Science.gov

Sample records for process system diagnostics

  1. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  2. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  3. Simultaneous Sensor and Process Fault Diagnostics for Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, J.; Kwan, C.; Figueroa, F.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to extract fault features from sensor faults and process faults by using advanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. A tank system that has some common characteristics to a NASA testbed at Stennis Space Center was used to verify our proposed algorithms. First, a generic tank system was modeled. Second, a mathematical model suitable for FDI has been derived for the tank system. Third, a new and general FDI procedure has been designed to distinguish process faults and sensor faults. Extensive simulations clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new design.

  4. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  5. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  6. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.; Applequist, C. A.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  7. Machine and Process System Diagnostics Using One-Step Prediction Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, J.E.; Damiano, B.; Tucker, R.W., Jr.

    1999-05-10

    This paper describes a method for machine or process system diagnostics that uses one-step prediction maps. The method uses nonlinear time series analysis techniques to form a one-step prediction map that estimates the next time series data point when given a sequence of previously measured time series data point. The difference between the predicted and measured time series values is a measure of the map error. The average value of this error should remain within some bound as long as both the dynamic system and its operating condition remain unchanged. However, changes in the dynamic system or operating condition will cause an increase in average map error. Thus, for a constant operating condition, monitoring the average map error over time should indicate when a change has occurred in the dynamic system. Furthermore, the map error itself forms a time series that can be analyzed to detect changes in system dynamics. The paper provides technical background in the nonlinear analysis techniques used in the diagnostic method, describes the creation of one-step prediction maps and their application to machine or process system diagnostics, and then presents results obtained from applying the diagnostic method to simulated and measured data.

  8. Improved Signal Processing Technique Leads to More Robust Self Diagnostic Accelerometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) is a sensor system designed to actively monitor the health of an accelerometer. In this case an accelerometer is considered healthy if it can be determined that it is operating correctly and its measurements may be relied upon. The SDA system accomplishes this by actively monitoring the accelerometer for a variety of failure conditions including accelerometer structural damage, an electrical open circuit, and most importantly accelerometer detachment. In recent testing of the SDA system in emulated engine operating conditions it has been found that a more robust signal processing technique was necessary. An improved accelerometer diagnostic technique and test results of the SDA system utilizing this technique are presented here. Furthermore, the real time, autonomous capability of the SDA system to concurrently compensate for effects from real operating conditions such as temperature changes and mechanical noise, while monitoring the condition of the accelerometer health and attachment, will be demonstrated.

  9. Data processing and analysis of the imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system on HT-7 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Han Xiaofeng; Shao Chunqiang; Xi Xiaoqi; Zhao Junyu; Qing Zang; Yang Jianhua; Dai Xingxing; Shinichiro, Kado

    2013-05-15

    A high spatial resolution imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system was developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). After about one month trial running on the superconducting HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) tokamak, the system was proved to be capable of measuring plasma electron temperature. The system setup and data calibration are described in this paper and then the instrument function is studied in detail, as well as the measurement capability, an electron temperature of 50 eV to 2 keV and density beyond 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Finally, the data processing method and experimental results are presented.

  10. Data processing and analysis of the imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system on HT-7 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaofeng; Shao, Chunqiang; Xi, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Junyu; Qing, Zang; Yang, Jianhua; Dai, Xingxing; Kado, Shinichiro

    2013-05-01

    A high spatial resolution imaging Thomson scattering diagnostic system was developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). After about one month trial running on the superconducting HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) tokamak, the system was proved to be capable of measuring plasma electron temperature. The system setup and data calibration are described in this paper and then the instrument function is studied in detail, as well as the measurement capability, an electron temperature of 50 eV to 2 keV and density beyond 1 × 10(19) m(-3). Finally, the data processing method and experimental results are presented. PMID:23742546

  11. EMAT weld inspection and weld machine diagnostic system for continuous coil processing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Wayne M.; MacLauchlan, Daniel T.; Geier, Dan P.; Lang, Dennis D.

    1996-11-01

    Weld breaks of steel coil during cold rolling and continuous pickling operations are a significant source of lost productivity and product yield. Babcock and Wilcox Innerspec Technologies has developed a weld process control system which monitors the key variables of the welding process and determines the quality of the welds generated by flash butt welding equipment. This system is known as the Temate 2000 Automated Flash Butt Weld Inspection and Weld Machine Diagnostic System. The Temate 2000 system utilizes electro- magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology as the basis for performing on-line, real-time, nondestructive weld quality evaluation. This technique accurately detects voids, laps, misalignment and over/under trim conditions in the weld. Results of the EMAT weld inspection are immediately presented to the weld machine operator for disposition. Welding process variables such as voltage, current, platen movements and upset pressures are monitored and collected with the high speed data acquisition system. This data is processed and presented in real-time display to indicate useful welding process information such as platen crabbing, upset force, peak upset current, and many others. Alarming for each variable is provided and allows detailed maintenance reports and summary information to be generated. All weld quality and process parameter data are stored, traceable to each unique weld, and available for post process evaluation. Installation of the Temate 2000 system in a major flat rolled steel mill has contributed to near elimination of weld breakage and increased productivity at this facility.

  12. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.M.; Zander, M.E.; Brown, S.K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Gibson, H.E.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) will be discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data.

  13. Image processing and computer controls for video profile diagnostic system in the ground test accelerator (GTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.M.; Zander, M.E.; Brown, S.K.; Sandoval, D.P.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Gibson, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of video image processing to beam profile measurements on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). A diagnostic was needed to measure beam profiles in the intermediate matching section (IMS) between the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and the drift tube linac (DTL). Beam profiles are measured by injecting puffs of gas into the beam. The light emitted from the beam-gas interaction is captured and processed by a video image processing system, generating the beam profile data. A general purpose, modular and flexible video image processing system, imagetool, was used for the GTA image profile measurement. The development of both software and hardware for imagetool and its integration with the GTA control system (GTACS) will be discussed. The software includes specialized algorithms for analyzing data and calibrating the system. The underlying design philosophy of imagetool was tested by the experience of building and using the system, pointing the way for future improvements. The current status of the system will be illustrated by samples of experimental data.

  14. Performance assessment and adoption processes of an information monitoring and diagnostic system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann

    1999-10-01

    This report addresses the problem that buildings do not perform as well as anticipated during design. We partnered with an innovative building operator to evaluate a prototype Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS). The IMDS consists of high-quality measurements archived each minute, a data visualization tool, and a web-based capability. The operators recommend similar technology be adopted in other buildings. The IMDS has been used to identify and correct a series of control problems. It has also allowed the operators to make more effective use of the building control system, freeing up time to take care of other tenant needs. They believe they have significantly improved building comfort, potentially improving tenant health, and productivity. The reduction in hours to operate the building are worth about $20,000 per year, which could pay for the IMDS in about five years. A control system retrofit based on findings from the IMDS is expected to reduce energy use by 20 percent over the next year, worth over $30,000 per year. The main conclusion of the model-based chiller fault detection work is that steady-state models can be used as reference models to monitor chiller operation and detect faults. The ability of the IMDS to measure cooling load and chiller power to one-percent accuracy with a one-minute sampling interval permits detection of additional faults. Evolutionary programming techniques were also evaluated, showing promise in the detection of patterns in building data. We also evaluated two technology adoption processes, radical and routine. In routine adoption, managers enhance features of existing products that are already well understood. In radical adoption, innovative building managers introduce novel technology into their organizations without using the rigorous payback criteria used in routine innovations.

  15. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  16. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  17. System diagnostic builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

  18. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  19. New detection system and signal processing for the tokamak ISTTOK heavy ion beam diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Malaquias, A.; Fernandes, H.

    2012-10-15

    The tokamak ISTTOK heavy ion beam diagnostic (HIBD) operates with a multiple cell array detector (MCAD) that allows for the plasma density and the plasma density fluctuations measurements simultaneously at different sampling volumes across the plasma. To improve the capability of the plasma density fluctuations investigations, a new detection system and new signal conditioning amplifier have been designed and tested. The improvements in MCAD design are presented which allow for nearly complete suppression of the spurious plasma background signal by applying a biasing potential onto special electrodes incorporated into MCAD. The new low cost and small size transimpedance amplifiers are described with the parameters of 400 kHz, 10{sup 7} V/A, 0.4 nA of RMS noise, adequate for the plasma density fluctuations measurements.

  20. Butt weld inspection and weld machine diagnostic system for continuous coil processing lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Geier, D.; Shultz, B.L.

    1995-07-01

    Weld breaks of steel coil during cold rolling and continuous pickling operations are a significant source of lost productivity and product yield. Babcock and Wilcox Innerspec Technologies has developed and installed a weld process control system which monitors the key variables of the welding process and determines the quality of welds generated by flash-butt welding equipment. The TEMATE 2000 System utilizes Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology as the basis for performing on-line, real-time, nondestructive weld quality evaluation. This technique accurately detects voids, laps, misalignment and over/under trim conditions in the weld. Results of the EMAT weld inspection are immediately presented to the weld machine operator for disposition. All weld quality and process parameter data are stored, traceable to each unique weld, and available for post process evaluation. Installation of the TEMATE 2000 system in a major flat rolled steel mill has contributed to near elimination of weld breakage and increased productivity at this facility.

  1. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  2. Signal processing in ultrasound. [for diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Croissette, D. H.; Gammell, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Signal is the term used to denote the characteristic in the time or frequency domain of the probing energy of the system. Processing of this signal in diagnostic ultrasound occurs as the signal travels through the ultrasonic and electrical sections of the apparatus. The paper discusses current signal processing methods, postreception processing, display devices, real-time imaging, and quantitative measurements in noninvasive cardiology. The possibility of using deconvolution in a single transducer system is examined, and some future developments using digital techniques are outlined.

  3. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  4. The Henry Ford Production System: LEAN Process Redesign Improves Service in the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386

  5. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  6. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  7. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  8. Family Experiences through the Autism Diagnostic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Lavik, Katherine B.; Sansosti, Jenine M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate common family experiences during the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic process, and the child and family variables that may relate to different diagnostic outcomes. A secondary aim of this study was to evaluate families' knowledge of the research support for various interventions. To…

  9. [Companion diagnostics and reimbursement system].

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Yoshiaki

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Companion Diagnostics (CoDx) have been gaining importance to promote personalized medicine in order to improve the safety and cost effectiveness of therapy. In July 2011, the FDA published draft guidance for the development of CoDx, which recommends the co-development of CoDx and new drugs as the best practice, and then the FDA approved vemurafenib and the BRAF-V600-E gene mutation assay simultaneously as a typical example of the co-development of a new drug and its CoDx. Considering medical needs for multiple biomarker assays to select the right assay from various therapeutic candidates, more complicated assay technologies such as DNA sequencing will be required for CoDx in the near future. However, since it is quite difficult to standardize the validation process and manage test quality under the current regulatory criteria of in-vitro diagnostics using advanced and/or complicated assay technologies, the clinical use of laboratory-developed tests (LDT) should be recommended in order to avoid biomarker test lag. On the other hand, the current reimbursement system is not always suitable to assess the clinical and technological value of CoDx and it should be revised to encourage the development of CoDx. Although Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a potential method to assess the value of CoDx, it is not easy to define appropriate indicators for CoDx because its clinical utility and cost effectiveness are completely dependent on the performance and value of available therapy. It is also suggested that the price and/or insurance rate of CoDx should be included in the price of the drug; however, there is no good solution to how to pay for CoDx with negative results for all therapies. It is said that the concept of personalized medicine with advanced technologies is a destructive innovation that could markedly change the current structure and system of medications; therefore, it is essential to create a quite new regulatory and reimbursement system to

  10. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  11. Laser Diagnostics for Plasma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonov, Serguei Victor

    The time transients of vibrational/rotational excitation up to v = 7 vibrational level of the ground electronic state of nitrogen were measured in a positive column during the 1-10 mus pulsed electric discharges, and in the afterglow. Current densities were up to 25 A/cm^2, and pressures up to 6 Torr. It is shown that initially energy is being transferred, primarily into vibrational levels above v = 1, resulting in a highly non Boltzmann distribution. The redistribution between vibrational levels takes place within 100 mus after the discharge pulse. Beyond 100 mus the vibrational populations resemble closely Boltzmann distribution. Significant rotational heating was observed in the afterglow and is attributed to energy transfer from vibration to rotation via collisions with electrons. The rotational temperature was as high as 3500 K and reached maximum values between 80 and 100 mus after the discharge pulse. Standard, Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) was employed in all measurements. A novel laser interferometric system has been developed for real time in situ monitoring of the etch rate during the plasma etching. The two-beam-two-path optical set-up provides continuous etch rate measurements while plasma parameters are changing.

  12. Bay integrated power system control and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Beierl, O.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents new concepts for control and diagnostic systems for high voltage switchgear (123-kV and above). Air insulated and gas insulated (SF6) switchgear is considered. The new aspect is the integration of monitoring and diagnostic concepts in digital control and protection systems. Communication concepts for sensors and actuators with digital process busses at bay level are discussed. The paper covers integration concepts for circuit breaker monitoring (AIS, GIS) and for GIS the integration of on-line partial discharge measurement, on-line arc detection and on-line monitoring of the gas conditions. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and the applicability of integrated diagnostic and control concepts are discussed by means of technical and commercial aspects.

  13. A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant.

  14. Embedding CLIPS in a database-oriented diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Tim

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) into a powerful portable maintenance aid (PMA) system used for flightline diagnostics. The current diagnostic target of the system is the Garrett GTCP85-180L, a gas turbine engine used as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) on some C-130 military transport aircraft. This project is a database oriented approach to a generic diagnostic system. CLIPS is used for 'many-to-many' pattern matching within the diagnostics process. Patterns are stored in database format, and CLIPS code is generated by a 'compilation' process on the database. Multiple CLIPS rule sets and working memories (in sequence) are supported and communication between the rule sets is achieved via the export and import commands. Work is continuing on using CLIPS in other portions of the diagnostic system and in re-implementing the diagnostic system in the Ada language.

  15. Diagnostics of the nucleosynthesis processes in the mass transfer binary systems: Cases u Herculis and delta Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervisoglu, Ahmet; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Kolbas, Vladimir; Southworth, John

    2016-07-01

    In the course of evolution of stars in close binary systems, mass transfer could happen due to limited space allowed for the expansion. An Algol type binary system would eventually be formed. As the consequence of the mass transfer, the layers which were originally deep in the star and have been altered by thermonuclear fusion during the star's main sequence evolution, are now exposed at the surfaces of the components. Thus, photospheric abundances give a precious way of diagnosing the nucleosynthesis processes that occurred deep in the stars. In this study, we present our previous results for u Her and ongoing analysis of δ Lib. A new set of high-resolution echelle spectra of u Her and δ Lib were obtained at CAHA, Spain. Spectral disentangling allows us to isolate the individual spectrum of the components for both systems. For both u Her and δ Lib systems, the detailed spectroscopic analysis of the primary component indicates a clear abundance pattern expected from the CNO process. Evolutionary scenario of the stars based on CAMBRIDGE version of STARS code in this systems and the effects of thermohaline mixing in the envelope of mass gainer stars will be discussed in the framework of this finding.

  16. SSME Post Test Diagnostic System: Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test firing or flight firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project - the SSME Post Test Diagnostic System (PTDS) - is to develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This report primarily covers work on the Systems Section of the PTDS, which automates the analyses performed by the systems/performance group at the Propulsion Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This group is responsible for assessing the overall health and performance of the engine, and detecting and diagnosing anomalies which involve multiple components (other groups are responsible for analyzing the behavior of specific components). The PTDS utilizes several advanced software technologies to perform its analyses. Raw test data is analyzed using signal processing routines which detect features in the data, such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts. Component analyses are performed by expert systems, which use 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with the MSFC data analysts to detect and diagnose anomalies. The systems analysis is performed using case-based reasoning. Results of all analyses are stored in a relational database and displayed via an X-window-based graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  17. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  19. Digital signal processing for ionospheric propagation diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rino, Charles L.; Groves, Keith M.; Carrano, Charles S.; Gunter, Jacob H.; Parris, Richard T.

    2015-08-01

    For decades, analog beacon satellite receivers have generated multifrequency narrowband complex data streams that could be processed directly to extract total electron content (TEC) and scintillation diagnostics. With the advent of software-defined radio, modern digital receivers generate baseband complex data streams that require intermediate processing to extract the narrowband modulation imparted to the signal by ionospheric structure. This paper develops and demonstrates a processing algorithm for digital beacon satellite data that will extract TEC and scintillation components. For algorithm evaluation, a simulator was developed to generate noise-limited multifrequency complex digital signal realizations with representative orbital dynamics and propagation disturbances. A frequency-tracking procedure is used to capture the slowly changing frequency component. Dynamic demodulation against the low-frequency estimate captures the scintillation. The low-frequency reference can be used directly for dual-frequency TEC estimation.

  20. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  1. Built-In Diagnostics (BID) Of Equipment/Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granieri, Michael N.; Giordano, John P.; Nolan, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostician(TM)-on-Chip (DOC) technology identifies faults and commands systems reconfiguration. Smart microcontrollers operating in conjunction with other system-control circuits, command self-correcting system/equipment actions in real time. DOC microcontroller generates commands for associated built-in test equipment to stimulate unit of equipment diagnosed, collects and processes response data obtained by built-in test equipment, and performs diagnostic reasoning on response data, using diagnostic knowledge base derived from design data.

  2. Investigating the Biases in the Antarctic Sea Ice - Ocean System of Climate Models using Process-oriented Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, O.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Holland, P.; Uotila, P.; Zunz, V.

    2015-12-01

    Most analyses of Antarctic sea ice in simulations of the CMIP5 archive have so far been oriented towards the quantification of the disagreement between model results and sea ice observations only. Since the decomposition of those biases into distinct physical components is necessary to understand their origins, we propose here an ocean-sea ice-atmosphere integrated and process-oriented approach. Not only the biases in variables essential to the sea ice seasonal evolution are estimated regionally with regard to observations, but their contributions to the sea ice concentration budget are estimated. Following a previously developed method, the sea ice concentration balance over the autumn-winter seasons is decomposed into four terms, including the sea ice concentration change during the period of interest, advection, divergence and a residual accounting for the net contribution of thermodynamics and ice deformation. Concurrently, correlations between trends in ocean temperature at depth and trends in ice concentration are calculated directly from various model output fields (including CMIP5 models) to disentangle the role of ice-ocean interactions. Results show that the geographical patterns of all mean sea ice concentration budget terms over 1992-2005 are in qualitative agreement with the observed ones. Sea ice thermodynamic growth is maintained by horizontal divergence near the continent and in the central ice pack, whereas melting close to the ice edge is led by sea ice advection. However, significant errors in all budget terms are observed due to ice velocities that tend to be overestimated all around Antarctica in several models, leading to a relatively weak divergence in the inner ice pack and to an excessive advection in the marginal ice zone. Biases in ice drift speed and direction are ultimately related to biases in winds in all models. This method paves the way for a systematic assessment of forthcoming CMIP6 sea ice model outputs in the Southern Hemisphere.

  3. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision. PMID:25991188

  4. Qualitative model-based diagnostics for rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Jankovsky, Amy; Fulton, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic software package is currently being developed at NASA LeRC that utilizes qualitative model-based reasoning techniques. These techniques can provide diagnostic information about the operational condition of the modeled rocket engine system or subsystem. The diagnostic package combines a qualitative model solver with a constraint suspension algorithm. The constraint suspension algorithm directs the solver's operation to provide valuable fault isolation information about the modeled system. A qualitative model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's oxidizer supply components was generated. A diagnostic application based on this qualitative model was constructed to process four test cases: three numerical simulations and one actual test firing. The diagnostic tool's fault isolation output compared favorably with the input fault condition.

  5. Diagnostics of wear in aeronautical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedeven, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The use of appropriate diagnostic tools for aircraft oil wetted components is reviewed, noting that it can reduce direct operating costs through reduced unscheduled maintenance, particularly in helicopter engine and transmission systems where bearing failures are a significant cost factor. Engine and transmission wear modes are described, and diagnostic methods for oil and wet particle analysis, the spectrometric oil analysis program, chip detectors, ferrography, in-line oil monitor and radioactive isotope tagging are discussed, noting that they are effective over a limited range of particle sizes but compliment each other if used in parallel. Fine filtration can potentially increase time between overhauls, but reduces the effectiveness of conventional oil monitoring techniques so that alternative diagnostic techniques must be used. It is concluded that the development of a diagnostic system should be parallel and integral with the development of a mechanical system.

  6. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  7. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  8. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P. ); Elliott, A. )

    1992-01-01

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  9. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P.; Elliott, A.

