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Sample records for process hpip volume

  1. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process` components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process` usefulness.

  2. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 2, Investigators`s Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique.

  3. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  4. A specialized program for life extension of HP-IP steam turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Salamanca, T.; Monaco, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Significant cracking in the HP stages of two HP-IP steam turbine rotors required the development of programs to assess the impact of the cracking observed at the seal land surfaces on the integrity of the rotor under daily hot starts. Originally designed for base-load operation, the units ar constrained in their operation by design (minimal steam bypass capability to the condenser) and environmental concerns (noise abatement). Combined with daily starts, these operational constraints subject the HP-IP steam turbine rotors to excessive thermal stresses. A program of analysis, inspection, and plant operation modification has been developed to continue operation of the unit for the least overall cost. This paper covers analysis of the cracking, strategies for its control, and innovative nondestructive ultrasonic inspection techniques used to monitor the condition of the rotor. To minimize inspection time, a unique, computer-based ultrasonic boreside scanning system was used to examine the blade attachment areas with the rotors in place. Five boreside inspections have been conducted with an expansion to include a portion of the IP stages. The overall program has extended by ten years the useful operating life of two turbine units previously recommended for replacement or repair. The cost savings to the utility have been considerable because no replacement rotors were required, repair costs were reduced, and the in-place inspection reduced downtime and disassembly costs. Results of the four-year program are presented in this paper.

  5. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 2: Biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 2 include: aeration; aerobic biological oxidation; activated sludge system; biological oxidation: lagoons; biological oxidation: fixed film processes; aerobic digesters; anaerobic waste treatment, anaerobic sludge treatment; and sedimentation.

  6. Data Processing Volume I. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittetoe, Jerry

    These instructional materials are intended as a guide for the instructor of a block course in introductory vocational data processing. A textbook and supplementary materials of the instructor's choice would probably be used in conjunction with these materials. Topics covered in the 11 units are background and uses of data processing, input/output…

  7. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  8. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-04-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  9. Fuel quality processing study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Syverson, H. T.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, R. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel quality processing study to provide a data base for an intelligent tradeoff between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality, and also, to guide the development of specifications of future synthetic fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985 to 2000 is given. Four technical performance tests are discussed: on-site pretreating, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and data evaluation. The base case refinery is a modern Midwest refinery processing 200,000 BPD of a 60/40 domestic/import petroleum crude mix. The synthetic crudes used for upgrading to marketable products and turbine fuel are shale oil and coal liquids. Of these syncrudes, 50,000 BPD are processed in the existing petroleum refinery, requiring additional process units and reducing petroleum feed, and in a new refinery designed for processing each syncrude to produce gasoline, distillate fuels, resid fuels, and turbine fuel, JPGs and coke. An extensive collection of synfuel properties and upgrading data was prepared for the application of a linear program model to investigate the most economical production slate meeting petroleum product specifications and turbine fuels of various quality grades. Technical and economic projections were developed for 36 scenarios, based on 4 different crude feeds to either modified existing or new refineries operated in 2 different modes to produce 7 differing grades of turbine fuels. A required product selling price of turbine fuel for each processing route was calculated. Procedures and projected economics were developed for on-site treatment of turbine fuel to meet limitations of impurities and emission of pollutants.

  10. Theoretical Astrophysics - Volume 1, Astrophysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2000-12-01

    Preface; 1. Order-of-magnitude astrophysics; 2. Dynamics; 3. Special relativity, electrodynamics and optics; 4. Basics of electromagnetic radiation; 5. Statistical mechanics; 6. Radiative processes; 7. Spectra; 8. Neutral fluids; 9. Plasma physics; 10. Gravitational dynamics; 11. General theory of relativity; 12. Basics of nuclear physics; Notes and References; Index.

  11. TOPEX SDR Processing, October 1998. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.; Lockwood, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a compendium of the WFF TOPEX Software Development Team's knowledge regarding Sensor Data Record (SDR) Processing. It includes many elements of a requirements document, a software specification document, a software design document, and a user's manual. In the more technical sections, this document assumes the reader is familiar with TOPEX and instrument files.

  12. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  13. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  14. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  15. Description of ground motion data processing codes, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, M. L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists these codes and verifies the PSRV code. Volume 1, which contains the program specifications for the scientific and engineering software, consists of the following programs: SPECTRA calculates the power density spectrum of digitized time histories from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs); FILTER designs optimum finite impulse response filters and then filters UNE ground motion data; and PSRV calculates the pseudo-relative velocity response spectrum for UNE ground motions. Volume 2 contains the following program specifications for the auxiliary software. ACCESS allows the user to scan, update, delete, or add records contained in the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations data base. SCAN produces an inventory of the time histories contained in a large data file. PLOT plots the data files: ROTATE converts data in the horizontal plane into a UNE specific coordinate system; and VECTOR calculates the magnitude versus time of the 2-D (horizontal components) and 3-D (vertical and horizontal components) vectors. Volume 3 comprises the users' manuals for each of the programs described in Volumes 1 and 2.

  16. Industrial process heat data analysis and evaluation. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A; Gee, R; May, K

    1984-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has modeled seven of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored solar Industrial Process Heat (IPH) field experiments and has generated thermal performance predictions for each project. Additionally, these performance predictions have been compared with actual performance measurements taken at the projects. Predictions were generated using SOLIPH, an hour-by-hour computer code with the capability for modeling many types of solar IPH components and system configurations. Comparisons of reported and predicted performance resulted in good agreement when the field test reliability and availability was high. Volume I contains the main body of the work; objective model description, site configurations, model results, data comparisons, and summary. Volume II contains complete performance prediction results (tabular and graphic output) and computer program listings.

  17. Industrial process heat data analysis and evaluation. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A; Gee, R; May, K

    1984-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has modeled seven of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored solar Industrial Process Heat (IPH) field experiments and has generated thermal performance predictions for each project. Additionally, these performance predictions have been compared with actual performance measurements taken at the projects. Predictions were generated using SOLIPH, an hour-by-hour computer code with the capability for modeling many types of solar IPH components and system configurations. Comparisons of reported and predicted performance resulted in good agreement when the field test reliability and availability was high. Volume I contains the main body of the work: objective, model description, site configurations, model results, data comparisons, and summary. Volume II contains complete performance prediction results (tabular and graphic output) and computer program listings.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  19. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  20. Law, Mental Disorders and the Juvenile Process. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Samuel; And Others

    This five-year (1967-71) study of the District of Columbia's program for identification and treatment of delinquent juveniles with mental disorders found the child guidance clinic referral model to be ineffective and anachronistic. Volume 1 of the four-volume report examined referrals made to the clinic during the period May 1969-December 1969 and…

  1. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables.

  2. VLSI systems design for digital signal processing. Volume 1 - Signal processing and signal processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, B. A.; Brown, W. R.

    This book is concerned with the design of digital signal processing systems which utilize VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) components. The presented material is intended for use by electrical engineers at the senior undergraduate or introductory graduate level. It is the purpose of this volume to present an overview of the important elements of background theory, processing techniques, and hardware evolution. Digital signals are considered along with linear systems and digital filters, taking into account the transform analysis of deterministic signals, a statistical signal model, time domain representations of discrete-time linear systems, and digital filter design techniques and implementation issues. Attention is given to aspects of detection and estimation, digital signal processing algorithms and techniques, issues which must be resolved in a processor design methodology, the fundamental concepts of high performance processing in terms of two early super computers, and the extension of these concepts to more recent processors.

  3. Fuel quality-processing study. Volume 1: Overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The methods whereby the intermediate results were obtained are outlined, and the evaluation of the feasible paths from liquid fossil fuel sources to generated electricity is presented. The segments from which these paths were built are the results from the fuel upgrading schemes, on-site treatments, and exhaust gas treatments detailed in the subsequent volumes. The salient cost and quality parameters are included.

  4. MAGIC DDRP FINAL REPORT - VOLUME 5: PROCESSING STREAM, PROGRAM LISTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a completion of the project "Predictive Modeling of Long-term Dynamics of the Effects of Acidic Deposition on surface Water Quality of Selected Intensively Studied Catchments. MAGIC Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments. t consists of five volumes: ol...

  5. Processing Speed in Normal Aging: Effects of White Matter Hyperintensities and Hippocampal Volume Loss

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Kaplan, Richard F.; Springate, Beth; Moscufo, Nicola; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Guttmann, Charles R.G.; Wolfson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cognitive functioning are said to be part of normal aging. Quantitative MRI has made it possible to measure structural brain changes during aging which may underlie these decrements which include slowed information processing and memory loss. Much has been written on white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which are associated with cognitive deficits on tasks requiring processing speed and executive functioning, and hippocampal volume loss, which is associated with memory decline. Here we examine volumetric MRI measures of WMH and hippocampal volume loss together in relation to neuropsychological tests considered to be measures of executive functioning and processing speed in 81 non-demented elderly individuals, aged 75-90. Correlational analysis showed that when controlling for age, both greater WMH volume and smaller hippocampal volume were correlated with slower performances on most tests with the exception of a battery of continuous performance tests in which only WMH was correlated with slower reaction time (RT). We then performed a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine the independent contributions of greater WMH volume and reduced hippocampal volume to executive functioning and processing speed. The results showed that for the four measures requiring executive functioning and speed of processing, WMH volume and hippocampal volume combined predicted between 21.4 and 37% of the explained variance. These results suggest that WM integrity and hippocampal volume influence cognitive decline independently on tasks involving processing speed and executive function independent of age. PMID:23895570

  6. Contexts of Reading. Advances in Discourse Processes Series. Volume XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Baratta, Anthony N., Ed.

    Focusing on the reading-thinking-learning process, the classrooms in which such processes occur, and the means for studying these processes, this book presents essays on teaching, learning, and assessing the reading process. The first section contains essays on learning contexts that are interactive and participatory, while essays in the second…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY-CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME XVII. NITROGEN OXIDES SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. undertook a study of the 'Environmental Consideration of Selected Energy-Conserving Manufacturing Process Options.' Some 80 industrial process options were examined in 13 industrial sectors. Results were published in 15 volumes, including a summary, industr...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY-CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME XX: TOXICS/ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. undertook a study of the 'Environmental Considerations of Selected Energy-Conserving Manufacturing Process Options.' Some 80 industrial process options were examined in13 industrial sectors. Results were published in 15 volumes, including a summary, industr...

  9. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ``PSRV`` code. 39 figs.

  10. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  11. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 18, Processing of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Han E. H.

    1997-06-01

    Polymer processing has a profound effect on the final properties and thus the applications of plastics. Leading international scientists and engineers have contributed to this unique self- contained handbook making it indispensable to polymer scientists and engineers. Contents: Meijer: Processing for Properties. Agassant: General Principles of Polymer Processing Modeling. Janssen: Emulsions: The Dynamics of Liquid-Liquid Mixing. Keller/Kolnaar: Flow-Induced Orientation and Structure Formation. Janeschitz-Kriegl/Eder: Crystallization. Hu/Lambla: Fundamentals of Reactive Extrusion. Dusek: Network Formation. Maréchal/Inoue: Reactive Processing of Polymer Blends: Polymer-Polymer Interface Aspects. Stanford/Ryan/Elwell: Structure Development in Reactive Systems. Lemstra/Meijer: Processing of Polymers Using Reactive Solvents. Bastiaansen: High-Modulus and High-Strength Fibers Based on Flexible Macromolecules. van der Sanden: Deformation and Toughness of Polymers. Decker: Photopolymerization and UV-Curing of Multifunctional Monomers. Wilson: Conducting Polymers and Applications. Creton: Materials Science of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives. Ward: New Processing Technologies.

  12. Direct Certification Process. Nourishing News. Volume 4, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the Electronic Direct Certification process and provides additional insight as needed. Under this New Direct Certification process school districts compare information from their student information system to Idaho State Department of Health and Welfare database to certify children receiving Food Stamps or TAFI as…

  13. PRODIAG: Combined expert system/neural network for process fault diagnosis. Volume 2, Code manual

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1995-09-01

    We recommend the reader first review Volume 1 of this document, Code Theory, before reading Volume 2. In this volume we make extensive use of terms and concepts described and defined in Volume 1 which are not redefined here to the same extent. To try to reduce the amount of redundant information, we have restricted this volume to the presentation of the expert system code and refer back to the theory described in Volume 1 when necessary. Verification and validation of the results are presented in Volume 3, Application, of this document. Volume 3 also presents the implementation of the component characteristics diagnostic approach through artificial neural networks discussed in Volume 1. We decided to present the component characteristics approach in Volume 3, as opposed to write a separate code manual for it, because the approach, although general, requires a case-by-case analysis. The purpose of this volume is to present the details of the expert system (ES) portion o the PRODIAG process diagnostic program. In addition, we present here the graphical diagnostics interface (GDI) and illustrate the combined use of the ES and GDI with a sample problem. For completeness, we provide the file names of all files, programs and major subroutines of these two systems, ES and GDI, and their corresponding location in the Reactor Analysis Division (RA) computer network and Reactor Engineering Division (RE) computer network as of 30 September 1995.

  14. DIOXINS. VOLUME III. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN-FORMING CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical reaction mechanisms by which dioxins may be formed are reviewed, particularly those likely to occur within commercially significant processes. Various routes of formation are identified in addition to the classical route of the hydrolysis of trichlorophenol. Basic organi...

  15. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to derive and collect payload information on the anticipated space processing payload requirements for the Spacelab and space shuttle orbiter planning activities. The six objectives generated by the study are defined. Concepts and requirements for space processing payloads to accommodate the performance of the shuttle-supported research phase are analyzed. Diagrams and tables of data are developed to show the experiments involved, the power requirements, and the payloads for shared missions.

  16. Improvements in process performance for immersion technology high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafus, K.; Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Shite, H.; Otsuka, T.; Kosugi, H.; Shibata, T.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; van Setten, E.; Finders, J.; Wang, S.; Boudou, N.; Zoldesi, C.

    2009-03-01

    Through collaborative efforts ASML and TEL are continuously improving the process performance for the LITHIUS Pro -i/ TWINSCAN XT:1900Gi litho cluster. In previous work from this collaboration, TEL and ASML have investigated the CDU and defectivity performance for the 45nm node with high through put processing. CDU performance for both memory and logic illumination conditions were shown to be on target for ITRS roadmap specifications. Additionally, it was shown that the current defect metrology is able to measure the required defect size of 30nm with a 90% capture rate. For the target through put of 180wph, no added impact to defectivity was seen from the multi-module processing on the LITHIUS Pro -i, using a topcoat resist process. For increased productivity, a new bevel cut strategy was investigated and shown to have no adverse impact while increasing the usable wafer surface. However, with the necessity of double patterning for at least the next technology node, more stringent requirements are necessary to prevent, in the worst case, doubling of the critical dimension variation and defectivity. In this work, improvements in process performance with regards to critical dimension uniformity and defectivity are investigated to increase the customer's productivity and yield for whichever double patterning scheme is utilized. Specifically, TEL has designed, evaluated and proven the capability of the latest technology hardware for post exposure bake and defect reduction. For the new post exposure bake hardware, process capability data was collected for 40nm CD targets. For defectivity reduction, a novel concept in rinse technology and processing was investigated on hydrophobic non top coat resists processes. Additionally, improvements to reduce micro bridging were evaluated. Finally bevel rinse hardware to prevent contamination of the immersion scanner was tested.

  17. New materials and new processes. Volume 3. 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    New materials and processes in electronic surface and electrochemical technologies are discussed. Among the specific technologies considered are: organic electronic materials; polyoxymethane whiskers; and thin film SAW devices. Consideration is also given to: multipurpose corrosion inhibitors for naval aerospace applications; methods of improving lead-acid battery performance; graphite intercalation compounds; and molybdenum metal coatings. Addditional topics discussed include: electrolytic processes; sensors; and biomedical materials.

  18. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  19. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such a neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  20. North American Fuzzy Logic Processing Society (NAFIPS 1992), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the NAFIPS '92 North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Conference. More than 75 papers were presented at this Conference, which was sponsored by NAFIPS in cooperation with NASA, the Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, the Indian Society for Fuzzy Mathematics and Information Processing (ISFUMIP), the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA), the Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems, and the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC). The fuzzy set theory has led to a large number of diverse applications. Recently, interesting applications have been developed which involve the integration of fuzzy systems with adaptive processes such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. NAFIPS '92 was directed toward the advancement, commercialization, and engineering development of these technologies.

  1. TRACE METALS AND STATIONARY CONVENTIONAL COMBUSTION PROCESSES: VOLUME 2. BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a search of U.S. literature to identify published information about trace metals and Stationary Conventional Combustion Processes (SCCPs). It summarizes what has been published about ambient trace metals in air, water, and soils, and reviews convention...

  2. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  3. Fuel quality-processing study. Volume 2: Literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Amero, R.; Murthy, B.; Cutrone, M.

    1981-01-01

    The validity of initial assumptions about raw materials choices and relevant upgrading processing options was confirmed. The literature survey also served to define the on-site (at the turbine location) options for fuel treatment and exhaust gas treatment. The literature survey also contains a substantial compilation of specification and physical property information about liquid fuel products relevant to industrial gas turbines.

  4. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 3: Programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The programmatic aspects of the space processing applications program and the methods of accommodating SPA payloads aboard the Shuttle/Spacelab host vehicle are discussed. An examination of the NASA traffic model shows that there exists a potential for 178 SPA payloads from the overall total of 727 flights specified. This could represent up to one quarter of the total shuttle flights during the 12-year-long period covered by the traffic model. The SPA payload will range from austere for shared flight opportunities to dedicated where space processing will encompass the total flight payload allocations. The major modes of use to SPA will include dedicated Spacelab missions, shared Spacelab missions and shared automated payloads attached to the pallet with the necessary control and display equipment in the host vehicle. Several layout drawings and artist's renderings have been completed to illustrate the various potential configurations available to accommodate the SPA payload equipment.

  5. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 3: Fuel upgrading studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Bruggink, P.; Sinnett, C.

    1981-01-01

    The methods used to calculate the refinery selling prices for the turbine fuels of low quality are described. Detailed descriptions and economics of the upgrading schemes are included. These descriptions include flow diagrams showing the interconnection between processes and the stream flows involved. Each scheme is in a complete, integrated, stand alone facility. Except for the purchase of electricity and water, each scheme provides its own fuel and manufactures, when appropriate, its own hydrogen.

  6. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  8. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Processing flows. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) processing flow and Resource Identification Sheets (RISs) for the ground based orbit transfer vehicle and for the space based orbit transfer vehicle are the primary source of information for the rest of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) OTV Launch Operations Study. Work is presented which identifies KSC facility requirements for the OTV Program, simplifies or automates either flow though the application technology, revises test practices and identifies crew sizes or skills used. These flows were used as the primary point of departure from current operations and practices. Analyses results were documented by revising the appropriate RIS page.

  9. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  10. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  11. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

  12. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  13. Dynamic Volume Holography and Optical Information Processing by Raman Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin,I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-09-05

    A method of producing holograms of three-dimensional optical pulses is proposed. It is shown that both the amplitude and the phase profile of three-dimensional optical pulse can be stored in dynamic perturbations of a Raman medium, such as plasma. By employing Raman scattering in a nonlinear medium, information carried by a laser pulse can be captured in the form of a slowly propagating low-frequency wave that persists for a time large compared with the pulse duration. If such a hologram is then probed with a short laser pulse, the information stored in the medium can be retrieved in a second scattered electromagnetic wave. The recording and retrieving processes can conserve robustly the pulse shape, thus enabling the recording and retrieving with fidelity of information stored in optical signals. While storing or reading the pulse structure, the optical information can be processed as an analogue or digital signal, which allows simultaneous transformation of three-dimensional continuous images or computing discrete arrays of binary data. By adjusting the phase fronts of the reference pulses, one can also perform focusing, redirecting, and other types of transformation of the output pulses.

  14. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 2: Programmer's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for application programmers using the Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). CIPE is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation. In its current configuration CIPE utilizes a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube with a Sun-4 host. CIPE's design is capable of incorporating other concurrent architectures as well. CIPE provides a programming environment to applications' programmers to shield them from various user interfaces, file transactions, and architectural complexities. A programmer may choose to write applications to use only the Sun-4 or to use the Sun-4 with the hypercube. A hypercube program will use the hypercube's data processors and optionally the Weitek floating point accelerators. The CIPE programming environment provides a simple set of subroutines to activate user interface functions, specify data distributions, activate hypercube resident applications, and to communicate parameters to and from the hypercube.

  15. Methodology for the systems engineering process. Volume 3: Operational availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description and explanation of the operational availability parameter is presented. The fundamental mathematical basis for operational availability is developed, and its relationship to a system's overall performance effectiveness is illustrated within the context of identifying specific availability requirements. Thus, in attempting to provide a general methodology for treating both hypothetical and existing availability requirements, the concept of an availability state, in conjunction with the more conventional probability-time capability, is investigated. In this respect, emphasis is focused upon a balanced analytical and pragmatic treatment of operational availability within the system design process. For example, several applications of operational availability to typical aerospace systems are presented, encompassing the techniques of Monte Carlo simulation, system performance availability trade-off studies, analytical modeling of specific scenarios, as well as the determination of launch-on-time probabilities. Finally, an extensive bibliography is provided to indicate further levels of depth and detail of the operational availability parameter.

  16. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  17. Diagnostic techniques in thermal plasma processing (Part II). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Boulos, M.; Fauchais, P.; Pfender, E.

    1986-02-01

    Techniques for diagnostics for thermal plasmas are discussed. These include both optical techniques and in-flight measurements of particulate matter. In the core of the plasma, collisional excitation of the various chemical species is so strong that the population of the corresponding quantum levels becomes high enough for net emission from the plasma. In that case, the classical methods of emission spectroscopy may be applied. But in the regions where the temperatures are below 4000/sup 0/K (these regions are of primary importance for plasma processing), the emission from the plasma is no longer sufficient for emission spectroscopy. In this situation, the population of excited levels must be increased by the absorption of the light from an external source. Such sources, as for example pulsed tunable dye lasers, are now commercially available. The use of such new devices leads to various techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF) or Coherent Anti Stockes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) that can be used for analyzing plasmas. Particle velocity measurements can be achieved by photography and laser Doppler anemometry. Particle flux measurements are typically achieved by collecting particles on a substrate. Particle size measurements are based on intensity of scattered light. (WRF)

  18. Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) user manual, S-056 experiment. Volume 1: System description. Volume 2: Batch IDAPS. Volume 3: Interactive IDAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Image data processing system (IDAPS) developed to satisfy the image processing requirements of the Skylab S-056 experiment is described. The S-056 experiment was designed to obtain high-resolution photographs of the sun in the far ultraviolet, or soft X-ray, portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thirty-five thousand photographs were obtained by the three flights of the program; and, faced with such a massive volume of imagery, the designers of the experiment decided to develop a computer-based system which would reduce the image processing workload. The purpose of the IDAPS User Manual is to give the IDAPS user the necessary information and instructions to effectively utilize the system.

  19. Responsible science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process. Volume 2. Final report, 1989--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    In 1989, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine initiated a major study to examine issues related to the responsible conduct of research. The findings and recommendations were published in March 1992 as: Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. 1. Volume II of the report, this volume, includes the six commissioned background papers as well as selected institutional guidelines, reports, policies, and procedures. The institutional statements reprinted in Volume II have been selected to convey the diverse approaches for addressing different aspects of misconduct or integrity in science within research institutions.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME VIII. ALUMINA/ALUMINUM INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 8 deals with the alumina/aluminum industry. The report examines three new process developm...

  1. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  2. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 17B, Processing of Ceramics Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard J.

    1996-12-01

    Progress in the processing of ceramics has made these materials very important for current and future technologies. Internationally renowned experts have contributed to this second of two volumes which provide a wealth of information indispensable for materials scientists and engineers. Contents of Volume B: Riedel: Advanced Ceramics from Inorganic Polymers. Calvert: Biomimetic Processing. Eisele: Sintering and Hot Pressing. Kwon: Liquid-Phase Sintering. Leriche/Cambier: Vitrification. Larker/Larker: Hot Isostatic Pressing. Harmer/Chan: Fired Microstructures and Their Charactzerization. Subramanian: Finishing. Nicholas: Joining of Ceramics. Hirai: Functional Gradient Materials.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices.

  4. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 1, The ecosystem: Environments, biotas, and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. The history of the laboratory and the reasons for its support by the United States Department of Energy are described in Chapter 1 of Volume 1. Volume 1 provides a synthesis of the research carried out under the subject headings of the respective chapters. Certain of the chapters, e.g., those on geology, subtidal and intertidal environments and ecology, and those on reef processes and trophic relationships, summarize a great diversity of research carried out by many scientists for many years. In contrast, the chapters on meteorology and oceanography summarize research carried out under one integrated program involving fewer scientists working over a shorter period. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  5. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness. PMID:18082371

  6. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People

    PubMed Central

    Magistro, Daniele; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nejad, Keyvan Kashkouli; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV) and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV). We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85). We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word–colour and colour–word tasks (processing speed tasks with words) and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task. PMID:26397946

  7. Making Time for Instructional Leadership. Volume 1: The Evolution of the SAM Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME III. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 3 deals with the iron and steel industry and examines four alternatives: (1) recovery of c...

  9. Students' Cognitive Processes While Learning from Teaching. Final Report: Appendices. (Volume Two).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Philip H.; Marx, Ronald W.

    These appendices present the protocols used in research (reported in Volume 1) on the cognitive processes of students while learning from teaching. Curriculum outlines are given for the videotaped lessons used in the second and third studies: lessons in sleep and elementary psychology. Included in the appendices are: (1) the illustrative script…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME IX. TEXTILE INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 9 deals with the textile industry and examines the environmental energy and economic impac...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME I. SYSTEMS FOR 14 LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report, prepared as part of an overall environmental assessment (EA) program for the technology involved in the conversion of coal to clean liquid fuels, and the Standards of Practice Manual for the Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction Process (EPA-600/7-78-091) repre...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME VI. OLEFINS INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 6 deals with the Olefins Industry and the utilization of naphtha and atmospheric gas oil a...

  13. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Content and Volume Level in Spoken Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Annika; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2016-01-01

    For visual stimuli of emotional content as pictures and written words, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing attention allocation during visual sensory encoding. In the present study, we addressed the question whether this enhanced relevance of larger (visual) stimuli might generalize to the auditory domain and whether auditory emotion effects are modulated by volume. Therefore, subjects were listening to spoken words with emotional or neutral content, played at two different volume levels, while ERPs were recorded. Negative emotional content led to an increased frontal positivity and parieto-occipital negativity—a scalp distribution similar to the EPN—between ~370 and 530 ms. Importantly, this emotion-related ERP component was not modulated by differences in volume level, which impacted early auditory processing, as reflected in increased amplitudes of the N1 (80–130 ms) and P2 (130–265 ms) components as hypothesized. However, contrary to effects of stimulus size in the visual domain, volume level did not influence later ERP components. These findings indicate modality-specific and functionally independent processing triggered by emotional content of spoken words and volume level. PMID:27458359

  14. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  15. Text and Illustration Processing System (TIPS) User's Manual. Volume 2: Graphics Processing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ray; Braby, Richard

    This manual contains the procedures to teach the relatively inexperienced author how to enter and process graphic information on a graphics processing system developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group. It describes the illustration processing routines, including scanning graphics into computer memory, displaying graphics, enhancing…

  16. Small Sample Properties of an Adaptive Filter with Application to Low Volume Statistical Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    CROWDER, STEPHEN V.

    1999-09-01

    In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards while building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper we address the issue of low volume statistical process control. We investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. We develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, we study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. We show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. We also demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.

  17. Small sample properties of an adaptive filter with application to low volume statistical process control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, S.V.; Eshleman, L.

