroids.

Program, Nasa J.; Nasa

460

Nonverbal Poetry: Family Life-Space Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…

Bardill, Donald R.

2001-01-01

461

Formation of mafic magmas through lower crustal AFC processes — An example from the Jinan gabbroic intrusion in the North China Block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jinan gabbroic intrusion from the North China Block (NCB) experienced complex differentiation from a reduced and Si-undersaturated magma to an oxidized and Si-saturated melt, with a mineral assemblage of olivine + pyroxene + plagioclase + biotite + ilmenite. New dating of baddeleyite and zircon yield a consistent U-Pb age range from 130 to 134 Ma, confirming emplacement during the early Cretaceous. In situ oxygen analyses on olivine show relatively homogeneous O isotopic compositions, and the olivine separates give a limited ?18O range from 6.0 to 6.1‰, higher than that of olivine from normal mantle peridotites. The zircons have even higher ?18O (6.9-7.3‰) than olivine and clinopyroxene separates (?18O = 6.2-6.9‰) and show clear O isotope disequilibrium with olivine/clinopyroxene. The ?18O of the primary magma for olivine and clinopyroxene crystallization was increased by 1.2-1.4‰ to form the evolved melt for zircon crystallization. This ?18O variation points to assimilation or contamination by high-?18O crustal components during magmatic evolution. Systematic decreases in whole-rock ?Nd(t) and ?Hf(t) are accompanied by increases of ?18O, Ba/Nb, Ba/Th and Zr/Nb and decrease of Th/La, along with a change in oxygen fugacity of the magma. Modeling results suggest that the Jinan gabbroic intrusion experienced assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) with felsic material at lower crustal levels. Combined geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic features suggest that the primary melts were derived from the NCB lithospheric mantle that had been further metasomatized by a small volume of carbonatitic melt, possibly derived from the subducted Yangtze crust.

Guo, Feng; Guo, Jiangtao; Wang, ChristinaYan; Fan, Weiming; Li, Chaowen; Zhao, Liang; Li, Hongxia; Li, Jingyan

2013-10-01

462

GPU-based optical propagation simulator of a laser-processed crystal block for the X'tal cube PET detector.  

PubMed

The X'tal cube is a next-generation DOI detector for PET that we are developing to offer higher resolution and higher sensitivity than is available with present detectors. It is constructed from a cubic monolithic scintillation crystal and silicon photomultipliers which are coupled on various positions of the six surfaces of the cube. A laser-processing technique is applied to produce 3D optical boundaries composed of micro-cracks inside the monolithic scintillator crystal. The current configuration is based on an empirical trial of a laser-processed boundary. There is room to improve the spatial resolution by optimizing the setting of the laser-processed boundary. In fact, the laser-processing technique has high freedom in setting the parameters of the boundary such as size, pitch, and angle. Computer simulation can effectively optimize such parameters. In this study, to design optical characteristics properly for the laser-processed crystal, we developed a Monte Carlo simulator which can model arbitrary arrangements of laser-processed optical boundaries (LPBs). The optical characteristics of the LPBs were measured by use of a setup with a laser and a photo-diode, and then modeled in the simulator. The accuracy of the simulator was confirmed by comparison of position histograms obtained from the simulation and from experiments with a prototype detector composed of a cubic LYSO monolithic crystal with 6 × 6 × 6 segments and multi-pixel photon counters. Furthermore, the simulator was accelerated by parallel computing with general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit. The calculation speed was about 400 times faster than that with a CPU. PMID:23896989

Ogata, Yuma; Ohnishi, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Haneishi, Hideaki

2014-01-01

463

A Legal Negotiatiton Support System Based on A Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of a legal negotiation support system, ANS (Argumentation based Negotiation support System). ANS consists of a user interface, three inference engines, a database of old cases, and two decision support modules. The ANS users negotiates or disputes with others via a computer network. The negotiation status is managed in the form of the negotiation diagram. The negotiation diagram is an extension of Toulmin’s argument diagram, and it contains all arguments insisted by participants. The negotiation protocols are defined as operations to the negotiation diagram. By exchanging counter arguments each other, the negotiation diagram grows up. Nonmonotonic reasoning using rule priorities are applied to the negotiation diagram.

Nitta, Katsumi; Shibasaki, Masato; Yasumura, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ryuzo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshimura, Miyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi

464

Application of Machine Learning and Expert Systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) Chart Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a gra...