    1992-12-31

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  10. Processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    To implement the analysis techniques and to provide end-to-end processing, a system was designed with the following capabilities: receive and catalog data from many sources; organize the data on mass storage for rapid access; edit for reasonableness; create new data sets by sorting on parameter, averaging and merging; provide statistical analysis and display tools; and distribute data on demand. Consideration was given to developing a flexible system that could meet immediate workshop needs and respond to future requirements. System architecture and data set details implemented are discussed.

  11. Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  12. First mirrors for diagnostic systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Costley, A.; Donné, A. J. H.; SWG on First Mirrors of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    2007-08-01

    The majority of optical diagnostics presently foreseen for ITER will implement in-vessel metallic mirrors as plasma-viewing components. Mirrors are used for the observation of the plasma radiation in a very wide wavelength range: from about 1 nm up to a few mm. In the hostile ITER environment, mirrors are subject to erosion, deposition, particle implantation and other adverse effects which will change their optical properties, affecting the entire performance of the respective diagnostic systems. The Specialists Working Group (SWG) on first mirrors was established under the wings of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics to coordinate and guide the investigations on diagnostic mirrors towards the development of optimal, robust and durable solutions for ITER diagnostic systems. The results of tests of various ITER-candidate mirror materials, performed in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10, TRIAM-1M and LHD under various plasma conditions, as well as an overview of laboratory investigations of mirror performance and mirror cleaning techniques are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R&D of diagnostic mirrors will be addressed.

  13. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  14. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  15. Novel optical spectroscopy system for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya; Kamensky, Vladislav; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Golubyatnikov, German; Da Silva, Luiz; Kasthuri, Usha; Pavlycheva, Irina; Smetanina, Svetlana; Artifeksova, Anna; Belkov, Sergey; Kochemasov, Gennady

    2007-02-01

    We report on development of minimally invasive system for immediate diagnostics of breast cancer and on the results of its pilot clinical testing. The system designed by BioTelligent Inc is based on analysis of optical diffusion spectra (ODS) measured by a probe inserted into breast tissue during standard punch biopsy. Analysis of scattered spectra aimed to distinction of benign tumors from malignant ones is done by original procedure of data processing. Clinical testing of the created diagnostic system has been performed by classification of spectra collected from 146 patients with previously detected mammary neoplasms. The data of ODS study in each patient have been compared to the results of histology. The proposed technique has to date demonstrated sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 80% and diagnostic accuracy of 88%. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data processing is employed.

  16. The EMMA Accelerator, a Diagnostic Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, A.; Berg, J.; Bliss, N. Cox, G.; Dufau, M.; Gallagher, A.; Hill, C.; Jones, J.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Muratori, B.; Oates, A.; Shepherd B.; Smith, R.; Hock, K.; Holder, D.; Ibison, M., Kirkman I.; Borrell, R.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.

    2011-09-04

    The 'EMMA' Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (ns-FFAG) international project is currently being commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory, UK. This accelerator has been equipped with a number of diagnostic systems to facilitate this. These systems include a novel time-domain-multiplexing BPM system, moveable screen systems, a time-of-flight instrument, Faraday cups, and injection/extraction tomography sections to analyze the single bunch beams. An upgrade still to implement includes the installation of wall current monitors. This paper gives an overview of these systems and shows some data and results from the diagnostics that have contributed to the successful demonstration of a serpentine acceleration by this novel accelerator.

  17. Systemic mastocytosis - a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Lladó, Ana Cristina Amorim Oliveira Gaia; Mihon, Claudia Elena; Silva, Madalena; Galzerano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis refers to a group of disorders characterized by the infiltration of clonally derived mast cells to the skin or extracutaneous tissues resulting in a heterogeneous clinical picture. It is a rare hematologic disorder in all its forms. The exact incidence is unknown; it affects patients of any age and males and females equally. Its molecular pathogenesis is incompletely understood. The clinical features of mastocytosis result from both chronic and episodic mast cell mediator release, signs and symptoms arising from diffuse or focal tissue infiltration, and, occasionally, the presence of an associated non-mast cell clonal hematologic disease. The histopathologic analysis is essential for definitive diagnosis but there is no curative treatment. The authors report a clinical case of a 72-year-old woman with no history of allergies, with bicytopenia, weight loss, and diffuse axial osteolytic lesions. This is a rare clinical case of aggressive systemic mastocytosis for which palliative treatment can improve survival and quality of life. A brief review of the literature about this pathology is also included. PMID:25031064

  18. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, G.; Stefanelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of. PMID:1807566

  19. Diagnostics and Control in the Thermal Spray Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Gevelber, M.; Wroblewski, D.

    2001-12-01

    The plasma-spray process features complex plasma-particle interactions that can result in process variations that limit process repeatability and coating performance. This paper reports our work on the development of real-time diagnostics and control for the plasma spray process. The strategy is to directly monitor and control those degrees of freedom of the process that are observable, controllable and affect resulting coating properties. This includes monitoring of particle velocity and temperature as well as the shape and trajectory of the spray pattern. Diagnostics that have been developed specifically for this purpose are described along with the demonstration of a closed loop process controller based on these measurements.

  20. Building Systems Diagnostics and Predictive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Pratt, Robert G.; Braun, J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of methods and tools for automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of building systems and components in the 1990s. This chapter, written for the CRC Handbook for HVAC&R Engineering, will describe the status of these methods and and methodologies as applied to HVAC&R and building systems and present certain illustrative case studies.

  1. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  2. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems. PMID:26410329

  3. SA-SVM based automated diagnostic system for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of skin cancer is one of the greatest challenges due to lack of experience of general practitioners (GPs). This paper presents a clinical decision support system aimed to save time and resources in the diagnostic process. Segmentation, feature extraction, pattern recognition, and lesion classification are the important steps in the proposed decision support system. The system analyses the images to extract the affected area using a novel proposed segmentation method H-FCM-LS. The underlying features which indicate the difference between melanoma and benign lesions are obtained through intensity, spatial/frequency and texture based methods. For classification purpose, self-advising SVM is adapted which showed improved classification rate as compared to standard SVM. The presented work also considers analyzed performance of linear and kernel based SVM on the specific skin lesion diagnostic problem and discussed corresponding findings. The best diagnostic rates obtained through the proposed method are around 90.5 %.

  4. Optical Diagnostic System for the TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Perng, S. Y.; Tsai, Z. D.; Ueng, T. S.; Hsueh, H. P.; Chen, J. R.

    2007-01-19

    The Taiwan light source (TLS) uses a photon beam intensity system (Io monitor) to index the electron beam stability. This index combines the information of the fluctuations of electron beam position and size. For understanding the impact of these fluctuations to the electron beam instability, a set of the optical diagnostic system was installed in the TLS BL10 diagnostics beamline. This system includes the photon beam position monitor (PBPM), the beam size monitor (BSM) and the Io monitor. From the result, we concluded that about one-third impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam position and about two-thirds impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam size. The hardware configuration is described in this paper.

  5. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  6. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swets, John A.

    1988-06-01

    Diagnostic systems of several kinds are used to distinguish between two classes of events, essentially ``signals'' and ``noise.'' For then, analysis in terms of the ``relative operating characteristic'' of signal detection theory provides a precise and valid measure of diagnostic accuracy. It is the only measure available that is uninfluenced by decision biases and prior probabilities, and it places the performances of diverse systems on a common, easily interpreted scale. Representative values of this measure are reported here for systems in medical imaging, materials testing, weather forecasting, information retrieval, polygraph lie detection, and aptitude testing. Though the measure itself is sound, the values obtained from tests of diagnostic systems often require qualification because the test data on which they are based are of unsure quality. A common set of problems in testing is faced in all fields. How well these problems are handled, or can be handled in a given field, determines the degree of confidence that can be placed in a measured value of accuracy. Some fields fare much better than others.

  7. Nike Facility Diagnostics and Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yung; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Obenschain, Steve; Oh, Jaechul; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, Jim

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser-target facility is a 56-beam krypton fluoride system that can deliver 2 to 3 kJ of laser energy at 248 nm onto targets inside a two meter diameter vacuum chamber. Nike is used to study physics and technology issues related to laser direct-drive ICF fusion, including hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, material behavior at extreme pressures, and optical and x-ray diagnostics for laser-heated targets. A suite of laser and target diagnostics are fielded on the Nike facility, including high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging cameras, spectrometers and photo-detectors. A centrally-controlled, distributed computerized data acquisition system provides robust data management and near real-time analysis feedback capability during target shots. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  8. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  9. Experience report with the Alignment Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; /SLAC

    2011-03-03

    Since 2009 an Alignment Diagnostic System (ADS) has been operating at the undulator of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The undulator spans a distance of 132 meters and is structured into 33 segments. Each segment is equipped with four hydrostatic leveling sensors and four wire position monitors. This report describes the set up and reflects the experience gained with the ADS.

  10. New diagnostic systems on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. T.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Xiao, W. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Yan, L. W.; Hong, W. Y.; Yang, Q. W.

    2006-10-15

    Three new diagnostic systems have been presented in this article: (1) the pulse molecular beam injection as a modulated particle source and microwave reflectometry for investigation of the particle transport, (2) a new three-step electrostatic probe array for zonal flow studying, and (3) eight-channel laser interferometer with 6 m HCN laser for electron density profile measurement with good spatial resolution. The main experimental results have also been shown briefly.

  11. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    PubMed

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes. PMID:27440049

  12. A sequential decision-theoretic model for medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiping; Jin, Songchang; Zhang, Lumin; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnostic expert systems using a knowledge base which models decision-making of traditional experts can provide important information to non-experts, they tend to duplicate the errors made by experts. Decision-Theoretic Model (DTM) is therefore very useful in expert system since they prevent experts from incorrect reasoning under uncertainty. For the diagnostic expert system, corresponding DTM and arithmetic are studied and a sequential diagnostic decision-theoretic model based on Bayesian Network is given. In the model, the alternative features are categorized into two classes (including diseases features and test features), then an arithmetic for prior of test is provided. The different features affect other features weights are also discussed. Bayesian Network is adopted to solve uncertainty presentation and propagation. The model can help knowledge engineers model the knowledge involved in sequential diagnosis and decide evidence alternative priority. A practical example of the models is also presented: at any time of the diagnostic process the expert is provided with a dynamically updated list of suggested tests in order to support him in the decision-making problem about which test to execute next. The results show it is better than the traditional diagnostic model which is based on experience. PMID:26410326

  13. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  14. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  16. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-21

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  17. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  18. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  19. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  20. Diagnostic Systems for the Ignitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Giammanco, F.; Ignir International Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment (R0 ≅ 1 . 32 m , a × b ≅ 0 . 47 × 0 . 83m2 ,BT <= 13 T ,Ip <= 11 MA) is that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition (Te ≅Ti ≅ 11 keV ,n0 ≅1021m-3). The pulse evolution at the maximum machine parameters is characterized by a ramp-up phase of the plasma current of 4 s and 4 s of flat-top, which allow to reach fully relaxed current profiles. The set of baseline diagnostic systems includes, among others, the advanced neutron spectrometer originally proposed for Ignitor and later adopted on JET, Thomson Scattering, ECE, High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer. A Dispersion-Interferometer operating at 1 μm instead of the conventional Two-color Interferometer at 10 μm is being considered for plasma density measurements. The high plasma density and temperature, together with the use of tritium, impose some limitations on diagnostic systems based on NB injection, escaping particles or in direct connection with the high vacumm of the plasma chamber. The high neutron flux is also expected to challenge the systems more directly exposed to it, although the low fluences do not pose particular concerns on material survival. The conceptual design of the main diagnostic systems has been carried out and the present lay-out around the machine is shown. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  1. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  2. Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

  3. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, Rick; Hampton, Nigel; Perkel, Josh; Hernandez, JC; Elledge, Stacy; del Valle, Yamille; Grimaldo, Jose; Deku, Kodzo

    2015-07-25

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  5. An inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.; Brewster, Larry T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of an inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems is described. The system consists of two distinct parts. The first is an off-line compiler which accepts a propositional logical statement of the relationship between facts and conclusions and produces data structures required by the on-line inference engine. The second part consists of the inference engine and interface routines which accept assertions of fact and return the conclusions which necessarily follow. Given a set of assertions, it will generate exactly the conclusions which logically follow. At the same time, it will detect any inconsistencies which may propagate from an inconsistent set of assertions or a poorly formulated set of rules. The memory requirements are fixed and the worst case execution times are bounded at compile time. The data structures and inference algorithms are very simple and well understood. The data structures and algorithms are described in detail. The system has been implemented on Lisp, Pascal, and Modula-2.

  6. Process Diagnostics and Monitoring Using the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Lapke, M.; Musch, T.; Mussenbrock, T.; Oberrath, J.; Ohl, A.; Rolfes, I.; Schulz, Ch.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 13N10462).

  7. A computerized data base system for medical diagnostic studies (Diastu).

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Hall, T C; Mettler, F; Wicks, J; Kelsey, C A; Gustafson, D E

    1980-12-01

    A computerized database system (DIASTU) has been developed for the storage and selective retrieval of the results of medical diagnostic studies. The system is being used to analyze the disease process and the efficacy and yield of selected diagnostic studies. The system runs on a DEC PDP-11/60 computer. It consists of three FORTRAN IV programs linked to a general-purpose assembly language database handler. One program, DSENT, interactively modifies the information in the database. The second, DSLIST, prints all or portions of the database. The third program, DSTAT, interactively assembles the parameters for selective searches of the database and executes them. A query language is used that allows the use of time and size specifications and Boolean operators in nested loops. PMID:7249603

  8. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    and thus turning this thruster into a specially good option when it comes to space usage for longer and deep space missions, where solar panels and electric energy storage on batteries is a limiting factor. Two prototype models of permanent magnets Hall Thrusters PHALL I and II were already developed and tested with different permanent magnets systems. From the first studies in Russia (former USSR) soon it became clear that the closed electron drift current (Hall current) inside the source channel was generated by the crossed electric and magnetic (radial) field configuration inside the cylindrical channel. The radial magnetic field action on the circular Hall current inside the channel, combined with the electric field action on the ions, is believed to be the main physical process responsible for plasma acceleration. However a good understanding of the acceleration mechanism and the steady-state plasma dynamics is still missing, and many issues concerning the role of electron transport, plasma fluctuations and instabilities are still open. In this work we describe an integrated diagnostic system used to elucidate these aspects such. Ion energy spectrum, plasma potential profiles, plasma instabilities spectrum, and electron distribution function are some of the plasma diagnosticis needed to undestand the main physics issues on Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters.

  9. Comparisons of polar processing diagnostics from 34 years of the ERA-Interim and MERRA reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Z. D.; Manney, G. L.; Minschwaner, K.; Santee, M. L.; Lambert, A.

    2015-04-01

    We present a comprehensive comparison of polar processing diagnostics derived from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim). We use diagnostics that focus on meteorological conditions related to stratospheric chemical ozone loss based on temperatures, polar vortex dynamics, and air parcel trajectories to evaluate the effects these reanalyses might have on polar processing studies. Our results show that the agreement between MERRA and ERA-Interim changes significantly over the 34 years from 1979 to 2013 in both hemispheres and in many cases improves. By comparing our diagnostics during five time periods when an increasing number of higher-quality observations were brought into these reanalyses, we show how changes in the data assimilation systems (DAS) of MERRA and ERA-Interim affected their meteorological data. Many of our stratospheric temperature diagnostics show a convergence toward significantly better agreement, in both hemispheres, after 2001 when Aqua and GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) radiances were introduced into the DAS. Other diagnostics, such as the winter mean volume of air with temperatures below polar stratospheric cloud formation thresholds (VPSC) and some diagnostics of polar vortex size and strength, do not show improved agreement between the two reanalyses in recent years when data inputs into the DAS were more comprehensive. The polar processing diagnostics calculated from MERRA and ERA-Interim agree much better than those calculated from earlier reanalysis data sets. We still, however, see fairly large differences in many of the diagnostics in years prior to 2002, raising the possibility that the choice of one reanalysis over another could significantly influence the results of polar processing studies. After 2002, we see overall

  10. Thomson scattering diagnostic systems in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Andrew, P.; Kurskiev, G.; Mukhin, E.; Hatae, T.; Vayakis, G.; Yatsuka, E.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) is a proven diagnostic technique that will be implemented in ITER in three independent systems. The Edge TS will measure electron temperature Te and electron density ne profiles at high resolution in the region with r/a>0.8 (with a the minor radius). The Core TS will cover the region r/a<0.85 and shall be able to measure electron temperatures up to 40 keV . The Divertor TS will observe a segment of the divertor plasma more than 700 mm long and is designed to detect Te as low as 0.3 eV . The Edge and Core systems are primary contributors to Te and ne profiles. Both are installed in equatorial port 10 and very close together with the toroidal distance between the two laser beams of less than 600 mm at the first wall (~ 6° toroidal separation), a characteristic that should allow to reliably match the two profiles in the region 0.8systems installed, therefore substantial experience has been accumulated worldwide on practical methods for the optimization of the technique. However the ITER environment is imposing specific loads (e.g. gamma and neutron radiation, temperatures, disruption-induced stresses) and also access and reliability constraints that require new designs for many of the sub-systems. The challenges and the proposed solutions for all three TS systems are presented.

  11. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  12. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease.

  13. Mechatronics in monitoring, simulation, and diagnostics of industrial and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnik, Natalia; Dobosz, Marek; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kościelny, Jan M.; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Pałko, Tadeusz; Putz, Barbara; Sitnik, Robert; Wnuk, Paweł; Woźniak, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a number of research projects of the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology in order to illustrate the use of common mechatronics and optomechatronics approach in solving multidisciplinary technical problems. Projects on sensors development, measurement and industrial control systems, multimodal data capture and advance systems for monitoring and diagnostics of industrial processes are presented and discussed.

  14. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part XIV: The External Environment and Research for Diagnostic Processes.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2016-09-01

    The work system in which diagnosis takes place is affected by the external environment, which includes requirements such as certification, accreditation, and regulations. How errors are reported, malpractice, and the system for payment are some other aspects of the external environment. Improving the external environment is expected to decrease errors in diagnosis. More research on improving the diagnostic process is needed. PMID:27280903

  15. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems....112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant.... This section does not apply for SCR systems using the engine's fuel as the reductant. (a)...

  16. Model-Based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Foygel, Michael; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    The loading of spacecraft propellants is a complex, risky operation. Therefore, diagnostic solutions are necessary to quickly identify when a fault occurs, so that recovery actions can be taken or an abort procedure can be initiated. Model-based diagnosis solutions, established using an in-depth analysis and understanding of the underlying physical processes, offer the advanced capability to quickly detect and isolate faults, identify their severity, and predict their effects on system performance. We develop a physics-based model of a cryogenic propellant loading system, which describes the complex dynamics of liquid hydrogen filling from a storage tank to an external vehicle tank, as well as the influence of different faults on this process. The model takes into account the main physical processes such as highly nonequilibrium condensation and evaporation of the hydrogen vapor, pressurization, and also the dynamics of liquid hydrogen and vapor flows inside the system in the presence of helium gas. Since the model incorporates multiple faults in the system, it provides a suitable framework for model-based diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. Using this model, we analyze the effects of faults on the system, derive symbolic fault signatures for the purposes of fault isolation, and perform fault identification using a particle filter approach. We demonstrate the detection, isolation, and identification of a number of faults using simulation-based experiments.

  17. Optical real-time defect-enhancement diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, C J; Mitchell, P V; Pepper, D M

    1992-12-15

    We have demonstrated an all-optical diagnostic system that enhances the observation of defects in periodic structures. This real-time technique employs a spatial light modulator as a smart-pixel array for information processing in the Fourier transform plane of a lens. The system also includes a phase-conjugate mirror for autoalignment and for correction of optical wave-front aberrations that are imparted on the object light by the smart-pixel processor and its associated optical train. PMID:19798320

  18. Computer-based diagnostic monitoring to enhance the human-machine interface of complex processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.

    1992-02-01

    There is a growing interest in introducing an automated, on-line, diagnostic monitoring function into the human-machine interfaces (HMIs) or control rooms of complex process plants. The design of such a system should be properly integrated with other HMI systems in the control room, such as the alarms system or the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). This paper provides a conceptual foundation for the development of a Plant-wide Diagnostic Monitoring System (PDMS), along with functional requirements for the system and other advanced HMI systems. Insights are presented into the design of an efficient and robust PDMS, which were gained from a critical review of various methodologies developed in the nuclear power industry, the chemical process industry, and the space technological community.