    1998-08-01

    In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards white building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper the authors address the issue of low volume statistical process control. They investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. The authors develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, they study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. They show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. And they demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.

  18. Machine Vision for High Precision Volume Measurement Applied to Levitated Containerless Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, R. C.; Schmidt, D. P.; Rogers, J. R.; Kelton, K. F.; Hyers, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with new numerical methods, a high-speed and high precision technique has been developed to measure volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with sub- pixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermo-physical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermo-ophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the sub-pixel locations of sample edges and, in turn produce high precision measurements.

  19. Technical options for processing additional light tight oil volumes within the United States

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines technical options for processing additional LTO volumes within the United States. Domestic processing of additional LTO would enable an increase in petroleum product exports from the United States, already the world’s largest net exporter of petroleum products. Unlike crude oil, products are not subject to export limitations or licensing requirements. While this is one possible approach to absorbing higher domestic LTO production in the absence of a relaxation of current limitations on crude exports, domestic LTO would have to be priced at a level required to encourage additional LTO runs at existing refinery units, debottlenecking, or possible additions of processing capacity.

  20. Optimized algorithm module for large volume remote sensing image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liu, Nan; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Jiawen; Zhang, Qin

    2007-12-01

    A new remote sensing image processing system's algorithm module has been introduced in this paper, which is coded with Visual C++ 6.0 program language and can process large volume of remote sensing image. At the same time, adopted key technologies in algorithm module are given. Two defects of American remote sensing image processing system called ERDAS has been put forward in image filter algorithm and the storage of pixel values that are out of data type range. In author's system two optimized methods has been implemented in these two aspects. By contrasted with ERDAS IMAGINE System, the two methods had been proved to be effective in image analysis.

  1. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  2. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume I. Waste form and process evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This study provides an assesses seven waste forms and eight processes for immobilizing transuranic (TRU) wastes. The waste forms considered are cast cement, cold-pressed cement, FUETAP (formed under elevated temperature and pressure) cement, borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, basalt glass-ceramic, and cold-pressed and sintered silicate ceramic. The waste-immobilization processes considered are in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting, glass marble forming, cement casting, cement cold-pressing, FUETAP cement processing, ceramic cold-pressing and sintering, basalt glass-ceramic processing. Properties considered included gas generation, chemical durability, mechanical strength, thermal stability, and radiation stability. The ceramic products demonstrated the best properties, except for plutonium release during leaching. The glass and ceramic products had similar properties. The cement products generally had poorer properties than the other forms, except for plutonium release during leaching. Calculations of the Pu release indicated that the waste forms met the proposed NRC release rate limit of 1 part in 10/sup 5/ per year in most test conditions. The cast-cement process had the lowest processing cost, followed closely by the cold-pressed and FUETAP cement processes. Joule-heated glass melting had the lower cost of the glass processes. In-can melting in a high-quality canister had the highest cost, and cold-pressed and sintered ceramic the second highest. Labor and canister costs for in-can melting were identified. The major contributor to costs of disposing of TRU wastes in a defense waste repository is waste processing costs. Repository costs could become the dominant cost for disposing of TRU wastes in a commercial repository. It is recommended that cast and FUETAP cement and borosilicate glass waste-form systems be considered. 13 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2C: Data acquisition and process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayton, M.; Smith, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    The services provided by the Spacelab Information Management System are discussed. The majority of the services are provided by the common-support subsystems in the Support Module furnished by the Spacelab manufacturer. The information processing requirements for the space processing applications (SPA) are identified. The requirements and capabilities for electric power, display and control panels, recording and telemetry, intercom, and closed circuit television are analyzed.

  4. 1995 national heat transfer conference: Proceedings. Volume 4: Transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing; Transport phenomena in materials joining processes; Transport phenomena in net shape manufacturing; HTD-Volume 306

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This book is divided into three sections: (1) transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing; (2) transport phenomena in net shape manufacturing: and (3) transport phenomena in materials joining processes. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  5. Application of Hollow Fiber Forward Osmosis Membranes for Produced and Process Water Volume Reduction: An Osmotic Concentration Process.

    PubMed

    Minier-Matar, Joel; Santos, Ana; Hussain, Altaf; Janson, Arnold; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Adham, Samer

    2016-06-01

    Produced and process water (PPW) from oil and gas operations, specifically in Qatar, are disposed of by deep well injection in onshore facilities. Disposing large volumes of PPW may affect deep well formation sustainability highlighting the need for effective PPW management. Forward osmosis (FO) was applied as an "osmotic concentration" process to reduce PPW injection volumes by 50% using brines and seawater as draw solutions (DS). The energy intensive step of restoring the salinity of the DS was eliminated; the diluted DS would be simply discharged to the ocean. Both hollow fiber and flat sheet FO membranes were tested and the former exhibited better flux and rejection; they are the focus of this study. Optimization experiments, conducted using Box-Behnken statistical design, confirmed that temperature and DS concentration had a substantial effect on performance. To validate the concept, a long-term experiment, under optimized conditions, was conducted with PPW as feed and brine from thermal desalination plant as DS which yielded an average flux of 24 L/m(2)h. The results confirmed that low-energy osmotic concentration FO has the potential for full-scale implementation to reduce PPW injection volumes. Pilot testing opportunities are being evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology under field conditions. PMID:27161935

  6. Remediation case studies: In situ soil treatment technologies (soil vapor extraction, thermal processes). Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The case studies present available cost and performance information for full-scale remediation efforts. The studies contain varying levels of detail, reflecting the differences in the availability of data and information. The case studies in this volume describe 14 applications of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and in situ thermal processes. These include 10 full-scale and one pilot-scale SVE applications used to treat soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. Three of these applications involved treatment or containment of both contaminated soil and groundwater through a combination of SVE, air sparging, groundwater extraction, and/or in situ bioremediation technologies. One case study describes a photolytic technology demonstrated for treatment of contaminated vapors from an SVE system. In addition, this volume describes two in situ thermal treatment applications, one used to recover free and residual coal tar, and one that was a demonstration of an in situ process to desorb PCBs from soil.

  7. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  8. The NJOY nuclear data processing system: Volume 2, The NJOY, RECONR, BROADR, HEATR, and THERMR modules

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Boicourt, R.M.

    1982-05-01

    The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code package for producing cross sections and related nuclear parameters from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data. This volume provides detailed descriptions of the NJOY module, which contains the executive program and utility subroutines used by the other modules, and it discusses the theory and computational methods of four of the modules used for producing pointwise cross sections: RECONR, BROADR, HEATR, and THERMR.

  9. Radwaste desk reference - Volume 3, Part 1: Processing liquid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, D.; Fisher, S.; Kelly, J.J.; Mis, F.; Miller, C.; Soto, R.; Vance, J.

    1994-05-01

    EPRI began, late in 1987, to produce a Radwaste Desk Reference that would allow each of the member utilities access to the available information and expertise on radwaste management. EPRI considers this important because radwaste management involves a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. These include chemical and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and health physics. Radwaste management also plays a role in implementing a wide variety of regulatory requirements. These include plant-specific technical specifications, NRC standards for protection against radiation, DOE transportation regulations and major environmental legislation such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. EPRI chose a question and answer format because it could be easily accessed by radwaste professionals with a variety of interests. The questions were generated at two meetings of utility radwaste professionals and EPRI contractors. The names of the participants and their affiliation appear in the acknowledgments. The questions were organized using the matrix which appears in the introduction and below. During the writing phase, some questions were combined and new questions added. To aid the reader, each question was numbered and tied to individual Section Contents. An extensive index provides additional reader assistance. EPRI chose authors who are acknowledged experts in their fields and good communicators. Each author focused her or his energies on specific areas of radwaste management activities, thereby contributing to one or more volumes of the Radwaste Desk Reference. Volume 1, which is already in publication, addresses dry active waste generation, processing and measurement. Volume 2 addresses low level waste storage, transportation and disposal. This volume, Volume 3, is being issued in two parts. Part 1 concentrates on the processing of liquid radioactive waste, whereas Part 2 addresses liquid waste management.

  10. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-12-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water-ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation. PMID:25219980

  11. A scale down process for the development of large volume cryopreservation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Peter; Morris, G. John; Milne, Stuart; Fuller, Barry; Skepper, Jeremy; Selden, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The process of ice formation and propagation during cryopreservation impacts on the post-thaw outcome for a sample. Two processes, either network solidification or progressive solidification, can dominate the water–ice phase transition with network solidification typically present in small sample cryo-straws or cryo-vials. Progressive solidification is more often observed in larger volumes or environmental freezing. These different ice phase progressions could have a significant impact on cryopreservation in scale-up and larger volume cryo-banking protocols necessitating their study when considering cell therapy applications. This study determines the impact of these different processes on alginate encapsulated liver spheroids (ELS) as a model system during cryopreservation, and develops a method to replicate these differences in an economical manner. It was found in the current studies that progressive solidification resulted in fewer, but proportionally more viable cells 24 h post-thaw compared with network solidification. The differences between the groups diminished at later time points post-thaw as cells recovered the ability to undertake cell division, with no statistically significant differences seen by either 48 h or 72 h in recovery cultures. Thus progressive solidification itself should not prove a significant hurdle in the search for successful cryopreservation in large volumes. However, some small but significant differences were noted in total viable cell recoveries and functional assessments between samples cooled with either progressive or network solidification, and these require further investigation. PMID:25219980

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR OUTLIERS AND MISSING VALUES IN CONSTANT OBSERVATION DATA OF TRAFFIC VOLUMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hiroyoshi; Kawano, Tomohiko; Momma, Toshiyuki; Uesaka, Katsumi

    Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan is going to make maximum use of vehicle detectors installed at national roads around the country and efficiently gather traffic volume data from wide areas by estimating traffic volumes within adjacent road sections based on the constant observation data obtained from the vehicle detectors. Efficient processing of outliers and missing values in constant observation data are needed in this process. Focusing on the processing of singular and missing values, the authors have developed a series of algorithms to calculate hourly traffic volumes in which a required accuracy is secured based on measurement data obtained from vehicle detectors. The algorithms have been put to practical uses. The main characteristic of these algorithms is that they use data accumulated in the past as well as data from constant observation devices in adjacent road sections. This paper describes the contents of the developed algorithms and clarifies their accuracy using actual observation data and by making comparis on with other methods.

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  14. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 4: On site processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Cutrone, M.; Doering, H.; Hickey, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel treated at the turbine and the turbine exhaust gas processed at the turbine site are studied. Fuel treatments protect the turbine from contaminants or impurities either in the upgrading fuel as produced or picked up by the fuel during normal transportation. Exhaust gas treatments provide for the reduction of NOx and SOx to environmentally acceptable levels. The impact of fuel quality upon turbine maintenance and deterioration is considered. On site costs include not only the fuel treatment costs as such, but also incremental costs incurred by the turbine operator if a turbine fuel of low quality is not acceptably upgraded.

  15. Application of Control Volume Method Using the Voronoi Tessellation in Numerical Modelling of Solidification Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domański, Zbigniew; Ciesielski, Mariusz; Mochnacki, Bohdan

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents the method to analyse the thermal processes occurring in the cast composite solidification. The cast is formed by a bundle of parallel fibres randomly immersed in a host metal matrix. The heat is transferred from the metal matrix and absorbed by the fibres. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the volumetric fraction of the fibres for which the solidification of the metal matrix occurs only due to the presence of fibres playing a role of internal chills. Our method is to compute Voronoi diagrams with Voronoi regions representing the geometric location of the fibres in the metal matrix and to use these regions as control volumes within a variant of the Control Volume Method.

  16. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  17. Vivaldi: A Domain-Specific Language for Volume Processing and Visualization on Distributed Heterogeneous Systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsuk; Choi, Woohyuk; Quan, Tran Minh; Hildebrand, David G C; Pfister, Hanspeter; Jeong, Won-Ki

    2014-12-01

    As the size of image data from microscopes and telescopes increases, the need for high-throughput processing and visualization of large volumetric data has become more pressing. At the same time, many-core processors and GPU accelerators are commonplace, making high-performance distributed heterogeneous computing systems affordable. However, effectively utilizing GPU clusters is difficult for novice programmers, and even experienced programmers often fail to fully leverage the computing power of new parallel architectures due to their steep learning curve and programming complexity. In this paper, we propose Vivaldi, a new domain-specific language for volume processing and visualization on distributed heterogeneous computing systems. Vivaldi's Python-like grammar and parallel processing abstractions provide flexible programming tools for non-experts to easily write high-performance parallel computing code. Vivaldi provides commonly used functions and numerical operators for customized visualization and high-throughput image processing applications. We demonstrate the performance and usability of Vivaldi on several examples ranging from volume rendering to image segmentation. PMID:26356955

  18. Three-dimensional region-based adaptive image processing techniques for volume visualization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Deus Lopes, Roseli; Zuffo, Marcelo K.; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.

    1996-04-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques have expanded the scope of applications of volume visualization to many areas such as medical imaging, scientific visualization, robotic vision, and virtual reality. Advanced image filtering, enhancement, and analysis techniques are being developed in parallel in the field of digital image processing. Although the fields cited have many aspects in common, it appears that many of the latest developments in image processing are not being applied to the fullest extent possible in visualization. It is common to encounter the use of rather simple and elementary image pre- processing operations being used in visualization and 3D imaging applications. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of selected topics from recent developments in adaptive image processing and demonstrate or suggest their applications in volume visualization. The techniques include adaptive noise removal; improvement of contrast and visibility of objects; space-variant deblurring and restoration; segmentation-based lossless coding for data compression; and perception-based measures for analysis, enhancement, and rendering. The techniques share the common base of identification of adaptive regions by region growing, which lends them a perceptual basis related to the human visual system. Preliminary results obtained with some of the techniques implemented so far are used to illustrate the concepts involved, and to indicate potential performance capabilities of the methods.

  19. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  20. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 2: Framework process description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paula S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    In the second volume of the Demonstration Framework Document, the graphical representation of the demonstration framework is given. This second document was created to facilitate the reading and comprehension of the demonstration framework. It is designed to be viewed in parallel with Section 4.2 of the first volume to help give a picture of the relationships between the UOB's (Unit of Behavior) of the model. The model is quite large and the design team felt that this form of presentation would make it easier for the reader to get a feel for the processes described in this document. The IDEF3 (Process Description Capture Method) diagrams of the processes of an Information System Development are presented. Volume 1 describes the processes and the agents involved with each process, while this volume graphically shows the precedence relationships among the processes.

  1. Vitrification process for the volume reduction and stabilization of organic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J L

    1982-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a series of experimental tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of incinerating and vitrifying organic ion-exchange resins in a single-step process. The resins used in this study were identical to those used for decontaminating auxiliary building water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor. The primarily organic resins were loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium for processing in a pilot-scale, joule-heated glass melter modified to support resin combustion. The feasibility tests demonstrated an average process rate of 3.0 kg/h. Based on this rate, if 50 organic resin liners were vitrified in a six-month campaign, a melter 2.5 times the size of the pilot scale unit would be adequate. A maximum achievable volume reduction of 91% was demonstrated in these tests.

  2. High speed micro scanner for 3D in-volume laser micro processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, D.; Gottmann, J.; Hermans, M.; Ortmann, J.; Kelbassa, I.

    2013-03-01

    Using an in-house developed micro scanner three-dimensional micro components and micro fluidic devices in fused silica are realized using the ISLE process (in-volume selective laser-induced etching). With the micro scanner system the potential of high average power femtosecond lasers (P > 100 W) is exploited by the fabrication of components with micrometer precision at scan speeds of several meters per second. A commercially available galvanometer scanner is combined with an acousto-optical and/or electro-optical beam deflector and translation stages. For focusing laser radiation high numerical aperture microscope objectives (NA > 0.3) are used generating a focal volume of a few cubic micrometers. After laser exposure the materials are chemically wet etched in aqueous solution. The laser-exposed material is etched whereas the unexposed material remains nearly unchanged. Using the described technique called ISLE the fabrication of three-dimensional micro components, micro holes, cuts and channels is possible with high average power femtosecond lasers resulting in a reduced processing time for exposure. By developing the high speed micro scanner up-scaling of the ISLE process is demonstrated. The fabricated components made out of glass can be applied in various markets like biological and medical diagnostics as well as in micro mechanics.

  3. Development of a point-contact solar cell using high-volume processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, Gary E.; Christel, Lee A.; Merchant, J. Thomas; Olson, Jerry S.

    1990-04-01

    Point-contact solar cells have achieved the highest efficiencies recorded to date for silicon cells, reaching 28.2 percent at 10 watts/sq cm. Though this technology offers several advantages over conventional bifacial cells, special process techniques are needed to optimize performance. Point-contact cells require a thin base, high bulk lifetime, low surface recombination velocities, effective light trapping, and effective heat sinking. These requirements were addressed in the development of a high efficiency cell process using high volume, integrated circuit process equipment. Two methods developed for producing thin cells were compared in yield and manufacturability. Techniques were developed for processing thin cells using automated production equipment. The fabrication process was designed to minimize lifetime degradation. Minority carrier lifetime data are presented for a full range of process steps. Three optical textures were compared in an experimental light-trapping study. These process techniques were combined to produce several types of cells. The best has achieved an efficiency of 25.0 percent at 87 suns.

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  5. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  6. Mechanisms controlling warm water volume interannual variations in the equatorial Pacific: diabatic versus adiabatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengaigne, M.; Hausmann, U.; Madec, G.; Menkes, C.; Vialard, J.; Molines, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Variations of the volume of warm water above the thermocline in the equatorial Pacific are a good predictor of ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) and are thought to be critical for its preconditioning and development. In this study, the Warm Water Volume (WWV) interannual variability is analysed using forced general circulation model experiments and an original method for diagnosing processes responsible for WWV variations. The meridional recharge/discharge to higher latitudes drives 60% of the ENSO-related equatorial WWV variations, while diabatic processes in the eastern equatorial Pacific account for the remaining 40%. Interior meridional transport is partially compensated by western boundary transports, especially in the southern hemisphere. Diabatic equatorial WWV formation (depletions) during La Niña (El Niño) are explained by enhanced (reduced) diathermal transport through enhanced (reduced) vertical mixing and penetrating solar forcing at the 20°C isotherm depth. The respective contribution of diabatic and adiabatic processes during build-ups/depletions strongly varies from event-to-event. The WWV build-up during neutral ENSO phases (e.g. 1980-1982) is almost entirely controlled by meridional recharge, providing a text-book example for the recharge/discharge oscillator's theory. On the other hand, diabatic processes are particularly active during the strongest La Niña events (1984, 1988, 1999), contributing to more than 70% of the WWV build-up, with heating by penetrative solar fluxes explaining as much as 30% of the total build-up due to a very shallow thermocline in the eastern Pacific. This study does not invalidate the recharge/discharge oscillator theory but rather emphasizes the importance of equatorial diabatic processes and western boundary transports in controlling WWV changes.

  7. GMP cryopreservation of large volumes of cells for regenerative medicine: active control of the freezing process.

    PubMed

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Fuller, Barry; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G John

    2014-09-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to -60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze-viabilities at 93.4% ± 7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3 ± 1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5 ± 1.7

  8. GMP Cryopreservation of Large Volumes of Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Active Control of the Freezing Process

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey; Gibbons, Stephanie; Morris, G. John

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols are increasingly required in regenerative medicine applications but must deliver functional products at clinical scale and comply with Good Manufacturing Process (GMP). While GMP cryopreservation is achievable on a small scale using a Stirling cryocooler-based controlled rate freezer (CRF) (EF600), successful large-scale GMP cryopreservation is more challenging due to heat transfer issues and control of ice nucleation, both complex events that impact success. We have developed a large-scale cryocooler-based CRF (VIA Freeze) that can process larger volumes and have evaluated it using alginate-encapsulated liver cell (HepG2) spheroids (ELS). It is anticipated that ELS will comprise the cellular component of a bioartificial liver and will be required in volumes of ∼2 L for clinical use. Sample temperatures and Stirling cryocooler power consumption was recorded throughout cooling runs for both small (500 μL) and large (200 mL) volume samples. ELS recoveries were assessed using viability (FDA/PI staining with image analysis), cell number (nuclei count), and function (protein secretion), along with cryoscanning electron microscopy and freeze substitution techniques to identify possible injury mechanisms. Slow cooling profiles were successfully applied to samples in both the EF600 and the VIA Freeze, and a number of cooling and warming profiles were evaluated. An optimized cooling protocol with a nonlinear cooling profile from ice nucleation to −60°C was implemented in both the EF600 and VIA Freeze. In the VIA Freeze the nucleation of ice is detected by the control software, allowing both noninvasive detection of the nucleation event for quality control purposes and the potential to modify the cooling profile following ice nucleation in an active manner. When processing 200 mL of ELS in the VIA Freeze—viabilities at 93.4%±7.4%, viable cell numbers at 14.3±1.7 million nuclei/mL alginate, and protein secretion at 10.5±1.7

  9. Effects of Mass and Volume Fraction Skewness in Variable Density Mixing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    Among the parameters characterizing mixing by variable density turbulence of fluids involving density variations of a factor of 5 to 10 are the Atwood, Froude, Schmidt, and Reynolds numbers. There is evidence that the amount of each fluid present when the two pure fluids mix, as described by the probability density function of the mass or molar (volume) fraction, also strongly affects the mixing process. To investigate this phenomena, implicit large-eddy simulations (ILES) are performed for binary fluid mixtures in statistically homogenous environments under constant acceleration. These coarse grained simulations are used as data for theory validation and mix model development. ILES has been demonstrated to accurately capture the mixing behavior of a passive scalar field through stirring and advection by a turbulent velocity field. The present work advances that research and studies the extent to which an under-resolved active scalar drives the subsequent fluid motion and determines the nature of the mixing process. Effects of initial distributions of the mass and molar (volume) fraction probability density function on the resulting variable density turbulence and mixing are investigated and compared to direct numerical simulations from the Johns Hopkins Turbulence Database. Funded by the LANL LDRD-ER on ``Inserting Nonlinear N-Material Coupling PDF Information into Turbulent Mixing Models'' through exploratory research project number 20150498ER.

  10. SMV⊥: Simplex of maximal volume based upon the Gram-Schmidt process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Vazquez, Jairo; Mendez-Vazquez, Andres

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, different algorithms for Hyperspectral Image (HI) analysis have been introduced. The high spectral resolution of these images allows to develop different algorithms for target detection, material mapping, and material identification for applications in Agriculture, Security and Defense, Industry, etc. Therefore, from the computer science's point of view, there is fertile field of research for improving and developing algorithms in HI analysis. In some applications, the spectral pixels of a HI can be classified using laboratory spectral signatures. Nevertheless, for many others, there is no enough available prior information or spectral signatures, making any analysis a difficult task. One of the most popular algorithms for the HI analysis is the N-FINDR because it is easy to understand and provides a way to unmix the original HI in the respective material compositions. The N-FINDR is computationally expensive and its performance depends on a random initialization process. This paper proposes a novel idea to reduce the complexity of the N-FINDR by implementing a bottom-up approach based in an observation from linear algebra and the use of the Gram-Schmidt process. Therefore, the Simplex of Maximal Volume Perpendicular (SMV⊥) algorithm is proposed for fast endmember extraction in hyperspectral imagery. This novel algorithm has complexity O(n) with respect to the number of pixels. In addition, the evidence shows that SMV⊥ calculates a bigger volume, and has lower computational time complexity than other poular algorithms on synthetic and real scenarios.

  11. Process window limiting hot spot monitoring for high-volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochemsen, Marinus; Anunciado, Roy; Timoshkov, Vadim; Hunsche, Stefan; Zhou, Xinjian; Jones, Chris; Callan, Neal

    2016-03-01

    As process window margins for cutting edge DUV lithography continue to shrink, the impact of systematic patterning defects on final yield increases. Finding process window limiting hot spot patterns and monitoring them in high volume manufacturing (HVM) is increasingly challenging with conventional methods, as the size of critical defects can be below the resolution of traditional HVM inspection tools. We utilize a previously presented computational method of finding hot spot patterns by full chip simulation and use this to guide high resolution review tools by predicting the state of the hot spots on all fields of production wafers. In experiments with a 10nm node Metal LELELE vehicle we show a 60% capture rate of after-etch defects down to 3nm in size, at specific hot spot locations. By using the lithographic focus and dose correction knobs we can reduce the number of patterning defects for this test case by ~60%.

  12. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  13. Algorithm of lithography advanced process control system for high-mix low-volume products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi

    2007-03-01

    We have proposed a new algorithm of Lithography Advanced Process Control System for high-mix low-volume production. This algorithm works well for 1 st lot of a new device input into the production line, or 1st lot of an existing device to be exposed with a newly introduced exposure tool. The algorithm consists of 1) searching the most suitable trend of other similar devices referring to an attribute table and a look-up table for priority of searching order, and 2) correction of differences between the two devices for deciding optimum exposure conditions. The attribute table categorizes same layers across different devices and similar layers within a device. Look-up table describes the order of searching keys. To attain cost-effective process control system, information useful to compensate referred trend is compiled into the database.

  14. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  15. A high resolution finite volume method for efficient parallel simulation of casting processes on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, D.B.; Turner, J.A.; Mosso, S.J.; Ferrell, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    We discuss selected aspects of a new parallel three-dimensional (3-D) computational tool for the unstructured mesh simulation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) casting processes. This tool, known as {bold Telluride}, draws upon on robust, high resolution finite volume solutions of metal alloy mass, momentum, and enthalpy conservation equations to model the filling, cooling, and solidification of LANL castings. We briefly describe the current {bold Telluride} physical models and solution methods, then detail our parallelization strategy as implemented with Fortran 90 (F90). This strategy has yielded straightforward and efficient parallelization on distributed and shared memory architectures, aided in large part by new parallel libraries {bold JTpack9O} for Krylov-subspace iterative solution methods and {bold PGSLib} for efficient gather/scatter operations. We illustrate our methodology and current capabilities with source code examples and parallel efficiency results for a LANL casting simulation.

  16. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the chargedmore » wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.« less

  17. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System: Volume 3, The GROUPR, GAMINR, and MODER modules

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R E; Muir, D W

    1987-10-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is a comprehensive computer code package for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from ENDF/B-IV, V, or VI evaluated nuclear data. A concise description of the code system and references to the ancestors of NJOY are given in Vol. 1 of this report. This volume describes the GROUPR module, which produces multigroup neutron interaction cross sections and group-to-group production cross sections for neutrons and photons; the GAMINR module, which produces multigroup photon-interaction cross sections and group-to-group matrices; and the MODER module, which converts ENDF/B and NJOY interface files back and forth between formatted (i.e., BCD, ASCII) and binary modes and performs several associated editing functions. 34 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.

  19. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  20. Processes Influencing the Timing and Volume of Eruptions From the Youngest Supervolcano on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. J. N.; Barker, S. J.; Morgan, D. J.; Rowland, J. V.; Schipper, I.