M. Shewhart

1991-01-01

465

Characterization of blocked isocyanates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ionomer crosslinker on the basis of partly blocked hexamethylene isocyanurate was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and by gel permeation chromatography. To determine the selectivity of the blocking reaction. model compounds were also prepared. Deblocking and curing courses were studied by FTIR thermal methods. The selectivity of the blocking reaction was found to be poor and therefore the obtained ionomer crosslinker consisted of different monomer and oligomer components. Deblocking and curing were highly temperature dependent. Curing was more efficient in one-pack systems consisting of the ionomer crosslinker and of an OH groups rich ionomer polyurethane resin.

Mir?eva, A.; Janeži?, M.; Žigon, M.; Malavaši?, T.

1992-03-01

466

The Atom - The Final Link in the Division Process or the First Building Block? Pre-Instructional Conceptions about the Structure of Substances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis as to the atomic structure of any given substance is introduced in many physics and chemistry textbooks by conveying the idea of repetitive division of a given amount of substance, for example, by grinding, dissolving, or evaporating. The rationale for this approach is the assumption of students inferring that this process of…

Pfundt, Helga

467

A reverse engineering methodology to reconstruct hierarchical data flow diagrams for software maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology used to define a reverse engineering process that has been employed in an enhancement maintenance operation on a Pascal software system is described. Attention is focused on the methodology used to produce, from code, a hierarchy of data-flow diagrams (DFDs) at different levels of abstraction. DFDs are produced in the high-level design phase of a software production process

P. Benedusi; A. Cimitile; U. De Carlini

1989-01-01

468

Enhancing Learning Effectiveness through Connectance Diagrams: A New Tool for Learning Organisations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of a particular approach for increasing knowledge creation in organisation. The paper provides a discussion of related concepts, processes, and a tool. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes the reasons for drawing connectance diagrams, the process and the software. It also…

Lim, Sirirat Sae; Tan, Kim Hua; Platts, Ken

2005-01-01

469

Data Flow Diagramming Skills Acquisition: Impact of Cooperative versus Individual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information systems (IS) process modeling using the technique of Data Flow Diagramming (viz., Systems Analysis) can be defined as a complex task for IS designers. This study draws from the domains of educational psychology and organizational behavior in examining the training of novices in conceptual process modeling. Specifically, an experiment…

Powell, Anne; Bordoloi, Bijoy; Ryan, Sherry D.

2007-01-01

470

An Exact Reliability Block Diagram Calculation Tool to Design Very Complex Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study, the novel ERBDC method is introduced as a tool both to compute exact (s-t) reliability for a network, which\\u000a is important in the design of even moderately sized networks, and to redesign an existing network. This talk examines very\\u000a complex network designs or imbedded systems such as in the topology of an Internet service grid or a

Mehmet ?ahinoglu

471

Reliability block diagram simulation techniques applied to the IEEE Std. 493 standard network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is one of a series of papers discussing the application and accuracy of different analysis techniques supporting the determination of industrial and commercial power system reliability and availability. There is a need recognized in the power industry to identify and utilize a standard tool, or a set of tools, to analyze the reliability of power systems. Historically, the results

Wendai Wang; James M. Loman; Robert G. Arno; Pantelis Vassiliou; Edward R. Furlong; Doug Ogden

2004-01-01

472

Reliability and availability assessment of transmission overhead line protection system using reliability block diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection system in a power system domain plays a vital role as watchmen to safe guard power system apparatus in the event of faults. The integrity and effectiveness of these watchmen is heavily dependent on the reliability of the components that makes up the system. One of the main components in a protection system is protective relays that provides decision

Mohd Iqbal Ridwan; Kerk Lee Yen; I. A. Musa; B. Yunus

2010-01-01

473

A new approach to modeling the system reliability: dynamic reliability block diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, also as consequence of recent chronicles, aspects like security, availability, reliability and other features of a generic system summarized under the concept of dependability are receiving increasing attention. This fact is translated into specific requirements as well as explicit and tighter constraints the system must satisfy. But sometimes, with particular reference to the reliability, there is lack of suitable

Salvatore Distefano; Liudong Xing

2006-01-01

474

Analysis of complex mechanical systems based on the block diagrams and the matrix hybrid graphs method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article a new method of an analysis of three-dimensional, complex mechanical systems with linear couplings, structurally and geometrically heterogeneous and subjected to polar and flow sets of functions at the same time has been introduced. The method is connected with a matrix hybrid graph (mhg)-of combined features of both flow and polar – being transformed into the matrix

J. ?wider; G. Wszo?ek

2004-01-01

475

On the automatic generation of timed automata models from Function Block Diagrams for safety instrumented systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are designed to prevent accidents, avoid undesirable situations and guarantee continuous operation of oil and gas production systems. An interruption in the operation can be caused by faults in sensors and\\/or actuators. Hence, SIS are integrated to the supervisory control system in order to use the information from sensors to prevent such undesirable situations. In this