  19. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  20. [Situational diagnostic of an evaluation process of professional perfomance].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vera Lúcia Mira; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to realize a diagnostic situational about the evaluation process of the nursing team performance of USP Hospital. Based in two guiding questions, it was carried out 9 interviews with nurses of this hospital. These interviews were analyzed according Analyze of Contend. The most frequent themes were: The meaning of evaluation; the feelings; the difficulties and facilities concerning the instrument and the capacitacion. This experience brought about many feelings, as well as aspects that either favor or make the execution of the evaluation difficult, showing the principal points of vulnerability of the process and, therefore, deserving better attention and short-term intervention. PMID:15603481

  1. A diagnostic expert system for digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, R. W.; Wilson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    A scheme is presented for a diagnostic expert system which is capable of troubleshooting a faulty digital circuit or producing a reduced test vector set for a non-faulty digital circuit. It is based on practical fault-finding logic and utilizes artificial intelligence techniques. The program uses expert knowledge comprised of two components: that which is contained within the program in the form of rules and heuristics, and that which is derived from the circuit under test in the form of specific device information. Using both forward and backward tracking algorithms, signal paths comprised of device and gate interconnections are identified from each output pin to the primary input pins which have effect on them. Beginning at the output, the program proceeds to validate each device in each signal path by forward propagating test values through the device to the output, and backward propagating the same values to the primary inputs. All devices in the circuit are monitored for each test applied and their performance is recorded. Device or gate validation occurs when the recorded history shows that a device has been toggled successfully through all necessary states. When run on a circuit which does not contain a fault, the program determines a reduced test vector set for that circuit.

  2. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouny, Mona; Feghali, Mireille; Nasr, Assaad; Abou-Samra, Philippe; Saleh, Nadine; Bourgeois, Denis; Farge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P < 0.001). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. PMID:25401161

  3. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  4. Portable Knowledge-Based Diagnostic And Maintenance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, John; Olson, Noreen S.

    1989-03-01

    It is difficult to diagnose faults and maintain weapon systems because (1) they are highly complex pieces of equipment composed of multiple mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic assemblies, and (2) talented maintenance personnel are continuously being lost through the attrition process. To solve this problem, we developed a portable diagnostic and maintenance aid that uses a knowledge-based expert system. This aid incorporates diagnostics, operational procedures, repair and replacement procedures, and regularly scheduled maintenance into one compact, 18-pound graphics workstation. Drawings and schematics can be pulled up from the CD-ROM to assist the operator in answering the expert system's questions. Work for this aid began with the development of the initial knowledge-based expert system in a fast prototyping environment using a LISP machine. The second phase saw the development of a personal computer-based system that used videodisc technology to pictorially assist the operator. The current version of the aid eliminates the high expenses associated with videodisc preparation by scanning in the art work already in the manuals. A number of generic software tools have been developed that streamlined the construction of each iteration of the aid; these tools will be applied to the development of future systems.

  5. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relative operating characteristic analysis of signal detection theory as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Reports representative values of this measure in several fields. Compares how problems in these fields are handled. (CW)

  6. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  7. REDEX - The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990s.

  8. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  9. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostics-system instrumentation and data-acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.; Lau, N.H.C.; Mead, J.E.; Throop, A.L.

    1981-10-21

    The change of scope for MFTF from a simple mirror to a tandem mirror configuration utilizing thermal barriers has expanded the range of plasma parameters and increased the requirements of the plasma diagnostics system. The instrument set that is needed for start-up operation has been identified and conceptual design work is proceeding. This paper describes the diagnostic instrumentation as presently envisioned for start-up operation, with a summary of the detectors and data channels. Also presented is an overview of the current conceptual design for the Local Control and Data Acquisition System and the Data Processing and Display system. As more detailed design is done, the exact number and nature of instruments may change, but overall, the system described here is one expected to satisfy the requirements for start-up and be expandable to the basic set of diagnostics.

  10. Effects of temperature variations on piezoelectric sensor diagnostics process based on impedance measurements (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, HyeJin; Park, Tong-il; Park, Gyehae

    2014-05-01

    A sensor diagnostic and validation process that performs in-situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) active-sensors in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications is presented. The basis of this process is to track the changes in the capacitive value of piezoelectric materials, which shows up in measured admittance. Both degradation of the mechanical/electrical properties of a PZT transducer and the bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure could be identified by the proposed process. Due to the temperature dependent nature of piezoelectric materials, we investigated the effects of temperature on sensor diagnostic process. The effect of temperature found to be remarkable, modifying the measured capacitive values significantly. This results indicates that there is need for developing a rigorous signal processing technique to normalizing the temperature effects. It has been also found that, as the temperature changes, the sensor diagnostic process was influenced not only by a sensor and a structure, but by a bonding materials that was used for attaching a piezoelectric transducers to a structure, which would be an important characteristic when designing an SHM system. This paper summarizes considerations needed to develop such sensor diagnostic processes, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.

  11. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  13. Atomic Processes and Diagnostics of Low Pressure Krypton Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Goyal, Dipti; Gangwar, Reetesh; Stafford, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy along with suitable collisional-radiative (CR) model is used in plasma diagnostics. Importance of reliable cross-sections for various atomic processes is shown for low pressure argon plasma. In the present work, radially-averaged Kr emission lines from the 2pi --> 1sj were recorded as a function of pressure from 1 to 50mTorr. We have developed a CR model using our fine-structure relativistic-distorted wave cross sections. The various processes considered are electron-impact excitation, ionization and their reverse processes. The required rate coefficients have been calculated from these cross-sections assuming Maxwellian energy distribution. Electron temperature obtained from the CR model is found to be in good agreement with the probe measurements. Work is supported by IAEA Vienna, DAE-BRNS Mumbai and CSIR, New Delhi.

  14. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  15. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  16. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostics for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark; Sangster, Craig; Hudson, Bryant; Lougheed, Ron; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, Brook-Eden; Olsen, Michele

    2000-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Development of key tools for these diagnostics has been progressing on NOVA and OMEGA laser systems. A limitation of the sample collection techniques currently being used is the solid angle for collection of post-shot debris, which is maximally about 1collections at NOVA. Because of the large standoff for NIF (5 m), the solid angle subtended would be expected to be much less without development of expandable foil collection schemes. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots is currently being assembled at LLNL. Results of benchtop tests with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100Secondary goals include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne and 79Br(p,n)79Kr will be investigated at OMEGA as mix-diagnostics for NIF. Note that it may be possible to use the 18O or Br already in most capsules, circumventing some target development issues. The gas sampling system will be designed in such a way as to not preclude the addition of carrier gas to the target chamber following an experiment for "flushing" of other, perhaps non-gaseous, reaction products.

  17. Encoding expert knowledge: A Bayesian diagnostic system for diesel generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Developing computer systems to capture the knowledge of human experts offers new opportunities to electric utilities. Such systems become particularly attractive when technical expertise resides within a single individual, possibly nearing retirement, who has not otherwise passed along his important knowledge and though processes. An expert system model called the Bayesian diagnostic module (BMD) has been developed to aid plant personnel in diagnosing the causes of equipment failure. The BDM deals with uncertainty in a mathematically logical and rigorous way. If sufficient observables are provided as input, it can identify a single cause of failure with very high confidence. Given less complete information, the method degrades gracefully by advising operators about alternative causes of failure, including as estimate of the likelihood that each cause is the correct one. The complete theoretical foundation of the BDM is briefly summarized in this paper.

  18. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-07-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  19. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. 1033.112 Section 1033.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. 1033.112 Section 1033.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  1. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-15

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  2. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-01

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  3. Diagnostic Features of Emotional Expressions Are Processed Preferentially

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Elisa; Büchel, Christian; Gamer, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic features of emotional expressions are differentially distributed across the face. The current study examined whether these diagnostic features are preferentially attended to even when they are irrelevant for the task at hand or when faces appear at different locations in the visual field. To this aim, fearful, happy and neutral faces were presented to healthy individuals in two experiments while measuring eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants had to accomplish an emotion classification, a gender discrimination or a passive viewing task. To differentiate fast, potentially reflexive, eye movements from a more elaborate scanning of faces, stimuli were either presented for 150 or 2000 ms. In Experiment 2, similar faces were presented at different spatial positions to rule out the possibility that eye movements only reflect a general bias for certain visual field locations. In both experiments, participants fixated the eye region much longer than any other region in the face. Furthermore, the eye region was attended to more pronouncedly when fearful or neutral faces were shown whereas more attention was directed toward the mouth of happy facial expressions. Since these results were similar across the other experimental manipulations, they indicate that diagnostic features of emotional expressions are preferentially processed irrespective of task demands and spatial locations. Saliency analyses revealed that a computational model of bottom-up visual attention could not explain these results. Furthermore, as these gaze preferences were evident very early after stimulus onset and occurred even when saccades did not allow for extracting further information from these stimuli, they may reflect a preattentive mechanism that automatically detects relevant facial features in the visual field and facilitates the orientation of attention towards them. This mechanism might crucially depend on amygdala functioning and it is potentially impaired in a number of

  4. Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roy E; Henricks, Walter H; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J

    2016-03-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of molecular test reporting, and nuances related to the dissemination of molecular pathology test reports. By satisfactorily addressing these needs in molecular test data management, a laboratory information system designed for the unique needs of molecular diagnostics presents a compelling reason to migrate away from the current paper and spreadsheet information management that many molecular laboratories currently use. This paper reviews the issues and challenges of information management in the molecular diagnostics laboratory. PMID:26849819

  5. A diagnostic process extended in time as a fuzzy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth; Gerstenkorn, Tadeusz

    1999-03-01

    The paper refers to earlier results obtained by the authors and constitutes their essential complement and extension by introducing to a diagnostic model the assumption that the decision concerning the diagnosis is based on observations of symptoms carried out repeatedly, by stages, which may have effect in a change of these symptoms in increasing time. The model concerns the observations of symptoms at an individual patient at a time interval. The changes of the symptoms give some additional information, sometimes very important in the diagnostic process when the clinical picture of a patient in a certain interval of time differs from that one which has been received from the beginning of the disease. It may occur that the change in the intensity of a symptom decides an acceptance of another diagnosis after some time when the patient does not feel better. The aim is to fix an optimal diagnosis on the basis of clinical symptoms typical of several morbid units with respect to the changes of these symptoms in time. In order to solve such a posed problem the authors apply the method of fuzzy relation equations which are modelled by means of logical rules of inference. Moreover, in the final decision concerning the choice of a proper diagnosis, a normed Euclidean distance is introduced as a measure between a real decision and an "ideal" decision. A simple example presents the practical action of the method to show its relevance to a possible user.

  6. DIII-D Thomson Scattering Diagnostic Data Acquisition, Processing and Analysis Software

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, K.R.; Bray, B.D.; Hsieh, C.L.; McHarg, B.B., Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-06-01

    One of the diagnostic systems critical to the success of the DIII-D tokamak experiment is the Thomson scattering diagnostic. This diagnostic is unique in that it measures local electron temperature and density: (1) at multiple locations within the tokamak plasma; and (2) at different times throughout the plasma duration. Thomson ''raw'' data are digitized signals of scattered light, measured at different times and locations, from the laser beam paths fired into the plasma. Real-time acquisition of this data is performed by specialized hardware. Once obtained, the raw data are processed into meaningful temperature and density values which can be analyzed for measurement quality. This paper will provide an overview of the entire Thomson scattering diagnostic software and will focus on the data acquisition, processing, and analysis software implementation. The software falls into three general categories: (1) Set-up and Control: Initializes and controls all Thomson hardware and software, synchronizes with other DIII-D computers, and invokes other Thomson software as appropriate. (2) Data Acquisition and Processing: Obtains raw measured data from memory and processes it into temperature and density values. (3) Analysis: Provides a graphical user interface in which to perform analysis and sophisticated plotting of analysis parameters.

  7. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O'Brien, D W

    2010-05-12

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant...

  10. A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, Chang; Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Guo, Guangping; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-06-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system has been developed for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The system consists of three major parts: a diagnostic layer with a network of piezoelectric elements and fiber gratings to offer a simple and efficient way to integrate a large network of transducers onto a structure; diagnostic hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit together with a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input, data collection, and information processing; and diagnostic software to determine the condition of the structure. This paper presents key development issues related to the manufacturing of the hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic layer and integration of a highly portable diagnostic hardware. Validation and proof testing of this integrated diagnostic system are also presented.

  11. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  12. Diagnostic for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Etch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies ion the processing of semiconductor materials arising from understanding etch chemistries are being developed through a research collaboration between Stanford University and NASA-Ames Research Center, Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of materials processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. In addition, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. The research described involves the study of plasmas used in semiconductor processes. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics and chemistries. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities (approximately 10(exp 12)/cu cm) and lower operating pressures (approximately 7 mTorr) than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The motivation for this study is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental parameters, such as gas-phase and surface reaction rates. species

  13. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  14. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  15. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Paul, A C

    2000-08-01

    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II[1]) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material.

  16. GIS diagnostics: thermal imaging systems used for poor contact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avital, Doron; Brandenbursky, V.; Farber, A.

    2004-04-01

    contacts in GIS. The Israel Electric Company (IEC) in seeking a solution to this problem have undertaken experimental work to examine the possibility of in-service diagnostic of poor contact problem in GIS via direct local heating detection, using a Thermal Imaging System. The experiments were carried out on the part of the GIS with nominal SF6 pressure. The following aspects of the problem were examined: - the range of power released in the defective contact that could give the practical temperature rise on the surface of enclosure; - temperature distribution on the surface of enclosure; - the influence of spacer type (with holes or without) on the heat transfer process; - the influence of the length of SF6 tubes and there position (horizontal or vertical); - the temperature difference between upper and lower parts of the tubes in horizontal position; - practical use of the Thermal Imaging System for detecting poor contact problem in GIS.

  17. Diagnostics of Nano-Particle Formation in Process Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Holger

    2015-09-01

    The main sources of particle generation during plasma surface processing and the formation of nano-composite materials are (i) the formation of large molecules, mesoscopic clusters and particles in the plasma bulk by chemically reactive gases, and (ii) the formation and incorporation of particles at surfaces (target, substrate) by means of plasma-wall interaction. The plasma process promotes the particle formation by excitation, dissociation and reaction of the involved species in the gas phase. The different stages of the particle growth in the gas phase can be observed by various plasma diagnostics as mass spectrometry, laser induced evaporation, photo-detachment, IR absorption, microwave cavity measurements, Mie scattering and self-excited electron resonance spectroscopy (SEERS). Common diagnostics of particle formation also use the observation and analysis of harmonics and other discharge characteristics. Especially the early stages of the particle growth are not well investigated since they are experimentally inaccessible by standard methods as mentioned above. A novel collection method based on neutral drag was tested in order to get a better insight into the early stages of particle growth. The experiments were performed in an asymmetric, capacitively coupled rf-discharge, where multiple growth cycles can be obtained. Making use of the correlation between the particle growth cycles and the bias voltage as well as the phase angle between discharge current and voltage it was possible to monitor each growth process in-situ. This allowed to collect particles at any desired stage of the growth cycle via the neutral drag method. Size distributions of the nanoparticles at the different stages of the growth cycle were determined ex-situ by transmission electron microscopy. The observed correlations of particle size and bias voltage, which can be used for prediction of the particle growth, are qualitatively explained. Furthermore, the change of the electron density

  18. Developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Atherton, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement techniques for developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors are presented. The self-diagnostic system uses two types of measurement techniques based on passive and active evaluation of the piezoelectric element. Both hard and soft failures can be detected by this system. Hard failures such as loss of sensor signal and change in sensor output resistance are determined by monitoring the sensor's output resistance, voltage or current. These are passive measurements of the sensor's output condition. Soft failures include changes in sensor calibration and mounting conditions. Soft failures are detected by measuring structural/electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensor. Active measurement techniques are used to calculate changes in piezoelectric element properties related to soft failures. This paper describes the general operating principles of a self-diagnostic system and discusses the design of an active/passive measurement technique required for this system to function. Experimental results using two types of piezoelectric accelerometers are presented.

  19. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  20. Benchmarking Diagnostic Algorithms on an Electrical Power System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Wright, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic algorithms (DAs) are key to enabling automated health management. These algorithms are designed to detect and isolate anomalies of either a component or the whole system based on observations received from sensors. In recent years a wide range of algorithms, both model-based and data-driven, have been developed to increase autonomy and improve system reliability and affordability. However, the lack of support to perform systematic benchmarking of these algorithms continues to create barriers for effective development and deployment of diagnostic technologies. In this paper, we present our efforts to benchmark a set of DAs on a common platform using a framework that was developed to evaluate and compare various performance metrics for diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is an electrical power system, namely the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) developed and located at the NASA Ames Research Center. The paper presents the fundamentals of the benchmarking framework, the ADAPT system, description of faults and data sets, the metrics used for evaluation, and an in-depth analysis of benchmarking results obtained from testing ten diagnostic algorithms on the ADAPT electrical power system testbed.

  1. Multiple sensor expert system for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and control of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Srinivas, Sampath; Schneider, Kenneth M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes an expert systems architecture for integrating multiple sensors for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and supervisory control of mechanical systms in automated manufacturing and process control. The IDES (Influence Diagram based Expert System) performs probabilistic inference and expected value decision making. It integrates dynamic sensor readings, statistical data and subjective expertise in symbolic and numerical data structures and is designed for real time performance. An application using acoustic, current and force sensors on a numerically-controlled milling machine is described. In this example, the fusion of information from multiple sensors achieves effective prediction and control performance with relatively simple signal processing.

  2. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  3. Performance of fault-tolerant diagnostics in the hypercube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoor, A.; Sole, P.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper, they introduce the concept of fault-tolerant self-diagnosis for distributed systems and show that there exists a performance tradeoff between the complexity of a self-diagnostic algorithm and the level of fault tolerance inherited by the algorithm. For the study, they select hypercube systems and show that designing an optimal algorithm for such systems has an equivalent coding theory formulation which belongs to the class of NP-hard problems. Subsequently, they propose an ''efficient'' diagnostic scheme for these systems and study the performance tradeoff of the proposed algorithm which is based on a combinatorial structure called Hadamard matrix. The authors make an essential use of its properties of symmetrical partitioning and covering in hypercube networks. Using known translate weight distributions, they evaluated the tradeoff between the fault tolerance and traffic complexity of the proposed diagnostic algorithm for hypercubes of small sizes. An interesting compromise is exhibited for the hypercube with an arbitrary size.

  4. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future. PMID:26937373

  5. Electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) diagnostic system on TMX

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, F.E.; Griffin, D.H.

    1981-10-20

    The ECRH diagnostics system monitors the net power delivered to the plasma by four 200-kW gyrotron oscillators, the frequency of each gyrotron, and some operating parameters of the gyrotron power supply system. The combination CAMAC- and GPIB-based data acquisition system is under desktop computer control that provides the capability for data conversion and display. The data acquisition system is also interfaced to the main computer system that acquires and archives the data.

  6. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  7. Diagnostic techniques in thermal plasma processing (Part II). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Boulos, M.; Fauchais, P.; Pfender, E.

    1986-02-01

    Techniques for diagnostics for thermal plasmas are discussed. These include both optical techniques and in-flight measurements of particulate matter. In the core of the plasma, collisional excitation of the various chemical species is so strong that the population of the corresponding quantum levels becomes high enough for net emission from the plasma. In that case, the classical methods of emission spectroscopy may be applied. But in the regions where the temperatures are below 4000/sup 0/K (these regions are of primary importance for plasma processing), the emission from the plasma is no longer sufficient for emission spectroscopy. In this situation, the population of excited levels must be increased by the absorption of the light from an external source. Such sources, as for example pulsed tunable dye lasers, are now commercially available. The use of such new devices leads to various techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF) or Coherent Anti Stockes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) that can be used for analyzing plasmas. Particle velocity measurements can be achieved by photography and laser Doppler anemometry. Particle flux measurements are typically achieved by collecting particles on a substrate. Particle size measurements are based on intensity of scattered light. (WRF)

  8. DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  10. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  11. Image processing in digital chest radiography: effect on diagnostic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Manninen, H; Partanen, K; Lehtovirta, J; Matsi, P; Soimakallio, S

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of digital image processing of chest radiographs was evaluated in a clinical study. In 54 patients, chest radiographs in the posteroanterior projection were obtained by both 14 inch digital image intensifier equipment and the conventional screen-film technique. The digital radiographs (512 x 512 image format) viewed on a 625 line monitor were processed in three different ways: (1) standard display; (2) digital edge enhancement for the standard display; and (3) inverse intensity display. The radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. The diagnoses were confirmed by CT, follow-up radiographs and clinical records. Chest abnormalities of the films analyzed included 21 primary lung tumors, 44 pulmonary nodules, 16 cases with mediastinal disease and 17 cases with pneumonia/atelectasis. Interstitial lung disease, pleural plaques, and pulmonary emphysema were found in 30, 18 and 19 cases, respectively. The sensitivity of conventional radiography when averaged overall findings was better than that of the digital techniques (P less than 0.001). The differences in diagnostic accuracy measured by sensitivity and specificity between the three digital display modes were small. Standard image display showed better sensitivity for pulmonary nodules (0.74 vs 0.66; P less than 0.05) but poorer specificity for pulmonary emphysema (0.85 vs. 0.93; P less than 0.05) compared with inverse intensity display. We conclude that when using 512 x 512 image format, the routine use of digital edge enhancement and tone reversal at digital chest radiographs is not warranted. PMID:1563421

  12. Diagnostics, Modeling and Simulation: Three Keys Towards Mastering the Cutting Process with Fiber, Disk and Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petring, Dirk; Molitor, Thomas; Schneider, Frank; Wolf, Norbert

    Even established laser processing technologies such as cutting are far away from being completely understood. Nevertheless, the progress in industrially available laser cutting systems and applications is quite respectable. Fiber and disk laser cutting changed from a debatable newcomer to a serious part of the business while the diode laser appears at the horizon as the next player to be reckoned. Understanding of the process and its performance are continually improved. This paper highlights results of research and development from the recent years. Some speculations, simulations, diagnostics and facts about the process, its properties and capabilities are assessed. Earlier and latest diagnostics and CALCut simulation results of laser beam cutting processes are presented.