    2015-12-01

    In their stratigraphic records, silicic caldera volcanoes display wide ranges of eruptive styles and volumes. However, relationships between frequency and magnitude are often complex, and the forecasting of future activity is inherently problematic. Taupo volcano, New Zealand, provides a unique opportunity to investigate eruptive histories from a hyperactive, large silicic magmatic system with eruptive volumes that span 3-4 orders of magnitude, and show no clear relationships with the repose period. Taupo hosted the world's most recent supereruption at 25.4 ka, which discharged 530 km3 of magma in the episodic 10-phase Oruanui event. Only 5 kyr later, Taupo revived, with 3 dacitic eruptions from 21.5-17 ka and 25 rhyolite eruptions from 12-1.7 ka. Here we use trends in whole rock, glass and mineral chemistry to show how the magma system reestablished following the Oruanui event, and to consider what processes influence the state of the modern volcano. The post-Oruanui dacites reflect the first products of the rebuilding silicic magma system, as most of the Oruanui mush was reconfigured or significantly modified in composition following thermal fluxing accompanying post-caldera collapse readjustment. Compositional variations within the younger rhyolites at <12 ka reflect fine-scale temporal changes in mineral phase stability, closely linked to the development, stabilization and maturation of a new silicic mush system. For the most recent eruptions, the system underwent destabilization, resulting in increased volumes of melt extraction from the silicic mush. Orthopyroxene Fe-Mg diffusion timescales indicate that the onset of rapid heating and priming of the silicic mush occurred <100 years prior to the <2.15 ka eruptions, with subsequent melt accumulation occurring in only decades. The largest post-Oruanui eruption at 232 AD culminated from elevated mafic magma supply to the silicic mush pile, rapid melt accumulation and high differential tectonic stress build up

  1. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  2. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  3. Large-volume methacrylate monolith for plasmid purification. Process engineering approach to synthesis and application.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Michael K; Forde, Gareth M

    2008-04-25

    The extent of exothermicity associated with the construction of large-volume methacrylate monolithic columns has somewhat obstructed the realisation of large-scale rapid biomolecule purification especially for plasmid-based products which have proven to herald future trends in biotechnology. A novel synthesis technique via a heat expulsion mechanism was employed to prepare a 40 mL methacrylate monolith with a homogeneous radial pore structure along its thickness. Radial temperature gradient was recorded to be only 1.8 degrees C. Maximum radial temperature recorded at the centre of the monolith was 62.3 degrees C, which was only 2.3 degrees C higher than the actual polymerisation temperature. Pore characterisation of the monolithic polymer showed unimodal pore size distributions at different radial positions with an identical modal pore size of 400 nm. Chromatographic characterisation of the polymer after functionalisation with amino groups displayed a persistent dynamic binding capacity of 15.5 mg of plasmid DNA/mL. The maximum pressure drop recorded was only 0.12 MPa at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The polymer demonstrated rapid separation ability by fractionating Escherichia coli DH5alpha-pUC19 clarified lysate in only 3 min after loading. The plasmid sample collected after the fast purification process was tested to be a homogeneous supercoiled plasmid with DNA electrophoresis and restriction analysis. PMID:18329651

  4. A Training Package for Implementing the IEP Process in Wyoming. Volume I. Trainers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Beverly; And Others

    Volume I of a four volume series presents a trainers' guide designed for administrators, assessment personnel, and others involved in the development and implementation of individualized education programs (IEPs) for handicapped children in Wyoming. The training content is divided into the following seven topics (with sample subtopics in…

  5. Making Time for Instructional Leadership. Volume 2: The Feasibility of a Randomized Control Trial of the SAM Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…

  6. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume II: The Developing Professional: Maintaining Values in "Practical" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Changing Student Teacher Values with Respect to Business and Industry" (Ralph P. Williams, Elizabeth J. Foster); "Admissions Processes into Canadian Master of Social Work Programs in the 1990s" (John R. Graham, Beatrice Traub-Werner); "Organizational Paradigms and…

  7. TV Trouble-Shooting Manual. Volumes 5-6. Part 2: Video Signal Processing Circuit. Student and Instructor's Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Ryozo

    These volumes are, respectively, the self-instructional student manual and the teacher manual that cover the second set of training topics in this course for television repair technicians. Both contain identical explanations of the structure and function of the elements of the video signal processing circuit (the tuner, video intermediate…

  8. Repeated head trauma is associated with smaller thalamic volumes and slower processing speed: the Professional Fighters’ Brain Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah J; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Butler, Sam; Noback, Michael; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cumulative head trauma may alter brain structure and function. We explored the relationship between exposure variables, cognition and MRI brain structural measures in a cohort of professional combatants. Methods 224 fighters (131 mixed martial arts fighters and 93 boxers) participating in the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of licensed professional combatants, were recruited, as were 22 controls. Each participant underwent computerised cognitive testing and volumetric brain MRI. Fighting history including years of fighting and fights per year was obtained from self-report and published records. Statistical analyses of the baseline evaluations were applied cross-sectionally to determine the relationship between fight exposure variables and volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, caudate, putamen. Moreover, the relationship between exposure and brain volumes with cognitive function was assessed. Results Increasing exposure to repetitive head trauma measured by number of professional fights, years of fighting, or a Fight Exposure Score (FES) was associated with lower brain volumes, particularly the thalamus and caudate. In addition, speed of processing decreased with decreased thalamic volumes and with increasing fight exposure. Higher scores on a FES used to reflect exposure to repetitive head trauma were associated with greater likelihood of having cognitive impairment. Conclusions Greater exposure to repetitive head trauma is associated with lower brain volumes and lower processing speed in active professional fighters. PMID:25633832

  9. Estimation of single cell volume from 3D confocal images using automatic data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorvatova, A.; Cagalinec, M.; Mateasik, A.; Chorvat, D., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Cardiac cells are highly structured with a non-uniform morphology. Although precise estimation of their volume is essential for correct evaluation of hypertrophic changes of the heart, simple and unified techniques that allow determination of the single cardiomyocyte volume with sufficient precision are still limited. Here, we describe a novel approach to assess the cell volume from confocal microscopy 3D images of living cardiac myocytes. We propose a fast procedure based on segementation using active deformable contours. This technique is independent on laser gain and/or pinhole settings and it is also applicable on images of cells stained with low fluorescence markers. Presented approach is a promising new tool to investigate changes in the cell volume during normal, as well as pathological growth, as we demonstrate in the case of cell enlargement during hypertension in rats.

  10. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume consists of the following sections: WRAP 2A value engineering assessment, resolution of value engineering assessment actions (white paper), HAZOP studies for identifying major safety and operability problems, and time and motion simulation.

  11. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  12. Landslides triggered by the Gorkha earthquake in the Langtang valley, volumes and initiation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    The Gorkha earthquake (Nepal, 2015, M w 7.9) triggered many landslides. The most catastrophic mass movement was a debris avalanche that buried several villages in the Langtang valley. In this study, questions are raised about its volume and initiation. I investigate the possibility of high-resolution digital surface models computed from tri-stereo SPOT6/7 images to resolve this issue. This high-resolution dataset enables me to derive an inventory of 160 landslides triggered by this earthquake. I analyze the source of errors and estimate the uncertainties in the landslide volumes. The vegetation prevents to correctly estimate the volumes of landslides that occured in vegetated areas. However, I evaluate the volume and thickness of 73 landslides developing in vegetated-free areas, showing a power law between their surface areas and volumes with exponent of 1.20. Accumulations and depletion volumes are also well constrained for larger landslides, and I find that the main debris avalanches accumulated 6.95 × 106 m3 of deposits in the valley with thicknesses reaching 60 m, and 9.66 × 106 m3 in the glaciated part above 5000 m asl. The large amount of sediments is explained by an initiation of the debris avalanche due to serac falls and snow avalanches from five separate places between 6800 and 7200 m asl over 3 km length.

  13. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  14. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume III: Instilling Values in the Educational Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Ethics and the Development of Work: The Central Maintenance Computer Case" (Harry Hummels); "Too Many Cooks Spoil the Stew--Ethical Preparation of Interdisciplinary Professionals" (Vincent F. Maher); "Value Conflict in 'Competence-Based' Training Incentives" (John…

  15. Early visual processing for low spatial frequency fearful face is correlated with cortical volume in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Gewnhi; Song, Myeong Ju; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway, which might impair their early visual processing. We explored the relationship between functional abnormality of early visual processing and brain volumetric changes in schizophrenia. Eighteen patients and 16 healthy controls underwent electroencephalographic recordings and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. During electroencephalographic recordings, participants passively viewed neutral or fearful faces with broad, high, or low spatial frequency characteristics. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate brain volume correlates of visual processing deficits. Event related potential analysis suggested that patients with schizophrenia had relatively impaired P100 processing of low spatial frequency fearful face stimuli compared with healthy controls; patients' gray-matter volumes in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices positively correlated with this amplitude. In addition, patients' gray-matter volume in the right cuneus positively correlated with the P100 amplitude in the left hemisphere for the high spatial frequency neutral face condition and that in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex negatively correlated with the negative score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No significant correlations were observed in healthy controls. This study suggests that the cuneus and prefrontal cortex are significantly involved with the early visual processing of magnocellular input in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26730192

  16. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume I: Education and Value Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    The 19 papers in this volume explore value conflicts in all professions. "Worlds in Collision: Value Conflicts in the Training of Professionals" (Samuel M. Natale, William G. O'Neill, Tara M. Madden) introduces the papers and explores what is meant by values, ethics, and conflict. The papers are as follows: "Values and Conflicts in School-Based…

  17. MAGIC DDRP FINAL REPORT - VOLUME 4: PROCESSING STREAM, INPUT/OUTPUT FILES AND FORMATS, DELIVERABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a completion of the project "Predictive Modeling of Long-term Dynamics of the Effects of Acidic Deposition on surface Water Quality of Selected Intensively Studied Catchments. MAGIC Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments. t consists of five volumes: ol...

  18. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME II: PROCESS OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufactur...

  19. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  20. Parts, materials, and processes experience summary, volume 2. [design, engineering, and quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This summary provides the general engineering community with the accumulated experience from ALERT reports issued by NASA and the Government-Industry. Data Exchange Program, and related experience gained by Government and industry. It provides expanded information on selected topics by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigation and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications, requirements for manufacturer's plant facilities, etc.), and failure analysis procedures. Diodes, integrated circuits, and transistors are covered in this volume.

  1. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.

  2. Ceramic transactions: Microwaves - theory and application in materials processing III. Volume 49

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This symposium continued the series on microwave processing of materials initiated in 1988. Papers are presented on the following topics: steps to commercialization, manufacturing with microwaves, waste remediation, processing equipment, microwave/materials interactions, dielectric properties, process modeling, joining, processing and thermal effects, chemical and reaction synthesis, and current issues and future activities. Individual papers have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  3. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  4. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  5. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  6. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2A: Experiment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the space processing applications payload equipment was conducted. The primary objective was to perform a review and an update of the space processing activity research equipment requirements and specifications that were derived in the first study. The analysis is based on the six major experimental classes of: (1) biological applications, (2) chemical processes in fluids, (3) crystal growth, (4) glass technology, (5) metallurgical processes, and (6) physical processes in fluids. Tables of data are prepared to show the functional requirements for the areas of investigation.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 1, Base program activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process development, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, and development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this objective, novel analytical methods were evaluated for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL teamed with 24 research groups in the program. Well-defined and characterized samples of coal liquefaction process-derived materials were provided to each group. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  8. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  9. Tap density equations of granular powders based on the rate process theory and the free volume concept.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2015-02-28

    The tap density of a granular powder is often linked to the flowability via the Carr index that measures how tight a powder can be packed, under an assumption that more easily packed powders usually flow poorly. Understanding how particles are packed is important for revealing why a powder flows better than others. There are two types of empirical equations that were proposed to fit the experimental data of packing fractions vs. numbers of taps in the literature: the inverse logarithmic and the stretched exponential. Using the rate process theory and the free volume concept under the assumption that particles will obey similar thermodynamic laws during the tapping process if the "granular temperature" is defined in a different way, we obtain the tap density equations, and they are reducible to the two empirical equations currently widely used in literature. Our equations could potentially fit experimental data better with an additional adjustable parameter. The tapping amplitude and frequency, the weight of the granular materials, and the environmental temperature are grouped into this parameter that weighs the pace of the packing process. The current results, in conjunction with our previous findings, may imply that both "dry" (granular) and "wet" (colloidal and polymeric) particle systems are governed by the same physical mechanisms in term of the role of the free volume and how particles behave (a rate controlled process). PMID:25589375

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  11. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  12. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Appendices; Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g. missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  13. HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.

  14. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Volume 1; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g., missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  15. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  16. Equilibrium uranium isotope fractionation by nuclear volume and mass-dependent processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauble, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    Uranium serves as a geochemical tracer of oxidation near the Earth's surface, and is also the basis for several isotopic geochronometers. It is thus important to understand possible non-radiogenic and non-radioactive isotopic fractionation of uranium in natural systems. This study presents theoretical estimates of equilibrium uranium isotope fractionations in U-bearing molecules and complexes, calculated using first-principles computational chemistry. Ion-exchange experiments (1,2) have indicated that mass-dependent mechanisms, alone, cannot explain 238U/234U and 238U/^{235}U fractionations, so nuclear volume (i.e., field shift) fractionation effects are also considered in theoretical calculations. The results indicate that equilibrium isotopic fractionation is likely when U4+ and U6+ species equilibrate. Nuclear volume fractionation leads to higher 238U/^{235}U in U4+-bearing species, overwhelming a smaller mass- dependent fractionation in the opposite direction. The calculated net fractionation between U(H2O)_94+ and UO2Cl3(H2O)_2^- is approximately 1 per mil at 20-150°C, in agreement with earlier experiments. These results also reproduce the apparent non mass-dependent signature observed in 238U/234U relative to 238U/^{235}U. In addition to redox reactions, significant fractionation is expected between different U6+-bearing uranyl complexes (e.g., UO2(H2O)_52+, UO2(NO3)_3^-, UO2(CO3)(H2O)3). These results suggest that U-isotope composition could be used as a proxy for the oxidation state and speciation of natural waters, and that U-isotope ratios are not constant in materials formed or equilibrated at low temperatures. More generally, nuclear volume fractionations are expected to partially cancel or reverse mass-dependent fractionations caused by redox transitions among the high oxidation states (≥+2) of lanthanides, actinides, and heavy transition elements. References: 1. Nomura, Higuchi and Fujii, 1996, J. Am. Chem. Soc., v. 118, p. 9127-9130. 2. Bigeleisen

  17. [Effect of final washing in a small volume of water on processing of periapical radiographs].

    PubMed

    Silveirae Souza, E M; Taga, E M; Tavano, O

    1990-01-01

    The main goal this research was to find out the effectiveness of the final wash in periapical X-ray films. Spectrophotometry determined the residues of sodium hyposulphite taken as a positive sign for the effectiveness of wash on developed films. Three different kinds of film, two Kodak and one Agfa were used. Films were different sensibility and underwent tests. Two containers, one for the intermediate and other for the final wash were used in the first test; in the second, only one container was used for both washes. A residue of 0.4 mg of sodium hyposulphite was considered acceptable. On the three films used, the acorent of sodium hyposulphite detected was inferior to 0.4 mg in the first test, after 5 minutes exposure, nevertheless the small volume of water used. The second test showed a with range of variation in results and so it not recommend. PMID:2135445

  18. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 2: Ground Processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Alternate ground processing options are summarized, including installation and test requirements for payloads, space processing, combined astronomy, and life sciences. The level 4 integration resource requirements are also reviewed for: personnel, temporary relocation, transportation, ground support equipment, and Spacelab flight hardware.

  19. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  20. Process system evaluation: Consolidated letter reports. Volume 3: Formulation of final products

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, G.B.; Chapman, C.C.; Albertsen, K.H.

    1996-04-01

    Glass discharged from the low-level waste (LLW) melter may be processed into a variety of different forms for storage and disposal. The purpose of the study reported here is to identify and evaluate processing options for forming the glass.

  1. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 4: Data processing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The computation and logical functions which are performed by the data processing assembly of the modular space station are defined. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements analysis, (2) baseline data processing assembly configuration, (3) information flow study, (4) throughput simulation, (5) redundancy study, (6) memory studies, and (7) design requirements specification.

  2. Space vehicle electrical power processing distribution and control study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krausz, A.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for the processing, distribution, and control of electric power for manned space vehicles and future aircraft is presented. Emphasis is placed on the requirements of the space station and space shuttle configurations. The systems involved are referred to as the processing distribution and control system (PDCS), electrical power system (EPS), and electric power generation system (EPGS).

  3. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  4. Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

  5. Physics and Process Modeling (PPM) and Other Propulsion R and T. Volume 1; Materials Processing, Characterization, and Modeling; Lifting Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This CP contains the extended abstracts and presentation figures of 36 papers presented at the PPM and Other Propulsion R&T Conference. The focus of the research described in these presentations is on materials and structures technologies that are parts of the various projects within the NASA Aeronautics Propulsion Systems Research and Technology Base Program. These projects include Physics and Process Modeling; Smart, Green Engine; Fast, Quiet Engine; High Temperature Engine Materials Program; and Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion. Also presented were research results from the Rotorcraft Systems Program and work supported by the NASA Lewis Director's Discretionary Fund. Authors from NASA Lewis Research Center, industry, and universities conducted research in the following areas: material processing, material characterization, modeling, life, applied life models, design techniques, vibration control, mechanical components, and tribology. Key issues, research accomplishments, and future directions are summarized in this publication.

  6. Solvent-based to waterbased adhesive-coated substrate retrofit. Volume 2. Process overview. Final report, November 1992-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McMinn, B.W.; Snow, W.S.; Bowman, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives, as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufacturing industry. It is an introduction to the technical, economic, and environmental issues associated with converting from solvent-based to waterbased adhesive coating processes. Its purpose is to define terms commonly used within the industry, introduce retrofit concepts, and identify unresolved issues.

  7. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  8. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  9. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST PRODUCT RESIDUES. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment was made of the environmental impacts of several types of conversion processes for producing energy or fuels from agricultural and forestry residues. Fifteen examples were selected to represent various combinations of agricultural residues and conversion ...

  10. Data processing and display of laser Doppler experimental results, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashmore, B. R.; Kimura, A.; Skeith, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Contract activities performed in developing a laser Doppler system for detecting, tracking, and measuring aircraft wake vortices are summarized. The computer program for processing and displaying the Dust Devil experimental data is presented. Program listings are included in the appendix.

  11. Data analysis software for the autoradiographic enhancement process. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, and appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    The computer software developed to set up a method for Wiener spectrum analysis of photographic films is presented. This method is used for the quantitative analysis of the autoradiographic enhancement process. The software requirements and design for the autoradiographic enhancement process are given along with the program listings and the users manual. A software description and program listings modification of the data analysis software are included.

  12. Evaluation of natural gas processing technology. Task 3, Volume 2. Topical report, September-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, M.K.; McKee, R.L.; Neshan, H.; Pathak, V.K.; Quinlan, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    The report establishes the costs of producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from subquality natural gas. The processing technologies evaluated include: carbon dioxide (CO2) and acid gas removal employing conventional diethanolamine (DEA) absorption; modified Claus sulfur recovery; triethylene glycol (TEG) dehydration; natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery employing the expander, lean oil and Joule-Thomson processes; and cryogenic nitrogen (N2) rejection. The results show that the size and investment cost of a DEA unit for CO2/acid gas removal increase with increasing CO2/acid gas concentration of the feed gas due to the increasing DEA circulation rate requirement. Due to economies of scale, processing costs for DEA units decrease at higher feed flow rates. The Claus process is not economical for very low inlet sulfur rates, but becomes economical at about 20 LT/D sulfur capacity (at a $100/LT sulfur product price). The size and investment cost of a TEG dehydration unit increase as the water content of the feed gas increases due to the increasing TEG circulation rate requirement. Processing costs associated with TEG dehydration units decrease at higher feed flow rates. At the same feed flow rate, the plant investment cost of a cryogenic N2 rejection unit increases with increasing N2 content of the feed gas primarily due to the increasing sales gas compression requirements. Processing costs for cryogenic N2 rejection units also increase with increasing N2 content of the feed gas.

  13. A hybrid pyramid multiprocessor system for image processing. Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Inching.

    1989-01-01

    Various multiprocessor architectures have been considered by many researchers to handle the high computational requirements of image processing and analysis application. However, many of these architectures are efficient only for a small class of image processing algorithms. In this research, a multiprocessor system has been proposed, designed and constructed taking into consideration various input-output and other characteristics of image processing applications. It is a hybrid pyramid with five 68020-68881 based processor nodes in the top two layers and sixteen DSP56001 based processor nodes in the third layer. The DSP (RISC) processor nodes at the bottom level are optimized for low-level image processing operations and the CISC (68020) processor nodes handle high-level tasks more efficiently. Experiments using the algorithms that have operations on neighborhoods of different sizes have shown consistent improvement in performance if the FIFO cache is enabled. Larger neighborhoods result in greater saving in time. Preliminary test indicate that the top five processor nodes can execute five times as fast as a single node for many image processing tasks. Finally, the versatile image I/O with the MMU has created a simpler programming environment, while facilitating various I/O structures. The OSU pyramid is a general-purpose image processing system, utilizing pyramidal architecture of hybrid processors, with additional hardware to retain the advantageous features of array processors, as well as to overcome some of the inherent deficiencies of pipeline processors and cellular arrays.

  14. FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH APPLIED TO POLLUTION FORMATION. VOLUME 2A. PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS: FLAME COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports included in the three-part volume describe eight studies by various investigators, to better understand the physics and chemistry of two-phase combustion with respect to pollution formation. Volume IIa describes mechanisms of fuel nitrogen processing in large-scale ut...

  15. A regional look at the selection of a process-oriented model for flood peak/volume relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolgay, Ján; Gaál, Ladislav; Bacigál, Tomáš; Kohnová, Silvia; Hlavčová, Kamila; Výleta, Roman; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-05-01

    Recent research on the bivariate flood peak/volume frequency analysis has mainly focused on the statistical aspects of the use of various copula models. The interplay of climatic and catchment processes in discriminating among these models has attracted less interest. In the paper we analyse the influence of climatic and hydrological controls on flood peak and volume relationships and their models, which are based on the concept of comparative hydrology in the catchments of a selected region in Austria. Independent flood events have been isolated and assigned to one of the three types of flood processes: synoptic floods, flash floods and snowmelt floods. First, empirical copulas are regionally compared in order to verify whether any flood processes are discernible in terms of the corresponding bivariate flood-peak relationships. Next the types of copulas, which are frequently used in hydrology are fitted, and their goodness-of-fit is examined in a regional scope. The spatial similarity of copulas and their rejection rate, depending on the flood type, region, and sample size are examined, too. In particular, the most remarkable difference is observed between flash floods and the other two types of flood. It is concluded that treating flood processes separately in such an analysis is beneficial, both hydrologically and statistically, since flood processes and the relationships associated with them are discernible both locally and regionally in the pilot region. However, uncertainties inherent in the copula-based bivariate frequency analysis itself (caused, among others, also by the relatively small sample sizes for consistent copula model selection, upper tail dependence characterization and reliable predictions) may not be overcome in the scope of such a regional comparative analysis.

  16. Large volume flow electroporation of mRNA: clinical scale process.

    PubMed

    Li, Linhong; Allen, Cornell; Shivakumar, Rama; Peshwa, Madhusudan V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic modification for enhancing cellular function has been continuously pursued for fighting diseases. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transfection is found to be a promising solution in modifying hematopoietic and immune cells for therapeutic purpose. We have developed a flow electroporation-based system for large volume electroporation of cells with various molecules, including mRNA. This allows robust and scalable mRNA transfection of primary cells of different origin. Here we describe transfection of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) mRNA into NK cells to modulate the ability of NK cells to target tumor cells. High levels of CAR expression in NK cells can be maintained for 3-7 days post transfection. CD19-specific CAR mRNA transfected NK cells demonstrate targeted lysis of CD19-expressing tumor cells OP-1, primary B-CLL tumor cells, and autologous CD19+ B cells in in vitro assays with enhanced potency: >80% lysis at effector-target ratio of 1:1. This allows current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and regulatory compliant manufacture of CAR mRNA transfected NK cells for clinical delivery. PMID:23296932

  17. Properties of High Volume Fraction Fly Ash/Al Alloy Composites Produced by Infiltration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouras, D. T.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Skolianos, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, pressure infiltration is employed to synthesize aluminum alloy 7075-fly ash composites. The microstructure and chemical composition of the fly ash and the produced composite material was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as x-ray diffraction. Several properties of the produced composite material were examined and evaluated including macro-hardness, wear, thermal expansion, and corrosion behavior. The wear characteristics of the composite, in the as-cast conditions, were studied by dry sliding wear tests. The corrosion behavior of composite material was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The composite specimens exhibit a homogeneous distribution of fly ash particles and present enhanced hardness values, compared to the matrix material. The high volume fraction of the fly ash reinforcement (>40%) in the composite material led to increased wear rates, attributed to the fragmentation of the fly ash particles. However, the presence of fly ash particles in the Al alloy matrix considerably decreased the coefficiency of thermal expansion, while resulting in an altered corrosion mechanism of the composite material with respect to the matrix alloy.

  18. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 2. The pulp and paper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Pilati, D.A.; Chang, J.; Sparrow, F.T.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US pulp and paper industry. The model is based on data from economic and engineering analyses of the major manufacturing processes in pulp and papermaking and includes Standard Industrial Classifications 2611, 2621, 2631, and 2661. Energy conserving alternatives to conventional technologies are included. The pulp and paper model is a dynamic and regional process optimization model incorporating the Bureau of Census defined regions of the Northeast, North Central, South and West. It is dynamic in that it analyzes a 25-year time horizon. Given fuel prices and product demand projections, the model selects modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting the projected demands. With a projected average annual growth rate of 3.3% for paper products, model results show a decline in the energy intensity of paper production and an increase in the demand for electricity.

  19. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (MAPPS). Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Rahman, S.; Carter, R. A.; Wu, C. H.; Yu, Y.; Chang, R.

    1980-01-01

    Computer aided design and analysis techniques were applied to power processing equipment. Topics covered include: (1) discrete time domain analysis of switching regulators for performance analysis; (2) design optimization of power converters using augmented Lagrangian penalty function technique; (3) investigation of current-injected multiloop controlled switching regulators; and (4) application of optimization for Navy VSTOL energy power system. The generation of the mathematical models and the development and application of computer aided design techniques to solve the different mathematical models are discussed. Recommendations are made for future work that would enhance the application of the computer aided design techniques for power processing systems.

  1. Bibliography of atomic and molecular processes. Volume 1, 1978-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Farmer, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 10,676 works on atomic and molecular processes reported in publications dated 1978-1981. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the county of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  2. The Effect of Thermo-mechanical Processing on the Mechanical Properties of Molybdenum-2 Volume%Lanthana

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Mueller; R.W. Buckman,Jr.; A.J. Shields,Jr

    2001-03-14

    Variations in oxide species and consolidation method have been shown to have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum material. The mechanical behavior of molybdenum - 2 Volume % La[sub]2O[sub]3 mill product forms, produced by a wet doping process, were characterized over the temperature range of -150 degrees C to 1800 degrees C. The various mill product forms evaluated ranged from thin sheet stock to bar stock. Tensile properties of the material in the various product forms were not significantly affected by the vast difference in total cold work. Creep properties, however, were sensitive to the total amount of cold work as well as the starting microstructure. Stress-relieved material had superior creep rupture properties to recrystallized material at 1200 degrees C, while at 1500 degrees C and above the opposite was observed. Thus it is necessary to match the appropriate thermo-mechanical processing and microstructure of molybdenum - 2 volume % LA[sub]2O[sub]3 to the demands of the application being considered.

  3. Coupled numerical approach combining finite volume and lattice Boltzmann methods for multi-scale multi-physicochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li; He, Ya-Ling; Kang, Qinjun; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2013-12-15

    A coupled (hybrid) simulation strategy spatially combining the finite volume method (FVM) and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), called CFVLBM, is developed to simulate coupled multi-scale multi-physicochemical processes. In the CFVLBM, computational domain of multi-scale problems is divided into two sub-domains, i.e., an open, free fluid region and a region filled with porous materials. The FVM and LBM are used for these two regions, respectively, with information exchanged at the interface between the two sub-domains. A general reconstruction operator (RO) is proposed to derive the distribution functions in the LBM from the corresponding macro scalar, the governing equation of which obeys the convection–diffusion equation. The CFVLBM and the RO are validated in several typical physicochemical problems and then are applied to simulate complex multi-scale coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transport, and chemical reaction in a wall-coated micro reactor. The maximum ratio of the grid size between the FVM and LBM regions is explored and discussed. -- Highlights: •A coupled simulation strategy for simulating multi-scale phenomena is developed. •Finite volume method and lattice Boltzmann method are coupled. •A reconstruction operator is derived to transfer information at the sub-domains interface. •Coupled multi-scale multiple physicochemical processes in micro reactor are simulated. •Techniques to save computational resources and improve the efficiency are discussed.