Leandro Dias da Silva; L. P. de Assis Barbosa; Kyller Gorgonio; Angelo Perkusich; A. M. N. Lima

2008-01-01

476

Critical and non-critical human error modelling in redundant systems: modified block diagram approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three newly developed models are presented for performing reliability analysis of redundant systems with erlangian-distributed critical and non-critical human error times. Parallel, k-out-of-n and parallel-series configurations are analysed. System reliability, mean time to failure, time-to-failure variance, failure density function formulae, and hazard rate function formulae are developed. Selective plots are shown to demonstrate the effect of varying critical and non-critical

BALBIR S. DHILLON; SUBRAMANYAM N. RAYAPATI

1988-01-01

477

Superalloy Lattice Block Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

2004-01-01

478

Low Frequency Blocking Oscillator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a low frequency astable blocking oscillator composed of a transistor with a first transformer winding in the collector circuit and a second transformer winding in the base circuit to provide regenerative feedback between the collector...

C. H. Johnson

1972-01-01

479

RX for Writer's Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

1988-01-01

480

Mid-Career Block.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

Payne, Richard A.

1984-01-01

481

Recipient block TMA technique.  

PubMed

New high-throughput screening technologies have led to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. One way to prioritize the leads obtained in such studies is to analyze a large number of tissues for candidate gene expression. The TMA methodology is now an established and frequently used tool for high-throughput tissue analysis. The recipient block technology is the "classical" method of TMA making. In this method, minute cylindrical tissue punches typically measuring 0.6 mm in diameter are removed from donor tissue blocks and are transferred into empty "recipient" paraffin blocks. Up to 1,000 different tissues can be analyzed in one TMA block. The equipment is affordable and easy to use in places where basic skills in histology are available. PMID:20690050

Mirlacher, Martina; Simon, Ronald

2010-01-01

482

INLAND DISSOLVED SALT CHEMISTRY: STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF BIVARIATE AND TERNARY DIAGRAM MODELS FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

483

Block Copolymer Nanotubes.  

PubMed

Rigid cylindrical micelles are made from polyisoprene-block-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate). The PI-PCEMA-PtBA polymer assembles to micelles with PI as the core, PCEMA as the shell, and PtBA as the corona. The cylindrical structure is fixed by photocrosslinking the PCEMA shell, and PCEMA-PtBA nanotubes are obtained by degrading the PI core with ozone (see scheme). PMID:10649402

Stewart; Liu

2000-01-01

484

Block Play: It's Not Just for Boys Anymore--Strategies for Encouraging Girls' Block Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While block play is essential for both boys' and girls' social, cognitive, language, and motor development, girls do not engage in block play as frequently as boys. This situation can be attributed to the socialization process--children learn societal expectations for behavior and materials for both boys and girls--lack of experience for girls…

Tokarz, Barb

2008-01-01

485

Proof Test Diagrams for Zerodur Glass-Ceramic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

D. S. Tucker

1991-01-01

486

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

Tucker, D. S.

1991-01-01

487

TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, OPERATING LEVERS (BEING PULLED BY OPERATOR TOM HARTMAN), AND AUXILIARY TRACK DIAGRAM ABOVE DESK AT LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

488

Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions  

SciTech Connect

We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

Lee, Weonjong [School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-01-01

489

Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

490

Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

Hill, F.

491

Phase diagram of model Cn >= 70 fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have confirmed that model C60 has a stable liquid phase confined to a rather narrow temperature range; in this letter we determine the phase diagram of model C70 and show that also this fullerene possesses a liquid phase whose existence range is wider than that of C60. A "corresponding state"behaviour of C60 and C70, emerging from a description in terms of reduced quantities of both the interaction potential and the phase diagrams' parameters, is then extended to higher-order fullerenes. Critical- and triple-point densities and temperatures of C76, C84 and C92 are thereby predicted. The decreasing accuracy of such a representation of Cn > 70 phase behaviour with increasing n is discussed in relation to the model potential features.

Abramo, M. C.; Caccamo, C.; Costa, D.; Pellicane, G.

2001-05-01

492

Krajewski diagrams and the standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincaré duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincaré duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

Stephan, Christoph A.

2009-04-01

493

Neural network design using Voronoi diagrams.  

PubMed

A novel approach is proposed which determines the number of layers, the number of neurons in each layer, and their connection weights for a particular implementation of a neural network, with the multilayer feedforward topology, designed to classify patterns in the multidimensional feature space. The approach is based on construction of a Voronoi diagram over the set of points representing patterns in feature space and this finds added us