  13. Fault diagnostic system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Umesh; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a robot fault diagnosis system (RFDS). Though designed ostensibly for the University of Cincinnati's autonomous, unmanned, mobile robot for a national competition, it has the flexibility to be adapted for industrial applications as well. Using a top-down approach the robot is sub-divided into different functional units, such as the vision guidance system, the ultrasonic obstacle avoidance system, the steering mechanism, the speed control system, the braking system and the power unit. The techniques of potential failure mode and effects analysis (PFMEA) are used to analyze faults, their visible symptoms, and probable causes and remedies. The relationships obtained therefrom are mapped in a database framework. This is then coded in a user-friendly interactive Visual BasicTM program that guides the user to the likely cause(s) of failure through a question-answer format. A provision is made to ensure better accuracy of the system by incorporating historical data on failures as it becomes available. The RFDS thus provides a handy trouble-shooting tool that cuts down the time involved in diagnosing failures in the complex robot consisting of mechanical, electric, electronic and optical systems. This has been of great help in diagnosing failures and ensuring maximum performance from the robot during the contest in the face of pressure of the competition and the outdoor conditions.

  14. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-05-07

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

  15. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  16. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M. ); Humenik, K.E. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  18. High-power diode lasers in spray process diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Jussi

    2005-03-01

    Spray processes are commonly employed in many kinds of surface treatment applications, most prominently in medical, material processing and manufacturing industries. While spraying is a well established technology, we still lack complete understanding of all interactions within a given spray process. This is because the physical models of many subprocesses, like turbulent gas flow, particle formation and gas-particle interaction, are limited and often provide only qualitative predictions on the real process. Imaging measurements are essential in gaining better understanding of a spray process. They offer a way to measure properties of both the complete spray plume and individual droplets. A spray analysis system typically requires a high-power stroboscopic light source; Xe flashlamps and Q-switched solid state lasers have been the most common choice until recently. The development of high-power diode lasers has provided a versatile, low-cost and easy to use light source for the analysis of spray processes. We present a real-time diode laser based imaging system to measure droplet density, size and velocity distributions in a spray, together with the spray plume geometry.

  19. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  20. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  1. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  2. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; de Sousa, Sidney J. F.

    1997-05-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a very common disease in agricultural countries and it is responsible for 10% of the blindness causes. One of the main aspects to be observed in these cases is the increasing or decreasing of the affected area. We have been developing an automatic optical system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer) to be implemented in a public hospital (400 patients per week are analyzed). The optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in a PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer has been developed.

  3. Ureteral stones due to systemic mastocytosis: diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Solleder, Gerold; Kolck, Ulrich W; Homann, Jürgen; Schröder, Detlev; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Vorreuther, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Urolithiasis is expected to cause a considerable complication in patients with systemic mastocytosis. The aim of the present report is to demonstrate that due to pathological activation and irritability of mast cells, special features in the diagnostic investigation and therapy of urolithiasis have to be considered in patients with systemic mastocytosis. The clinical presentation, diagnostic investigation and therapeutic procedure of urolithiasis in a patient with systemic mastocytosis are described. Urolithiasis may be a significant complication of systemic mastocytosis. Non-contrast CT is the main tool for diagnosing urolithiasis after a detailed history and clinical exam. Patients with systemic mastocytosis should receive a premedication composed of a glucocorticoid and H(1)- and H(2)-histamine receptor antagonists. An increased vulnerability of mucosal tissues is expected in patients with systemic mastocytosis that may limit the options of operative and postoperative therapy. Opioids should be used cautiously for analgesia in patients with systemic mastocytosis. PMID:19513706

  4. Chapter 8: The Diagnostic Systems in the FTU

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, O.; Apruzzese, G.M.; Buratti, P.; Cantarini, L.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cocilovo, V.; Angelis, R. de; Benedetti, M. de; Esposito, B.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, L.A.; Grosso, G.; Innocente, P.; Kroegler, H.; Leigheb, M.; Monari, G.; Pacella, D.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Podda, S.; Puiatti, M.E.; Rocchi, G.; Sibio, A.; Simonetto, A.; Smeulders, P.; Tartari, U.; Tartoni, N.; Tilia, B.; Valisa, M.; Zanza, V.; Zerbini, M.

    2004-05-15

    The design of diagnostics for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is challenging because of the compactness of the machine (8-cm-wide ports) and the low operating temperatures requiring the presence of a cryostat. Nevertheless, a rather complete diagnostic system has been progressively installed. The basic systems include a set of magnetic probes, various visible and ultraviolet spectrometers, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) for electron temperature profiles measurements and electron tails monitoring, far-infrared and CO{sub 2} interferometry, X-ray (soft and hard) measurements, a multichord neutron diagnostics (with different type detectors), and a Thomson scattering system. Some diagnostics specific to the FTU physics program have been used such as microwave reflectometry for turbulence studies, edge-scanning Langmuir probes for radio-frequency coupling assessment, oblique ECE, and a fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) camera for lower hybrid current drive-induced fast electron tails.These systems are briefly reviewed in this paper. Further developments including a scanning CO{sub 2} laser two-color interferometer, two FEB cameras for tomographic analysis, a motional Stark effect system, and a collective Thomson scattering system are also described.

  5. STATUS OF VARIOUS SNS DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Purcell, J David; Patton, Jeff; Pelaia II, Tom; Sundaram, Madhan; Pennisi, Terry R

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems are ramping up to deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. Enhancements or additions have been made to several instrument systems to support the ramp up in intensity, improve reliability, and/or add functionality. The Beam Current Monitors now support increased rep rates, the Harp system now includes charge density calculations for the target, and a new system has been created to collect data for the beam accounting and present the data over the web and to the operator consoles. The majority of the SNS beam instruments are PC-based and their configuration files are now managed through the Oracle relational database. A new version for the wire scanner software was developed to add features to correlate the scan with beam loss, parking in the beam, and measuring the longitudinal beam current. This software is currently being tested. This paper also includes data from the selected instruments.

  6. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  7. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  8. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    1998-06-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a deepithelization of the cornea and it is a very common disease in agricultural countries. The clinician most used parameter in order to identify a favorable ulcer evolution is the regress of the affected area. However, this kind of evaluation is subjective, once just the horizontal and vertical axes are measured based on a graduated scale and the affected area is estimated. Also, the registration of the disease is made by photographs. In order to overcome the subjectiveness and to register the images in a more accessible way (hard disks, floppy disks, etc.), we have developed an automatic system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer). An optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp (SL) and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer (precision of 20 mm) has been developed.

  9. Alignment and diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E S; Boege, S J; Boyd, B; Demaret, R D; Feldman, M; Gates, A J; Holdener, F R; Hollis, J; Knopp, C F; McCarville, T J; Miller-Kamm; Rivera, W E; Salmon, J T; Severyn, J R; Thompson, C E; V J; Wang, D Y; Zacharias, R A

    1999-07-01

    The NIF laser system will be capable of delivering 1.8MJ of 351nm energy in 192 beams. Diagnostics instruments must measure beam energy, power vs. time, wavefront quality, and beam intensity profile to characterize laser performance. Alignment and beam diagnostics are also used to set the laser up for the high power shots and to isolate problems when performance is less than expected. Alignment and beam diagnostics are multiplexed to keep the costs under control. At the front-end the beam is aligned and diagnosed in an input sensor package. The output 1053nm beam is sampled by collecting a 0.1% reflection from an output beam sampler and directing it to the output sensor package (OSP). The OSP also gets samples from final focus lens reflection and samples from the transport spatial filter pinhole plane. The output 351nm energy is measured by a calorimeter collecting the signal from an off-axis diffractive beam-sampler. Detailed information on the focused beam in the high-energy target focal plane region is gathered in the precision diagnostics. This paper describes the design of the alignment and diagnostics on the NIF laser system.

  10. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  11. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  12. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-02-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process.

  13. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark; Hudson, Bryant; Sangster, Craig; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, B.; Olsen, M.

    2001-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots has been assembled at LLNL and is being installed on the target chamber at OMEGA. Results of benchtop tests and possibly target chamber background collections with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, and the background be low and well-characterized, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne or 80Kr(n,2n)79Kr and 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar will be investigated at OMEGA. In addition, other collection schemes are being considered for reactions that do not result in a noble gas isotope. Some simulations of expected activations from several capsule designs will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. [Diagnostic imaging of central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis involving the central nervous system presents with infarction and hemorrhage, which are often nonspecific findings. Laboratory examinations are essential for diagnosis of vasculitis in addition to comprehensive and systematic review of the clinical course. Although most findings tend to be nonspecific, enhancement and thickening of the vascular wall indicate vasculitis. Visualization of the vascular wall requires selection of the appropriate imaging modality and mode of image acquisition. Contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and FDG-PET are useful for visualizing large vessel vasculitis, while CT, MRI, and angiography are effective for medium vessel vasculitis. The use of ultrasound is limited to evaluating vessels on the body surface. Although relatively thick vessels can be demonstrated by angiography, complete survey of small vessels is difficult. Here, we summarize the characteristics of each imaging modality and imaging findings of typical vasculitides-Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, Behçet's disease, primary angiitis of the CNS, and vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Differential diagnoses are also shown, including infective endocarditis, tuberculous meningitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. PMID:25846439

  15. The Feasibility of a Diagnostic Media Test System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Alfred V.

    Research investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic media test system. Two distinct tests were developed for sixth grade and university populations, each having: 1) a main phase with three specific teaching sequences, one for each media form; 2) test items for each teaching sequence; and 3) a validation phase with one teaching sequence…

  16. Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Wells, C.W.

    1981-10-19

    The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done.

  17. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, P. P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI)c) for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants.

  18. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  19. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  20. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  1. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  2. EARSEC SAR processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  3. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  4. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  5. Sensor applications for structural diagnostics and prognostics in aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Ayers, James T.; Haile, Mulugeta; Shiao, Michael; Le, Dy D.

    2012-04-01

    There are emerging sensor technologies that will be deployed in future rotorcraft or retrofitted to existing rotorcraft and aircraft for structural diagnostics and prognostics. The vehicle health management system is likely to contain heterogeneous sensor arrays. Thus the structural state awareness may require information data fusion from dissimilar sensor (heterogeneous) system. This paper reviews the state of the art commercial of the shelf (COTS) and emerging sensor technologies for structural damage monitoring of rotorcraft and aircraft health.

  6. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  7. Updated Diagnostic Criteria and Staging System for Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2016-01-01

    There has been remarkable progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The median survival of the disease has doubled as a result of several new active drugs. These advances have necessitated a revision of the disease definition and staging of MM. Until recently, MM was defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the clonal process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add three specific biomarkers that can be used to diagnose the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features: clonal bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 60%, serum free light chain (FLC) ratio greater than or equal to 100 provided involved FLC level is 100 mg/L or higher, or more than one focal lesion on MRI. In addition, the definition was revised to allow CT and PET-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage for patients who are at the highest risk. A new staging system has been developed that incorporates high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to standard laboratory markers of prognosis. PMID:27249749

  8. Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Cathal P; Finn, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control (SPC). Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply SPC to an assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater sample numbers to mitigate a protracted time to detection. Modeled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of SPC to qualitative laboratory data. PMID:25988159

  9. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  10. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  11. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  12. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  13. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  14. Photolithography diagnostic expert systems: a systematic approach to problem solving in a wafer fabrication facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherwax Scott, Caroline; Tsareff, Christopher R.

    1990-06-01

    One of the main goals of process engineering in the semiconductor industry is to improve wafer fabrication productivity and throughput. Engineers must work continuously toward this goal in addition to performing sustaining and development tasks. To accomplish these objectives, managers must make efficient use of engineering resources. One of the tools being used to improve efficiency is the diagnostic expert system. Expert systems are knowledge based computer programs designed to lead the user through the analysis and solution of a problem. Several photolithography diagnostic expert systems have been implemented at the Hughes Technology Center to provide a systematic approach to process problem solving. This systematic approach was achieved by documenting cause and effect analyses for a wide variety of processing problems. This knowledge was organized in the form of IF-THEN rules, a common structure for knowledge representation in expert system technology. These rules form the knowledge base of the expert system which is stored in the computer. The systems also include the problem solving methodology used by the expert when addressing a problem in his area of expertise. Operators now use the expert systems to solve many process problems without engineering assistance. The systems also facilitate the collection of appropriate data to assist engineering in solving unanticipated problems. Currently, several expert systems have been implemented to cover all aspects of the photolithography process. The systems, which have been in use for over a year, include wafer surface preparation (HMDS), photoresist coat and softbake, align and expose on a wafer stepper, and develop inspection. These systems are part of a plan to implement an expert system diagnostic environment throughout the wafer fabrication facility. In this paper, the systems' construction is described, including knowledge acquisition, rule construction, knowledge refinement, testing, and evaluation. The roles

  15. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  16. Applications of digital processing for noise removal from plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.A.

    1985-11-11

    The use of digital signal techniques for removal of noise components present in plasma diagnostic signals is discussed, particularly with reference to diamagnetic loop signals. These signals contain noise due to power supply ripple in addition to plasma characteristics. The application of noise canceling techniques, such as adaptive noise canceling and model-based estimation, will be discussed. The use of computer codes such as SIG is described. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  17. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases. PMID:27475558

  18. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  19. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  20. A Scalable, Out-of-Band Diagnostics Architecture for International Space Station Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Rick; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The computational infrastructure of the International Space Station (ISS) is a dynamic system that supports multiple vehicle subsystems such as Caution and Warning, Electrical Power Systems and Command and Data Handling (C&DH), as well as scientific payloads of varying size and complexity. The dynamic nature of the ISS configuration coupled with the increased demand for payload support places a significant burden on the inherently resource constrained computational infrastructure of the ISS. Onboard system diagnostics applications are hosted on computers that are elements of the avionics network while ground-based diagnostic applications receive only a subset of available telemetry, down-linked via S-band communications. In this paper we propose a scalable, out-of-band diagnostics architecture for ISS systems support that uses a read-only connection for C&DH data acquisition, which provides a lower cost of deployment and maintenance (versus a higher criticality readwrite connection). The diagnostics processing burden is off-loaded from the avionics network to elements of the on-board LAN that have a lower overall cost of operation and increased computational capacity. A superset of diagnostic data, richer in content than the configured telemetry, is made available to Advanced Diagnostic System (ADS) clients running on wireless handheld devices, affording the crew greater mobility for troubleshooting and providing improved insight into vehicle state. The superset of diagnostic data is made available to the ground in near real-time via an out-of band downlink, providing a high level of fidelity between vehicle state and test, training and operational facilities on the ground.

  1. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Electron Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J

    2000-04-10

    The Diagnostic X (D-X) beamlines will transport the DARHT-II beam from the end of the accelerator to the Diagnostic X firing point providing four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal for the Diagnostic X beamline is to deliver four x-ray pulses with the DARHT-II dose format and time integrated spot size on each line of sight. The D-X beamline's final focus should be compatible with a range of first conjugates from 1 m-5 m. Furthermore, the D-X beamline operational parameters and the beamline layout should not preclude a possible upgrade to additional lines of sight. The DARHT-II accelerator is designed to deliver beams at a rate of 1 pulse per minute or less. Tuning the D-X beamline with several hundred optical elements would be time consuming. Therefore, minimizing the required number of tuning shots for the D-X beamline is also an important design goal. Many different beamline configurations may be able to accomplish these design objectives, and high beam quality (i.e., high current and low emittance) must be maintained throughout the chosen beamline configuration in order to achieve the DARHT-II x-ray dose format. In general, the longer the distance a beam travels, the harder it is to preserve the beam quality. Therefore, from the point of view of maintaining beam quality, it is highly desirable to minimize the beamline length. Lastly, modification to the DARHT-II building and the downstream transport should be minimized. Several processes can degrade beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, increasing the time-varying transverse beam motion, creating a beam halo, or creating a time-varying beam envelope. In this report, we consider those processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the beamline design. The physics design considerations for the active components such as the kicker system will be discussed in Ref. 2. In Sec. I, we discuss how beam emittance affects the x-ray forward dose. We also

  2. Expert systems in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  3. Needs assessment for diagnostic decision support systems (DDSS).

    PubMed Central

    Berner, E. S.; Shugerman, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic decision support systems are often developed without a clear idea of how well the system will meet the needs of its users. The present study was designed to assess the information needs of clinicians. A set of questions submitted to an information service by family physicians was used to determine how much need there was for diagnostic decision support, the types of support needed, and the general content areas of their questions. Results showed that less than half of the questions were related to diagnosis and that most of those were requests for general information about a given condition. In addition, the fewest diagnosis questions were for conditions that were seen frequently in ambulatory care in a survey of family practitioners. PMID:1807674

  4. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, Phase 1. Volume 2: Diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The MIDAS System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughout. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the over-all program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating 2 x 105 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. Diagnostic programs used to test MIDAS' operations are presented.

  5. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  6. Programmable bio-nano-chip system for saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W.; McRae, Michael P.; Wong, Jorge; Kosten, Thomas R.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; McDevitt, John

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) approach that serves as miniaturized assay platform designed for the rapid detection and quantitation of multiple analytes in biological fluids along with the specific applications in salivary diagnostics intended for the point of need (PON). Included here are oral fluid-based tests for local periodontal disease, systemic cardiac disease and multiplexed tests for drugs of abuse.

  7. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Humphrey, J.W.; Niederer, J.; Poole, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario.

  8. Cancer diagnostics using neural network sorting of processed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Charles L.; Schreeder, Marshall; Grundy, Walt; Kinser, Jason M.

    1996-03-01

    A combination of image processing with neural network sorting was conducted to demonstrate feasibility of automated cervical smear screening. Nuclei were isolated to generate a series of data points relating to the density and size of individual nuclei. This was followed by segmentation to isolate entire cells for subsequent generation of data points to bound the size of the cytoplasm. Data points were taken on as many as ten cells per image frame and included correlation against a series of filters providing size and density readings on nuclei. Additional point data was taken on nuclei images to refine size information and on whole cells to bound the size of the cytoplasm, twenty data points per assessed cell were generated. These data point sets, designated as neural tensors, comprise the inputs for training and use of a unique neural network to sort the images and identify those indicating evidence of disease. The neural network, named the Fast Analog Associative Memory, accumulates data and establishes lookup tables for comparison against images to be assessed. Six networks were trained to differentiate normal cells from those evidencing various levels abnormality that may lead to cancer. A blind test was conducted on 77 images to evaluate system performance. The image set included 31 positives (diseased) and 46 negatives (normal). Our system correctly identified all 31 positives and 41 of the negatives with 5 false positives. We believe this technology can lead to more efficient automated screening of cervical smears.

  9. [Lab-on-a-chip systems in the point-of-care diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Barnabás; Borbíró, András; Fürjes, Péter

    2015-12-27

    The need in modern medicine for near-patient diagnostics being able to accelerate therapeutic decisions and possibly replacing laboratory measurements is significantly growing. Reliable and cost-effective bioanalytical measurement systems are required which - acting as a micro-laboratory - contain integrated biomolecular recognition, sensing, signal processing and complex microfluidic sample preparation modules. These micro- and nanofabricated Lab-on-a-chip systems open new perspectives in the diagnostic supply chain, since they are able even for quantitative, high-precision and immediate analysis of special disease specific molecular markers or their combinations from a single drop of sample. Accordingly, crucial requirements regarding the instruments and the analytical methods are the high selectivity, extremely low detection limit, short response time and integrability into the healthcare information networks. All these features can make the hierarchical examination chain shorten, and revolutionize laboratory diagnostics, evolving a brand new situation in therapeutic intervention. PMID:26686745

  10. Radial diagnostics in the system of ecological monitoring in trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siniakova, Olga G.; Ishmuhametov, Airat I.; Proscurina, Gulnar B.; Sharifullin, Faad A.