  4. Further studies of specimen volume changes during processing for SEM: including some plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Boyde, S

    1980-01-01

    The dimensions of specimens undergoing preparation for examination in the SEM were measured throughout the preparative sequence or at various important stages. The tissues studied included 15-day mouse embryo limbs (MEL), small blocks of adult mouse liver and brain, and potato tuber. The animal tissues were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde (GA) in 0.15M cacodylate buffer, and the potatoe tissue in 2% GA in water. The effects of various secondary fixation and other treatments were investigated. The results show that lithium salts cause a reduction in the shrinkage of MEL in 100% ethanol but this effect was not significant in the other tissues investigated, and did not persist in specimens stored after critical point drying (CPD). All CPD specimens were shrunken. However postosmication and treatment with uranyl acetate (UAc) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) all reduced specimen shrinkage in 100% ethanol and after critical point drying. The volume gains with Os + UAc and Os + CPC are both very significant, but it was found that these larger specimens shrank more on storage. Thus rapid examination in the SEM is recommended. Ethanol and Freon 113 were compared as intermediate fluids and it was found that ethanol-CO2 critical point dried specimens shrank more before and after CPD than Freon 113-CO2 specimens. The latter technique is, therefore, to be recommended. Potato tissue shrinks in 30% ethanol, whereas animal tissues all swell in this concentration. The potato tissue also shrank very litte on critical point drying in contrast to the animal tissue specimens. PMID:6999595

  5. WFF TOPEX Software Documentation Altimeter Instrument File (AIF) Processing, October 1998. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    This document is a compendium of the WFF TOPEX Software Development Team's knowledge regarding Sensor Data Record (SDR) Processing. It includes many elements of a requirements document, a software specification document, a software design document, and a user's manual. In the more technical sections, this document assumes the reader is familiar with TOPEX and instrument files.

  6. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME II. ADVANCED PROCESSES AND SPECIAL TOPICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Advanced processes--(The influence of fuel characteristics on nitrogen oxide formation - bench-scale studies, The control of pollutant formation in fuel oil flames - the influence of oil properties and spray characteristics, The generalization of low emission coal burn...

  7. NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology Summer Workshop. Volume 1: Data processing and transfer panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The data processing and transfer technology areas that need to be developed and that could benefit from space flight experiments are identified. Factors considered include: user requirements, concepts in 'Outlook for Space', and cost reduction. Major program thrusts formulated are an increase in end-to-end information handling and a reduction in life cycle costs.

  8. TRACE METALS AND STATIONARY CONVENTIONAL COMBUSTION PROCESSES: VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a search of U.S. literature to identify published information about trace metals and Stationary Conventional Combustion Processes (SCCPs). The report summarizes the information found in the literature and includes specific references. It summarizes wha...

  9. HITACHI ZOSEN NOX FLUE GAS TREATMENT PROCESS. VOLUME 1. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot plant evaluation of the Hitachi Zosen NOx flue gas treatment process. The project--evaluating selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx on a coal-fired source--operated for 1-1/2 years. A newly developed catalyst, NOXNON 600, was successfully ...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVATION MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME I. INDUSTRY SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. It covers the following 13 industries: iron and steel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, olefi...

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND PROCESS OF SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. VOLUME II, BETWEEN CITIZENS AND SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, RICHARD F.; CHAFFEE, STEVEN H.

    FROM A 1964 NATIONAL QUOTA-PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF INTERVIEWS WITH 1,500 CITIZENS 21 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, MAJOR VARIABLES WERE DEFINED RELATING TO COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THEIR COMMUNITIES. PRIMARY CONTENT OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS STUDIED WAS FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR SCHOOLS. FOR PURPOSES OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS, RESPONDENTS…

  12. A DDC Bibliography on Optical or Graphic Information Processing (Information Sciences Series). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    This unclassified-unlimited bibliography contains 183 references, with abstracts, dealing specifically with optical or graphic information processing. Citations are grouped under three headings: display devices and theory, character recognition, and pattern recognition. Within each group, they are arranged in accession number (AD-number) sequence.…

  13. Ceramic transactions: Advances in fusion and processing of glass. Volume 29

    SciTech Connect

    Varshneya, A.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Bihuniak, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third in a series of international conferences on Advances in Fusion and Processing of Glass, held in 1992. The book includes articles on fast forming, oxy-fuel combustion, recycling, hazardous and radioactive waste vitrification, redox equilibria, gas solubility, heat transfer and stress relaxation, furnace modeling, and non-fusion-based glass making. Individual articles are abstracted separately.

  14. TOPEX Software Document Series. Volume 5; Rev. 1; TOPEX GDR Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Dennis; Hancock, David W., III

    2003-01-01

    This document is a compendium of the WFF TOPEX Software Development Team's knowledge regarding Geophysical Data Record (GDR) Processing. It includes many elements of a requirements document, a software specification document, a software design document, and a user's manual. In the more technical sections, this document assumes the reader is familiar with TOPEX and instrument files.

  15. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 2: Appendix. Task 1 literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Bela, A.; Jentz, N. E.; Klumpe, H. W.; Kessler, H. E.; Kotzot, H. T.; Loran, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a literature survey of fuel processing and fuel quality are given. Liquid synfuels produced from coal and oil shale are discussed. Gas turbine fuel property specifications are discussed. On-site fuel pretreatment and emissions from stationary gas turbines are discussed. Numerous data tables and abstracts are given.

  16. The Political Economy of the Educational Process. Studies in Public Choice, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Richard B.

    This book on the economics of education is concerned primarily with how and why the student goes about acquiring whatever human capital he or she wishes and how the institutional setting of the university influences the amount of human capital that the student acquires. The learning process is dealt with, and an economic theory of learning, which…

  17. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  18. Advanced Processing Technology semiannual report, March--December 1991. Volume 1, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K.

    1991-12-31

    This first issue of the APT Semiannual Report focuses on APT`s defense-related technologies. These technologies are a continuation of the research, development, and engineering work performed by LLNLs Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Program. SIS was the first large-scale DOE venture that had environmentally conscious manufacturing processes and facilities as its deliverables. The objectives were to create a facility where the only outputs were either usable products or disposable wastes, and to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to safeguards, security, health and safety. To meet these objectives, revolutionary changes were needed in plutonium processing operations, chemistry, and equipment. New processes had to be developed that enhanced worker safety, minimized operator radiation dose, minimized waste at the point of generation, and provided for built-in recycling of residues. The SIS Program developed and demonstrated the technology (both chemistry and physics) necessary to provide plutonium with individual isotopic tailoring. This process made it possible to transform fuel-grade plutonium into weapon-grade material. However, due to the changing world political climate, the country`s need for plutonium to make new weapons has decreased dramatically. As a result, the planned SIS plutonium-separation plant will not be built. After the SIS Program was canceled in 199 1, Congress directed that the plutonium processing technologies under development for the SIS Program be redirected to the weapons program. APT took over the development of the innovative SIS technologies and is applying them to the development of a new, reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex -- Complex 21. ``Close Out of the SIS Program`` describes the completion of the SIS research and development work, and the transfer of key technologies to support this reconfiguration effort.

  19. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  20. GDS-based Mask Data Preparation Flow: Data Volume Containment by Hierarchical Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Steffen F.; LaCour, Pat; Buck, Peter D.

    2002-12-01

    As the industry enters the development of the 65nm node the pressure on the data path and tapeout flow is growing. Design complexity and increased deployment of resolution enhancement techniques (RET) result in rapidly growing file sizes, which turns what used to be the relatively simple task of mask data preparation into a real bottleneck. This discussion introduces the data preparation scheme in the mask house and analyzes its evolution. Mask data preparation (MDP) has evolved from a flow that only needed to support a single mask lithography tool data format (MEBES) with minimal data alteration steps to one which requires the support of many mask lithography tool data formats and at the same time requires significant data alteration to support the increased precision necessary for today"s advanced masks.. However, the MDP flow developed around the MEBES format and it"s derivatives still exists. The design community has migrated towards the use of hierarchical data formats and processes to control file size and processing time. MDP, which from a file size and process complexity point of view is beginning to look more and more like the advanced RET operations performed on the data prior to mask manufacturing, is still standardized on a flat data format that is poorly optimized for a growing number of mask lithography tools. Based on examples it will be shown how this complicates the data handling further. An alternate data preparation flow accommodating the larger files and re-gaining flexibility for turnaround time (TAT) and throughput management is suggested. This flow utilizes the hierarchical GDS-II format as the exchange format for mask data preparation. It complements the existing flow for the most complex designs. The introduction of a hierarchical exchange format enables the transfer of a number of necessary data preparation steps into the hierarchical domain. Data processing strategies are discussed. The paper illustrates the benefit of hierarchical

  1. TiO2 film properties as a function of processing temperature, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, E. T.; Sladek, K. J.; Hartwig, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Thin film TiO2 was produced at 150 C by chemical vapor deposition using hydrolysis of tetraisopropyl titanate. Films were amorphous as grown, but annealing in air caused crystallization, with anatase formed beginning at 350 C and rutile at 700 C. Density and index of refraction increased substantially with increasing anneal temperature, while etch susceptibility in HF and H2SO4 decreased. Comparison with literature data showed two groups of processes. One group yields films having properties that gradually approach those of rutile with increasing process temperature. The other group gives rutile directly at moderate temperatures. Deposition of amorphous film followed by etching and annealing is suggested as a means for pattern definition.

  2. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 4. The aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Coward, H.; Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.A.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US aluminum industry. The model consists of the major process steps in the manufacture of milled and cast aluminum products and is designed to select modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting projected demands for the industry's products. Domestic refineries and primary smelters are represented individually in the model. Industry structure in terms of plant ownership and allowed transfers of aluminum-bearing materials is explicitly modeled. With a growth in product demand of 4.2% per year, model results show a decline in electricity intensity of primary production.

  3. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  5. Investigation of the free flow electrophoretic process. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. A.; Lanham, J. W.; Richman, D. W.; Walker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the free flow electrophoretic process was investigated. The demonstrated effects were then compared with predictions made by mathematical models. Results show that the carrier buffer flow was affected by gravity induced thermal convection and that the movement of the separating particle streams was affected by gravity induced buoyant forces. It was determined that if gravity induced buoyant forces were included in the mathematical models, then effective predictions of electrophoresis chamber separation performance were possible.

  6. Satellite radar altimetry over ice. Volume 1: Processing and corrections of Seasat data over Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Major, Judith A.; Martin, Thomas V.; Bindschadler, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The data-processing methods and ice data products derived from Seasat radar altimeter measurements over the Greenland ice sheet and surrounding sea ice are documented. The corrections derived and applied to the Seasat radar altimeter data over ice are described in detail, including the editing and retracking algorithm to correct for height errors caused by lags in the automatic range tracking circuit. The methods for radial adjustment of the orbits and estimation of the slope-induced errors are given.

  7. ICESat (GLAS) Science Processing Software Document Series. Volume 2; Science Data Management Plan; 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, Peggy L.; Hancock, David W., III

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the Data Management Plan for the GLAS Standard Data Software (SDS) supporting the GLAS instrument of the EOS ICESat Spacecraft. The SDS encompasses the ICESat Science Investigator-led Processing System (I-SIPS) Software and the Instrument Support Facility (ISF) Software. This Plan addresses the identification, authority, and description of the interface nodes associated with the GLAS Standard Data Products and the GLAS Ancillary Data.

  8. Responsible science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This report thoughtfully examines the challenges posed in ensuring that the search for truth reflects adherence to ethical standards. In recent years, we have learned, sometimes painfully, that not all scientists adhere to this obligation. Reports of falsified research results and plagiarism involving both junior and senior scientists have stimulated doubts and criticism about the ways in which misconduct in science is addressed by the research community. Misconduct in science is now being publicly examined in all of its aspects; how misconduct is defined, the process by which misconduct is discovered, and procedures for judging innocence or guilt and assessing penalties. Also being explored are the appropriate roles of individuals, research institutions, journals, government research agencies, and the legal system. Issues of misconduct and integrity in science present complex questions. These issues require the sustained attention of all members of the research community as well as of leaders in the public and private sector who are concerned with safeguarding the health of science. In this regard ensuring the integrity of the research process is similar to assuring safety in the workplace: it is a process that requires continued participation from all levels of the entire research enterprise--the practitioners, the host institutions, the sponsors in government, and the legislators who provide the funds.

  9. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume I - a self-instructional manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers.

  10. Formation of TiB{sub 2} by volume combustion and mechanochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Bilgi, Eda; Camurlu, H. Erdem; Akguen, Baris; Topkaya, Yavuz; Sevinc, Naci

    2008-04-01

    Titanium diboride was produced both by volume combustion synthesis (VCS) and by mechanochemical synthesis (MCP) through the reaction of TiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mg. VCS products, expected to be composed of TiB{sub 2} and MgO, were found to contain also side products such as Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}, Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6}, MgB{sub 2} and TiN. HCl leaching was applied to the reaction products with the objective of removing MgO and the side products. Formation of TiN could be prevented by conducting the VCS under an argon atmosphere. Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} did not form when 40% excess Mg was used. Wet ball milling of the products before leaching was found to be effective in removal of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6} during leaching in 1 M HCl. When stoichiometric starting mixtures were used, all of the side products could be removed after wet ball milling in ethanol and leaching in 5 M HCl when pure TiB{sub 2} was obtained with a molar yield of 30%. Pure TiB{sub 2} could also be obtained at a molar yield of 45.6% by hot leaching of VCS products at 75 deg. C in 5 M HCl, omitting the wet ball milling step. By MCP, products containing only TiB{sub 2} and MgO were obtained after 15 h of ball milling. Leaching in 0.5 M HCl for 3 min was found to be sufficient for elimination of MgO. Molar yield of TiB{sub 2} was 89.6%, much higher than that of VCS. According to scanning electron microscope analyses, the TiB{sub 2} produced had average grain size of 0.27 {+-} 0.08 {mu}m.

  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Robotic Processing System Program Automation Systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Topics related to robot operated materials processing in space (RoMPS) are presented in view graph form. Some of the areas covered include: (1) mission requirements; (2) automation management system; (3) Space Transportation System (STS) Hitchhicker Payload; (4) Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) scripts; (5) SCL software components; (6) RoMPS EasyLab Command & Variable summary for rack stations and annealer module; (7) support electronics assembly; (8) SCL uplink packet definition; (9) SC-4 EasyLab System Memory Map; (10) Servo Axis Control Logic Suppliers; and (11) annealing oven control subsystem.

  12. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  13. ICESat (GLAS) Science Processing Software Document Series. Volume 1; Science Software Management Plan; 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, David W., III

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the Software Management Plan for the GLAS Standard Data Software (SDS) supporting the GLAS instrument of the EOS ICESat Spacecraft. The SDS encompasses the ICESat Science Investigator-led Processing System (I-SIPS) Software and the Instrument Support Terminal (IST) Software. For the I-SIPS Software, the SDS will produce Level 0, Level 1, and Level 2 data products as well as the associated product quality assessments and descriptive information. For the IST Software, the SDS will accommodate the GLAS instrument support areas of engineering status, command, performance assessment, and instrument health status.

  14. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Real-time tracking data drive process improvements, even while ED volumes continue to climb.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Christiana Hospital in Newark, DE, has been able to dramatically reduce length-of-stay in the ED by making use of data derived from a real-time location system (RTLS) that tracks the movements of patients, providers, and staff. Administrators say that while some efficiencies are gained from the system alone, most of the positive impact is derived from using the RTLS data to focus on specific processes and make refinements. Within one year of implementing the RTLS technology, LOS in the ED was reduced by 40 minutes for admitted patients and 18 to 20 minutes for the treated-and-released population. A work group focused on process improvements in the ED's fast track section reduced the average LOS from 2.5 hours to 60 minutes or less. Similarly, a work group focused on the ESI 3 population reduced the average treatment time for this population from 5 or 6 hours to 3.4 hours. Administrators say key steps toward a successful RTLS implementation are careful planning for how you want to use the technology, and alleviating staff concerns about why their movements are being tracked. PMID:22645845

  16. Pinch technology/process optimization. Volume 1, Case studies---multiple plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using ``pinch technology. `` Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site`s local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  17. The monitoring and control of TRUEX processes. Volume 1, The use of sensitivity analysis to determine key process variables and their control bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Regalbuto, M.C.; Misra, B.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1992-04-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to design a flowsheet for the TRUEX solvent extraction process that would be used to determine its instrumentation and control requirements. Sensitivity analyses of the key process variables, namely, the aqueous and organic flow rates, feed compositions, and the number of contactor stages, were carried out to assess their impact on the operation of the TRUEX process. Results of these analyses provide a basis for the selection of an instrument and control system and the eventual implementation of a control algorithm. Volume Two of this report is an evaluation of the instruments available for measuring many of the physical parameters. Equations that model the dynamic behavior of the TRUEX process have been generated. These equations can be used to describe the transient or dynamic behavior of the process for a given flowsheet in accordance with the TRUEX model. Further work will be done with the dynamic model to determine how and how quickly the system responds to various perturbations. The use of perturbation analysis early in the design stage will lead to a robust flowsheet, namely, one that will meet all process goals and allow for wide control bounds. The process time delay, that is, the speed with which the system reaches a new steady state, is an important parameter in monitoring and controlling a process. In the future, instrument selection and point-of-variable measurement, now done using the steady-state results reported here, will be reviewed and modified as necessary based on this dynamic method of analysis.

  18. Investigation of the free flow electrophoretic process. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. A.; Lanham, J. W.; Richman, D. W.; Walker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the free flow electrophoretic process was investigated. The demonstrated effects were then compared with predictions made by mathematical models. Results show that the carrier buffer flow was affected by gravity induced thermal convection and that the movement of the separating particle streams was affected by gravity induced buoyant forces. It was determined that if gravity induced buoyant forces were included in the mathematical models, then effective predictions of electrophoresis chamber separation performance were possible. The results of tests performed using various methods of electrophoresis using supportive media show that the mobility and the ability to separate were essentially independent of concentration, providing promise of being able to perform electrophoresis with higher inlet concentrations in space.

  19. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  20. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 2, book 1: Technical report. [instrument packages and space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The extent was investigated to which experiment hardware and operational requirements can be met by automatic control and material handling devices; payload and system concepts that make extensive use of automation technology are defined. Hardware requirements for each experiment were established and tabulated, and investigations of applicable existing hardware were documented. The capabilities and characteristics of industrial automation equipment, controls, and techniques are presented in the form of a summary of applicable equipment characteristics in three basic mutually-supporting formats. Facilities for performing groups of experiments are defined along with four levitation groups and three furnace groups; major hardware elements required to implement them were identified. A conceptual design definition of ten different automated processing facilities is presented along with the specific equipment to implement each facility and the design layouts of the different units. Constraints and packaging, weight, and power requirements for six payloads postulated for shuttle missions in the 1979 to 1982 time period were examined.

  1. Responsible science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process. Volume 1. Final report, 1989--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine initiated a major study to examine issues related to scientific responsibility and the conduct of research. This report thoughtfully examines the challenges posed in ensuring that the search for truth reflects adherence to ethical standards. In recent years we have learned that not all scientists adhere to this obligation. Issues of misconduct and integrity in science present complex questions. This report recommends specific actions that all scientists, their institutions, and their sponsors can take to preserve and strengthen the integrity of the research process and also to deal with allegations of misconduct. The recommendations provide a blueprint for encouraging and safeguarding the intellectual independence that is essential to doing the best science while also providing for fundamental accountability to those who sponsor and support scientific research.

  2. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Williams, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  3. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  4. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Concepts for on board satellite image registration. Volume 4: Impact of data set selection on satellite on board signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruedger, W. H.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Snyder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA NEEDS program goals present a requirement for on-board signal processing to achieve user-compatible, information-adaptive data acquisition. This volume addresses the impact of data set selection on data formatting required for efficient telemetering of the acquired satellite sensor data. More specifically, the FILE algorithm developed by Martin-Marietta provides a means for the determination of those pixels from the data stream effects an improvement in the achievable system throughput. It will be seen that based on the lack of statistical stationarity in cloud cover, spatial distribution periods exist where data acquisition rates exceed the throughput capability. The study therefore addresses various approaches to data compression and truncation as applicable to this sensor mission.

  6. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  7. Formation and Assembly-Disassembly Processes of ZnO Hexagonal Pyramids Driven by Dipolar and Excluded Volume Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ming; Sun, Kai; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-20

    ZnO hexagonal pyramids were obtained in hydrophilic media without any traditional stabilizers (capping agents). The absence of a thick organic shell reducing the anisotropy of nanoparticle (NP) interactions, oxide nature of the materials, and new geometry of the nanocrystals makes possible the observation of new self-organization phenomena. Several new features not present in the previous cases of NP self-organization were identified and discussed. The formation of ZnO pyramids involved recrystallization of larger amorphous NPs followed by the multistage disassembly of intermediate aggregates into individual virtually perfectly shaped nanocrystals. The evolution of NPs begins with crystallization of clustered plates within the original amorphous spherical colloids, and then agglomerated truncated pyramids are formed. These agglomerates further transform into chained pyramids, which eventually separate from each other. The crystallization and disassembly processes can be associated with the decrease of potential and anisotropy of the attractive force field around the crystallites represented in part by dipole moments. The reassembly of the pyramids can still be attained via engaging excluded volume interaction after adding similarly charged polymer. Overall, in this system, we see the first examples of (1) coupled crystallization and disassembly process; (2) induced assembly of nanoscale particles using excluded volume interactions, which were previously used only for aggregation of microscale colloids; and (3) nanoparticle assemblies with variable and experimentally verifiable relative orientation of dipoles including head-to-tail, tail-to-tail pairs, and antiparallel chains. Described assemblies of ZnO pyramids with collective behavior of individual building blocks as well as distinct and experimentally controlled stages of assembly and disassembly present a fundamentally interesting nanoparticle system with rich dynamic behavior.

  8. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  9. Volume of white matter hyperintensities is an independent predictor of intelligence quotient and processing speed in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    van der Land, Veronica; Hijmans, Channa T; de Ruiter, Marieke; Mutsaerts, Henri J M M; Cnossen, Marjon H; Engelen, Marc; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Fijnvandraat, Karin

    2015-02-01

    Sickle cell disease can be complicated by cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), which are associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning. The influence of the total volume of WMHs on the degree of neurocognitive dysfunction has not yet been characterized. In our study of 38 patients (mean age 12·5 years) we demonstrated that a higher volume of WMHs was associated with lower full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, Processing Speed Index and more fatigue. Our results suggest that volume of WMHs is an additional parameter to take into account when planning individual diagnostic and treatment options. PMID:25303108

  10. A Collection of Papers on Self-Study and Institutional Improvement, 2003. Volume 4: The Self-Study Process for Commission Evaluation. 2003 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kollenburg, Susan E., Ed.

    Papers in this collection were prepared for the annual meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. This volume contains papers related to the self-study process for Commission evaluation. Papers in chapters 1, "Self-Study and Commission Evaluation: Coordinating the Self-Study," are: (1) "Initiating the Self-Study Process:…

  11. A Five-Year Plan for Meeting the Automatic Data Processing and Telecommunications Needs of the Federal Government. Volume l: Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The first of two volumes, this document describes the planning process of a 5-year plan for meeting the telecommunications and automatic data processing (ADP) needs of the federal government, examines the planning efforts of several typical agencies, and explores issues involved in managing new technology as it evolves. For each agency,…

  12. A process-based analysis of the suitability of copula types for peak-volume flood relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolgay, J.; Gaál, L.; Kohnová, S.; Hlavčová, K.; Výleta, R.; Bacigál, T.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-06-01

    The work aims at analyzing the bivariate relationship between flood peaks and flood volumes, with a particular focus on the type and seasonality of flood generation processes. Instead of the usual approach that deals with an analysis of the annual maxima of flood events, the current analysis includes all independent flood events in a catchment. Flood events are considered independent when they originate from distinguishably different synoptic/meteorological situations. The target region is located in the northern part of Austria, and consists of 72 small and mid-sized catchments. On the basis of the discharge measurements with a time resolution of 1 h from the period 1976-2007, independent flood events were identified and were assigned to one of the three following flood generation type categories: synoptic floods, flash floods and snowmelt floods. These were subsequently divided into two seasons, thereby separating predominantly rainfall-fed and snowmelt-fed floods. Nine frequently-used copula types were locally fitted to the samples of the flood type and seasonal data. Their goodness-of-fit was examined locally as well as analyzed in a regional scope. It was concluded that (i) treating flood processes separately is beneficial for the statistical analysis; (ii) suitability patterns of acceptable copula types are distinguishably different for the seasons/flood types considered, (iii) the Clayton and Joe copulas shows an unacceptable performance for all the seasons/flood types in the region; (iv) the rejection rate of the other copula types depends on the season/flood type and also on the sample size; (v) given that usually more than one statistically suitable dependence model exists, an uncertainty analysis of the design values in the engineering studies resulting from the choice of model seems unavoidable; (vi) reducing uncertainty in the choice of model could be attempted by a deeper hydrological analysis of the dependence structure between flood peaks and

  13. ICESat (GLAS) Science Processing Software Document Series. Volume 3; GLAS Science Software Requirements Document; Ver 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, Peggy L.; Lee, Jeffrey; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document addresses the software requirements of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Standard Data Software (SDS) supporting the GLAS instrument on the EOS ICESat Spacecraft. This Software Requirements Document represents the initial collection of the technical engineering information for the GLAS SDS. This information is detailed within the second of four main volumes of the Standard documentation, the Product Specification volume. This document is a "roll-out" from the governing volume outline containing the Concept and Requirements sections.

  14. A Training Package for Implementing the IEP Process in Wyoming. Volume IV. Compilation of Successful Training Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxworth-Mott, Anita; Moore, Caroline

    Volume IV of a four volume series offers strategies for implementing effective inservice workshops to train administrators, assessment personnel, and others involved in the development and implementation of individualized education programs (IEPs) for handicapped children in Wyoming. Part 1 addresses points often overlooked in delivering training,…

  15. Social Studies. Exceptional Child Education Curriculum K-12: Volume II. History Process and Skills, Geography, Economics, Citizenship, Political Science, Humanities, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Dean; And Others

    Volume II of the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools exceptional child education curriculum for K-12 social studies covers history process and skills, geography, economics, citizenship, political science, humanities, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and world history. The curriculum guide is organized by content areas, and within each…

  16. A Novel Approach for Using Dielectric Spectroscopy to Predict Viable Cell Volume (VCV) in Early Process Development

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Brandon J; Graham, Lisa J; Breit, Jeffrey F; Glutting, Nathaniel K

    2014-01-01

    Online monitoring of viable cell volume (VCV) is essential to the development, monitoring, and control of bioprocesses. The commercial availability of steam-sterilizable dielectric-spectroscopy probes has enabled successful adoption of this technology as a key noninvasive method to measure VCV for cell-culture processes. Technological challenges still exist, however. For some cell lines, the technique's accuracy in predicting the VCV from probe-permittivity measurements declines as the viability of the cell culture decreases. To investigate the cause of this decrease in accuracy, divergences in predicted vs. actual VCV measurements were directly related to the shape of dielectric frequency scans collected during a cell culture. The changes in the shape of the beta dispersion, which are associated with changes in cell state, are quantified by applying a novel “area ratio” (AR) metric to frequency-scanning data from the dielectric-spectroscopy probes. The AR metric is then used to relate the shape of the beta dispersion to single-frequency permittivity measurements to accurately predict the offline VCV throughout an entire fed-batch run, regardless of cell state. This work demonstrates the possible feasibility of quantifying the shape of the beta dispersion, determined from frequency-scanning data, for enhanced measurement of VCV in mammalian cell cultures by applying a novel shape-characterization technique. In addition, this work demonstrates the utility of using changes in the shape of the beta dispersion to quantify cell health. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:479–487, 2014 PMID:24851255

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA BASE FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY: VOLUME II. SYNTHOIL, H-COAL, AND EXXON DONOR SOLVENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is an environmental characterization of three selected coal liquefaction systems: Synthoil, H-Coal, and Exxon Donor Solvent. It documents and evaluates existing environmentally significant data. System characterization includes an integrated multimedia assessment of d...