    1997-08-01

    Both creating of effective identification and evaluation mechanisms of environmental factors hazardous for health, and revealing their influence degree on the human health play an important role in ecological monitoring. The grate importance in a solution of many ecological problems belongs to medicine, first of all, to its social-preventive brunch. In this reference trauma remains the extremely important problem. Annually more than 10 million persons sustain traumas. Alongside with occupational, transport trauma, a significant number of trauma cases occur due to the impact of various ecological factors, including natural disasters, mass poisonings and other reasons. Trauma results in severe changes in human body organs and systems; the timely detection and correct evaluation of these changes are the key points for the choice of treatment. Among diagnostic methods used for this purpose, the methods of radial diagnostics play an important role. Various radial methods-- x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasonic, magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography (CT)--are used to detect the functional and structural changes of vital organs and systems in trauma. Each of these methods has its advantages and shortages. The reported study was devoted to the analysis of using the photon systems (gamma-camera and computer tomography) in application of radionuclide and CT methods of radial diagnostics in trauma.

  11. Development of Visual Diagnostic Expertise in Pathology - An Information-processing Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Naus, Gregory J.; Stewart, Jimmie; Friedman, Charles P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify key features contributing to trainees’ development of expertise in microscopic pathology diagnosis, a complex visual task, and to provide new insights to help create computer-based training systems in pathology. Design: Standard methods of information-processing and cognitive science were used to study diagnostic processes (search, perception, reasoning) of 28 novices, intermediates, and experts. Participants examined cases in breast pathology; each case had a previously established gold standard diagnosis. Videotapes correlated the actual visual data examined by participants with their verbal “think-aloud” protocols. Measurements: Investigators measured accuracy, difficulty, certainty, protocol process frequencies, error frequencies, and times to key diagnostic events for each case and subject. Analyses of variance, chi-square tests and post-hoc comparisons were performed with subject as the unit of analysis. Results: Level of expertise corresponded with differences in search, perception, and reasoning components of the tasks. Several discrete steps occur on the path to competence, including development of adequate search strategies, rapid and accurate recognition of anatomic location, acquisition of visual data interpretation skills, and transitory reliance on explicit feature identification. Conclusion: Results provide the basis for an empirical cognitive model of competence for the complex tasks of microscopic pathology diagnosis. Results will inform the development of computer-based pedagogy tools in this domain PMID:12509356

  12. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed.

  13. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents. PMID:23971826

  14. Diagnostic reasoning in digital systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thearling, Kurt Henry

    1987-01-01

    Described is an efficient method for fault diagnosis in digital systems based on the technique of reasoning. The methodology operates on the observed erroneous behavior and the structure of the system. The behavior consists of the error(s) observed on the circuit's output lines and specific values on the circuit's input lines. The techniques described improve on previously published research on diagnostic reasoning in two ways. Previous work has stressed system independent techniques which could be used to diagnose any faulty system whose structure can be represented. By concentrating on the specific case of diagnosing faulty digital circuits, it is possible to simplify the representation of the structure of the system. This representation, in the form of an AND/OR fault tree, efficiently abstracts the structure of a faulty digital system. More importantly, a method for partitioning the digital system is introduced which can considerably reduce the runtime complexity of a diagnosis.

  15. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  16. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size ({sigma}{sub x} {approx} 150 {mu}m, {sigma}{sub y} {approx} 50 {mu}m), current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at {approximately} 6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening ({sigma} {approx} 30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  17. Evaluation of the NDP (neutron diagnostic probe) system

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaleri, E.A.; Eisen, Y.Y.

    1990-12-01

    The neutron diagnostic probe (NDP), an explosive detection system developed by Consolidated Controls Corporation and based on the associated-alpha-particle technique, was evaluated. Although many problems were found with the prototype system that make it useless for most practical applications, the NDP system may be considered a successful proof-of-principle for the basic explosive detection system design. In addition to evaluating the design and performance of the present system, models were developed to estimate the performance that might reasonably be expected from full scale systems of different conceptual design. Specific examples involved various types of bulk and sheet explosives contained in a suitcase and a large crate. Also considered were the effects of innocuous materials surrounding explosives in different scenarios, including the deliberate use of shielding materials as a countermeasure to detection. 11 refs., 46 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. System diagnostic builder: a rule-generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1993-03-01

    The system diagnostic builder (SDB) is an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state- of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB uses an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert (SME). Thus, data is captured from the subject system, classified by an expert, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule-bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The rule-bases can be used in any knowledge based system which monitors or controls a physical system or simulation. The SDB has demonstrated the utility of using inductive machine learning technology to generate reliable knowledge bases. In fact, we have discovered that the knowledge captured by the SDB can be used in any number of applications. For example, the knowledge bases captured from the SMS can be used as black box simulations by intelligent computer aided training devices. We can also use the SDB to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production, or oil and gas production. These knowledge bases can be used in automated advisory systems to ensure safety, productivity, and consistency.

  19. Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Blandino, Joseph R.; Caldwell, Douglas W.; Carroll, Joseph A.; Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Pollock, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion program recently selected AEC-ABLE Engineering and L'Garde, Inc. to develop scale-model solar sail hardware and demonstrate its functionality on the ground. Both are square sail designs with lightweight diagonal booms (<100 g/m) and ultra-thin membranes (<10 g/sq m). To support this technology, the authors are developing an integrated diagnostics instrumentation package for monitoring solar sail structures such as these in a near-term flight experiment. We refer to this activity as the "Optical Diagnostic System (ODS) for Solar Sails" project. The approach uses lightweight optics and photogrammetric techniques to measure solar sail membrane and boom shape and dynamics, thermography to map temperature, and non-optical sensors including MEMS accelerometers and load cells. The diagnostics package must measure key structural characteristics including deployment dynamics, sail support tension, boom and sail deflection, boom and sail natural frequencies, sail temperature, and sail integrity. This report summarizes work in the initial 6-month Phase I period (conceptual design phase) and complements the final presentation given in Huntsville, AL on January 14, 2004.

  20. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  1. THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu

    2012-06-20

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  2. [Minor head trauma - trivial matter or sirious diagnostic and therapeutic problem? The role of Infrascanner in the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Lewartowska-Nyga, Dorota; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Head injuries in children, especially minor head injuries, still constitute a important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Despite progress in medical sciences, there is no definition of minor head injury or standards of the management of children with a minor head injury. In consequence, the diagnostic procedure in the child who does not show any signs of central nervous system damage as a result of head injury is individual and depends on the experience and knowledge of the aid provider and as well as procedures established in a given ward. Therefore, a problem which requires to be urgently solved is to determine the justification and indications for imaging investigations (justification for skull X-ray, performance indications for carrying out computed tomography of the head) as well as indications for inpatient observation in such cases. The study presents currently existing definitions and proposals for the management of children presenting with a minor head injury. On the basis of own investigation we would stress that there is an opportunity to use in the initial diagnostics of head injuries in children, a modern non-invasive method already available in Poland, utilising the near-infrared NIR technology in order to detect intracranial haemorrhages by means of the Infrascanner. PMID:27442697

  3. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician’s diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Results: Comparing the results of expert system and physician’s diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. Conclusion: The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases. PMID:27046943

  4. Process control using new approaches in plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Steve; Fullwood, Clayton; Turner, Terry R.

    1994-09-01

    As semiconductor processing requirements evolve to meet the demands of decreasing geometries, new approached in plasma metrology will be needed to monitor the performances of the equipment and its processes. This performance has traditionally been monitored via Statistical Process Control (SPC) on output parameters such as etch rate and uniformity. These measurements are typically taken on single film wafers which may not be an accurate representation of product. With emerging, nonintrusive, RF sensor technology, equipment and process engineers have access to signals which provide better resolution in determining the health of the equipment. This paper will discuss the relationships between machine settings, real-time RF sensor measurements and the etch rate and uniformity metrics typically used in machine/process qualifications. Run to run control algorithms using the RF sensor measurements will also be presented. Finally, the implications of using RF sensor measurements to provide real-time closed loop control of machine settings will be discussed.

  5. Monitoring and diagnostics systems for nuclear power plant operating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Abagyan, A.A.; Dmitriev, V.M.; Klebanov, L.A.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Larin, E.P.; Morozov, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The development of new monitoring and diagnostics systems for Soviet reactors is discussed. An experimental test station is described where industrial operation of new experimental systems can be conducted for purposes of bringing their performance to the level of standard Soviet systems for monitoring reactor operation regimes and equipment resources. The requirements and parameters of the systems are described on a unit-by-unit basis, including the sensor reading monitoring unit, the vibroacoustic monitoring unit, the noise monitoring unit, the accident regime identification unit, and the nonstationary regime monitoring unit. Computer hardware and software requirements are discussed. The results of calculational and experimental research on two complex nonstationary regimes of reactor operation are given. The accident regimes identification unit for the VVER-1000 is analyzed in detail.

  6. F100 engine diagnostic system status to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyless, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An engine diagnostic system, proposed for the F100 engine, was tested in five specially modified Tactical Air Command F-15 aircraft during a 16-month flight evaluation. After more than 3300 engine operating hours encompassing almost 900 flights during the flight evaluation, these aircraft provided a data base, still being analyzed, that has shown successful demonstration of the original functional characteristics. Four general design requirements, recording engine operating time/low cycle fatigue event detection, engine trim, and trend and performance data collection were demonstrated. Also, validation of maintenance actions taken and indicated needed maintenance were successfully demonstrated.

  7. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  8. Flight Test of Propulsion Monitoring and Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, Steve; Elgersma, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform flight tests of the propulsion monitoring and diagnostic system (PMDS) technology concept developed by Honeywell under the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) program. The PMDS concept is intended to independently monitor the performance of the engine, providing continuous status to the pilot along with warnings if necessary as well as making the data available to ground maintenance personnel via a special interface. These flight tests were intended to demonstrate the ability of the PMDS concept to detect a class of selected sensor hardware failures, and the ability to successfully model the engine for the purpose of engine diagnosis.

  9. Neural network diagnostic system for dengue patients risk classification.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Tarig; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2012-04-01

    With the dramatic increase of the worldwide threat of dengue disease, it has been very crucial to correctly diagnose the dengue patients in order to decrease the disease severity. However, it has been a great challenge for the physicians to identify the level of risk in dengue patients due to overlapping of the medical classification criteria. Therefore, this study aims to construct a noninvasive diagnostic system to assist the physicians for classifying the risk in dengue patients. Systematic producers have been followed to develop the system. Firstly, the assessment of the significant predictors associated with the level of risk in dengue patients was carried out utilizing the statistical analyses technique. Secondly, Multilayer perceptron neural network models trained via Levenberg-Marquardt and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms was employed for constructing the diagnostic system. Finally, precise tuning for the models' parameters was conducted in order to achieve the optimal performance. As a result, 9 noninvasive predictors were found to be significantly associated with the level of risk in dengue patients. By employing those predictors, 75% prediction accuracy has been achieved for classifying the risk in dengue patients using Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm while 70.7% prediction accuracy were achieved by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. PMID:20703665

  10. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  11. An intelligent advisory system for pre-launch processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engrand, Peter A.; Mitchell, Tami

    1991-01-01

    The shuttle system of interest in this paper is the shuttle's data processing system (DPS). The DPS is composed of the following: (1) general purpose computers (GPC); (2) a multifunction CRT display system (MCDS); (3) mass memory units (MMU); and (4) a multiplexer/demultiplexer (MDM) and related software. In order to ensure the correct functioning of shuttle systems, some level of automatic error detection has been incorporated into all shuttle systems. For the DPS, error detection equipment has been incorporated into all of its subsystems. The automated diagnostic system, (MCDS) diagnostic tool, that aids in a more efficient processing of the DPS is described.

  12. Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory Record, Office Accounting and Research System

    PubMed Central

    Lofink, Raymond M.; Wolfson, Sidney K.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized Record, Office Accounting, and Research system (“ROAR”) has been developed for use in the Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory of Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The interactive, menu-driven system utilizes an in-office microcomputer for maintaining patient records with a dial-up link to a time-sharing system at the University of Pittsburgh for performing research activities. Formats for internal storage, screen editing, and printed reports are easily specified to permit additions of new forms and upward-compatible versions of old forms. An on-line patient directory and an expandable library of floppy diskettes provide a large capacity of storage for permanent patient records. An interestingly simple, cost-effective, but powerful combination of three processors using commercial and custom-written software is presented.

  13. Clementine Sensor Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

  14. TiN Deposition and Process Diagnostics using Remote Plasma Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Kim, Gi-Taek; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    The discharge voltage-current characteristics and the optical diagnostics of a remote plasma sputtering system called by high density plasma assisted sputtering source (HiPASS) were investigated. The remote plasma was generated by the hollow cathode discharge (HCD) gun and was transported to the target surface by external electromagnet coils. This showed a wide process window because the sputtering voltage and current could be individually controlled. The ion density and energy distribution could be also controlled unlike the conventional magnetron sputtering. Titanium nitride films were deposited under different sputtering voltage. The high voltage mode induced the high ionization ratio of the sputtered atoms and the high ion energy toward the substrate. That resulted in the enlarged grain size, and the preferred orientation toward (220). Eventually, this optimized condition of HiPASS obtained the best hardness of TiN films to be about 48 GPa at the sputtering voltage of -800 V.

  15. FTDD973: A multimedia knowledge-based system and methodology for operator training and diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hekmatpour, Amir; Brown, Gary; Brault, Randy; Bowen, Greg

    1993-01-01

    FTDD973 (973 Fabricator Training, Documentation, and Diagnostics) is an interactive multimedia knowledge based system and methodology for computer-aided training and certification of operators, as well as tool and process diagnostics in IBM's CMOS SGP fabrication line (building 973). FTDD973 is an example of what can be achieved with modern multimedia workstations. Knowledge-based systems, hypertext, hypergraphics, high resolution images, audio, motion video, and animation are technologies that in synergy can be far more useful than each by itself. FTDD973's modular and object-oriented architecture is also an example of how improvements in software engineering are finally making it possible to combine many software modules into one application. FTDD973 is developed in ExperMedia/2; and OS/2 multimedia expert system shell for domain experts.

  16. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  17. Pulsed-ultraviolet laser Raman diagnostics of plasma processing discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis P.J. Jr.; Greenberg, K.E.

    1988-11-07

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy with pulsed-ultraviolet laser excitation of the Stokes vibrational Raman lines was used to measure the percent dissociation of nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride in low-pressure radio refrequency discharges of the type used for processing semiconductor materials. Measurements of the percent dissociation of sulfur hexafluoride, at pressures between 200 and 600 mTorr, show a strong pressure dependence which is consistent with recombination playing an important role in sulfur hexafluoride discharge kinetics.

  18. Laser beam control and diagnostic systems for the copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E.S.; Peterson, R.L.; Salmon, J.T.; Thomas, R.A.

    1992-11-01

    The laser system described in the previous paper is used for experiments in which success requires tight tolerances on beam position, direction, and wavefront. Indeed, the optimum performance of the laser itself depends on careful delivery of copper laser light to the dye amplifiers, precise propagation of dye laser beams through restricted amplifier apertures, and accurate monitoring of laser power at key locations. This paper describes the alignment systems, wavefront correction systems, and laser diagnostics systems which ensure that the control requirements of both the laser and associated experiments are met. Because laser isotope separation processes utilize more than one wavelength, these systems monitor and control multiple wavelengths simultaneously.

  19. Using hypermedia to develop an intelligent tutorial/diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Daniel; Williams, Robert; Yarborough, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    This is a tutorial/diagnostic system for training personnel in the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) Simulation Lab. It also provides a diagnostic capable of isolating lab failures at least to the major lab component. The system was implemented using Hypercard, which is an program of hypermedia running on Apple Macintosh computers. Hypercard proved to be a viable platform for the development and use of sophisticated tutorial systems and moderately capable diagnostic systems. This tutorial/diagnostic system uses the basic Hypercard tools to provide the tutorial. The diagnostic part of the system uses a simple interpreter written in the Hypercard language (Hypertalk) to implement the backward chaining rule based logic commonly found in diagnostic systems using Prolog. Some of the advantages of Hypercard in developing this type of system include sophisticated graphics, animation, sound and voice capabilities, its ability as a hypermedia tool, and its ability to include digitized pictures. The major disadvantage is the slow execution time for evaluation of rules (due to the interpretive processing of the language). Other disadvantages include the limitation on the size of the cards, that color is not supported, that it does not support grey scale graphics, and its lack of selectable fonts for text fields.

  20. The two types of stethoscope systems for respiration system diagnostics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashkin, Vladimir; Achimova, Elena

    2003-12-01

    An acoustic multimode fiber optic sensors for medical diagnostics based upon the shutter principle has been elaborated with semiconductor laser diode as light source. The construction and the method of component preparation are described. Other type of stethoscope is electrical one. Both stethoscopes are four channels. The kinetics and dynamic vibrations and sounds of the human body can be detected, acquired and then processing by personal computer for medical diagnostics.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of an ultrasonic multiple transducer cardiac imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.; Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic multiple-transducer imaging system for intracardiac structure visualization is developed in order to simplify visualization of the human heart in vivo without radiation hazard or invasion of the body. Results of the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the devised system in a clinical setting for adult patients are presented and discussed. Criteria are presented for recognition of mitral valva prolapse, mitral stenosis, pericardial effusion, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular dyssynergy. The probable cause for false-positive and false-negative diagnoses is discussed. However, hypertrophic myopathy and congestive myopathy were unable to be detected. Since only qualitative criteria were used, it was not possible to differentiate patients with left ventricular volume overload from patients without cardiac pathology.

  2. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  3. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E. K.; Abbott, R. Q.; McKenna, I.; Macrum, G.; Baker, D.; Tran, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbits, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Waltman, T. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Caldwell, S. E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E.; and others

    2012-10-15

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  4. Mach-Zehnder Recording Systems for Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E K; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as Z-R at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at OMEGA and NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  5. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K; Abbott, R Q; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments. PMID:23126893

  6. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  7. Development and testing of an information monitoring and diagnostic system for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Gartland, L.; Khalsa, S.; Rumsey, P.; Lock, L.E.; Sebald, A.; Shockman, C.

    1998-07-01

    Large commercial buildings generally do not operate at economically achievable levels of energy efficiency. Performance monitoring projects have shown whole-building energy savings of 20% or more through improved operation and maintenance practices. The opportunity for O and M savings is related to systemic problems associated with the lack of feedback available from current Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS). Today's EMCS are designed for control, with limited capabilities in sensing, archiving, data analysis, diagnostics, and data visualization. This paper discussed a multi-year, multi-institutional project to develop and demonstrate an Information Monitoring and Diagnostics System (IMDS). The system is designed to address common O and M problems and the needs of office building owners and property managers to address these problems. The IMDS includes about 50 points of whole-building and cooling plant data, plus a set of standard diagnostics plots to evaluate key performance metrics and curves. Five unique features of the project are (1) sophisticated building operators and engineers as users, (2) permanent installation, (3) high-quality sensing, (4) high-frequency data archives, and (5) top-down design (i.e., whole building, system, and component data). The system does not provide control functions. The authors review the installation and early results from the use of the IMDS. An office building demonstration site was selected because of the technical reputation and interest of the chief engineer and on-site operator. The authors also discuss the technology adoption process and decisions involved in such innovations.

  8. A Diagnostic System for Improving Biomass Quality Based on a Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Bochtis, Dionysis D.; Sørensen, Claus G.; Green, Ole; Bartzanas, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Losses during storage of biomass are the main parameter that defines the profitability of using preserved biomass as feed for animal husbandry. In order to minimize storage losses, potential changes in specific physicochemical properties must be identified to subsequently act as indicators of silage decomposition and form the basis for preventive measures. This study presents a framework for a diagnostic system capable of detecting potential changes in specific physicochemical properties, i.e., temperature and the oxygen content, during the biomass storage process. The diagnostic system comprises a monitoring tool based on a wireless sensors network and a prediction tool based on a validated computation fluid dynamics model. It is shown that the system can provide the manager (end-user) with continuously updated information about specific biomass quality parameters. The system encompasses graphical visualization of the information to the end-user as a first step and, as a second step, the system identifies alerts depicting real differences between actual and predicted values of the monitored properties. The perspective is that this diagnostic system will provide managers with a solid basis for necessary preventive measures. PMID:22163886

  9. Auricular diagnostics used in the system of screening surveys.

    PubMed

    Ishchenko, A N; Kozlova, V P; Shev'yev, P P

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of the automated computerized diagnostic complex based on electrometric methods and used for the auricular diagnostics have been considered. A functional scheme of the complex is given. Biophysical aspects of measuring the skin conductivity in acupuncture zones of the auricle are discussed. Special attention is paid to the diagnostic algorithms and to the control for their efficiency. PMID:1832479

  10. Optical and electrical diagnostics of fluorocarbon plasma etching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul

    1999-05-01

    This article reviews recent work concerning the role of CF and CF2 radicals in etching and polymerization processes occurring in capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasmas in fluorocarbon gases used for the selective etching of SiO2 layers in microelectronic device fabrication. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to determine time-resolved axial concentration profiles of these species in continuous and pulse-modulated CF4 and C2F6 plasmas. Calibration techniques, including broad-band UV absorption spectroscopy, were developed to put the LIF measurements on an absolute scale. A novel technique was used to determine the ion flux to the reactor walls in these polymerizing environments. The mass distribution of the ions arriving at the reactor walls was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. It was found that CFx radicals are produced predominantly by the reflection of neutralized and dissociated CFx+ ions at the powered electrode surface. When the fluorine atom concentration is high, the CFx radicals are destroyed effectively by recombination catalysed by the reactor walls. When the fluorine atom concentration is lowered, the CF2 concentration rises markedly, and it participates in gas-phase oligomerization processes, forming large CxFy molecules and, after ionization, large CxFy+ ions. These species appear to be the true polymer precursors. This mechanism explains the well known correlation between high CF2 concentrations, polymer deposition and SiO2 over Si etch selectivity.

  11. Beyond the diagnostic traits: a collaborative exploratory diagnostic process for dimensions and underpinnings of narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2014-10-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder has been challenging to diagnose in psychiatric and general clinical practice. Several circumstances and personality factors related to the nature of pathological narcissism and NPD contribute. NPD is usually a moderately impairing condition, often accompanied by specific capabilities and high level of functioning. Comorbidity of other urgent and recognizable psychiatric conditions, such as mood and substance use disorders or suicidality, can override even significant narcissistic personality functioning. Patients' limited ability to recognize own contribution to problems or impact on other people, their hypersensitivity and defensive reactivity, and compromised ability for self-disclosure, self-reflection, and emotional empathy can make initial evaluations difficult. The aim of this study is to integrate recent clinical and empirical knowledge on the underpinnings of pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality functioning, and distinguish narcissistic self-regulatory patterns that are affecting diagnostic traits. A more flexible, exploratory, and collaborative diagnostic process is proposed that integrates the patients subjective experiences and interpersonal functioning in terms of self-regulation, agency, and traits in a way that is informative and meaningful for both the patient and the clinician. PMID:25314232

  12. Lab-on-a-CD: A Fully Integrated Molecular Diagnostic System.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling X; Perebikovsky, Alexandra; Moebius, Jacob; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The field of centrifugal microfluidics has experienced tremendous growth during the past 15 years, especially in applications such as lab-on-a-disc (LoD) diagnostics. The strength of LoD systems lies in its potential for development into fully integrated sample-to-answer analysis systems. This review highlights the technologies necessary to develop the next generation of these systems. In addition to outlining valving and other fluid-handling operations, we discuss the recent advances and future outlook in four categories of LoD processes: reagent storage, sample preparation, nucleic acid amplification, and analyte detection strategies. PMID:26082453

  13. Control of Multibunch Longitudinal Instabilities and Beam Diagnostics Using a DSP-based Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been designed and built to control coupled-bunch instabilities in the PEP-II machine. A prototype system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. Programmable DSPs allow longitudinal feedback processing in conjunction with data acquisition or instrumentation algorithms. Here the authors describe techniques developed for different beam and system diagnostics, such as measurements of the modal growth and damping rates and measurements of the bunch-by-bunch currents. Results from the Advanced Light Source are presented to illustrate these techniques.

  14. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  15. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  16. Diagnostics and performance evaluation of neutron monitoring system detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kniss, T.; Doyle, J.

    2006-07-01

    Neutron monitoring detectors used in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) power range monitoring control systems are typically miniature fission chambers that remain in the core for many years. Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) also utilize movable miniature fission chambers for neutron flux mapping during power operations. The baseline performance of the detectors must be established at the time of installation and retested periodically during the life of the detector to evaluate its suitability for continued use. This paper reports on the characteristics that the power range detectors typically exhibit at the beginning of life and describes the normal changes in characteristics that are expected to occur as the detector ages in the in-core environment. Deviations from the normal aging effects that may be revealed through periodic testing are described. Possible root causes for some deviations from the expected performance are discussed. In addition to the power range monitoring detectors, the neutron monitoring system also utilizes other fission chambers for source range or intermediate range neutron monitoring during startup, and neutron or gamma detectors for periodic sensitivity re-calibration of the power range monitoring detectors. Each of the detectors has function specific requirements that call for additional diagnostic testing methods to evaluate performance. Diagnostic tests such as Time Domain Reflectometry and Current vs. Voltage (IV) characterization provide useful information about the condition of the detector and the signal path that links the detector to the reactor monitoring and control system. Typical test results of properly functioning detectors are described and the significance of deviations from a normal result is discussed. (authors)

  17. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06-1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  18. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Sylvie; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre; Roberge, Danièle; Tremblay, Dominique; Breton, Mylaine; Benhadj, Lynda; Diop, Mamadou; Fournier, Michel; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the impact of patients' experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal) between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada). Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models) were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n = 307), 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06–1.46), as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p = 0.05), while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p < 0.01).  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients' perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care. PMID:26504599

  19. [Diagnostic studies in the planning process of human resources: the Central American experience].

    PubMed

    de Canales, F; Martínez Chopen, O; Tercero Talavera, I; González, G

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze various aspects of one of the essential stages in the process of planning human resources--diagnostic studies and research which will serve as a starting point. They stress the role of diagnostic personnel studies in formulating human resources policies and planning, and describe the phases to be followed in their execution, according to the results obtained in the three Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) in which the studies were completed. The paper concludes with a summary of the process in the three countries. PMID:3451871

  20. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Diagnostic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; Hart, Terrence Lee; /IIT, Chicago

    2008-06-24

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will make detailed measurements of muon ionization cooling using a new constructed low-energy muon beam at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The experiment is a single-particle experiment and utilizes many detector techniques from high energy physics experiments. To characterize and monitor the muon beamline, newly developed scintillating fiber profile monitors and scintillator paddle rate monitors are employed. In order to monitor the purity of the beam and tag the arrival time of individual muons, a dual aerogel Cherenkov system is used, and a plastic scintillator time-of-flight system will be used. The phase-space vectors of the muons will be measured by two identical spectrometer systems (one before and one after the cooling apparatus) which employ a fiber tracker system, and electron and muon calorimeters are used to tag outgoing muons. We will discuss the design of the MICE diagnostic systems, the operation, and give the first results from beam measurements in the MICE experimental hall.

  1. UAS-Systems Integration, Validation, and Diagnostics Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Catherine W.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Phase 1 efforts of NASA's UAS-in-the-NAS Project a task was initiated to explore the merits of developing a system simulation capability for UAS to address airworthiness certification requirements. The core of the capability would be a software representation of an unmanned vehicle, including all of the relevant avionics and flight control system components. The specific system elements could be replaced with hardware representations to provide Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWITL) test and evaluation capability. The UAS Systems Integration and Validation Laboratory (UAS-SIVL) was created to provide a UAS-systems integration, validation, and diagnostics hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability. This paper discusses how SIVL provides a robust and flexible simulation framework that permits the study of failure modes, effects, propagation paths, criticality, and mitigation strategies to help develop safety, reliability, and design data that can assist with the development of certification standards, means of compliance, and design best practices for civil UAS.

  2. Altronic`s latest ignition system features secondary diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Few issues continue to cause more distress for operators of gas engines and integral compressors than spark plug life. Altronic`s new CPU-95 ignition system was developed for use on medium and high-speed gas-fueled engines driving compressors, generators and pumps. In addition to the new secondary prognostic capability, the 24 V dc-powered CPU-95 system is designed to handle all the functions of a modern digital ignition. This includes spark characteristic control, global and individual cylinder timing adjustments, and extensive user display and serial communications capabilities. But the most revolutionary feature of the CPU-95 system is its built-in secondary ignition diagnosis capabilities, which provide a prognosis of spark plug life. The system displays a number that is an indicator of how much voltage is required at each cylinder. As the spark plug gap erodes the number increases. In addition to displaying and alarming relative voltage demand, the secondary-side diagnosis can also alarm for high or low spark voltage (by cylinder), or no secondary spark. Primary-side diagnostic capabilities (also annunciated by cylinder) include open or shorted circuits. The system can also diagnose for faults in the gear tooth pickup, reset pickup, four-cycle pickup, ring gear, microprocessor, current loop, EEPROM checksum, analog timing input (4-20 mA) being out of range, and a failure to charge the capacitor.

  3. Mission Evaluation Room Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Falgout, Jane; Barcio, Joseph; Shnurer, Steve; Wadsworth, David; Flores, Louis

    1994-01-01

    The role of Mission Evaluation Room (MER) engineers is to provide engineering support during Space Shuttle missions, for Space Shuttle systems. These engineers are concerned with ensuring that the systems for which they are responsible function reliably, and as intended. The MER is a central facility from which engineers may work, in fulfilling this obligation. Engineers participate in real-time monitoring of shuttle telemetry data and provide a variety of analyses associated with the operation of the shuttle. The Johnson Space Center's Automation and Robotics Division is working to transfer advances in intelligent systems technology to NASA's operational environment. Specifically, the MER Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS) project provides MER engineers with software to assist them with monitoring, filtering and analyzing Shuttle telemetry data, during and after Shuttle missions. MIDAS off-loads to computers and software, the tasks of data gathering, filtering, and analysis, and provides the engineers with information which is in a more concise and usable form needed to support decision making and engineering evaluation. Engineers are then able to concentrate on more difficult problems as they arise. This paper describes some, but not all of the applications that have been developed for MER engineers, under the MIDAS Project. The sampling described herewith was selected to show the range of tasks that engineers must perform for mission support, and to show the various levels of automation that have been applied to assist their efforts.

  4. Model performance metrics and process diagnostics for boreal summer intraseasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neena, J. M.; Waliser, Duane; Jiang, Xianan

    2016-05-01

    Representation of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISO) is evaluated in the 20-year climate simulations from 27 general circulation models (GCMs), produced as part of a global multi-model evaluation project coordinated to study the vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). Model performance metrics are developed to assess the simulated BSISO characteristics, with a special focus on its northward propagation over the Asian monsoon domain. Several process-oriented diagnostics developed by the MJO community are also tested for the BSISO. Simulating the phase speed and meridional extent of BSISO northward propagation, the northwest-southeast tilted rain-band structure and the quasi-biweekly mode are identified as some of the persisting problems for many GCMs. Interestingly, many of the GCMs, which capture BSISO eastward propagation, also show good fidelity in simulating BSISO northward propagation. Meridional vertical profiles of anomalous wind, temperature and diabatic heating of BSISO are better simulated in the GCMs that simulate the northward propagation. Process-oriented diagnostics based on seasonal mean vertical shear of zonal and meridional wind, large-scale rain fraction and relative humidity are also examined, but it still remains challenge to find a process diagnostic which is strongly linked to BSISO northward propagation. The complex spatial structure and presence of multi-scale disturbances, demand the development of more focused GCM evaluation metrics and process diagnostics specifically for the BSISO.

  5. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  6. Application Of The CSRL Language To The Design Of Diagnostic Expert Systems: The Moodis Experience, A Preliminary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravos, Angelo; Hill, Howard; Choca, James; Bresolin, Linda B.; Bresolin, Michael J.

    1986-03-01

    Computer technology is rapidly becoming an inseparable part of many health science specialties. Recently, a new area of computer technology, namely Artificial Intelligence, has been applied toward assisting the medical experts in their diagnostic and therapeutic decision making process. MOODIS is an experimental diagnostic expert system which assists Psychiatry specialists in diagnosing human Mood Disorders, better known as Affective Disorders. Its diagnostic methodology is patterned after MDX, a diagnostic expert system developed at LAIR (Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research) of Ohio State University. MOODIS is implemented in CSRL (Conceptual Structures Representation Language) also developed at LAIR. This paper describes MOODIS in terms of conceptualization and requirements, and discusses why the MDX approach and CSRL were chosen.

  7. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  8. Distributed diagnostic system for tokamaks high-voltage power supply section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Juszczyk, B.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes recently developed system for diagnostics of high-voltage power supply section of tokamaks'. Such system is necessary for real-time monitoring of high-voltage power supply section with ability to perform automatic and fast decisions related to protection system. The system is distributed, allowing data acquisition of components installed away from the systems' controller. Remote communication is based on fiber links. Main processing units are FPGA circuits. The system can pass-through analog and digital signals from local to remote or remote to local locations. In the main FPGA unit, independent user developed algorithms can be implemented. The system structure is based on the uTCA standard. The micro TCA crate controller is implemented as PC unit in AMC standard. Communication is based on gigabit transceivers providing low-latency of data transmission. The system is working with specialized diagnostics and control software. The graphical user interface is provided for the end user. Several tests were made in term of data latency, proper signal transmission and system control.

  9. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  10. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  11. Development of a diagnostic polymersome system for potential imaging delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chu; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    In order to enhance visualization of soft tissues, a dual-imaging diagnostic polymersome system featured with highly hydrated multilamellar wall structure capable of simultaneously embedding a hydrophobic near-infrared fluorophore, Cy5.5, and a paramagnetic probe, gadolinium (Gd(III)) cations was developed. The polymersomes were obtained from the self-assembly of lipid-containing copolymer, poly(acrylic acid-co-distearin acrylate), in aqueous solution. The Cy5.5 and Gd(III) species were loaded into polymersomes via hydrophobic association (loading efficiency of Cy5.5 ca 74%) and electrostatic complexation (Gd(III) 83%), respectively. The Cy5.5/Gd(III)-loaded polymersomes (CGLPs) have shown excellent payload confinement, reduced dilution effect on assembly dissociation and decreased protein/salt-induced colloidal aggregation. Owing to the highly hydrated structure of vesicular membrane, the superior contrast enhancement of CGLPs in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was obtained as a result of prolonged rotational correlation time of Gd(III) cations and fast water exchange from Gd(III) to bulk solution. The CGLPs exhibit a 15-fold higher longitudinal relaxivity value (ca 60 mM(-1) s(-1)) than that (4 mM(-1) s(-1)) of the commercial contrast agent, Magnevist, in phosphate buffered saline. The in vivo characterization demonstrates that CGLPs exhibit a signal-to-noise ratio in T1-weighted MR image contrast similar to that of Magnevist, yet with a Gd dose 5-fold lower. An excellent contrast in NIR imaging at tumor site was attained following the intravenous injection of GGLPs into Tramp-C1 tumor-bearing mice (C57BL/6). Along with their non-toxicity at the dose used, these results demonstrate the great potential of the CGLPs as an advanced diagnostic nanodevice. PMID:25731095

  12. SEALED COMBUSTION SYSTEM WITH DIAGNOSTIC SELF-TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2004-09-30

    This task grew out of a proposal to develop a ''concept'' oil-fired heating system that would incorporate advanced technologies available and suitable for a residential system. Discussions among the program and project personnel resulted in the identification of a sealed combustion system as of programmatic interest and the objective was to develop an approach to a sealed system with diagnostic self-tuning. The major conclusion with regard to the specific objective for this task is that a measurement of the static pressure in the input pipe can be used to provide a measure of the excess air for a limit control. Its implementation would require a suitable pressure sensor, and a circuit to combine its output signal, at the appropriate time in the operating cycle, to the burner control. The sensor and control combination will also have to be tested successfully under all conceivable contingencies that can cause the airflow to decrease. It could also be implemented, possibly even more reliably, if a mass flow sensor, such as is used in automobile engines and hence may be cheap, could be used. The pressure measurements reported here, both steady and transient, represent only the subset of a much larger set that gave a useful answer to meet the objective. These measurements suggest that they can provide useful insights into both the combustion and gas flow performance of the system. Of course, this could be extended to other types of heating systems, such as those with natural draft, those with different burners, burners with different atomization schemes (air atomization etc.), blue flame burners etc.

  13. Morphological processing of ultraviolet emissions of electrical corona discharge for analysis and diagnostic use.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew; Moore, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Electron cascades from electrical discharge produce secondary emissions from atmospheric plasma in the ultraviolet band. For a single point of discharge, these emissions exhibit a stereotypical discharge morphology, with latent information about the discharge location. Morphological processing can uncover the location and therefore have diagnostic utility. PMID:26974615

  14. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

    2003-05-29

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of the near-anode processes in Hall thrusters was designed and assembled. Experimental results with a single floating probe show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for near-anode measurements.

  15. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  16. Morphological Processing of Ultraviolet Emissions of Electrical Corona Discharge for Analysis and Diagnostic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Matthew R.; Moore, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron cascades from electrical discharge produce secondary emissions from atmospheric plasma in the ultraviolet band. For a single point of discharge, these emissions exhibit a stereotypical discharge morphology, with latent information about the discharge location. Morphological processing can uncover the location and therefore can have diagnostic utility.

  17. Examining Shifts in Medical Students' Microanalytic Motivation Beliefs and Regulatory Processes during a Diagnostic Reasoning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically…

  18. Fast spatial-resolved beam diagnostics for material processing by industrial CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinen, Dirk; Decker, Ingo; Wohlfahrt, Helmut

    1996-09-01

    Due to the increasing range of high-speed and high-accuracy applications in material processing, especially in laser beam welding and cutting, the temporal stability of the laser beam parameters becomes more and more important. In this paper a laser beam diagnostic device is presented, that allows the determination of the intensity-profiles of high- power CO2 lasers with high time-resolution. The detector of this device consists of two linear arrays of room- temperature HgCdTe-detectors, arranged perpendicularly to each other across the center of the beam. The data of the 70 detector elements is acquired simultaneously at rates up to 15 kS/sec for single shot events and several 100 kS/sec for repetitive laser pulses. Due to the use of a digital signal processor (DSP) and an especially adapted software, it is possible to analyze the fluctuations of the intensity distribution on-line. By help of a partially transmitting mirror in the beam delivery system, measurements can be performed during material processing. Therefore, the interaction of the laser beam source itself with the material processing due to beam reflection as well as influences of the industrial environment to the laser can be detected. The calculation of the local variance and mean values enables the dependence of the laser's short- and long-term stability to be investigated due to changes in the resonator alignment, the stability of the power supply, the gas composition etc., as well as to the influence of the processing. For the pulse-mode of a laser, its transient behavior like changes of the intensity distribution can be determined with high time-resolution. For the improvement of drilling processes, the calculation of further statistical functions by the DSP makes it possible to estimate the uniformity of the laser pulses on-line as well.

  19. Miniaturized nucleic acid amplification systems for rapid and point-of-care diagnostics: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farhan; Hashsham, Syed A

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) genetic diagnostics critically depends on miniaturization and integration of sample processing, nucleic acid amplification, and detection systems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have extensively applied for the diagnosis of genetic markers of disease. Microfluidic chips for microPCR with different materials and designs have been reported. Temperature cycling systems with varying thermal masses and conductivities, thermal cycling times, flow-rates, and cross-sectional areas, have also been developed to reduce the nucleic acid amplification time. Similarly, isothermal amplification techniques (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification or LAMP), which are still are emerging, have a better potential as an alternative to PCR for POC diagnostics. Isothermal amplification techniques have: (i) moderate incubation temperature leading to simplified heating and low power consumption, (ii) yield high amount of amplification products, which can be detected either visually or by simple detectors, (iii) allow direct genetic amplification from bacterial cells due to the superior tolerance to substances that typically inhibit PCR, (iv) have high specificity, and sensitivity, and (v) result in rapid detection often within 10-20 min. The aim of this review is to provide a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of microPCR and microLAMP systems for rapid and POC diagnostics. PMID:22704369

  20. Diagnostics of metal inert gas and metal active gas welding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper gives a review on studies on metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding processes with the focus on diagnostics of the arc, the material transfer, and the temporal process behaviour in welding experiments. Recent findings with respect to an improved understanding of the main mechanisms in the welding arc and the welding process are summarized. This is linked to actual developments in welding arc and welding process modelling where measurements are indispensable for validation. Challenges of forthcoming studies are illustrated by means of methods under development for welding process control as well as remaining open questions with respect to arc-surface interaction and arc power balance.