  18. Fundamental combustion research applied to pollution formation. Volume 2a. Physics and chemistry of two-phase systems: flame-combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seeker, W.R.; Heap, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The reports included in the three-part volume describe eight studies by various investigators, to better understand the physics and chemistry of two-phase combustion with respect to pollution formation. Volume IIa describes mechanisms of fuel nitrogen processing in large-scale utility flames burning pulverized coal and heavy fuel oils, in three parts: (1) high-temperature decomposition and combustion of pulverized-coal (EERC); (2) detailed measurement of long pulverized coal flames for the characterization of pollutant formation (International Flame Research Foundation); and (3) heavy-oil combustion in shear layers (United Technologies Research Center).

  19. TREATABILITY MANUAL. VOLUME V: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatability Manual presents in five volumes an extensive survey of the effectiveness of various water pollution treatment processes when applied to particular industrial effluents. This volume summarizes volumes one through four and outlines their potential utility to Nation...

  20. POLLUTION EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL OPERATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MAKING. VOLUME VI. BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS, MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is one in a six-volume series considering abnormal operating conditions (AOCs) in the primary section (sintering, blast furnace ironmaking, open hearth, electric furnace, and basic oxygen steelmaking) of an integrated iron and steel plant. Pollution standards, generall...

  1. PROCEEDINGS: 1985 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES, FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES, AND SLAGGING COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document is more than 60 papers, describing recent advances in NOx control technology, that were presented at the 1985 Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, May 6-9, 1985, in Boston, MA. The papers covered the following topics: the statu...

  2. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex expands astrocytic processes and reduces extracellular space volume.

    PubMed

    Sherpa, Ang Doma; Xiao, Fanrong; Joseph, Neethu; Aoki, Chiye; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2016-08-01

    Brain extracellular space (ECS) is an interconnected channel that allows diffusion-mediated transport of signaling molecules, metabolites, and drugs. We tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation impacts extracellular diffusion-mediated transport of molecules through alterations in the morphology of astrocytes. Two structural parameters of ECS-volume fraction and tortuosity-govern extracellular diffusion. Volume fraction (α) is the volume of ECS relative to the total tissue volume. Tortuosity (λ) is a measure of the hindrance that molecules experience in the ECS, compared to a free medium. The real-time iontophoretic (RTI) method revealed that treatment of acutely prepared visual cortical slices of adult female rats with a βAR agonist, DL-isoproterenol (ISO), decreases α significantly, from 0.22 ± 0.03 (mean ± SD) for controls without agonist to 0.18 ± 0.03 with ISO, without altering λ (control: 1.64 ± 0.04; ISO: 1.63 ± 0.04). Electron microscopy revealed that the ISO treatment significantly increased the cytoplasmic area of astrocytic distal endings per unit area of neuropil by 54%. These findings show that norepinephrine decreases α, in part, through an increase in astrocytic volume following βAR activation. Norepinephrine is recognized to be released within the brain during the awake state and increase neurons' signal-to-noise ratio through modulation of neurons' biophysical properties. Our findings uncover a new mechanism for noradrenergic modulation of neuronal signals. Through astrocytic activation leading to a reduction of α, noradrenergic modulation increases extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, thereby facilitating neuronal interactions, especially during wakefulness. Synapse 70:307-316, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27085090

  3. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME III. STATIONARY ENGINE AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESS COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Stationary engines and industrial process combustion systems--(Application of advanced combustion modifications to industrial process equipment--process heater subscale tests, Pollutant emissions from 'dirty' low and medium - Btu gases, Some aspects of afterburner perf...

  4. Evaluation of Helium Purge & Vent Process to Reduce Hydrogen Concentrations in the Large Diameter Container & Cask Void Volumes at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    2002-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide calculations for two primary activities: (1) Model a Helium Purge/Vent Cycle Process to reduce hydrogen gas concentration (i.e., H{sub 2} mole fraction) to a required limit in the Cask and Large Diameter Container (LDC) void volumes prior to T-Plant Operations activities. (2) Predict a hydrogen generation rate within each sludge-contained LDC, after the T-Plant helium purge/vent process (aka Post Purge/Vent Cycle Duration) to determine the transient hydrogen concentration. The calculations will evaluate a helium purge process to reduce the hydrogen concentration in the void spaces of the LDC after receipt at T-Plant. During transport from K-Basins to T-Plant, the hydrogen concentration will increase but the low or absent oxygen concentration from the K-Basin helium purge/vent process will ensure a non-flammable event. Upon receipt at T-Plant, the increased hydrogen concentration will require a process reduction (i.e., helium purge/vent cycling) prior to removing the Cask lid, otherwise, the removed lid permits air ingress and associated oxygen with the assumed high hydrogen concentration. In addition, once the Cask lid is removed at T-Plant, and the LDC is moved to the process cell, two threaded caps must be removed from the LDC to allow the escape of hydrogen during long-term storage. It is essential that the T-Plant helium purge/vent system reduces the hydrogen in both the Cask and LDC void volumes below the required limit. The calculations will also aide in predicting actual hydrogen generation rates and concentrations in each of the void volumes after the helium purge/vent cycle process is completed. Transient hydrogen plots or figures will be provided to help achieve this objective.

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  7. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

  8. Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Data During the Period January 1, 1998 Through January 21, 1999 at the Dallas-Fort Worth Airport. Volume 2; Data and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) requires accurate winds and turbulence to determine aircraft wake vortex behavior near the ground. Volume 1 described the wind input and quality analysis process. This volume documents the data available during the period January 1998 through January 1999 and the partitioning and concatenation of files for time of day, turbulence, non duplication, cross wind profile quality and ceiling and visibility. It provides the resultant filtered files for the first three partitions as well as identification of ceiling/visibility conditions when they were below 5000 feet and 5 miles respectively. It also includes the wind profile quality flags to permit automatic selection of files for AVOSS application using selected ceiling/visibility and wind profile quality values and flags (or no flags).

  9. Reducing uncertainty in the selection of bi-variate distributions of flood peaks and volumes using copulas and hydrological process-based model selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolgay, Jan; Gaál, Ladislav; Bacigál, Tomáš; Kohnová, Silvia; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Bi-variate distributions of flood peaks and flood event volumes are needed for a range of practical purposes including e.g. retention basin design and identifying extent and duration of flooding in flood hazard zones. However, the selection of the types of bi-variate distributions and estimating their parameters from observed peak-volume pairs are associated with far larger uncertainties compared to uni-variate distributions, since observed flood records of required length are rarely available. This poses a serious problem to reliable flood risk estimation in bi-variate design cases. The aim of this contribution was to shed light on the possibility of reducing uncertainties in the estimation of the dependence models/parameters from a regional perspective. The peak-volume relationships were modeled in terms of copulas. Flood events were classified according to their origin. In order to reduce the uncertainty in estimating flood risk, pooling and analyzing catchments of similar behavior according to flood process types was attempted. Most of the work reported in the literature so far did not direct the multivariate analysis toward discriminating certain types of models regionally according to specific runoff generation processes. Specifically, the contribution addresses these problems: - Are the peak-volume relationships of different flood types for a given catchment similar? - Are the peak-volume dependence structures between catchments in a larger region for given flood types similar? - Are some copula types more suitable for given flood process types and does this have consequences for reliable risk estimation? The target region is located in the northern parts of Austria, and consists of 72 small and mid-sized catchments. Instead of the traditional approach that deals with annual maximum floods, the current analysis includes all independent flood events in the region. 24 872 flood events from the period 1976-2007 were identified, and classified as synoptic, flash

  10. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

  11. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  13. Research and Development in the Computer and Information Sciences. Volume 2, Processing, Storage, and Output Requirements in Information Processing Systems: A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary Elizabeth

    Areas of concern with respect to processing, storage, and output requirements of a generalized information processing system are considered. Special emphasis is placed on multiple-access systems. Problems of system management and control are discussed, including hierarchies of storage levels. Facsimile, digital, and mass random access storage…

  14. Osmostress-Induced Cell Volume Loss Delays Yeast Hog1 Signaling by Limiting Diffusion Processes and by Hog1-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Smedh, Maria; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets. PMID:24278344

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  16. Evaluation of US coal performance in the shell coal gasification process (SCGP). Volume 1. Texas lignite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, W.L.; McCullough, G.R.; Gierman, H.; van Kessel, M.M.

    1984-02-01

    The Shell Coal Gasificaton Process was included in the EPRI evaluation of the more promising gasification technologies. This report evaluates the performance of Texas lignite in the SCGP. A companion report (RP2094-1) evaluates the performance of an Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Tests were conducted in the Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Amsterdam laboratory process development unit (6 metric ton per day nominal throughput). Shell also has a 150 metric ton per day gasification process development unit at Deutsche Shell's Harburg Refinery, Federal Republic of Germany. These initial tests indicate that Texas lignite is as suitable for the Shell Coal Gasification Process as any bituminous coal previously tested and that only moderate conditions are required for gasification. Process variables included oxygen/MAF (moisture and ash free) coal ratios of 0.82 to 0.96 kg/kg, throughputs of 74 to 207 kg MAF coal/hr, and pressures of 2.1 to 2.8 MPa (1 MPa = 10 bar or 145 psia). Extensive environmental sampling programs were carried out with 50% of normal bleed water recycled to the process via an evaporating venturi. Carbon conversion was nearly complete (99+ %) at reactor outlet temperatures as low as 1250/sup 0/C; at a pressure of 2.1 MPa, a maximum thermal efficiency (76% of LHV-coal) was obtained at an oxygen/MAF coal ratio of 0.90 kg/kg. Process results were only marginally influenced by variations in coal throughput but an increase in pressure at constant throughput increased the cold gas efficiency by two percentage points to 78% of LHV coal (mainly through a reduction in heat loss). In a test on load-following characteristics of the process, the unit pressure remained constant and the flow of product gas responded within one minute to a stepwise change in coal feed rate.

  17. Fluidized-bed copper oxide process. Phase IV. Conceptual design and economic evaluation, Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-30

    Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) of Des Plaines, Illinois has contracted A.E. Roberts & Associates, Inc. (AERA) of Atlanta, Georgia to prepare a sensitivity analysis for the development of the Fluidized-bed Copper Oxide (FBCO) process. As proposed by AERA in September 1991, development of the FBCO process design for a 500 mega-watt (MW) unit was divided into three tasks: (1) Establishment of a Conceptual Design, (2) Conceptual Design, (3) Cost Analysis Task 1 determined the basis for a conceptual design for the 500 megawatt (MW) FBCO process. It was completed by AERA in September of 1992, and a report was submitted at that time {open_quotes}Establishment of the Design Basis for Application to a 500 MW Coal-fired Facility.{close_quotes} Task 2 gathered all pertinent data available to date and reviewed its applicability to the 500 MW FBCO process. Work on this task was carried out on a joint basis by the AERA team members: Roberts & Schaefers worked on the dense phase transport aspect of the design; Cornell and Carnegie Mellon Universities worked on the design kinetics and modeling; and AERA contributed commercial power and combustion experience. Task 3 provides budgetary cost estimates for the FBCO process and competing alternative technologies for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal.

  18. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  19. Scale-Up of SLIP Process: Producing Nanoengineered Coatings at High Volumes to Meet Multi-Directorate Needs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K C; Sanders, D M; Moffitt, K C; Marquez, R; Spadaccini, C

    2005-10-27

    There are a variety of applications that require the use of nanoengineered surfaces for separation applications. Surfaces are commonly functionalized in order to facilitate the purification of gases and liquids. Functionalization often requires the application of a polymer to the surface. The most common means is to dissolve the polymer in a solvent and then either cast or spray it onto the surface. This traditional approach causes two severe limitations: (1) the polymer must be soluble; (2) the solvent must be removed from the final coating. The first limitation often eliminates many potential candidate polymers. The second limitation is influential on the transport and separation properties of the coating. Low levels of residual solvents can significantly degrade the ability of the coating to perform the separation process. These two issues can be overcome through the use of ''Solvent-Less vapor deposition followed by In-situ Polymerization'' (SLIP). The SLIP process was originally developed for the fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. This application required the deposition of films of 100 to 200 microns in thickness onto a spherical substrate. The process consists of two evaporation chambers each containing a quantity of monomer. The precursors, monomers, are vaporized and flow though a mixing nozzle and eventually are deposited on a substrate surface. They react at the surface and form a nanoengineered polymer film. The SLIP process has been utilized to develop composite membranes for gas and liquid separation applications. Polyimide films that range in thickness from 50 to 400 nm were deposited onto a range of substrates. The SLIP process has been shown to be robust and current plans are in place to scale-up the process. This scale-up would enable the coating of flat sheets and fibers. This paper will outline the roadmap to constructing a pilot scale SLIP system in order to meet multiple programmatic needs.

  20. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 21, Materials and processes selection. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.R.

    1995-08-15

    This document identifies the candidate materials and manufacturing processes selected for development of the TPX Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet. Supporting rationale and selection criteria are provided for justification and the materials properties database report is included for completeness. Specific properties for each material selection are included in this document.

  1. Space technology in Berlin. Volume 1: Ideas for the establishment of an institute for space processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The past, present, and future status of space technology in Berlin is discussed, including raw material processing, transportation, energy, and information generation and distribution. How Berlin can contribute toward further advancement in this field, individually or in collaboration with international partners is indicated.

  2. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced
    plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emission...

  3. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emissions u...

  4. Agricultural Construction Volume II. Oxy-Gas and Other Cutting/Welding Processes. Woodworking, Metals, Finishing. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, Myron; Maricle, Gary

    This guide contains instructor's materials for teaching a secondary agricultural construction course consisting of instructional units on oxy-gas and other cutting and welding processes (10 lessons), woodworking (6 lessons), metals (10 lessons), and finishing (4 lessons). The materials for each unit include student objectives, a list of…

  5. VARIATIONS IN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA, PROCESSES, CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES IN RELATION TO EFFICIENCY OF COGNITIVE GOAL ATTAINMENT, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FATTU, N. A.

    A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS UNDERTAKEN, DIRECTED TOWARD EXPLORATIONS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEDIA, PROCESSES (INSTRUCTIONAL PREREQUISITES), CONTENT AND APTITUDE VARIABLES, AND ACHIEVEMENTS. EMPHASIS THROUGHOUT WAS ON (1) THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN AND (2) PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO A PRACTICAL TEACHING SITUATION. "THE TAXONOMY OF…

  6. Technology and Public Policy. The Process of Technology Assessment in the Federal Government. Volume 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Vary T.

    A descriptive and analytical study was made of the process of planning, programming, and evaluation of technological projects and programs as carried out by 86 offices within federal executive agencies. The focus is on the extent to which techniques of technology assessment are used, based on interviews with 115 officials. Ninety-seven…

  7. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  8. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 3 - Physical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Geophysical investigations are discussed, taking into account laboratory measurements, planetary measurements, and structural implications and models. Impact processes are also examined. Experimental studies are considered along with aspects of crater morphology and frequency, and models theory. Volcanic-tectonic processes are investigated and topics related to the study of planetary atmospheres are examined. Attention is given to shallow moonquakes, the focal mechanism of deep moonquakes, lunar polar wandering, the search for an intrinsic magnetic field of Venus, the early global melting of the terrestrial planets, the first few hundred years of evolution of a moon of fission origin, the control of crater morphology by gravity and target type, crater peaks in Mercurian craters, lunar cold traps and their influence on argon-40, and solar wind sputtering effects in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

  10. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  11. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    This study of water reclamation and waste disposal is directed toward a more efficient utilization of natural resources. From an ecological standpoint improved methods of land use, water processing equipment, and ideal population profiles are investigated. Methods are described whereby significant reduction in water usage can be achieved by the adoption of presently available and practically applied technological concepts. Allowances are made for social, natural, and economic contingencies which are likely to occur up to the year 2000.

  12. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  13. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  14. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuels consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  16. Support and enhancement of ASPEN Plus for the steady state simulation of the SRC-I process. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fais, B.D.; Tomkinson, W.S.; Kradel, R.H.

    1983-10-01

    The ASPEN computer program was developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). ASPEN provides steady state simulation of certain fossil fuel conversion processes at the steady state. As part of its contract with DOE to design, build and operate the SRC-I Coal Refinery, International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was asked to evaluate the ASPEN program to determine its usefulness in simulating the steady state performance of coal conversion processes. ICRC performed a preliminary technical assessment of ASPEN in 1981 and concluded that it could be readily upgraded for simulation of the SRC-I process. In 1983, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) licensed ASPEN Plus, an upgraded version of ASPEN from ASPEN Technology, Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for ICRC. ICRC commissioned APCI to maintain, support and enhance ASPEN Plus in 1983 and this report documents the work performed with ASPEN Plus during 1983. Two versions of the program have been installed and installation of a third version is pending. System support, maintenance, system tuning and validation, technical support and training are part of the work performed with ASPEN Plus. System tuning included modifying the execution of ASPEN Plus to increase its efficiency. The method of installation of two unit models developed at APCI are described. Conclusions and recommendations are included in the report.

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-05-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  19. Coal hydrogasification process development. Volume II. Peat studies. Second annual technical progress report, government fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, K.M.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1980-10-20

    This report describes work performed on a program directed towards investigating the effects of peat hydrogasification in an entrained flow reactor. The program was conducted in three phases: peat dense-phase feed system flow studies, hydrogasification entrained flow reactor testing, and preliminary peat process economic evaluations. The peat dense-phase feeding studies included low-pressure (below 150 psig) testing at nominal solid peat flow rates of 1 ton/hr and analytical modeling efforts. The hydrogasification reactor testing was performed at peat flow rates of over 1000 lb/hr and reactor temperatures to 1900/sup 0/F in hydrogen atmospheres from 500 to 1000 psig. A simple analytical kinetic model was developed to predict total carbon conversion as a function of reactor operating variables and its agreement with experimental data was found to be excellent. Finally, preliminary process economics were established for three variations of the Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Flash Hydropyrolysis Process with the cost of high-Btu gas ranging from $3.43 to $4.06 per million Btu.

  20. The Process and Product of T & I High School Level Vocational Education in the United States. Volume II-The Process Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eninger, M.U.

    The primary objective of this study was to provide a description of the process variables of trade and industrial education, such as curriculum, facilities, guidance and placement services, teachers and instructional methods, advisory committees and community relations, and administration. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 100…

  1. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  2. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and U S Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  3. Materials and process engineering projects for the Sandia National Laboratories/Newly Independent States Industrial Partnering Program. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, F.J.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1995-07-01

    In July, 1994, a team of materials specialists from Sandia and US. Industry traveled to Russia and the Ukraine to select and fund projects in materials and process technology in support of the Newly Independent States/Industrial Partnering Program (NIS/IPP). All of the projects are collaborations with scientists and Engineers at NIS Institutes. Each project is scheduled to last one year, and the deliverables are formatted to supply US. Industry with information which will enable rational decisions to be made regarding the commercial value of these technologies. This work is an unedited interim compilation of the deliverables received to date.

  4. ECM (Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing) newsletter, August 1990. Information on environmentally conscious manufacturing processes: Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This newsletter outlines efforts to develop alternate cleaning solutions to conventional CFC and CHC based solvents for the cleaning of electrical and mechanical assemblies. Material compatibility is a primary concern. Testing results with copper substrates and Pb-Sn eutectic solder are presented. A novel sensor for monitoring the organic concentrations in copper plating baths is also described. Measurements are made in real time and the probe is small enough to be placed in the bath without disturbing the plating process. Longer intervals between bath cleanup and extended bath lifetimes will result.

  5. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 29, August-November, 1978. Volume VI. Process development unit studies. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of seven SRC-II runs on Process Development Unit P99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal. Four of these runs (Runs 41-44) were made feeding coal from the Robinson Run Mine and three (Runs 45-47) were made feeding a second shipment of coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. This work showed that both these coals are satisfactory feedstocks for the SRC-II process. Increasing dissolver outlet hydrogen partial pressure from approximately 1300 to about 1400 psia did not have a significant effect on yields from Robinson Run coal, but simultaneously increasing coal concentration in the feed slurry from 25 to 30 wt% and decreasing the percent recycle solids from 21% to 17% lowered distillate yields. With the Powhatan coal, a modest increase in the boiling temperature (approximately 35/sup 0/F) at the 10% point) of the process solvent had essentially no effect on product yields, while lowering the average dissolver temperature from 851/sup 0/F to 842/sup 0/F reduced gas yield.

  6. Conical scan impact study. Volume 1: General central data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Eppes, T. A.; Thomas, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument was studied in terms of: (1) design modifications required in framing and continuous image recording devices; and (2) changes in configurations of an all-digital precision image processor. A baseline system was defined to provide the framework for comparison, and included pertinent spacecraft parameters, a conical MSS, a linear MSS, an image recording system, and an all-digital precision processor. Lateral offset pointing of the sensors over a range of plus or minus 20 deg was considered. The study addressed the conical scan impact on geometric, radiometric, and aperture correction of MSS data in terms of hardware and software considerations, system complexity, quality of corrections, throughput, and cost of implementation. It was concluded that: (1) if the MSS data are to be only film recorded, then there is only a nomial concial scan impact on the ground data processing system; and (2) if digital data are to be provided to users on computer compatible tapes in rectilinear format, then there is a significant conical scan impact on the ground data processing system.

  7. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  8. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  9. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D.

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Architecture and data processing alternatives for Tse computer. Volume 1: Tse logic design concepts and the development of image processing machine architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickard, D. A.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Digital computer components which perform two dimensional array logic operations (Tse logic) on binary data arrays are described. The properties of Golay transforms which make them useful in image processing are reviewed, and several architectures for Golay transform processors are presented with emphasis on the skeletonizing algorithm. Conventional logic control units developed for the Golay transform processors are described. One is a unique microprogrammable control unit that uses a microprocessor to control the Tse computer. The remaining control units are based on programmable logic arrays. Performance criteria are established and utilized to compare the various Golay transform machines developed. A critique of Tse logic is presented, and recommendations for additional research are included.

  11. Analyses of requirements for computer control and data processing experiment subsystems: Image data processing system (IDAPS) software description (7094 version), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A description of each of the software modules of the Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) is presented. The changes in the software modules are the result of additions to the application software of the system and an upgrade of the IBM 7094 Mod(1) computer to a 1301 disk storage configuration. Necessary information about IDAPS sofware is supplied to the computer programmer who desires to make changes in the software system or who desires to use portions of the software outside of the IDAPS system. Each software module is documented with: module name, purpose, usage, common block(s) description, method (algorithm of subroutine) flow diagram (if needed), subroutines called, and storage requirements.

  12. MODFLOW–USG version 1: An unstructured grid version of MODFLOW for simulating groundwater flow and tightly coupled processes using a control volume finite-difference formulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panday, Sorab; Langevin, Christian D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Ibaraki, Motomu; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    A new version of MODFLOW, called MODFLOW–USG (for UnStructured Grid), was developed to support a wide variety of structured and unstructured grid types, including nested grids and grids based on prismatic triangles, rectangles, hexagons, and other cell shapes. Flexibility in grid design can be used to focus resolution along rivers and around wells, for example, or to subdiscretize individual layers to better represent hydrostratigraphic units. MODFLOW–USG is based on an underlying control volume finite difference (CVFD) formulation in which a cell can be connected to an arbitrary number of adjacent cells. To improve accuracy of the CVFD formulation for irregular grid-cell geometries or nested grids, a generalized Ghost Node Correction (GNC) Package was developed, which uses interpolated heads in the flow calculation between adjacent connected cells. MODFLOW–USG includes a Groundwater Flow (GWF) Process, based on the GWF Process in MODFLOW–2005, as well as a new Connected Linear Network (CLN) Process to simulate the effects of multi-node wells, karst conduits, and tile drains, for example. The CLN Process is tightly coupled with the GWF Process in that the equations from both processes are formulated into one matrix equation and solved simultaneously. This robustness results from using an unstructured grid with unstructured matrix storage and solution schemes. MODFLOW–USG also contains an optional Newton-Raphson formulation, based on the formulation in MODFLOW–NWT, for improving solution convergence and avoiding problems with the drying and rewetting of cells. Because the existing MODFLOW solvers were developed for structured and symmetric matrices, they were replaced with a new Sparse Matrix Solver (SMS) Package developed specifically for MODFLOW–USG. The SMS Package provides several methods for resolving nonlinearities and multiple symmetric and asymmetric linear solution schemes to solve the matrix arising from the flow equations and the Newton

  13. Single Layer Centrifugation with Androcoll-P Can Be Scaled-Up to Process Larger Volumes of Boar Semen

    PubMed Central

    van Wienen, Marjet; Johannisson, Anders; Wallgren, Margareta; Parlevliet, Joyce; Morrell, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to scale-up the procedure for Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) through AndrocollTM-P, as a preliminary step towords processing the whole ejaculate. The first experiment compared Single Layer Centrifugation using 4.5 mL and 15 mL extended ejaculate (SLC-4.5 and SLC-15, resp.), assessing sperm quality by objective motility analysis, morphology, viability, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the second experiment, SLC-4.5 was compared to Single Layer Centrifugation with 25 mL extended ejaculate (SLC-25) using motility analysis and morphology. In both experiments, normal morphology and linear motility were significantly higher in the SLC-selected samples than in the uncentrifuged controls (P < .001), whereas total motility and membrane integrity were unchanged. Although ROS production was higher in the SLC-selected samples than in the controls (P < .01), this might have been due to the presence of antioxidants in seminal plasma in the latter. In conclusion, there was no difference in sperm quality between SLC-4.5 and SLC-15 samples, or between SLC-4.5 and SLC-25 samples, indicating that the SLC method can be scaled-up successfully. PMID:23738091

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  15. Development of a High Volume Capable Process to Manufacture High Performance Photovoltaic Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-322

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basic PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.

  16. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing. Chapter 2.14; Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Peter (Editor); Su, Z.; Robeling, R. A.; Schulz, J.; Holleman, I.; Levizzani, V.; Timmermans, W. J.; Rott, H.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; de Jeu, R.; Wagner, W.; Rodell, M.; Salama, M. S.; Parodi, G. N.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    requested by the European Union s Water Framework Directive (WFD), as well as national policies). Geo-information science and EO are vital in achieving a better understanding of the water cycle and better monitoring, analysis, prediction, and management of the world s water resources. The major components of the water cycle of the Earth system and their possible observations are presented. Such observations are essential to understand the global water cycle and its variability, both spatially and temporally, and can only be achieved consistently by means of EOs. Additionally, such observations are essential to advance our understanding of coupling between the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. Water resources management directly interferes with the natural water cycle in the forms of building dams, reservoirs, water transfer systems, and irrigation systems that divert and redistribute part of the water storages and fluxes on land. The water cycle is mainly driven and coupled to the energy cycle in terms of phase changes of water (changes among liquid, water vapor, and solid phases) and transport of water by winds in addition to gravity and diffusion processes. The water-cycle components can be observed with in situ sensors as well as airborne and satellite sensors in terms of radiative quantities. Processing and conversion of these radiative signals are necessary to retrieve the water-cycle components.

  17. Duct injection for SO{sub 2} control, Design Handbook, Volume 1, Process design and engineering guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    PETC developed a comprehensive program of coal-related, acid-rain research and development with a major activity area centering on flue gas cleanup and control of SO{sub 2} emissions. Particular emphasis was placed on the retrofit measures for older coal-fired power plants which predate the 1971 New Source Performance Standards. Candidate emission control technologies fall into three categories, depending upon their point of application along the fuel path (i.e., pre, during, or post combustion). The post-combustion, in-duct injection of a calcium-based chemical reagent seemed promising. Preliminary studies showed that reagent injection between the existing air heater and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) could remove between 50-60% of the SO{sub 2} and produce an environmentally safe, dry, solid waste that is easily disposed. Although SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies were less, the estimated capital costs for duct injection technology were low making the economics of duct injection systems seem favorable when compared to conventional wet slurry scrubbers under certain circumstances. With the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 came more incentive for the development of low capital cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. A number of technical problems had to be resolved, however, before duct injection technology could be brought to a state of commercial readiness. The Duct Injection Technology Development Program was launched as a comprehensive, four-year research effort undertaken by PETC to develop this new technology. Completed in 1992, this Duct Injection Design Handbook and the three-dimensional predictive mathematical model constitute two primary end products from this development program. The aim of this design handbook and the accompanying math model is to provide utility personnel with sufficient information to evaluate duct injection technology against competing SO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies for an existing plant.

  18. A microfluidic platform for precision small-volume sample processing and its use to size separate biological particles with an acoustic microdevice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fong, Erika J.; Huang, Chao; Hamilton, Julie; Benett, William J.; Bora, Mihail; Burklund, Alison; Metz, Thomas R.; Shusteff, Maxim

    2015-11-23

    Here, a major advantage of microfluidic devices is the ability to manipulate small sample volumes, thus reducing reagent waste and preserving precious sample. However, to achieve robust sample manipulation it is necessary to address device integration with the macroscale environment. To realize repeatable, sensitive particle separation with microfluidic devices, this protocol presents a complete automated and integrated microfluidic platform that enables precise processing of 0.15–1.5 ml samples using microfluidic devices. Important aspects of this system include modular device layout and robust fixtures resulting in reliable and flexible world to chip connections, and fully-automated fluid handling which accomplishes closed-loop sample collection,more » system cleaning and priming steps to ensure repeatable operation. Different microfluidic devices can be used interchangeably with this architecture. Here we incorporate an acoustofluidic device, detail its characterization, performance optimization, and demonstrate its use for size-separation of biological samples. By using real-time feedback during separation experiments, sample collection is optimized to conserve and concentrate sample. Although requiring the integration of multiple pieces of equipment, advantages of this architecture include the ability to process unknown samples with no additional system optimization, ease of device replacement, and precise, robust sample processing.« less

  19. SMALL-VOLUME BASALTIC VOLCANOES: ERUPTIVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES, AND POST-ERUPTIVE GEOMORPHIC EVOLUTION IN CRATER FLAT (PLEISTOCENE), SOUTHERN NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Valentine; F.V. Perry; D. Krier; G.N. Keating; R.E. Kelley; A.H. Cogbill

    2006-04-04

    Five Pleistocene basaltic volcanoes in Crater Flat (southern Nevada) demonstrate the complexity of eruption processes associated with small-volume basalts and the effects of initial emplacement characteristics on post-eruptive geomorphic evolution of the volcanic surfaces. The volcanoes record eruptive processes in their pyroclastic facies ranging from ''classical'' Strombolian mechanisms to, potentially, violent Strombolian mechanisms. Cone growth was accompanied, and sometimes disrupted, by effusion of lavas from the bases of cones. Pyroclastic cones were built upon a gently southward-sloping surface and were prone to failure of their down-slope (southern) flanks. Early lavas flowed primarily southward and, at Red and Black Cone volcanoes, carried abundant rafts of cone material on the tops of the flows. These resulting early lava fields eventually built platforms such that later flows erupted from the eastern (at Red Cone) and northern (at Black Cone) bases of the cones. Three major surface features--scoria cones, lava fields with abundant rafts of pyroclastic material, and lava fields with little or no pyroclastic material--experienced different post-eruptive surficial processes. Contrary to previous interpretations, we argue that the Pleistocene Crater Flat volcanoes are monogenetic, each having formed in a single eruptive episode lasting months to a few years, and with all eruptive products having emanated from the area of the volcanoes main cones rather than from scattered vents. Geochemical variations within the volcanoes must be interpreted within a monogenetic framework, which implies preservation of magma source heterogeneities through ascent and eruption of the magmas.

  20. A Microfluidic Platform for Precision Small-volume Sample Processing and Its Use to Size Separate Biological Particles with an Acoustic Microdevice

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Erika J.; Huang, Chao; Hamilton, Julie; Benett, William J.; Bora, Mihail; Burklund, Alison; Metz, Thomas R.; Shusteff, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of microfluidic devices is the ability to manipulate small sample volumes, thus reducing reagent waste and preserving precious sample. However, to achieve robust sample manipulation it is necessary to address device integration with the macroscale environment. To realize repeatable, sensitive particle separation with microfluidic devices, this protocol presents a complete automated and integrated microfluidic platform that enables precise processing of 0.15–1.5 ml samples using microfluidic devices. Important aspects of this system include modular device layout and robust fixtures resulting in reliable and flexible world to chip connections, and fully-automated fluid handling which accomplishes closed-loop sample collection, system cleaning and priming steps to ensure repeatable operation. Different microfluidic devices can be used interchangeably with this architecture. Here we incorporate an acoustofluidic device, detail its characterization, performance optimization, and demonstrate its use for size-separation of biological samples. By using real-time feedback during separation experiments, sample collection is optimized to conserve and concentrate sample. Although requiring the integration of multiple pieces of equipment, advantages of this architecture include the ability to process unknown samples with no additional system optimization, ease of device replacement, and precise, robust sample processing. PMID:26651055

  1. A microfluidic platform for precision small-volume sample processing and its use to size separate biological particles with an acoustic microdevice

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, Erika J.; Huang, Chao; Hamilton, Julie; Benett, William J.; Bora, Mihail; Burklund, Alison; Metz, Thomas R.; Shusteff, Maxim

    2015-11-23

    Here, a major advantage of microfluidic devices is the ability to manipulate small sample volumes, thus reducing reagent waste and preserving precious sample. However, to achieve robust sample manipulation it is necessary to address device integration with the macroscale environment. To realize repeatable, sensitive particle separation with microfluidic devices, this protocol presents a complete automated and integrated microfluidic platform that enables precise processing of 0.15–1.5 ml samples using microfluidic devices. Important aspects of this system include modular device layout and robust fixtures resulting in reliable and flexible world to chip connections, and fully-automated fluid handling which accomplishes closed-loop sample collection, system cleaning and priming steps to ensure repeatable operation. Different microfluidic devices can be used interchangeably with this architecture. Here we incorporate an acoustofluidic device, detail its characterization, performance optimization, and demonstrate its use for size-separation of biological samples. By using real-time feedback during separation experiments, sample collection is optimized to conserve and concentrate sample. Although requiring the integration of multiple pieces of equipment, advantages of this architecture include the ability to process unknown samples with no additional system optimization, ease of device replacement, and precise, robust sample processing.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 6: Process Heat and Hydrogen Co-Generation PIRTs

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W; Gorensek, M. B.; Herring, S.; Pickard, P.

    2008-03-01

    A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) exercise was conducted to identify potential safety-0-related physical phenomena for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) when coupled to a hydrogen production or similar chemical plant. The NGNP is a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) with the design goal to produce high-temperature heat and electricity for nearby chemical plants. Because high-temperature heat can only be transported limited distances, the two plants will be close to each other. One of the primary applications for the VHTR would be to supply heat and electricity for the production of hydrogen. There was no assessment of chemical plant safety challenges. The primary application of this PIRT is to support the safety analysis of the NGNP coupled one or more small hydrogen production pilot plants. However, the chemical plant processes to be coupled to the NGNP have not yet been chosen; thus, a broad PIRT assessment was conducted to scope alternative potential applications and test facilities associated with the NGNP. The hazards associated with various chemicals and methods to minimize risks from those hazards are well understood within the chemical industry. Much but not all of the information required to assure safe conditions (separation distance, relative elevation, berms) is known for a reactor coupled to a chemical plant. There is also some experience with nuclear plants in several countries that have produced steam for industrial applications. The specific characteristics of the chemical plant, site layout, and the maximum stored inventories of chemicals can provide the starting point for the safety assessments. While the panel identified events and phenomena of safety significance, there is one added caveat. Multiple high-temperature reactors provide safety-related experience and understanding of reactor safety. In contrast, there have been only limited safety studies of coupled chemical and nuclear plants. The work herein provides a

  3. Processing techniques development, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Anuta, P. E.; Hixson, M. M.; Swain, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of the geometric characteristics of the aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) relative to LANDSAT indicated that relatively low order polynominals would model the distortions to subpixel accuracy to bring SAR into registration for good quality imagery. Also the area analyzed was small, about 10 miles square, so this is an additional constraint. For the Air Force/ERIM data, none of the tested methods could achieve subpixel accuracy. Reasons for this is unknown; however, the noisy (high scintillation) nature of the data and attendent unrecognizability of features contribute to this error. It is concluded that the quadratic model would adequately provide distortion modeling for small areas, i.e., 10 to 20 miles square.

  4. Influence of manganese on sintering processes in the Ti-Fe system. 1. Volume changes in sintering of Ti-Fe-Mn compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kivalo, L.I.; Skorokhod, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of manganese on the sintering processes in the titanium-iron system in the area of temperatures of existence of the first ternary eutectic point. Powders of titanium obtained by hydride-calcium reduction, ferromanganese, and types PZh4M2 and V3 iron were used. A figure presents data on the character of the volume changes in sintering of compacts of mixtures of titanium and iron powders with and without manganese. The x-ray analysis was made on a DRON-0.5 instrument. The profiles of intensities of the x-ray lines of Ti(Fe, Mn) phase present in specimens of mixture II are shown. With an increase in sintering temperature the line, which is diffuse at 1050 degrees C, gradually narrows, and at 1250 degrees C a doublet appears. At the time, the lattice parameter changes from 0.2976 for unalloyed TiFe to 0.2991 nm for Ti(Fe, Mn) obtained at 1250 degrees C. To obtain Ti(Fe, Mn) compounds of the required composition, it is necessary to take into account the amount of evaporated manganese.

  5. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Dick, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Giez, A.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olchewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Schillings, J.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.; Thomas, N.; Voigt, C.; Zahn, A.; Zöger, M.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an airborne infrared limb-imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 research aircraft HALO during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS) and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL) campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3) volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra. 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line-of-sight. Simultaneous in-situ observations by the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS), the Fast In-Situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH), FAIRO, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in-situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large fraction be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  6. Level 2 processing for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: derivation and validation of temperature and trace gas volume mixing ratios from calibrated dynamics mode spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Dick, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Giez, A.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olchewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Schillings, J.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.; Thomas, N.; Voigt, C.; Zahn, A.; Zöger, M.; Riese, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an airborne infrared limb imager combining a two-dimensional infrared detector with a Fourier transform spectrometer. It was operated aboard the new German Gulfstream G550 High Altitude LOng Range (HALO) research aircraft during the Transport And Composition in the upper Troposphere/lowermost Stratosphere (TACTS) and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVAL) campaigns in summer 2012. This paper describes the retrieval of temperature and trace gas (H2O, O3, HNO3) volume mixing ratios from GLORIA dynamics mode spectra that are spectrally sampled every 0.625 cm-1. A total of 26 integrated spectral windows are employed in a joint fit to retrieve seven targets using consecutively a fast and an accurate tabulated radiative transfer model. Typical diagnostic quantities are provided including effects of uncertainties in the calibration and horizontal resolution along the line of sight. Simultaneous in situ observations by the Basic Halo Measurement and Sensor System (BAHAMAS), the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH), an ozone detector named Fairo, and the Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) allow a validation of retrieved values for three flights in the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere region spanning polar and sub-tropical latitudes. A high correlation is achieved between the remote sensing and the in situ trace gas data, and discrepancies can to a large extent be attributed to differences in the probed air masses caused by different sampling characteristics of the instruments. This 1-D processing of GLORIA dynamics mode spectra provides the basis for future tomographic inversions from circular and linear flight paths to better understand selected dynamical processes of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere.

  7. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  8. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  9. Retained gas sampler interface volume

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.

    1997-10-01

    The maximum Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) interface volume was determined; this volume can trap contamination gases during the sampling process. A new technique (helium backfill) for eliminating contamination gases from the RGS sampler interface volume is described, and verification testing reported. Also demonstrated was that RGS data obtained prior to the introduction of the new helium backfill technique can be compensated for air contamination using the measured oxygen concentration and normal air composition.

  10. The Impact of 3D Volume-of-Interest Definition on Accuracy and Precision of Activity Estimation in Quantitative SPECT and Planar Processing Methods

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise, and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT), and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important effect impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimations. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in the same transaxial plane in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g., in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from −1 to 1 voxels in increments of 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ

  11. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15, Materials Science and Technology A Comprehensive Treatment - Volume 15: Processing of Metals and Alloys Cahn,R.W.(ed.)/Haasen,P.(ed.)/Kramer,E.J.(ed.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, Robert W.

    1996-12-01

    The properties of metals and alloys, and thus their effectiveness in applications, are closely related to the processing methods applied. Metallurgists and other technologists involved with metals and alloys are provided with a unique overview of processing techniques and their effects. From the Contents: Flemings: Solidification Processing. Suryanarayana: Rapid Solidification. Mordike: Surface Modification by Lasers. Arunachalam/Sundaresan: Powder Metallurgy. Koch: Mechanical Milling and Alloying. Follstaedt: Ion Implantation and Ion-Beam Mixing. Pashley: The Epitaxy of Metals. Somekh/Greer: Metallic Multilayers. Humphreys: Recrystallization and Recovery. Cahn: Measurement and Control of Texture. de Bonte/Roos/Celis: Electrodeposition of Metals and Alloys. Sahm/Keller: Solidification Processing Under Microgravity. Siegel: Cluster Assembly of Nanophase Materials.

  12. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  13. Tidal volume (TV) post-process obtained with electrical impedance tomography on a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Use of adjust equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balleza, Marco; Anton, Daniel; Casan, Pere; Riu, Pere

    2010-04-01

    Equations used to estimate ventilation out of EIT images, validated on healthy volunteers show a significant bias and a larger variance when were applied on a COPD patients group. The differences in estimation values were found to be highly correlated with anthropometric parameters. Two groups of 13 and 4 COPD male patients (FEV1/FVC<70% and FVC >= 80%) were used in this study. We have measured different anthropometric parameters like age, weight, height and skinfolds. The EIT system (TIE4sys) and a pneumotach were simultaneously connected to monitor tidal volume. The main anthropometric parameters values of 13 COPD patients were: age: 67±9 years, height: 1.65±0.05 m, weight: 72±11 kg, BMI: 26.4±3.3 and the subscapular skinfold thickness was 23±9mm. The mean tidal volume estimated with TIE4sys and the pneumotach were: 0.580±0.212 L and 0.774±0.173 L r = 0.861 (p<0.01). The mean difference was 0.196±0.096 L (p0.01). On this group we have found out an adjust equation and we have validated it on an independent group of 4 COPD patients. The equation was Diff=-1478+15.6(weight). The mean tidal volume values obtained with pneumotach and TIE4sys on the second group of COPD patients (M:4) were: 0.798±0.395 L and 0.732±0.327 L. The mean of the differences was 0.066±0.114L. The differences of determinations estimated with pneumotach and TIE4sys can be attributed to changes of anthropometric characteristics like subscapular skinfold.

  14. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  15. Direct Volume Rendering of Curvilinear Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Wilhelms, J.; Challinger, J.; Alper, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Direct volume rendering can visualize sampled 3D scalar data as a continuous medium, or extract features. However, it is generally slow. Furthermore, most algorithms for direct volume rendering have assumed rectilinear gridded data. This paper discusses methods for using direct volume rendering when the original volume is curvilinear, i.e. is divided into six-sided cells which are not necessarily equilateral hexahedra. One approach is to ray-cast such volumes directly. An alternative approach is to interpolate the sample volumes to a rectilinear grid, and use this regular volume for rendering. Advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches in terms of speed and image quality are explored.

  16. Volume Segmentation and Ghost Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziskin, Isaac; Adrian, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Volume Segmentation Tomographic PIV (VS-TPIV) is a type of tomographic PIV in which images of particles in a relatively thick volume are segmented into images on a set of much thinner volumes that may be approximated as planes, as in 2D planar PIV. The planes of images can be analysed by standard mono-PIV, and the volume of flow vectors can be recreated by assembling the planes of vectors. The interrogation process is similar to a Holographic PIV analysis, except that the planes of image data are extracted from two-dimensional camera images of the volume of particles instead of three-dimensional holographic images. Like the tomographic PIV method using the MART algorithm, Volume Segmentation requires at least two cameras and works best with three or four. Unlike the MART method, Volume Segmentation does not require reconstruction of individual particle images one pixel at a time and it does not require an iterative process, so it operates much faster. As in all tomographic reconstruction strategies, ambiguities known as ghost particles are produced in the segmentation process. The effect of these ghost particles on the PIV measurement is discussed. This research was supported by Contract 79419-001-09, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  17. Modular Design of Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste including Disused Sealed Sources - 12372

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, David R.; Kumar Samanta, Susanta; Drace, Zoran

    2012-07-01

    There are a number of IAEA Member States generating relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in application of nuclear techniques in medicine, industry and research and in nuclear research centres having small research reactors. At present many of these Member States do not have facilities for processing and storing their radioactive wastes; notably in those countries with small quantities of generated radioactive wastes. In other Member States the existing waste processing and storage facilities (WPSF) are in need of varying degrees of upgrading in order to address new waste streams, incorporate new waste processing technologies, or expand interim storage capacities. The IAEA has developed a modular design approach for a WPSF that is based on a variety of modules for different waste stream treatment and conditioning processes. The modular WPSF design is elaborated in a substantial Design Engineering Package that will be published by IAEA as a technical report. The Design Engineering Package enables users to select the optimum waste processing and storage modules to meet their needs, and to specify the requirements for procurement of individual modules and their integration into a waste processing and storage facility. The Design Engineering Package is planned for publication by the IAEA in 2012 and is presented as: - A Design Engineering Package Summary document. - A supporting CD that contains: - Process module general specifications. - Process module interface specifications. - Design Engineering Package for process modules. - Sample technical specifications for design and construction of modular processing facility. - Design Engineering Package for storage modules. (authors)

  18. Process

    SciTech Connect

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  19. An Original Processing Method of Satellite Altimetry for Estimating Water Levels and Volume Fluctuations in a Series of Small Lakes of the Pantanal Wetland Complex in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Costa, Paulo; Oliveira Pereira, Eric; Maillard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry is becoming a major tool for measuring water levels in rivers and lakes offering accuracies compatible with many hydrological applications, especially in uninhabited regions of difficult access. The Pantanal is considered the largest tropical wetland in the world and the sparsity of in situ gauging station make remote methods of water level measurements an attractive alternative. This article describes how satellites altimetry data from Envisat and Saral was used to determine water level in two small lakes in the Pantanal. By combining the water level with the water surface area extracted from satellite imagery, water volume fluctuations were also estimated for a few periods. The available algorithms (retrackers) that compute a range solution from the raw waveforms do not always produce reliable measurements in small lakes. This is because the return signal gets often "contaminated" by the surrounding land. To try to solve this, we created a "lake" retracker that rejects waveforms that cannot be attributed to "calm water" and convert them to altitude. Elevation data are stored in a database along with the water surface area to compute the volume fluctuations. Satellite water level time series were also produced and compared with the only nearby in situ gauging station. Although the "lake" retracker worked well with calm water, the presence of waves and other factors was such that the standard "ice1" retracker performed better on the overall. We estimate our water level accuracy to be around 75 cm. Although the return time of both satellites is only 35 days, the next few years promise to bring new altimetry satellite missions that will significantly increase this frequency.

  20. Fifty Years of College Choice: Social, Political and Institutional Influences on the Decision-Making Process. New Agenda Series. Volume 5, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Jillian; Palmer, Megan; Hayek, John; Hossler, Don; Jacob, Stacy A.; Cummings, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The college-choice process is complex and affects many high school students, family members and public policy-makers, as well as institutions of higher education. This report provides an overview of the college-choice process for traditional-age students and examines how it has evolved during the last half of the 20th century. Material from the…

  1. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix C: Partially processed multispectral scanner high density tape (HDT-AM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    The format of high density tapes which contain partially processed LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D prime MSS image data is defined. This format is based on and is compatible with the existing format for partially processed LANDSAT 3 MSS image data HDTs.

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  3. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 6: Specification for EOS Central Data Processing Facility (CDPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications and functions of the Central Data Processing (CDPF) Facility which supports the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are discussed. The CDPF will receive the EOS sensor data and spacecraft data through the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) and the Operations Control Center (OCC). The CDPF will process the data and produce high density digital tapes, computer compatible tapes, film and paper print images, and other data products. The specific aspects of data inputs and data processing are identified. A block diagram of the CDPF to show the data flow and interfaces of the subsystems is provided.

  4. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 3: Engineering creative/evaluation processes, phase 1, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hosek, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A series of functional flow charts are considered that were developed to properly identify and record the degree of participation of the disciplines considered in this feasibility study and the type of data required in the design process.

  5. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  6. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  7. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission source identification and source-specific pollution control applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The present volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplished two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flowsheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Specific pollutants dealt with in the present Volume III are sulfur species, (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ primarily), particulates, fugitive dust, and arsenic species. The present Volume III is divided into two separate Parts. Part 1 covers: (1) Sulfur species (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/); (2) Particulates and fugitive dust; and (3) Arsenic. Retort off-gas control processes considered include: MDEA; Benfield Process; Physical absorption systems; Sulfinol Process; and The Holmes-Stretford Process. Processes considered for the control of SO/sub 2/ in flue gas are: Wellman-Lord Process; Limestone Slurry Process; Lime Slurry Process; Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121; Lime Slurry Spray Dryer/Fabric Filter Process; Resox Process; Magnesia Slurry Process; Double Alkali Process; Citrate/Phosphate Absorption Process; Ammonia-Ammonium Bisulfite Process; IFP Process; Activated Carbon Process; Catalytic Oxidation processes; Shell/UOP Copper Oxide Process; and Davy S-H Process. For removal of dusts and particulates, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, afterburners, scrubbers, mist eliminators, fabric filters and sonic agglomeration are evaluated. Wastewater, off-gas, and product oil controls for arsenic removal are also presented. (DMC)

  8. Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhadi Zadeh, Ehsan; Hejazi, Kourosh

    2009-11-01

    Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its environmental pollution is spread. The movement of oil spill, and its diffusion in water and its effects on water and the environment has been simulated by developing a Depth-Averaged numerical model and using the Finite Volume method. The existing models are not efficient enough to fulfill current modeling needs. The developed model uses the parameters useful in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions in a model appropriate for predicting the transport of oil spill. Since the Navier-Stokes Equations play an important role in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions, it is highly important to choose an appropriate numerical method in the advection and diffusion section. In this essay, choosing the methods used in the advection and diffusion have been emphasized and highly-accurate algorithms has been used in the advection terms. These algorithms are not present in similar models. The resulting equations have been solved using the ADI method. This method solves the unknown parameters with solving a Penta-Diagonal matrix in each time step. It does so without sacrificing the desired precision.

  9. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  10. Study for Identification of Beneficial Uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 4: Development and business analysis of space processed surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary development plans, analysis of required R and D and production resources, the costs of such resources, and, finally, the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for the production of very high frequency surface acoustic wave devices are presented.

  11. Bibliography of the space processing program. Volume 1: A compilation through June 1974, Parts 1 and 2. [space manufacturing/spacecraft construction materials - aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoultz, M. B.; Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of NASA research efforts in the area of space environmental effects on materials and processes is presented. Topics considered are: (1) fluid mechanics and heat transfer; (2) crystal growth and containerless melts; (3) acoustics; (4) glass and ceramics; (5) electrophoresis; (6) welding; and (7) exobiology.

  12. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight. Volume 1. Published manuscripts. Progress report, June 1982-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1984-12-14

    Effects of the Gulf Stream on the outer southeastern US continental shelf were determined. The relationships of phytoplankton productivity and related processes to the oceanography of the inner shelf were investigated. Upwelling studies on the northeastern Florida shelf are described, and feeding and excretory rates of juvenile and adult zooplankton characteristic of advanced and matured upwellings on the southeastern continental shelf are reported. 6 figures. (ACR)

  13. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 1: Development and business analysis of space processed isoenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A separation method to provide reasonable yields of high specificity isoenzymes for the purpose of large scale, early clinical diagnosis of diseases and organic damage such as, myocardial infarction, hepatoma, muscular dystrophy, and infectous disorders is presented. Preliminary development plans are summarized. An analysis of required research and development and production resources is included. The costs of such resources and the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for electrophoretic separation of high specificity isoenzymes are reviewed.

  14. Study for identification of beneficial Uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 3: Development and business analysis of space processed tungsten fox X-ray targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development plans, analysis of required R and D and production resources, the costs of such resources, and finally, the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for containerless melting and resolidification of tungsten are discussed. The aim is to obtain a form of tungsten which, when fabricated into targets for X-ray tubes, provides at least, a 50 percent increase in service life.

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  17. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  18. The Heterogeneity in Retrieved Relations between the Personality Trait ‘Harm Avoidance’ and Gray Matter Volumes Due to Variations in the VBM and ROI Labeling Processing Settings

    PubMed Central

    Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; De Mey, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are raising about the large variability in reported correlations between gray matter morphology and affective personality traits as ‘Harm Avoidance’ (HA). A recent review study (Mincic 2015) stipulated that this variability could come from methodological differences between studies. In order to achieve more robust results by standardizing the data processing procedure, as a first step, we repeatedly analyzed data from healthy females while changing the processing settings (voxel-based morphology (VBM) or region-of-interest (ROI) labeling, smoothing filter width, nuisance parameters included in the regression model, brain atlas and multiple comparisons correction method). The heterogeneity in the obtained results clearly illustrate the dependency of the study outcome to the opted analysis settings. Based on our results and the existing literature, we recommended the use of VBM over ROI labeling for whole brain analyses with a small or intermediate smoothing filter (5-8mm) and a model variable selection step included in the processing procedure. Additionally, it is recommended that ROI labeling should only be used in combination with a clear hypothesis and that authors are encouraged to report their results uncorrected for multiple comparisons as supplementary material to aid review studies. PMID:27096608

  19. The Heterogeneity in Retrieved Relations between the Personality Trait 'Harm Avoidance' and Gray Matter Volumes Due to Variations in the VBM and ROI Labeling Processing Settings.

    PubMed

    Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; De Mey, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are raising about the large variability in reported correlations between gray matter morphology and affective personality traits as 'Harm Avoidance' (HA). A recent review study (Mincic 2015) stipulated that this variability could come from methodological differences between studies. In order to achieve more robust results by standardizing the data processing procedure, as a first step, we repeatedly analyzed data from healthy females while changing the processing settings (voxel-based morphology (VBM) or region-of-interest (ROI) labeling, smoothing filter width, nuisance parameters included in the regression model, brain atlas and multiple comparisons correction method). The heterogeneity in the obtained results clearly illustrate the dependency of the study outcome to the opted analysis settings. Based on our results and the existing literature, we recommended the use of VBM over ROI labeling for whole brain analyses with a small or intermediate smoothing filter (5-8mm) and a model variable selection step included in the processing procedure. Additionally, it is recommended that ROI labeling should only be used in combination with a clear hypothesis and that authors are encouraged to report their results uncorrected for multiple comparisons as supplementary material to aid review studies. PMID:27096608

  20. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-02-22

    Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received ;at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste`s Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995).