  1. Process diagnostics for precision grinding brittle materials in a production environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    Precision grinding processes are steadily migrating from research laboratory environments into manufacturing production lines as precision machines and processes become increasingly more commonplace throughout industry. Low-roughness, low-damage precision grinding is gaining widespread commercial acceptance for a host of brittle materials including advanced structural ceramics. The development of these processes is often problematic and requires diagnostic information and analysis to harden the processes for manufacturing. This paper presents a series of practical precision grinding tests developed and practiced at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that yield important information to help move a new process idea into production.

  2. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  3. System Design For A Dental Image Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Fredrick M.; Stover, John C.; Senecal, William J.

    1988-12-01

    An image processing system for a large clinic dental practice has been designed and tested. An analysis of spatial resolution requirements and field tests by dentists show that a system built with presently available, PC-based, image processing equipment can provide diagnostic quality images without special digital image processing. By giving the dentist a tool to digitally enhance x-ray images, increased diagnostic capabilities can be achieved. Very simple image processing procedures such as linear and non-linear contrast expansion, edge enhancement, and image zooming can be shown to be very effective. In addition to providing enhanced imagery in the dentist's treatment room, the system is designed to be a fully automated, dental records management system. It is envisioned that a patient's record, including x-rays and tooth charts, may be retrieved from optical disk storage as the patient enters the office. Dental procedures undertaken during the visit may be entered into the record via the imaging workstation by the dentist or the dental assistant. Patient billing and records keeping may be generated automatically.

  4. STS-57 Spacehab-01 Tools and Diagnostics System (TDS) displayed at bench review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Tools and Diagnostics System (TDS) experiment equipment is displayed on a table top during the STS-57 Spacehab-01 (Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) located near JSC. TDS will be stored in Spacehab-01 aft locker AC10 and includes electronic circuit boards, a soldering iron assembly, goggles, a printed circuit board holder, a portable battery charger, and a portable electronic diagnostic equipment package. TDS' sponsor is the Flight Crew Support Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, JSC. It will evaluate microgravity effects on the physics and human factors of soldering, the operation of the battery charger, and the operation of the diagnositic equipment package. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Benny Benavides.

  5. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  6. An expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Malin, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The implementation of the life support function on the Space Station will probably have to be based on regenerative life support techniques. It is essential that the regenerative subsystems operate with minimum attendance from the crew. However, the results of extensive testing show that uninterrupted subsystem operation over long periods of time (e.g., months) is not easy to achieve. In order to achieve longer periods of time on line for these subsystems, it is necessary that the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designers focus their attention on technologies which will permit both increasing the mean time between shutdowns and decreasing the time for which a subsystem is down for fault diagnosis and maintenance. With the aim to be able to perform the fault diagnosis on line rather than after the subsystem has shut down, an expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics is considered. A description is given of a program, designated CS-1 'FIXER' for fault isolation expert to enhance reliability.

  7. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  8. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  9. Feedback control and beam diagnostic algorithms for a multiprocessor DSP system

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Drago, A.; Stover, G.

    1996-09-01

    The multibunch longitudinal feedback system developed for use by PEP-II, ALS and DA{Phi}NE uses a parallel array of digital signal processors to calculate the feedback signals from measurements of beam motion. The system is designed with general-purpose programmable elements which allow many feedback operating modes as well as system diagnostics, calibrations and accelerator measurements. The overall signal processing architecture of the system is illustrated. The real-time DSP algorithms and off-line postprocessing tools are presented. The problems in managing 320 K samples of data collected in one beam transient measurement are discussed and the solutions are presented. Example software structures are presented showing the beam feedback process, techniques for modal analysis of beam motion(used to quantify growth and damping rates of instabilities) and diagnostic functions (such as timing adjustment of beam pick-up and kicker components). These operating techniques are illustrated with example results obtained from the system installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBL.

  10. Feedback control and beam diagnostic algorithms for a multiprocessor DSP system

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Drago, A.; Stover, G.

    1997-01-01

    The multibunch longitudinal feedback system developed for use by PEP-II, ALS, and DA{Phi}NE uses a parallel array of digital signal processors (DSPs) to calculate the feedback signals from measurements of beam motion. The system is designed with general-purpose programmable elements which allow many feedback operating modes as well as system diagnostics, calibrations, and accelerator measurements. The overall signal processing architecture of the system is illustrated. The real-time DSP algorithms and off-line postprocessing tools are presented. The problems in managing 320k samples of data collected in one beam transient measurement are discussed and our solutions are presented. Example software structures are presented showing the beam feedback process, techniques for modal analysis of beam motion (used to quantify growth and damping rates of instabilities), and diagnostic functions (such as timing adjustment of beam pick-up and kicker components). These operating techniques are illustrated with example results obtained from the system installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBL. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. SSME HPOTP post-test diagnostic system enhancement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test or flight firing of a space shuttle main engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project is to further develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME high-pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This program fits into a larger system, the SSME Post-Test Diagnostic System (PTDS), which will eventually be extended to assess the health and status of most SSME components on the basis of test data analysis. The HPOTP module is an expert system, which uses 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with experts from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to detect and diagnose anomalies. Analyses of the raw test data are first performed using pattern recognition techniques which result in features such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts being detected and written to a database. The HPOTP module then looks for combination of these features which are indicative of known anomalies, using the rules gathered from the turbomachinery experts. Results of this analysis are then displayed via a graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  12. Examining shifts in medical students' microanalytic motivation beliefs and regulatory processes during a diagnostic reasoning task.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Timothy J; Dong, Ting; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-08-01

    This study examined within-group shifts in the motivation beliefs and regulatory processes of second-year medical students as they engaged in a diagnostic reasoning activity. Using a contextualized assessment methodology called self-regulated learning microanalysis, the authors found that the 71 medical student participants showed statistically significant and relatively robust declines in their self-efficacy beliefs and strategic regulatory processes following negative feedback about their performance on the diagnostic reasoning task. Descriptive statistics revealed that changes in strategic thinking following negative corrective feedback were most characterized by shifts away from task-specific processes (e.g., integration, differentiating diagnoses) to non-task related factors. Implications and areas for future research are presented and discussed. PMID:25209963

  13. Asynchronous compressed beamformer for portable diagnostic ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Hoyos, Sebastian; Sadler, Brian

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art portable ultrasound imaging systems employ a small transducer array and a low carrier frequency to fit stringent constraints on power and form factor, and this tends to compromise the ultrasound imaging quality. In this paper, we present a low-complexity low-power asynchronous compressed beamformer (ACB) for portable diagnostic ultrasound. The proposed ACB integrates asynchronous sampling and compressive sensing (CS), and is capable of reducing data conversion power and handling a large data volume at the mixed-signal interface. A high-rate continuoustime ternary encoding (CT-TE) scheme eliminates the need for interpolation filters and coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) units typically used in a conventional architecture. A split-projection least squares (SPLS) signal reconstruction algorithm is applied that replaces high-cost nonlinear signal recovery with a series of low-complexity and independent linear problems. Experiments with measured ultrasound data demonstrate the proposed ACB architecture, and the SPLS reconstruction algorithm achieves 9-fold data compression compared with Nyquist sampling. PMID:25389158

  14. Process to generate a synthetic diagnostic for microwave imaging reflectometry with the full-wave code FWR2D.

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Domier, C W; Kramer, G; Luhmann, N C; Muscatello, C M; Shi, L; Tobias, B J; Valeo, E

    2014-11-01

    A synthetic microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostic employing the full-wave reflectometer code (FWR2D) has been developed and is currently being used to guide the design of real systems, such as the one recently installed on DIII-D. The FWR2D code utilizes real plasma profiles as input, and it is combined with optical simulation tools for synthetic diagnostic signal generation. A detailed discussion of FWR2D and the process to generate the synthetic signal are presented in this paper. The synthetic signal is also compared to a prescribed density fluctuation spectrum to quantify the imaging quality. An example is presented with H-mode-like plasma profiles derived from a DIII-D discharge, where the MIR focal is located in the pedestal region. It is shown that MIR is suitable for diagnosing fluctuations with poloidal wavenumber up to 2.0 cm(-1) and fluctuation amplitudes less than 5%. PMID:25430276

  15. A contactless microwave-based diagnostic tool for high repetition rate laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braggio, C.; Borghesani, A. F.

    2014-02-15

    We report on a novel electro-optic device for the diagnostics of high repetition rate laser systems. It is composed of a microwave receiver and of a second order nonlinear crystal, whose irradiation with a train of short laser pulses produces a time-dependent polarization in the crystal itself as a consequence of optical rectification. This process gives rise to the emission of microwave radiation that is detected by a receiver and is analyzed to infer the repetition rate and intensity of the pulses. We believe that this new method may overcome some of the limitations of photodetection techniques.

  16. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  17. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice. PMID:26244571

  18. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called “threshold probability” at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today’s clinical practice. PMID:26244571

  19. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  20. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  1. Development of life prediction capabilities for liquid propellant rocket engines. Post-fire diagnostic system for the SSME system architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark; Dehoff, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    This system architecture task (1) analyzed the current process used to make an assessment of engine and component health after each test or flight firing of an SSME, (2) developed an approach and a specific set of objectives and requirements for automated diagnostics during post fire health assessment, and (3) listed and described the software applications required to implement this system. The diagnostic system described is a distributed system with a database management system to store diagnostic information and test data, a CAE package for visual data analysis and preparation of plots of hot-fire data, a set of procedural applications for routine anomaly detection, and an expert system for the advanced anomaly detection and evaluation.

  2. An interactive image processing system.

    PubMed

    Troxel, D E

    1981-01-01

    A multiuser multiprocessing image processing system has been developed. It is an interactive picture manipulation and enhancement facility which is capable of executing a variety of image processing operations while simultaneously controlling real-time input and output of pictures. It was designed to provide a reliable picture processing system which would be cost-effective in the commercial production environment. Additional goals met by the system include flexibility and ease of operation and modification. PMID:21868923

  3. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  4. Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnosis: Fundamentals and Technical Solutions - X-Ray Diagnostics- Computed Tomography - Nuclear Medical Diagnostics - Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Ultrasound Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krestel, Erich

    1990-10-01

    Erick Krestel, Editor Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on todya's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in x-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. Overview of Contents Physiology of vision Image quality X-ray and gamma radiation X-ray diagnostics Computed tomography Nuclear medical diagnostics Magnetic resonance imaging Sonography Biomagnetic diagnostics

  5. Digital TV processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two digital video data compression systems directly applicable to the Space Shuttle TV Communication System were described: (1) For the uplink, a low rate monochrome data compressor is used. The compression is achieved by using a motion detection technique in the Hadamard domain. To transform the variable source rate into a fixed rate, an adaptive rate buffer is provided. (2) For the downlink, a color data compressor is considered. The compression is achieved first by intra-color transformation of the original signal vector, into a vector which has lower information entropy. Then two-dimensional data compression techniques are applied to the Hadamard transformed components of this last vector. Mathematical models and data reliability analyses were also provided for the above video data compression techniques transmitted over a channel encoded Gaussian channel. It was shown that substantial gains can be achieved by the combination of video source and channel coding.

  6. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  7. Preschoolers assessed for autism: parent and teacher experiences of the diagnostic process.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have often been recommended to "wait and see" when they have first expressed concerns. This comparative, descriptive, partly longitudinal questionnaire study aimed to evaluate parent/preschool teacher experiences as regards time of first concern about the child and about the diagnostic process at a specialized Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic. Participants were parents and teachers of 34 preschool children with suspected ASD (26 boys, 8 girls, mean age 37 months) drawn from a general population cohort. Most of the parents, and the teachers, had their first concern about the child's development before the child's second birthday. Generally, they were satisfied with the diagnostic process and did not regret their participation in it. PMID:25194515

  8. On-board fault diagnostics for fly-by-light flight control systems using neural network flight processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve

    1996-10-01

    Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.

  9. Complex interferometry potential in case of sufficiently stable diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, M.

    2016-06-01

    Classical interferometry is one of the key methods among active optical diagnostics. Its more advanced version, which allows recording and subsequent reconstruction of up to three sets of data using just one data object —a complex interferogram—was developed in the past and became known as complex interferometry. Employing this diagnostics, not only the usual phase shift, but also the amplitude of the probing beam as well as the fringe contrast (leading directly to the phase shift time derivative) can be reconstructed simultaneously from such a complex interferogram. In this paper it will be demonstrated that even in the case of a not particularly good diagnostic beam quality these three quantities can be reconstructed with a high degree of accuracy provided both the diagnostic beam as well as the corresponding optical line feature a reasonable stability. Such stability requirement is important as in an ideal case four shots need to be gradually recorded (one by one): the signal complex interferogram, the reference interferogram as well as the intensity structures of the signal and reference part of the diagnostic beam. Two examples of complex interferograms obtained in experiments will be analyzed: the laser produced plasma (spark in the air) and the high pressure gas jet. A general ray-tracing based iterative algorithm will be outlined in order to increase a precision of the index of refraction spatial profile taking into account refraction effects (omitted in the Abel inversion) and employing the original reconstructed phase shift and amplitude.

  10. Process gas solidification system

    DOEpatents

    Fort, William G. S.; Lee, Jr., William W.

    1978-01-01

    It has been the practice to (a) withdraw hot, liquid UF.sub.6 from various systems, (b) direct the UF.sub.6 into storage cylinders, and (c) transport the filled cylinders to another area where the UF.sub.6 is permitted to solidify by natural cooling. However, some hazard attends the movement of cylinders containing liquid UF.sub.6, which is dense, toxic, and corrosive. As illustrated in terms of one of its applications, the invention is directed to withdrawing hot liquid UF.sub.6 from a system including (a) a compressor for increasing the pressure and temperature of a stream of gaseous UF.sub.6 to above its triple point and (b) a condenser for liquefying the compressed gas. A network containing block valves and at least first and second portable storage cylinders is connected between the outlet of the condenser and the suction inlet of the compressor. After an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser has been admitted to the first cylinder, the cylinder is connected to the suction of the compressor to flash off UF.sub.6 from the cylinder, thus gradually solidifying UF.sub.6 therein. While the first cylinder is being cooled in this manner, an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser is transferred into the second cylinder. UF.sub.6 then is flashed from the second cylinder while another increment of liquid UF.sub.6 is being fed to the first. The operations are repeated until both cylinders are filled with solid UF.sub.6, after which they can be moved safely. As compared with the previous technique, this procedure is safer, faster, and more economical. The method also provides the additional advantage of removing volatile impurities from the UF.sub.6 while it is being cooled.

  11. Spatial Expansion and Automation of the Pegasus Thomson Scattering Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic system has recently undergone modifications to increase the spatial range of the diagnostic and automate the Thomson data collection process. Two multichannel spectrometers have been added to the original configuration, providing a total of 24 data channels to view the plasma volume. The new system configuration allows for observation of three distinct regions of the plasma: the local helicity injection (LHI) source (R ~ 67-73.8 cm), the plasma edge (R ~ 51.5-57.6 cm), and the plasma core (R ~ 35-41.1 cm). Each spectrometer utilizes a volume-phase holographic (VPH) grating and a gated-intensified CCD camera. The edge and the LHI spectrometers have been fitted with low-temperature VPH gratings to cover Te = 10 - 100 eV, while the core spectrometer has been fitted with a high-temperature VPH grating to cover Te = 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 keV. The additional spectrometers have been calibrated to account for detector flatness, detector linearity, and vignetting. Operation of the Thomson system has been overhauled to utilize LabVIEW software to synchronize the major components of the Thomson system with the Pegasus shot cycle and to provide intra-shot beam alignment. Multi-point Thomson scattering measurements will be obtained in the aforementioned regions of LHI and Ohmic discharges and will be compared to Langmuir probe measurements. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  12. A computerized system for retrieval of case information in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J E; Burton, C H; Morehouse, L G; Mann, P C

    1979-03-01

    Morbidity and mortality data are necessary bases for the decision-making processes relevant to allocation of public funds for animal disease diagnoses and research. A system for information storage and retrieval capable of handling diagnostic data such as results of microbiology, parasitology, necropsy, and histopathology as well as demographic data such as owner, species, sex, breed, or geographic origin of the animal is described. This information is available to veterinarians, epidemiologists, herdsmen, and others involved in disease prevention or control efforts. The system described utilizes natural language, thus overcoming difficulties encountered in systems with numerical intermediates. Used and revised for the last 10 years, the system described has proved useful for annual administrative quantitation of services performed. In fact, the Concordance Index serves as the annual report of the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory. Having accurate detailed information on individual cases, as well as a variety of composite data, has been extremely helpful in the documentation necessary for attracting funding for study of specific disease states. PMID:475103

  13. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination. PMID:26877781

  14. Smartphone-Based Fluorescent Diagnostic System for Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Seon-Ju; Choi, Kyunghan; Cuc, Bui Thi; Hong, Nguyen Ngoc; Bao, Duong Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Le, Mai Quynh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thach, Nguyen Co; Mallik, Shyam Kumar; Kim, Hak Sung; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Choi, Hak Soo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yu, Kyoungsik; Park, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Field diagnostic tools for avian influenza (AI) are indispensable for the prevention and controlled management of highly pathogenic AI-related diseases. More accurate, faster and networked on-site monitoring is demanded to detect such AI viruses with high sensitivity as well as to maintain up-to-date information about their geographical transmission. In this work, we assessed the clinical and field-level performance of a smartphone-based fluorescent diagnostic device with an efficient reflective light collection module using a coumarin-derived dendrimer-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay. By application of an optimized bioconjugate, a smartphone-based diagnostic device had a two-fold higher detectability as compared to that of the table-top fluorescence strip reader for three different AI subtypes (H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2). Additionally, in a clinical study of H5N1-confirmed patients, the smartphone-based diagnostic device showed a sensitivity of 96.55% (28/29) [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.24 to 99.91] and a specificity of 98.55% (68/69) (95% CI: 92.19 to 99.96). The measurement results from the distributed individual smartphones were wirelessly transmitted via short messaging service and collected by a centralized database system for further information processing and data mining. Smartphone-based diagnosis provided highly sensitive measurement results for H5N1 detection within 15 minutes. Because of its high sensitivity, portability and automatic reporting feature, the proposed device will enable agile identification of patients and efficient control of AI dissemination. PMID:26877781

  15. Development and testing of a diagnostic system for intelligen distributed control at EBR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Ruhl, D.W.; Klevans, E.H.; Robinson, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system is under development for demonstration of Intelligent Distributed Control at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR--II). In the first phase of the project a diagnostic system is being developed for the EBR-II steam plant based on the DISYS expert systems approach. Current testing uses recorded plant data and data from simulated plant faults. The dynamical simulation of the EBR-II steam plant uses the Babcock and Wilcox (B W) Modular Modeling System (MMS). At EBR-II the diagnostic system operates in the UNIX workstation and receives live plant data from the plant Data Acquisition System (DAS). Future work will seek implementation of the steam plant diagnostic in a distributed manner using UNIX based computers and Bailey microprocessor-based control system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Integrated optical system for investigation and diagnostics of abnormal combustion in an automotive engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piernikarski, Dariusz

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a research project oriented towards development of existing measurement methods which use optical sensors for the research and diagnostics of the combustion process in the internal-combustion automotive enigne. Experiments assume usage of photometric techniques and in particular spectrophotometry of the flames existing in the combustion chamber. Gathered results will enable expanding knowledge about processes taking place during combustion of air-fuel mixture and accompanying phenomena (i.e. knock, misfires). The work is also aimed at designing a diagnostic system which will enable an on-line identification of unfavorable phenomena like knocking combustion or misfires (lack of combustion). Extracted synthetic quality indexes will be used in the improvement of combustion process and as a feedback signals in the engine control algorithms. Research is made on the typical automotive engine equipped with an optical sensor located in the engine head and having direct access into the combustion chamber. The sensor enables on-line transmission of the optical signal during the combustion through the bundle of optical waveguides and two parallel filtering paths. Then optical signal was filtered with set of interference filters. The paper is illustrated with some results obtained during preliminary experiments.

  17. Automated high-throughput flow-through real-time diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick

    2012-10-30

    An automated real-time flow-through system capable of processing multiple samples in an asynchronous, simultaneous, and parallel fashion for nucleic acid extraction and purification, followed by assay assembly, genetic amplification, multiplex detection, analysis, and decontamination. The system is able to hold and access an unlimited number of fluorescent reagents that may be used to screen samples for the presence of specific sequences. The apparatus works by associating extracted and purified sample with a series of reagent plugs that have been formed in a flow channel and delivered to a flow-through real-time amplification detector that has a multiplicity of optical windows, to which the sample-reagent plugs are placed in an operative position. The diagnostic apparatus includes sample multi-position valves, a master sample multi-position valve, a master reagent multi-position valve, reagent multi-position valves, and an optical amplification/detection system.