  1. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  2. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  3. New Advances In Multiphase Flow Numerical Modelling Using A General Domain Decomposition and Non-orthogonal Collocated Finite Volume Algorithm: Application To Industrial Fluid Catalytical Cracking Process and Large Scale Geophysical Fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Gonzalez Ortiz, A.

    In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are mod- elled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents os- cillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillatons of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. A pentadiagonal system in 2D or a septadiagonal in 3D must be solve but here we have chosen to solve 3 tridiagonal linear systems (the so called Alternate Direction Implicit algorithm), one in each spatial direction, to reduce the cost of computation. Then a multi-correction of interpolated velocities, pressures and volumic fractions of each phase are done in the cartesian frame or the deformed local curvilinear coordinate system till convergence and mass conservation. At the end the energy conservation equations are solved. In all this process the

  4. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume II - support materials. Final progress report, May 15, 1991--November 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers. This document consists of Support Materials for the manual: exercise answer keys; templates; guidelines for reviewing templates; a complete profiling packet; guidelines for the trainer.

  5. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  6. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 11B. Process development studies. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; alternative engineering studies; also Kentucky vs Wyoming coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    During the course of the Tri-State/Fluor Management Meeting held in Irvine on October 1, 1981, Fluor was requested to prepare additional process alternate studies. Discussions held on October 2 resulted in the definition of the eight cases described in this report. The scope for these eight cases were reviewed and approved during a meeting held in Houston on October 12. During the October 12 meeting Tri-State requested the preparation of an additional four cases reflecting the use of a typical Powder River basin coal. Cases 9 thru 12 issued with Revision 1 of this report reflect results of this work.

  7. Low cost silicon solar array project. Task 1: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low cost, high volume production of silane, SiH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, W. C.; Mui, J. Y. P.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the redistribution of dichlorosilane and trichlorosilane vapor over a tertiary amine ion exchange resin catalyst were investigated. The hydrogenation of SiCl4 to form HSiCl3 and the direct synthesis of H2SiCl2 from HCl gas and metallurgical silicon metal were also studied. The purification of SiH4 using activated carbon adsorbent was studied along with a process for storing SiH4 absorbed on carbon. The latter makes possible a higher volumetric efficiency than compressed gas storage. A mini-plant designed to produce ten pounds per day of SiH4 is described.

  8. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix A: Partially processed thematic mapper High Density Tape (HDT-AT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jai, A.

    1982-01-01

    One of the outputs of the data management system being developed to provide a variety of standard image products from the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanners on LANDSAT 4, is the partially processed TM data (radiometric corrections applied and geometric correction matrices for two projections appended) which is recorded on a 28-track high density tape. Specifications are presented for the format of the recorded data as well as for the time code and the major and minor frames of the tape. Major frame types, formats, and field definitions are included.

  9. Concepts for on-board satellite image registration. Volume 3: Impact of VLSI/VHSIC on satellite on-board signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; Snyder, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Anticipated major advances in integrated circuit technology in the near future are described as well as their impact on satellite onboard signal processing systems. Dramatic improvements in chip density, speed, power consumption, and system reliability are expected from very large scale integration. Improvements are expected from very large scale integration enable more intelligence to be placed on remote sensing platforms in space, meeting the goals of NASA's information adaptive system concept, a major component of the NASA End-to-End Data System program. A forecast of VLSI technological advances is presented, including a description of the Defense Department's very high speed integrated circuit program, a seven-year research and development effort.

  10. Concepts for on-board satellite image registration. Volume 3: Impact of VLSI/VHSIC on satellite on-board signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; Snyder, W. E.

    1981-07-01

    Anticipated major advances in integrated circuit technology in the near future are described as well as their impact on satellite onboard signal processing systems. Dramatic improvements in chip density, speed, power consumption, and system reliability are expected from very large scale integration. Improvements are expected from very large scale integration enable more intelligence to be placed on remote sensing platforms in space, meeting the goals of NASA's information adaptive system concept, a major component of the NASA End-to-End Data System program. A forecast of VLSI technological advances is presented, including a description of the Defense Department's very high speed integrated circuit program, a seven-year research and development effort.

  11. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  12. Estimates of volume, heat and freshwater budgets for the Arctic Mediterranean and North Atlantic in relation to the main physical processes: Insight from the EU-NACLIM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, Bert; Hansen, Bogi; Karstensen, Johannes; McCarthy, Gerard; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    salinity upper layer is separated from the cooling area in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. A warmer climate could reduce the cooling and the density increase in the Atlantic water, unless it is compensated by higher initial salinity of the northward flowing Atlantic water. Ice drifting over and melting on the warm, saline Atlantic water might, however, create an upper layer that prevents further cooling of the Atlantic core below. The sea ice extent and volume are presently declining and such sea ice flux is not expect to happen, The possibility is rather that not enough ice is available to create the low salinity upper layer in the Nansen Basin. Should this upper layer disappear, it could actually lead to more overflow water being produced. Almost all of the atmospheric freshwater that is added to the North Atlantic flow south in the lower limb of the MOC. This implies that the freshwater is eventually mixed into and contributes to the mode waters that are formed in the Labrador Sea and the Irminger Sea and flow south in the DWBC.

  13. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 1, Program summary and PDU operations

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  14. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  15. Assessing the economic impact of indirect liquefaction process improvements: Volume 1, Development of the integrated indirect liquefaction model and baseline case

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.C. . Civil Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report documents the development of an integrated indirect liquefaction system model, which processes input coal to refined liquid products, and the model's application in the analysis of a baseline case. The baseline case uses Shell gasification of coal followed by gas cleaning to produce a clean synthesis gas for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The raw liquid products are refined to produce gasoline and diesel. Costs of liquid products have been estimated for the baseline plant. The model also alloys many sensitivity studies to be performed so that the economic impacts of research and development advances can be quantified. When used in this manner, the model can provide research guidance for future indirect liquefaction studies. 18 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  17. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  18. High volume transfer of high viscosity silver pastes using laser direct-write processing for screen printing of c-Si cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Chen, Y.; Munoz-Martin, D.; Lauzurica, S.; Molpeceres, C.

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this work is to adapt Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT), a well-known laser direct writing technique for material transfer, to define metallic contacts (fingers and busbars) onto c-Si cells. A layer of a commercial silver paste (viscosity around 30-50 kcPs), with thickness in the order of tens of microns, is applied over a glass substrate using a coater.. The glass with the silver paste is set at a controlled gap over the c-Si cell. A solid state pulsed laser (532 nm) is focused on the glass/silver interface producing a droplet of silver that it is transferred to the acceptor substrate. The process parameters (silver paste thickness, gap and laser parameters -spot size, pulse energy and overlapping of pulses) are modified and the morphology of the voxels is studied using confocal microscopy. Long lines are printed with a scanner and their uniformity, width, and height are studied. Examples of metallization of large areas (up to 10 cm x 10 cm) over c-Si cells are presented.

  19. Evaluation of the applicability of nonlinear programming algorithms to a typical commercial process flow-sheeting simulator (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient methodology for using commercial flowsheeting programs with advanced mathematical programming algorithms was developed for the optimization of operating plants. The methodology was demonstrated and validated using ChemShare Corporation's DESIGN/2000 simulation of the Freeport Chemical Company's plant for sulfuric acid manufacture and three nonlinear programming techniques: successive linear programming, successive quadratic programming, and the generalized reduced-gradient method. The application of this methodology begins with the development of a feasible base-case simulation. Partial derivatives of the economic model and constraint equations are computed using fully converged simulations. This information is used to formulate an optimization problem that can be solved with the NLP algorithms giving improved values of the economic model. A line search is constructed through the point found from the nonlinear programming algorithm to find the best feasible point to repeat the procedure. The procedure is repeated using the ChemShare simulation program and the NLP code until convergence criteria are met. This method was applied to three flowsheeting problems; a plant-scale-contact sulfuric acid process model, a packed-bed-reactor design model, and an adiabatic-flash problem.

  20. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 1, Dry sorbent injection: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    This report presents the results of fundamental mass transfer testing for in-duct removal of SO{sub 2}. Following this initial part of an experimental program, it became clear that the amount of initial moisture on the sorbent strongly affected the extent of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion. Novel techniques aimed at increasing sorbent utilization were investigated and are described. Major novel technique investigated and reported on here was the reaction with SO{sub 2} of sorbents with initial free moisture (damp sorbents). The duct injection process using damp solids has the following steps: preparation of sorbent as a slurry, blending of the slurry with dry recycle materials to create damp solids, injection of the solids into the duct, reaction and drying of the solids with flue gas in the duct, collection in particulate control equipment, and finally recycle of dry solids with some bleed to disposal. The moisture content of the solids at each step affects system performance. Various factors favor high moisture whereas others favor low moisture. (VC)

  1. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 30. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. The fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [111 references

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S. R.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated for each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg/sup 0/, H/sub 2/Se, AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1163 - How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? 250.1163 Section 250..., and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1163 How must I measure gas flaring or venting volumes and liquid hydrocarbon burning volumes, and what records must I maintain? (a) If your facility processes more than...

  3. Summation of IMS Volume Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordillo, Frank

    A computer program designed to produce summary information on the data processing volume of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is described. Written in FORTRAN IV for use on an IBM 360 Model 91, the program sorts IMS input data on the basis of run identifier and on the basis of classroom identification…

  4. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  5. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  6. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  7. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  8. Time-Critical Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Arie

    1998-01-01

    For the past twelve months, we have conducted and completed a joint research entitled "Time- Critical Volume Rendering" with NASA Ames. As expected, High performance volume rendering algorithms have been developed by exploring some new faster rendering techniques, including object presence acceleration, parallel processing, and hierarchical level-of-detail representation. Using our new techniques, initial experiments have achieved real-time rendering rates of more than 10 frames per second of various 3D data sets with highest resolution. A couple of joint papers and technique reports as well as an interactive real-time demo have been compiled as the result of this project.

  9. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  10. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  11. Volume holographic gratings: fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.; Pagliarulo, V.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.

    2015-05-01

    Volume Holographic Gratings is designed and fabricated to obtain a simple, lightweight and cheap light deflector. The entire process, starting from the chemical preparation of the photosensitive material, to the recording of Volume Holographic Gratings and their appropriate characterization, is reported. The recording material was a new photopolymer sensitive to light at 532nm. Results showed that the recorded Volume Holographic Grating presents a very high value of the diffraction efficiency, up to 94%. In addition, a flexible material is used to write Volume Holographic Gratings.

  12. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements. PMID:22034331

  13. Control of cell volume in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Fraser, James A

    2009-02-01

    Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study of the consequences of individual factors on muscle volume difficult despite their likely importance during exercise. Recent charge-difference modelling of cell volume distinguishes three major aspects to processes underlying cell volume control: (i) determination by intracellular impermeant solute; (ii) maintenance by metabolically dependent processes directly balancing passive solute and water fluxes that would otherwise cause cell swelling under the influence of intracellular membrane-impermeant solutes; and (iii) volume regulation often involving reversible short-term transmembrane solute transport processes correcting cell volumes towards their normal baselines in response to imposed discrete perturbations. This review covers, in turn, the main predictions from such quantitative analysis and the experimental consequences of comparable alterations in extracellular pH, lactate concentration, membrane potential and extracellular tonicity. The effects of such alterations in the extracellular environment in resting amphibian muscles are then used to reproduce the intracellular changes that occur in each case in exercising muscle. The relative contributions of these various factors to the control of cell volume in resting and exercising skeletal muscle are thus described. PMID:19133959

  14. Higher Education in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Volume I: Overview of the System and the Needs of the Reconstruction Process [and] Volume II: Recommendations and Project Proposals for Strengthening Higher Education in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip over the 1994-1998 Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication comprised of two volumes describes the findings of a review of Palestinian universities emphasizing science and technology, and the resulting recommendations for higher education improvement and support to be carried out between 1994 and 1998. In volume I the review, or mission, found that there are 28 tertiary-level institutions…

  15. Rapid Decimation for Direct Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Jonathan; VanGelder, Allen; Verma, Vivek; Wilhelms, Jane

    1997-01-01

    An approach for eliminating unnecessary portions of a volume when producing a direct volume rendering is described. This reduction in volume size sacrifices some image quality in the interest of rendering speed. Since volume visualization is often used as an exploratory visualization technique, it is important to reduce rendering times, so the user can effectively explore the volume. The methods presented can speed up rendering by factors of 2 to 3 with minor image degradation. A family of decimation algorithms to reduce the number of primitives in the volume without altering the volume's grid in any way is introduced. This allows the decimation to be computed rapidly, making it easier to change decimation levels on the fly. Further, because very little extra space is required, this method is suitable for the very large volumes that are becoming common. The method is also grid-independent, so it is suitable for multiple overlapping curvilinear and unstructured, as well as regular, grids. The decimation process can proceed automatically, or can be guided by the user so that important regions of the volume are decimated less than unimportant regions. A formal error measure is described based on a three-dimensional analog of the Radon transform. Decimation methods are evaluated based on this metric and on direct comparison with reference images.

  16. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  17. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2010-06-29

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  18. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-05-31

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  19. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2008-10-28

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  20. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2011-01-18

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  1. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-06-21

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  2. Photogrammetric Technique for Timber Stack Volume Contol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Maksimov, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of accurate log volume measurement is a very important, especially in case of seaport volume control where logs are put in a huge stack of hundred meters length and a time for volume control is strongly restricted. Current technology of volume control use manual means such as measuring tape, so the process of measurement is rather inaccurate and time consuming. To estimate the volume of timber stack its frontal area is measured and some control parts of a stack are used for stacking coefficient (wood density in a stack) determination. Non-contact vision based technique is proposed for manual measurements substituting. The developed methods are implemented in portable photogrammetric system for stack parameters measuring and documenting.

  3. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  4. Distributed shared memory for roaming large volumes.

    PubMed

    Castanié, Laurent; Mion, Christophe; Cavin, Xavier; Lévy, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    We present a cluster-based volume rendering system for roaming very large volumes. This system allows to move a gigabyte-sized probe inside a total volume of several tens or hundreds of gigabytes in real-time. While the size of the probe is limited by the total amount of texture memory on the cluster, the size of the total data set has no theoretical limit. The cluster is used as a distributed graphics processing unit that both aggregates graphics power and graphics memory. A hardware-accelerated volume renderer runs in parallel on the cluster nodes and the final image compositing is implemented using a pipelined sort-last rendering algorithm. Meanwhile, volume bricking and volume paging allow efficient data caching. On each rendering node, a distributed hierarchical cache system implements a global software-based distributed shared memory on the cluster. In case of a cache miss, this system first checks page residency on the other cluster nodes instead of directly accessing local disks. Using two Gigabit Ethernet network interfaces per node, we accelerate data fetching by a factor of 4 compared to directly accessing local disks. The system also implements asynchronous disk access and texture loading, which makes it possible to overlap data loading, volume slicing and rendering for optimal volume roaming. PMID:17080865

  5. Unsteady flow volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  6. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  7. Variable-Volume Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colling, A. K.; Nallette, T. A.; Sansevero, F.

    1989-01-01

    Container holds bed of beads securely while accommodating sizable changes in volume and allowing gases to flow through bed. Developed for air-purifying system in which carbon dioxide is removed by solid amine beads.

  8. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  9. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  10. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior. PMID:26472384

  11. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  12. Direct volume editing.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Kai; Krüger, Jens; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present basic methodology for interactive volume editing on GPUs, and we demonstrate the use of these methods to achieve a number of different effects. We present fast techniques to modify the appearance and structure of volumetric scalar fields given on Cartesian grids. Similar to 2D circular brushes as used in surface painting we present 3D spherical brushes for intuitive coloring of particular structures in such fields. This paint metaphor is extended to allow the user to change the data itself, and the use of this functionality for interactive structure isolation, hole filling, and artefact removal is demonstrated. Building on previous work in the field we introduce high-resolution selection volumes, which can be seen as a resolution-based focus+context metaphor. By utilizing such volumes we present a novel approach to interactive volume editing at sub-voxel accuracy. Finally, we introduce a fast technique to paste textures onto iso-surfaces in a 3D scalar field. Since the texture resolution is independent of the volume resolution, this technique allows structure-aligned textures containing appearance properties or textual information to be used for volume augmentation and annotation. PMID:18988988

  13. Diffuse volume transport in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2010-10-01

    The diffuse flux of volume j in a single-component liquid or gas, the subject of this paper, is a purely molecular quantity defined as the difference between the flux of volume n and the convective flux of volume nvˆ carried by the flowing mass, with n the mass flux, vˆ=1/ρ the specific volume, and ρ the mass density. Elementary statistical-mechanical arguments are used to derive the linear constitutive equation j=DS∇lnρ, valid in near-equilibrium fluids from which body forces are absent. Here, DS is the fluid’s self-diffusion coefficient. The present derivation is based on Einstein’s mesoscopic Brownian motion arguments, albeit applied here to volume- rather than particle-transport phenomena. In contrast to these mesoscale arguments, all prior derivations were based upon macroscale linear irreversible thermodynamic (LIT) arguments. DS replaces the thermometric diffusivity α as the phenomenological coefficient appearing in earlier, ad hoc, derivations. The prior scheme based on α, which had been shown to accord with Burnett’s well-known gas-kinetic constitutive data for the heat flux and viscous stress, carries over intact to now show comparable accord of DS with these same data, since for gases the dimensionless Lewis number Le=α/DS is essentially unity. On the other hand for most liquids, where Le≫1, use of DS in place of α is shown to agree much better with existing experimental data for liquids. For the case of binary mixtures it is shown for the special case of isothermal, isobaric, force-free, Fick’s law-type molecular diffusion processes that j=D∇lnρ, where D is the binary diffusion coefficient. In contrast with the preceding use in the single-component case of both mesoscopic and LIT models to obtain a constitutive equation for j, the corresponding mixture result is derived here without use of any physical model whatsoever. Rather, the derivation effectively requires little more than the respective definitions of the diffuse volume

  14. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  15. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

  16. Systems Design and Pilot Operation of a Regional Center for Technical Processing for the Libraries of the New England State Universities. NELINET, New England Library Information Network. Progress Report, July 1, 1967 - March 30, 1968, Volume II, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agenbroad, James E.; And Others

    Included in this volume of appendices to LI 000 979 are acquisitions flow charts; a current operations questionnaire; an algorithm for splitting the Library of Congress call number; analysis of the Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC II) format; production problems and decisions; operating procedures for information transmittal in the New England…

  17. Multi-volume visualization for interactive therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liangshou; Amin, Viren R.; Ryken, Timothy; Long, Tao; Hagge, Mathew J.; Bryden, Mark

    2007-03-01

    During the past decade, various volume visualization techniques have been developed for different purposes, and many of them, such as direct volume rendering, maximum intensity projection and non-photorealistic rendering, have been implemented on consumer graphics hardware for real time visualization. However, effective multi-volume visualization, a way to establish the visual connections between two or more types of data, has not been adequately addressed even though it has wide applications in medical imaging and numerical simulation based on 3D physical model. In this paper, we aim to develop an effective GPU-based system for multi-volume visualization which is able to reveal both the connections and distinctions among multiple volume data. To address the main challenge for multi-volume visualization on how to establish the visual correspondences while maintaining the distinctive information among multiple volumes, a multi-level distinction mechanism is developed including 2D transfer function, mixed rendering modes, and volume clipping. Taking advantage of the fast hardware-supported processing capabilities, the system is implemented based on the GPU programming. Several advanced volume rendering techniques based on segmented volume are also implemented. The resulting visualization is a highly interactive image fusion system with high quality image and three-level volume distinction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system with a case study in which the heat effect on brain tumor, represented as a temperature volume resulting from high intensity focused ultrasound beam exposure over time, is visualized in the context of a MRI head volume.

  18. Chemistry of coal utilization. Second supplementary volume

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The first two volumes of this work, published in 1945, and the first supplemental volume, published in 1963, all under the editorship of H.H. Lowry, are recognized classics. Their comprehensive coverage and critical review of the literature on coal science and technology have been invaluable to workers at all levels of experience. Between 1963 and 1976, however, funding of coal research and development by government and industry in the United States increased from about $22 million to about $322 million per year. Throughout this period the expansion in the literature on coal science and technology and in the number of newcomers to the field made evident the need for a second supplementary volume to Chemistry of Coal Utilization. This second supplementary volume has the following four topics which are not covered in the earlier volumes: Coal Industry and Coal Research and Development in Perspective; Coal Resources; Control of Pollution from Combustion Processes; and Environmental, Health and Safety Implications of Increased Coal Utilization. In addition, the broad areas of pyrolysis, combustion, gasification, and liquefaction, are subdivided for treatment in three separate chapters on fundamentals, processes, and treatment of products. The 31 chapters in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 2. SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This two volume set presents in detail technical design information for the following sludge treatment and disposal processes: incineration, pyrolysis, composting, land utilization, and landfilling. The discussion of each process includes, where possible, a presentation of perfor...

  20. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

  1. Assessing volume status.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael C; Mallemat, Haney

    2014-11-01

    Shock is a physiologic state associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The clinician has several tools available to evaluate volume status. Each modality has its benefits and limitations but, to date, no one test can indicate with 100% accuracy which patients will be truly volume responsive. Although the search for the Holy Grail of a perfect intravascular monitor continues, we must remember the importance of early, aggressive, and goal-directed interventions for patients in shock. Finally, there is no substitute for the most important intervention-the frequent presence of the physician at the patient's bedside. PMID:25441036

  2. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  3. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  4. GREEK BASIC COURSE, VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE GREEK LANGUAGE DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I OF THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ADULTS IS THE "KATHOMILUMENI" VARIETY, THAT OF THE STANDARD SPEECH OF EDUCATED GREEKS. (VOLUME III OF THE COURSE INTRODUCES THE MORE FORMAL KATHAREVUSA VARIETY.) EACH VOLUME OF THE COURSE CONTAINS 25 UNITS PLUS FIVE REVIEW SECTIONS. A TYPICAL UNIT IN VOLUME I CONSISTS OF--(1)…

  5. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  6. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  7. Overview of the Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Emslie, A. G.; Hudson, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, we provide a brief summary of the successes and remaining challenges in understanding the solar flare phenomenon and its attendant implications for particle acceleration mechanisms in astrophysical plasmas. We also provide a brief overview of the contents of the other chapters in this volume, with particular reference to the well-observed flare of 2002 July 23.

  8. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  9. Navajo Biographies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Virginia

    The life stories of eight Navajo ("Dine", their term for themselves) leaders are presented in volume one of this collection of biographies. Interspersed with portraits, drawings, and maps, the narrative chronologically covers the time period from 1766 when the Navajos lived on land under the rule of Spain into the twentieth century and dealings…

  10. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  11. VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOLEY, JACK L.

    THIS BOOKLET, ONE OF A SERIES, HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE PROJECT, A PROGRAM FOR MATHEMATICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED PUPILS. A PROJECT TEAM, INCLUDING INSERVICE TEACHERS, IS BEING USED TO WRITE AND DEVELOP THE MATERIALS FOR THIS PROGRAM. THE MATERIALS DEVELOPED IN THIS BOOKLET INCLUDE (1) MEASURING VOLUMES OF RECTANGULAR SOLIDS, RIGHT RECTANGULAR…

  12. Negotiating Salaries, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This volume discusses specific strategy and tactics that can be employed in the effort to reach an agreement on salaries at the bargaining table. Although strategies and situations may vary from case to case, this report focuses on those principles and approaches that are essential to any good bargaining procedure. The discussion covers public vs.…

  13. Negotiating Salaries, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This volume deals with concepts important to the effective negotiation of salaries in public schools. The discussion covers the compensation patterns in education, the goals and pressures affecting reacher negotiators, salaries in relation to other benefits and proposals, extra pay for extra duties and merit pay, and the stance of the negotiators…

  14. Shear-induced Volume Decrease in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm2 resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ~ 20 – 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (~ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 μM Hg2+ significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 μM DIDS, or 100 μM Gd3+ suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K+ and Cl− channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca2+ independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca2+ level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model. PMID:22759987

  15. Remote visualization system based on particle based volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Takuma; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Miyamura, Hiroko; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Koyamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel remote visualization system based on particle-based volume rendering (PBVR),1 which enables interactive analyses of extreme scale volume data located on remote computing systems. The re- mote PBVR system consists of Server, which generates particles for rendering, and Client, which processes volume rendering, and the particle data size becomes significantly smaller than the original volume data. Depending on network bandwidth, the level of detail of images is flexibly controlled to attain high frame rates. Server is highly parallelized on various parallel platforms with hybrid programing model. The mapping process is accelerated by two orders of magnitudes compared with a single CPU. The structured and unstructured volume data with ~108 cells is processed within a few seconds. Compared with commodity Client/Server visualization tools, the total processing cost is dramatically reduced by using proposed system.

  16. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission-source identification and source-specific pollution-control applications. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplishes two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flow-sheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Volume III is divided into two separate parts. Part II covers mercury; trace metals; carbon monoxide; NO/sub x/; and hydrocarbons. Mercury waste water control technologies discussed include ion exchange, starch complexing, ferrite coprecipitation, evaporation ponds, sulfide precipitation, activated carbon, and specific control processes. Trace metal control processes in waste water discussed include reverse osmosis, starch complexing, sodium borohydride, hydroxide precipitation, ferrite coprecipitation, ion exchange, activated carbon, sulfide precipitation, evaporation ponds, and combined physical-chemical metal removal. Offgas system removal of beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium are also covered. Carbon monoxide control technologies in utility and industrial boilers and in petroleum refineries are covered. Flue gas denitrification processes discussed included noncatalytic and catalytic reduction, adsorption, oxidation, alkalized alumina, electron beam radiation, activated carbon process for NO/sub x/ removal. Hydrocarbon control technologies in waste water and gases are described. (DMC)

  17. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics of volume 2 of First CLIPS Conference are associated with following applications: quality control; intelligent data bases and networks; Space Station Freedom; Space Shuttle and satellite; user interface; artificial neural systems and fuzzy logic; parallel and distributed processing; enchancements to CLIPS; aerospace; simulation and defense; advisory systems and tutors; and intelligent control.

  18. Handbook of Early Literacy Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B., Ed.; Dickinson, David K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Building crucial bridges between theory, research, and practice, this volume brings together leading authorities on the literacy development of young children. The "Handbook" examines the full range of factors that shape learning in and out of the classroom, from basic developmental processes to family and sociocultural contexts, pedagogical…

  19. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  20. V. A. Ambartsumian: Scientific works. Volume 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambartsumian, Viktor A.

    This volume contains works of the famous Soviet astrophysicist Ambartsumian published between 1961 and 1986. The works presented are in the fields of extragalactic astronomy, nonstationary processes in stars, the theory of light scattering, and the structure and evolution of stars. Particular attention is given to original conceptions concerning active galactic nuclei, flare stars, superdense configurations, and transfer theory.

  1. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  2. Global bioconversions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    These volumes present the most active bioconversion-based research and development projects worldwide, with an emphasis on the important practical aspects of this work. A major focus of the text is the bioconversion of organic residues to useful products, which also encompasses the field of anaerobic methane fermentation. Chapters from an international perspective are also included, which further address the global importance of bioconversion.

  3. Global bioconversions. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    These volumes present the most active bioconversion-based research and development projects worldwide, with an emphasis on the important practical aspects of this work. A major focus of the text is the bioconversion of organic residues to useful products, which also encompasses the field of anaerobic methane fermentation. Chapters from an international perspective are also included, which further address the global importance of bioconversion.

  4. Variable volume calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

  5. Anisotropic Ambient Volume Shading.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method to compute anisotropic shading for direct volume rendering to improve the perception of the orientation and shape of surface-like structures. We determine the scale-aware anisotropy of a shading point by analyzing its ambient region. We sample adjacent points with similar scalar values to perform a principal component analysis by computing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In particular, we estimate the tangent directions, which serve as the tangent frame for anisotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions. Moreover, we exploit the ratio of the eigenvalues to measure the magnitude of the anisotropy at each shading point. Altogether, this allows us to model a data-driven, smooth transition from isotropic to strongly anisotropic volume shading. In this way, the shape of volumetric features can be enhanced significantly by aligning specular highlights along the principal direction of anisotropy. Our algorithm is independent of the transfer function, which allows us to compute all shading parameters once and store them with the data set. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint. Our results demonstrate the benefit of anisotropic shading for visualization to achieve data-driven local illumination for improved perception compared to isotropic shading. PMID:26529745

  6. Research Summary No. 36-6, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  7. Research Summary No. 36-5, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  8. In situ and on-site bioremediation. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1997-11-01

    Collected in Volume 2 are articles on the bioremediation of media contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated aromatics, explosives and nitroaromatics, pesticides and herbicides, and other recalcitrant compounds. The technologies discussed include intrinsic remediation/natural attenuation, fungal technologies, application of surfactants, composting, and landfarming. This volume also contains articles on field methods and process monitoring to support bioremediation applications.

  9. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  10. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  11. BULGARIAN, BASIC COURSE, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HODGE, CARLETON T.; AND OTHERS

    A BASIC COURSE IN BULGARIAN HAS BEEN PREPARED IN TWO VOLUMES. THIS VOLUME, VOLUME 1, IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--BASIC SENTENCES, NOTES, AND DRILLS. AN ADDITIONAL PART INCLUDES READING PASSAGES. THE BASIC SENTENCES ARE NORMAL DIALOG MATERIAL, MEANT TO BE MEMORIZED. THE NOTES EXPLAIN THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE AND ARE DIVIDED INTO…

  12. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  13. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  14. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  15. Strong volume, stable prices

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU.

  16. Mining volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph Saul (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a shaft with a curved or straight primary segment and smaller off-shooting segments, at least one standing wave is generated in the primary segment. The shaft has either an open end or a closed end and approximates a cylindrical waveguide. A frequency of a standing wave that represents the fundamental mode characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. Alternatively, a frequency differential between two successive harmonic modes that are characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. In either event, the measured frequency or frequency differential is characteristic of the length and thus the volume of the shaft based on length times the bore area.

  17. Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division. Volume 4: Natural convection within a horizontal circular cylinder heated from below and cooled from above; Numerical methods for coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction; Thermal analysis in waste processing and disposal; Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems; HTD-Volume 335

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.; Douglass, R.W.; Heinrich, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The first two sections as listed in the title contain 7 papers. The third section on thermal analysis contains 18 papers arranged into the following topical areas: Thermal treatment and municipal wastes; Thermal hydraulics in hazardous and nuclear waste processing and disposal; and Waste processing. Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems contains 17 papers arranged into the following topical sections: Soot/radiation; Combustion systems; Multiphase combustion; and Flames and fires. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Free-volume hole relaxation in molecularly oriented glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhiyong; Trexler, Morgana; Wu, Fei; Jean, Yan-Ching; Van Horn, J. David

    2014-02-01

    The free-volume hole relaxation in polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different levels of molecular orientation was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at variable pressures. The molecular orientation was achieved through a simple shear process performed at different temperatures and extrusion rates. It has been demonstrated that the β relaxation is largely responsible for the free-volume hole anisotropy after simple shear orientation. Upon the removal of mechanical force, the deformation of the free volume is mostly reversible at temperatures much lower than the glass transition. No strong correlation between macroscopic deformation and the free-volume hole deformation was found regardless of molecular orientation.

  19. Free-volume hole relaxation in molecularly oriented glassy polymers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiyong; Trexler, Morgana; Wu, Fei; Jean, Yan-Ching; Van Horn, J David

    2014-02-01

    The free-volume hole relaxation in polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different levels of molecular orientation was studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at variable pressures. The molecular orientation was achieved through a simple shear process performed at different temperatures and extrusion rates. It has been demonstrated that the β relaxation is largely responsible for the free-volume hole anisotropy after simple shear orientation. Upon the removal of mechanical force, the deformation of the free volume is mostly reversible at temperatures much lower than the glass transition. No strong correlation between macroscopic deformation and the free-volume hole deformation was found regardless of molecular orientation. PMID:25353498

  20. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  1. Self-Digitization of Sample Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dawn E.; Schneider, Thomas; Wang, Michelle; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a very simple and robust microfluidic device for digitizing samples into an array of discrete volumes. The device is based on an inherent fluidic phenomenon, where an incoming aqueous sample divides itself into an array of chambers that have been primed with an immiscible phase. Self-digitization of sample volumes results from the interplay between fluidic forces, interfacial tension, channel geometry, and the final stability of the digitized samples in the chambers. Here we describe experiments and simulations that were used to characterize these parameters and the conditions under which the self-digitization process occurred. Unlike existing methods used to partition samples into array, our method is able to digitize 100% of a sample into a localized array without any loss of sample volume. The final volume of the discretized sample at each location is defined by the geometry and size of each chamber. Thus, we can form an array of samples with varying but predefined volumes. We exploited this feature to separate the crystal growth of otherwise concomitant polymorphs from a single solution. Additionally, we demonstrated the removal of the digitized samples from the chambers for downstream analysis, as well as the addition of reagents to the digitized samples. We believe this simple method will be useful in a broad range of applications where a large array of discretized samples is required, including digital PCR, single-cell analysis, and cell-based drug screening. PMID:20550137

  2. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  3. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  4. Technologies for imaging neural activity in large volumes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Na; Freeman, Jeremy; Smith, Spencer L

    2016-08-26

    Neural circuitry has evolved to form distributed networks that act dynamically across large volumes. Conventional microscopy collects data from individual planes and cannot sample circuitry across large volumes at the temporal resolution relevant to neural circuit function and behaviors. Here we review emerging technologies for rapid volume imaging of neural circuitry. We focus on two critical challenges: the inertia of optical systems, which limits image speed, and aberrations, which restrict the image volume. Optical sampling time must be long enough to ensure high-fidelity measurements, but optimized sampling strategies and point-spread function engineering can facilitate rapid volume imaging of neural activity within this constraint. We also discuss new computational strategies for processing and analyzing volume imaging data of increasing size and complexity. Together, optical and computational advances are providing a broader view of neural circuit dynamics and helping elucidate how brain regions work in concert to support behavior. PMID:27571194

  5. Military Testing Association (Proceedings of the Annual Conference (27th, San Diego, California, October 21-25, 1985). Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navy Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, CA.

    The 169 paper and symposium presentations given during 57 sessions of the conference are provided in these two volumes. The first volume contains the keynote speech, which addressed military entrance processing command and its acquired immune deficiency snydrome testing program. Symposia topics in this volume include: (1) computerized diagnostic…

  6. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. UPGRADING TEXTILE OPERATIONS TO REDUCE POLLUTION - 2 VOLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-volume set is oriented toward owners, managers, superintendents, and engineering and operating staffs of textile manufacturing facilities. mall industries can use this information to become acquainted with the various in-plant process modifications and control alternatives...

  8. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. C.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  10. Regulatory and necrotic volume increase in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, A M; Jebe, E; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2005-08-01

    Spermatozoa of many species initially respond to hypotonicity as perfect osmometers. Thereafter they undergo a regulatory process resulting in a decrease in cell volume, similar to that reported for somatic cells. Regulatory volume increase (RVI), a complementary process which is assumed to occur following initial shrinkage of sperm volume after exposure to a hypertonic medium, has not yet been described in detail for spermatozoa. In this study, we investigated whether spermatozoa are able to regulate their volume after hypertonic stress and whether this ability is maintained in preserved sperm. Cell volume changes were recorded using electronic cell sizing. Sperm response to the ion channels blockers quinidine, tamoxifen, and dydeoxyforskolin, and to protein kinase/phosphatase inhibitors lavendustin, staurosporine, and vanadate was studied to investigate possible mechanisms of RVI. Annexin V staining was used in combination with propidium iodide to determine whether hypertonic stress may induce apoptosis. Overall protein tyrosine phosphorylation under hypertonic conditions was measured via flow cytometry using antiphosphotyrosine antibody. Spermatozoa exposed to hypertonic stress initially responded with an abundant subpopulation according to the perfect osmometer model and recovered their volume from this shrinkage after 20 min. RVI was inhibited by quinidine and tamoxifen, which indicates the involvement of the important cellular ions sodium and chloride in this process. Volume regulatory ability was essentially maintained during storage of liquid semen. However, the response of the sperm population was heterogeneous. A second population raised, containing spermatozoa with larger volumes, which demonstrated irregularities in the volume response with respect to osmotic challenge, ion channel blockers, and storage. Under hypertonic conditions, both protein kinase inhibitors (PKI) led to increased isotonic volumes and to elevated initial relative volumes and

  11. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, James; Hays, David; Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  12. Volume interchange factors for hypersonic vehicle wake radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Volume interchange factors are shown to be convenient in modeling the radiative processes in the wake of a hypersonic vehicle. Use of the factors facilitates calculating not just the radiative heating rates on afterbody surfaces but also the radiative de-excitation rates from stimulated emission and re-excitation rates from absorption in rarefied nonequilibrium flows. Sample calculations of volume interchange factors are presented for volume configurations modeling wake elements, and the numerical results are compared to limiting approximations to clarify the operation of the emission, transmission, and absorption processes.

  13. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stoltze, Andrew J.; Wong, Terrence S.; Harland, Karisa K.; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M.; Mohr, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system, and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Materials and Methods Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n=235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes ≤ 8 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Results Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag-valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg PBW (SD 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (p < 0.001) and intensive care unit (p = 0.015). ARDS was not associated with pre-hospital tidal volume (p = 0.840). Conclusions Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation, but was not associated with ARDS. PMID:25813548

  14. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  15. Indian Education Confronts the Seventies. Five Volumes; Volume II: Theoretical Considerations in Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr., Ed.

    Presenting six position papers, this publication is the second in a series of five volumes on American Indian education. Papers are titled as follows: (1) "The Theory of Indian Controlled Schools" (Indian control of education is perceived as the basis for a cultural renewal process in which the problems of contemporary identity and purpose are…

  16. Process Interaction for Wastewater Facilities, Wastewater Technology: A Two-Year Post High School Instructional Program. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs. Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearheart, Robert A.; And Others

    This document is one in a series which outlines performance objectives and instructional modules for a course of study which explains the relationships and functions of the process units in a wastewater treatment plant. The modules are arranged in an order appropriate for teaching students with no experience. The modules can also be rearranged and…

  17. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  18. Seismic engineering -- 1996. PVP-volume 340

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, M.A.; Aggarwal, M.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 37 papers in this volume have been arranged under the following topical sections: advanced methods in seismic engineering (7 papers); high level dynamic response of piping systems (5); equipment seismic qualification (6); soil structure interaction (3); advanced seismic technology in Asian countries (8); developments in seismic codes and standards (8); and a panel discussion on the review of current issues by the Special Working Group on seismic rules. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Volume Rendering of Heliospheric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.; Bailey, M. J.; Buffington, A.

    2001-12-01

    We demonstrate some of the techniques we currently use for the visualization of heliospheric volume data. Our 3D volume data usually are derived from tomographic reconstructions of the solar wind density and velocity from remote sensing observations (e.g., Thomson scattering and interplanetary scintillation observations). We show examples of hardware-based volume rendering using the Volume Pro PCI board (from TeraRecon, Inc.). This board updates the display at a rate of up to 30 frames per second using a parallel projection algorithm, allowing the manipulation of volume data in real-time. In addition, the manipulation of 4D volume data (the 4th dimension usually representing time) enables the visualization in real-time of an evolving (time-dependent) data set. We also show examples of perspective projections using IDL. This work was supported through NASA grant NAG5-9423.

  20. Electromagnetic Theory 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaviside, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Outline of the electromagnetic connections; 3. The elements of vectorial algebra and analysis; 4. Theory of plane electromagnetic waves; Appendix. Volume 2: Preface; 5. Mathematics and the age of the earth; 6. Pure diffusion of electric displacement; 7. Electromagnetic waves and generalised differentiation; 8. Generalised differentiation and divergent series; Appendix. Volume 3: 9. Waves from moving sources; 10. Waves in the ether.

  1. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  2. The physics of volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Radiation transfer is an important topic in several physical disciplines, probably most prominently in astrophysics. Computer scientists use radiation transfer, among other things, for the visualization of complex data sets with direct volume rendering. In this article, I point out the connection between physical radiation transfer and volume rendering, and I describe an implementation of direct volume rendering in the astrophysical radiation transfer code RADMC-3D. I show examples for the use of this module on analytical models and simulation data.

  3. Uncertainty-aware guided volume segmentation.

    PubMed

    Prassni, Jörg-Stefan; Ropinski, Timo; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Although direct volume rendering is established as a powerful tool for the visualization of volumetric data, efficient and reliable feature detection is still an open topic. Usually, a tradeoff between fast but imprecise classification schemes and accurate but time-consuming segmentation techniques has to be made. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty introduced with the feature detection process is completely neglected by the majority of existing approaches.In this paper we propose a guided probabilistic volume segmentation approach that focuses on the minimization of uncertainty. In an iterative process, our system continuously assesses uncertainty of a random walker-based segmentation in order to detect regions with high ambiguity, to which the user's attention is directed to support the correction of potential misclassifications. This reduces the risk of critical segmentation errors and ensures that information about the segmentation's reliability is conveyed to the user in a dependable way. In order to improve the efficiency of the segmentation process, our technique does not only take into account the volume data to be segmented, but also enables the user to incorporate classification information. An interactive workflow has been achieved by implementing the presented system on the GPU using the OpenCL API. Our results obtained for several medical data sets of different modalities, including brain MRI and abdominal CT, demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of our approach. PMID:20975176

  4. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high volume production of silane (step 1) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (step 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, W. C.; Farrier, E. G.; Rexer, J.

    1977-01-01

    Extended operation of a small process-development unit routinely produced high quality silane in 97+% yield from dichlorosilane. The production rate was consistent with design loadings for the fractionating column and for the redistribution reactor. A glass fluid-bed reactor was constructed for room temperature operation. The behavior of a bed of silcon particles was observed as a function of various feedstocks, component configurations, and operating conditions. For operating modes other than spouting, the bed behaved in an erratic and unstable manner. A method was developed for casting molten silicon powder into crack-free solid pellets for process evaluation. The silicon powder was melted and cast into thin walled quartz tubes that sacrificially broke on cooling.

  5. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders` Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  6. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 2: analysis of impurity behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-01-23

    The object of this phase of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the properties of silicon and on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed topics including thermochemical (gettering) treatments, base doping concentration, base doping type (n vs. p), grain boundary-impurity interaction, non-uniformity of impurity distribution, long term effects of impurities, as well as synergic and complexing phenomena. The program approach consists in: (1) the growth of doubly and multiply-doped silicon single crystals containing a baseline boron or phosphorus dopant and specific impurities which produce deep levels in the forbidden band gap; (2) assessment of these crystals by chemical, microstructural, electrical and solar cell tests; (3) correlation of the impurity type and concentration with crystal quality and device performance; and (4) delineation of the role of impurities and processing on subsequent silicon solar cell performance. The overall results reported are based on the assessment of nearly 200 silicon ingots. (WHK)

  7. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies. Progress report, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1994, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year five, we devoted much of our activities to completing fundamental research projects delayed because of the considerably stepped-up effort in consensus processes efforts during development of DOE`s Five Year Waste Plan (FYWP). Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders` Forum (both of which provide input to the Five Year Waste Plan), we compiled a literature overview of small-group consensus gaining and a handbook for consensus decision making. We also tested the effectiveness Of group decision support software, and designed a structured observation process and its related hard- and software. We completed studies on experts and the role of personality characteristics in consensus group influence. Results of these studies are included in this final report. In consensus processes research, we were unable to continue studying consensus groups in action. However, we did study ways to improve ways to improve DOE`s technological information exchange effectiveness. We also studied how a new administration identifies what its strategic mission is and how it gets support from existing EM managers. We identified selection criteria for locating the EM exhibit, and tested our audience selection model. We also further calibrated our consensus measure. Additional conference papers and papers for journal submission were completed during year five.

  8. Direct volume estimation without segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.

    2015-03-01

    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  9. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  10. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and "Bibliography. The second section,…

  11. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  12. Multilayer volume microwave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdev, V. I.; Smirnov, S. V.; Chernushenko, A. M.

    1985-09-01

    Multilayer volume microwave filters are particularly suitable for miniaturization of radioelectronic devices by way of circuit integration, the principal advantage over planar filters being the much higher Q-factor; Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 3rd power as compared with Q sub 0 or = 10 to the 2nd power. Their metal-dielectric structure forms an array of coupled half-wavelength resonators electrically symmetric with respect to the center layer, coupling being effected by a magnetic field normal to the plane of resonators. The structure consists of an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the input end, followed by a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, a symmetric strip line with conductor, a metal layer with cut out symmetric slot line, a dielectric layer, and an asymmetric strip line with conductor at the output end. The size of such a filter depends directly on the number of resonator stages and, without the case, is comparable with the size of conventional filters on symmetric strip lines only but is much smaller than that of conventional filters on asymmetric strip lines only.

  13. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  14. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  15. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Malcolm M.; McKenna, Robert J.; Deschamps, Claude C.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is the safe, effective, and durable palliation of dyspnea in appropriately selected patients with moderate to severe emphysema. Appropriate patient selection and preoperative preparation are prerequisites for successful LVRS. An effective LVRS program requires participation by and communication between experts from pulmonary medicine, thoracic surgery, thoracic anesthesiology, critical care medicine, rehabilitation medicine, respiratory therapy, chest radiology, and nursing. The critical analysis of perioperative outcomes has influenced details of the conduct of the procedure and has established a bilateral, stapled approach as the standard of care for LVRS. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) remains the world's largest multi-center, randomized trial comparing LVRS to maximal medical therapy. NETT purposely enrolled a broad spectrum of anatomic patterns of emphysema. This, along with the prospective, audited collection of extensive demographic, physiologic, radiographic, surgical and quality-of-life data, has positioned NETT as the most robust repository of evidence to guide the refinement of patient selection criteria for LVRS, to assist surgeons in providing optimal intraoperative and postoperative care, and to establish benchmarks for survival, complication rates, return to independent living, and durability of response. This article reviews the evolution of current LVRS practice with a particular emphasis on technical aspects of the operation, including the predictors and consequences of its most common complications. PMID:18453353

  16. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.

  17. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  18. Efficient space-leaping method for volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungup; Kim, Hyeongdo; Kim, Myeongsun; Jeong, Changsung

    1999-03-01

    Volume rendering is a technique that visualize 2D image of object from 3D volume data on image screen. Ray casting algorithm, one of popular volume rendering techniques, generate image with detail and high quality compared with other volume rendering algorithms but since this is a highly time consuming process given large number of voxels, many acceleration techniques have been developed. Here we introduce new acceleration technique, efficient space leaping method. Our new space leaping method traverse volume data and projects 3D location of voxel onto image screen to find pixels that have non-zero value in final volume image and locations of non-empty voxels that are closest to ray. During this process, adaptive run-length encoding and line drawing algorithm are used to traverse volume data and find pixels with non-zero value efficiently. Then we cast rays not through entire screen pixel but only through projected screen pixels and start rendering process from non-empty voxel location directly. This new method shows significant time savings applied to surface extraction without loss of image quality.

  19. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned, Volume 2 of 3: Appendixes A - C

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    This document is the 2nd volume of the three volume set from the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise held at Hanford in 1994. Volume 2 contains Appendices A-C, with Appendices A and B containing a discussion of the design of the PUREX process and Appendix C containing a discussion of the safeguards measures for the PUREX facility.

  1. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  2. Portuguese Programmatic Course. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Jack Lee; And Others

    This volume, containing units 26-48, completes the Portuguese Programmatic Course. The odd-numbered units present the grammatical features not covered in Volume One in a programmed format. The even numbered units contain dialogs, substitution drills, practice with irregular verb forms, and exercises geared to vocabulary expansion. The…

  3. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  4. Lao Basic Course, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Warren G.; And Others

    This second volume on Lao is designed as the continuation of the introductory material presented in volume one. The objectives are to produce greater proficiency in the use of Lao and, at the same time, to provide a general introduction to Laotian culture. The course is divided into six modules concerning various aspects of culture: physical…

  5. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  6. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  7. Na+,Cl- cotransport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells activated during volume regulation (regulatory volume increase).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K; Sjøholm, C; Simonsen, L O

    1983-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites cells were preincubated in hypotonic medium with subsequent restoration of tonicity. After the initial osmotic shrinkage the cells recovered their volume within 5 min with an associated KCl uptake. The volume recovery was inhibited when NO-3 was substituted for Cl-, and when Na+ was replaced by K+, or by choline (at 5 mM external K+). The volume recovery was strongly inhibited by furosemide and bumetanide, but essentially unaffected by DIDS. The net uptake of Cl- was much larger than the value predicted from the conductive Cl- permeability. The undirectional 36Cl flux, which was insensitive to bumetanide under steady-state conditions, was substantially increased during regulatory volume increase, and showed a large bumetanide-sensitive component. During volume recovery the Cl- flux ratio (influx/efflux) for the bumetanide-sensitive component was estimated at 1.85, compatible with a coupled uptake of Na+ and Cl-, or with an uptake via a K+,Na+,2Cl- cotransport system. The latter possibility is unlikely, however, because a net uptake of KCl was found even at low external K+, and because no K+ uptake was found in ouabain-poisoned cells. In the presence of ouabain a bumetanide-sensitive uptake during volume recovery of Na+ and Cl- in nearly equimolar amounts was demonstrated. It is proposed that the primary process during the regulatory volume increase is an activation of an otherwise quiescent, bumetanide-sensitive Na+,Cl- cotransport system with subsequent replacement of Na+ by K+ via the Na+/K+ pump, stimulated by the Na+ influx through the Na+,Cl- cotransport system. PMID:6100866

  8. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  9. [Methods and importance of volume measurement in reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Kunos, Csaba; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Pesthy, Pál; Kovács, Eszter; Mátrai, Zoltán

    2014-03-16

    Volume measurement of the breast allows for better surgical planning and implant selection in breast reconstructive and symmetrization procedures. The safety and accuracy of tumor removal, in accordance with oncoplastic principles, may be improved by knowing the true breast- and breast tumor volume. The authors discuss the methods of volume measurement of the breast and describe the method based on magnetic resonance imaging digital volume measurement in details. The volume of the breast parenchyma and the tumor was determined by processing the diagnostic magnetic resonance scans, and the difference in the volume of the two breasts was measured. Surgery was planned and implant selection was made based on the measured volume details. The authors conclude that digital volume measurement proved to be a valuable tool in preoperative planning of volume reducing mammaplasty, replacement of unknown size implants and in cases when breast asymmetry is treated. PMID:24613775

  10. Hypertools in image and volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, P.L.

    1996-06-17

    This paper describes our experience in image and volume visualization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After an introduction on visualization issues, we present a new software approach to the analysis and visualization of images and volumes. The efficiency of the visualization process is improved by letting the user combine small and reusable applications by the means of a machine-independent interpreted language such as Tcl/Tk. These hypertools can communicate with each other over a network, which has a direct impact on the design of graphical interfaces. We first describe the implementation of a flexible gray-scale image widget that can handle large data sets, provides complete control of the color palette and allows for manual and semi-interactive segmentation. This visualization tool can be embedded in a data-flow image processing environment to assess the quality of acquisition, preprocessing and filtering of raw data. This approach combines the simplicity of visual programming with the power of a high-level interpreted language. We show how hypertools can be used in surface and volume rendering and how they increase the interaction efficiency by performing complex or tedious tasks automatically. One biomedical application is presented.

  11. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  12. Membrane trafficking and osmotically induced volume changes in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Shope, Joseph C; Mott, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    Guard cells rapidly adjust their plasma membrane surface area while responding to osmotically induced volume changes. Previous studies have shown that this process is associated with membrane internalization and remobilization. To investigate how guard cells maintain membrane integrity during rapid volume changes, the effects of two membrane trafficking inhibitors on the response of intact guard cells of Vicia faba to osmotic treatments were studied. Using confocal microscopy and epidermal peels, the relationship between the area of a medial paradermal guard-cell section and guard-cell volume was determined. This allowed estimates of guard-cell volume to be made from single paradermal confocal images, and therefore allowed rapid determination of volume as cells responded to osmotic treatments. Volume changes in control cells showed exponential kinetics, and it was possible to calculate an apparent value for guard-cell hydraulic conductivity from these kinetics. Wortmannin and cytochalasin D inhibited the rate of volume loss following a 0-1.5 MPa osmotic treatment. Cytochalasin D also inhibited volume increases following a change from 1.5 MPa to 0 MPa, but wortmannin had no effect. Previous studies showing that treatment with arabinanase inhibits changes in guard-cell volume in response to osmotic treatments were confirmed. However, pressure volume curves show that the effects of arabinanase and the cytochalasin D were not due to changes in cell wall elasticity. It is suggested that arabinanase, cytochalasin D, and wortmannin cause reductions in the hydraulic conductivity of the plasma membrane, possibly via gating of aquaporins. A possible role for aquaporins in co-ordinating volume changes with membrane trafficking is discussed. PMID:17088361

  13. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

    1994-01-25

    A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

  14. Runtime volume visualization for parallel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects of design of a data distributed, massively parallel volume rendering library for runtime visualization of parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations in a message-passing environment. Unlike the traditional scheme in which visualization is a postprocessing step, the rendering is done in place on each node processor. Computational scientists who run large-scale simulations on a massively parallel computer can thus perform interactive monitoring of their simulations. The current library provides an interface to handle volume data on rectilinear grids. The same design principles can be generalized to handle other types of grids. For demonstration, we run a parallel Navier-Stokes solver making use of this rendering library on the Intel Paragon XP/S. The interactive visual response achieved is found to be very useful. Performance studies show that the parallel rendering process is scalable with the size of the simulation as well as with the parallel computer.

  15. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:18693424

  16. Sonographic measurement of gallbladder volume.

    PubMed

    Dodds, W J; Groh, W J; Darweesh, R M; Lawson, T L; Kishk, S M; Kern, M K

    1985-11-01

    Sonographic images of the gallbladder enable satisfactory approximation of gallbladder volume using the sum-of-cylinders method. The sum-of-cylinder measurements, however, are moderately cumbersome and time consuming to perform. In this investigation, in vitro and in vivo testing was done to determine that a simple ellipsoid method applied to sonographic gallbladder images yields reasonable volume approximations that are comparable to the volumes calculated by the sum-of-cylinders method. Findings from a water-bath experiment showed that measurement of gallbladder volume by the ellipsoid method closely approximated the true volume with a mean difference of about 1.0 ml. The results of in vivo studies in five volunteers demonstrated that the gallbladder contracted substantially after a fatty meal and that volumes calculated by the ellipsoid and sum-of-cylinders methods were nearly identical. Thus, a simple ellipsoid method, requiring negligible time, may be used to approximate satisfactory gallbladder volume for clinical or investigative studies. PMID:3901703

  17. Volume reduction in routine cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760

  18. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  19. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  20. Hybrid surface-relief/volume one dimensional holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetta, D. E.; Spegni, P.; Di Donato, A.; Simoni, F.; Castagna, R.

    2015-04-01

    Many one dimensional optically patterned photopolymers exist as surface relief or volume phase gratings. However, as far as we know, holographically recorded acrylate-based gratings in which both configurations are present are not described in literature. In this work we report a two steps fabrication process in which a large-area high-resolution hybrid volume/surface relief grating phase gratings is created in a thin film of multiacrylate material spinned on a proper designed substrate. Optical and morphological investigations, made on the optically patterned area, confirm the presence of a one dimensional double (surface relief and Bragg volume phase) periodic structure.