  18. ASIC design of a digital fuzzy system on chip for medical diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Roy, Aniruddha; Saha, Hiranmay

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the ASIC design of a digital fuzzy logic circuit for medical diagnostic applications. The system on chip under consideration uses fuzzifier, memory and defuzzifier for fuzzifying the patient data, storing the membership function values and defuzzifying the membership function values to get the output decision. The proposed circuit uses triangular trapezoidal membership functions for fuzzification patients' data. For minimizing the transistor count, the proposed circuit uses 3T XOR gates and 8T adders for its design. The entire work has been carried out using TSMC 0.35 µm CMOS process. Post layout TSPICE simulation of the whole circuit indicates a delay of 31.27 ns and the average power dissipation of the system on chip is 123.49 mW which indicates a less delay and less power dissipation than the comparable embedded systems reported earlier. PMID:20703567

  19. Guidelines for the Development of an Effective Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreau, Lanny; And Others

    Described is the diagnostic teaching model developed by the Illinois Regional Resource Center to provide assessment and programing for children with unexplained handicaps. The model is explained to involve a multidisciplinary approach and to include six basic components: referals, information gathering, diagnosis, prescription, consultation, and…

  20. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  1. Theoretical studies of nonadiabatic and spin-forbidden processes: Investigations of the reactions and spectroscopy of radical species relevant to combustion reactions and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yarkony, D.R.

    1993-12-01

    This research program focusses on studies of spin-forbidden and electronically nonadiabatic processes involving radical species relevant to combustion reactions and combustion diagnostics. To study the electronic structure aspects of these processes a unique and powerful system of electronic structure programs, developed over the past nine years, the BROOKLYN codes, is employed. These programs enable the authors to address questions basic to the understanding of elementary combustion processes not tractable using more standard quantum chemistry codes.

  2. Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic tools can help schools more consistently and fairly match instructional resources to the needs of their students. To ensure the best educational outcome for each child, diagnostic decision-making systems seek to balance time, clarity, and accuracy. However, recent research notes that many educational decisions tend to be made using…

  3. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  4. Thomson scattering diagnostics of steady state and pulsed welding processes without and with metal vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Marqués, J.-L.; Schein, J.

    2015-01-01

    Thomson scattering is applied to measure temperature and density of electrons in the arc plasma of the direct current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. This diagnostic technique allows to determine these plasma parameters independent from the gas composition and heavy particles temperature. The experimental setup is adapted to perform measurements on stationary as well as transient processes. Spatial and temporal electron temperature and density profiles of a pure argon arc in the case of the GTAW process and argon arc with the presence of aluminum metal vapor in the case of the GMAW process were obtained. Additionally the data is used to estimate the concentration of the metal vapor in the GMAW plasma.

  5. The Process of Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Solomon, Monica; Caine, Geoffrey; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Almeida, Luis; Frick, Theodore; Thompson, Kenneth; Koh, Joyce; Ryan, Christopher D.; DeMars, Shane

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several brief papers about the process of systemic change. These are: (1) Step-Up-To-Excellence: A Protocol for Navigating Whole-System Change in School Districts by Francis M. Duffy; (2) The Guidance System for Transforming Education by Charles M. Reigeluth; (3) The Schlechty Center For Leadership In School Reform by Monica…

  6. Medical diagnostic decision support systems--past, present, and future: a threaded bibliography and brief commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A

    1994-01-01

    Articles about medical diagnostic decision support (MDDS) systems often begin with a disclaimer such as, "despite many years of research and millions of dollars of expenditures on medical diagnostic systems, none is in widespread use at the present time." While this statement remains true in the sense that no single diagnostic system is in widespread use, it is misleading with regard to the state of the art of these systems. Diagnostic systems, many simple and some complex, are now ubiquitous, and research on MDDS systems is growing. The nature of MDDS systems has diversified over time. The prospects for adoption of large-scale diagnostic systems are better now than ever before, due to enthusiasm for implementation of the electronic medical record in academic, commercial, and primary care settings. Diagnostic decision support systems have become an established component of medical technology. This paper provides a review and a threaded bibliography for some of the important work on MDDS systems over the years from 1954 to 1993. PMID:7719792

  7. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  8. Conversion-Integration of MSFC Nonlinear Signal Diagnostic Analysis Algorithms for Realtime Execution of MSFC's MPP Prototype System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1996-01-01

    NASA's advanced propulsion system Small Scale Magnetic Disturbances/Advanced Technology Development (SSME/ATD) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves large numbers of health monitoring measurements. To enhance engine safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurement signals are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce the risk of catastrophic system failures and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. During the development of SSME, ASRI participated in the research and development of several advanced non- linear signal diagnostic methods for health monitoring and failure prediction in turbomachinery components. However, due to the intensive computational requirement associated with such advanced analysis tasks, current SSME dynamic data analysis and diagnostic evaluation is performed off-line following flight or ground test with a typical diagnostic turnaround time of one to two days. The objective of MSFC's MPP Prototype System is to eliminate such 'diagnostic lag time' by achieving signal processing and analysis in real-time. Such an on-line diagnostic system can provide sufficient lead time to initiate corrective action and also to enable efficient scheduling of inspection, maintenance and repair activities. The major objective of this project was to convert and implement a number of advanced nonlinear diagnostic DSP algorithms in a format consistent with that required for integration into the Vanderbilt Multigraph Architecture (MGA) Model Based Programming environment. This effort will allow the real-time execution of these algorithms using the MSFC MPP Prototype System. ASRI has completed the software conversion and integration of a sequence of nonlinear signal analysis techniques specified in the SOW for real

  9. A fully automated in vitro diagnostic system based on magnetic tunnel junction arrays and superparamagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Jie; Chen, Si; Qiu, Yuqin; Zhang, Suohui; Shi, Stone; Gao, Yunhua

    2012-04-01

    A fully automated in vitro diagnostic (IVD) system for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was developed using high sensitivity MTJ array as sensors and nano-magnetic particles as tags. On the chip is an array of 12 × 106 MTJ devices integrated onto a 3 metal layer CMOS circuit. The array is divided into 48 detection areas, therefore 48 different types of bio targets can be analyzed simultaneously if needed. The chip is assembled with a micro-fluidic cartridge which contains all the reagents necessary for completing the assaying process. Integrated with electrical, mechanical and micro-fluidic pumping devices and with the reaction protocol programed in a microprocessor, the system only requires a simple one-step analyte application procedure to operate and yields results of the three major AMI bio-markers (cTnI, MYO, CK-MB) in 15 mins.

  10. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  11. Intelligent Work Process Engineering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Kent E.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing performance on work activities and processes requires metrics of performance for management to monitor and analyze in order to support further improvements in efficiency, effectiveness, safety, reliability and cost. Information systems are therefore required to assist management in making timely, informed decisions regarding these work processes and activities. Currently information systems regarding Space Shuttle maintenance and servicing do not exist to make such timely decisions. The work to be presented details a system which incorporates various automated and intelligent processes and analysis tools to capture organize and analyze work process related data, to make the necessary decisions to meet KSC organizational goals. The advantages and disadvantages of design alternatives to the development of such a system will be discussed including technologies, which would need to bedesigned, prototyped and evaluated.

  12. Target diagnostic control system implementation for the National Ignition Facility (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, R. T.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Lagin, L. J.; Nelson, J. R.; O'Brien, D. W.

    2010-10-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser is observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A diagnostic control system (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost WINDOWS XP processor and JAVA application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The JAVA framework provides data management, control services, and operator graphical user interface generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in extensible markup language. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  13. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R; Lagin, L; Nelson, J

    2011-07-25

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  14. Target diagnostic control system implementation for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R. T.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Lagin, L. J.; Nelson, J. R.; O'Brien, D. W.

    2010-10-15

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser is observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A diagnostic control system (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost WINDOWS XP processor and JAVA application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The JAVA framework provides data management, control services, and operator graphical user interface generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in extensible markup language. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  15. In Depth Diagnostics for RF System Operation in the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Teytelman, Dmitry; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The PEP-II RF systems incorporate numerous feedback loops in the low-level processing for impedance control and operating point regulation. The interaction of the multiple loops with the beam is complicated, and the systems incorporate online diagnostic tools to configure the feedback loops as well as to record fault files in the case of an RF abort. Rapid and consistent analysis of the RF-related beam aborts and other failures is critical to the reliable operation of the B-Factory, especially at the recently achieved high beam currents. Procedures and algorithms used to extract diagnostic information from time domain fault files are presented and illustrated via example interpretations of PEP-II fault file data. Example faults presented will highlight the subtle interpretation required to determine the root cause. Some such examples are: abort kicker firing asynchronously, klystron and cavity arcs, beam loss leading to longitudinal instability, tuner read back jumps and poorly configured low-level RF feedback loop.

  16. Upgrade of a CHERS diagnostic system for fast-ion and drift-instability measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Takashi; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2015-11-01

    Energetic particle modes and drift instabilities have fluctuation frequencies above the 100 kHz design specification for the current Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic on MST. Upgrading the CHERS system to detect fluctuations at these frequencies requires an optimization of all the light detection stages including the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), the transimpedance amplifiers, and the data acquisition system. The PMTs need to have a linear response to the photon flux and be protected against abnormal events with much brighter light than ordinary plasmas. For this purpose, the resistor- divider network for the PMTs has been optimized based on the results of circuit-simulations and gain and linearity measurements. The pulse outputs of the PMTs corresponding to a single photoelectron are about 7.5 ns long. Therefore, the raw PMT signals require transimpedance amplifiers with shaping capabilities that will allow practical digitization rates. This digitization intrinsically causes errors in photon counts. We modeled each stage involved in the diagnostic using a Poisson process, circuit-simulations, and the superposition theorem to estimate those errors. We will discuss the details of the measurements and simulations and how parameters are optimized. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  17. Concurrent systems for knowledge processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C. ); Agha, G. )

    1989-01-01

    Actors have catalyzed the development of a new programming methodology and architecture for ultra-concurrent systems. This sourcebook on the development and impact of the actor paradigm brings together more than 20 milestone contributions on the actor concept and its application to knowledge processing. Each contribution is placed in its historical context and explained. This book is divided into four major areas: Foundations of Concurrent Systems covers actors, laws of concurrent systems and mathematical models. Languages takes up design principles, actor languages, meta-interpreters, and comparison with other programming languages. Systems and Architectures discusses monitoring and debugging environments, and multicomputers. Knowledge Processing examines the scientific community metaphor, open systems, and organizational semantics. Future prospects for actors and knowledge processing are discussed in the concluding section.

  18. Local area network for the plasma diagnostics system of MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a Foundation System consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the master to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition.

  19. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  20. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems. PMID:25663625

  1. Nano-bio Hybrid Materials for a New Generation of High-throughput Diagnostic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, Igor

    Nano-bio hybrid materials obtained by conjugation of capture molecules and plasmonic (metal) or excitonic (semiconductor) nanocrystals or microspheres encoded with fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals of different colors are the basis for development of a new generation of high-throughput diagnostic systems. Here, the general principles of development of "ideal" diagnostic nanoprobes based on oriented conjugates of capture molecules with the nanoparticles of different chemical compositions or with optically encoded microspheres are summarized and the basic requirements for individual components of the photonic nanoprobes being developed are discussed in the context of ensuring their advantages over the existing photonic diagnostic systems.

  2. Time resolved Thomson scattering diagnostic of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Marquès, J. L.; Schein, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this work a Thomson scattering diagnostic technique was applied to obtain time resolved electron temperature and density values during a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. The investigated GMAW process was run with aluminum wire (AlMg 4,5 Mn) with 1.2 mm diameter as a wire electrode, argon as a shielding gas and peak currents in the range of 400 A. Time resolved measurements could be achieved by triggering the laser pulse at shifted time positions with respect to the current pulse driving the process. Time evaluation of resulting electron temperatures and densities is used to investigate the state of the plasma in different phases of the current pulse and to determine the influence of the metal vapor and droplets on the plasma properties.

  3. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  4. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well. PMID:26520954

  5. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  6. Combining neural network models for automated diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2006-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of combined neural network (CNN) models to guide model selection for diagnosis of internal carotid arterial (ICA) disorders. The ICA Doppler signals were decomposed into time-frequency representations using discrete wavelet transform and statistical features were calculated to depict their distribution. The first level networks were implemented for the diagnosis of ICA disorders using the statistical features as inputs. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the second level network was trained using the outputs of the first level networks as input data. The CNN models achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the stand-alone neural network models. PMID:17233161

  7. Social context and stakeholders' values in building diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Sadler, John Z

    2005-01-01

    Beginning with an acknowledgment of the scientific aspects of developing classifications for psychopathology, this essay describes how diagnostic classifications (DCs) also function as public policy. Using the methods of philosophical analysis and a brief review of pertinent literature, the paper describes the regulatory and prescriptive functions of official DCs like the DSM and ICD manuals, functions that de facto serve as public policies. This background then provides for a comparison of the values involved in good science alongside the values involved in good public policy. Important areas of overlap are described, and these point to areas, relevant to stakeholders' interest, worth considering in developing future DCs. PMID:16145274

  8. Laser ablation plasmas for diagnostics of structured electronic and optical materials during or after laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Richard E.; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; González, Jhanis J.

    2012-03-01

    Laser induced plasma can be used for rapid optical diagnostics of electronic, optical, electro-optical, electromechanical and other structures. Plasma monitoring and diagnostics can be realized during laser processing in real time by means of measuring optical emission that originates from the pulsed laser-material interaction. In post-process applications, e.g., quality assurance and quality control, surface raster scanning and depth profiling can be realized with high spatial resolution (~10 nm in depth and ~3 μm lateral). Commercial instruments based on laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) are available for these purposes. Since only a laser beam comes in direct contact with the sample, such diagnostics are sterile and non-disruptive, and can be performed at a distance, e.g. through a window. The technique enables rapid micro-localized chemical analysis without a need for sample preparation, dissolution or evacuation of samples, thus it is particularly beneficial in fabrication of thin films and structures, such as electronic, photovoltaic and electro-optical devices or circuits of devices. Spectrum acquisition from a single laser shot provides detection limits for metal traces of ~10 μg/g, which can be further improved by accumulating signal from multiple laser pulses. LIBS detection limit for Br in polyethylene is 90 μg/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation (halogen detection is a requirement for semiconductor package materials). Three to four orders of magnitude lower detection limits can be obtained with a femtosecond laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS), which is also provided on commercial basis. Laser repetition rate is currently up to 20 Hz in LIBS instruments and up to 100 kHz in LA-ICP-MS.

  9. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  10. Microwave tomography for GPR data processing in archaeology and cultural heritages diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most feasible and friendly instrumentation to detect buried remains and perform diagnostics of archaeological structures with the aim of detecting hidden objects (defects, voids, constructive typology; etc..). In fact, GPR technique allows to perform measurements over large areas in a very fast way thanks to a portable instrumentation. Despite of the widespread exploitation of the GPR as data acquisition system, many difficulties arise in processing GPR data so to obtain images reliable and easily interpretable by the end-users. This difficulty is exacerbated when no a priori information is available as for example arises in the case of historical heritages for which the knowledge of the constructive modalities and materials of the structure might be completely missed. A possible answer to the above cited difficulties resides in the development and the exploitation of microwave tomography algorithms [1, 2], based on more refined electromagnetic scattering model with respect to the ones usually adopted in the classic radaristic approach. By exploitation of the microwave tomographic approach, it is possible to gain accurate and reliable "images" of the investigated structure in order to detect, localize and possibly determine the extent and the geometrical features of the embedded objects. In this framework, the adoption of simplified models of the electromagnetic scattering appears very convenient for practical and theoretical reasons. First, the linear inversion algorithms are numerically efficient thus allowing to investigate domains large in terms of the probing wavelength in a quasi real- time also in the case of 3D case also by adopting schemes based on the combination of 2D reconstruction [3]. In addition, the solution approaches are very robust against the uncertainties in the parameters of the measurement configuration and on the investigated scenario. From a theoretical point of view, the linear models allow

  11. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  12. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  13. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion. PMID:12961909

  14. Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) and Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS): A maintenance and diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toms, David; Hadden, George D.; Harrington, Jim

    1990-01-01

    The Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS) that is being developed at Honeywell to enhance the Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery system (FDIR) for the Attitude Determination and Control System on Space Station Freedom is described. The MDS demonstrates ways that AI-based techniques can be used to improve the maintainability and safety of the Station by helping to resolve fault anomalies that cannot be fully determined by built-in-test, by providing predictive maintenance capabilities, and by providing expert maintenance assistance. The MDS will address the problems associated with reasoning about dynamic, continuous information versus only about static data, the concerns of porting software based on AI techniques to embedded targets, and the difficulties associated with real-time response. An initial prototype was built of the MDS. The prototype executes on Sun and IBM PS/2 hardware and is implemented in the Common Lisp; further work will evaluate its functionality and develop mechanisms to port the code to Ada.

  15. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc. PMID:24034880

  16. Performance optimization of a diagnostic system based upon a simulated strain field for fatigue damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarufatti, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2013-11-01

    The work presented hereafter is about the development of a diagnostic system for crack damage detection, localization and quantification on a typical metallic aeronautical structure (skin stiffened through riveted stringers). Crack detection and characterization are based upon strain field sensitivity to damage. The structural diagnosis is carried out by a dedicated smart algorithm (Artificial Neural Network) which is trained on a database of Finite Element simulations relative to damaged and undamaged conditions, providing the system with an accurate predictor at low overall cost. The algorithm, trained on numerical damage experience, is used in a simulated environment to provide reliable preliminary information concerning the algorithm performances for damage diagnosis, thus further reducing the experimental costs and efforts associated with the development and optimization of such systems. The same algorithm has been tested on real experimental strain patterns acquired during real fatigue crack propagation, thus verifying the capability of the numerically trained algorithm for anomaly detection, damage assessment and localization on a real complex structure. The load variability, the discrepancy between the Finite Element Model and the real structure, and the uncertainty in the algorithm training process have been addressed in order to enhance the robustness of the system inference process. Some further algorithm training strategies are discussed, aimed at minimizing the risk for false alarms while maintaining a high probability of damage detection.

  17. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  18. Development of Simple Designs of Multitip Probe Diagnostic Systems for RF Plasma Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Shukrullah, S.; Ghaffar, A.; Rehman, N. U.

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  19. Development of simple designs of multitip probe diagnostic systems for RF plasma characterization.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Shukrullah, S; Ghaffar, A; Rehman, N U

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  20. Parents' experiences of diagnostic processes of young children in Norwegian day-care institutions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Terese; Nilsen, Randi Dyblie

    2015-02-01

    Framed by the sociology of childhood and Foucauldian-inspired perspectives, this article is focused on parents' experiences of parent-professional encounters in diagnostic processes of young children enrolled in Norwegian early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions or schools. Based on qualitative interviews with parents, we explore how they participate and manoeuvre in encounters with professionals during processes in which their children were constructed as different in a space of normality and deviance, while also bringing their own understandings of their children to the fore. From our analysis, it appears that parents manoeuvre between complying with and adapting to, as well as negotiating and resisting the constructions put forward by the professionals. PMID:25682794

  1. Computer-Based Diagnostic Expert Systems in Rheumatology: Where Do We Stand in 2014?

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Hannes; Michel, Beat A.; Marx, Christian; Tamborrini, Giorgio; Langenegger, Thomas; Bruehlmann, Pius; Steurer, Johann; Wildi, Lukas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The early detection of rheumatic diseases and the treatment to target have become of utmost importance to control the disease and improve its prognosis. However, establishing a diagnosis in early stages is challenging as many diseases initially present with similar symptoms and signs. Expert systems are computer programs designed to support the human decision making and have been developed in almost every field of medicine. Methods. This review focuses on the developments in the field of rheumatology to give a comprehensive insight. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Results. Reports of 25 expert systems with different design and field of application were found. The performance of 19 of the identified expert systems was evaluated. The proportion of correctly diagnosed cases was between 43.1 and 99.9%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 62 to 100 and 88 to 98%, respectively. Conclusions. Promising diagnostic expert systems with moderate to excellent performance were identified. The validation process was in general underappreciated. None of the systems, however, seemed to have succeeded in daily practice. This review identifies optimal characteristics to increase the survival rate of expert systems and may serve as valuable information for future developments in the field. PMID:25114683

  2. [Activity of ISO/TC212, clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems].

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1998-10-01

    ISO is the International Organization for Standardization, which is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from 130 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. ISO/TC212, Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems was newly established in 1995, consisting of 86 P-members and 12 O-members. ISO/TC212 secretariat is the American National Standards Institute, and NCCLS carries out its secretarial activity. On behalf of the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC), the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) serves as the secretariat for the ISO/TC212 National Technical Advisory Group. Three working groups are in the process of preparing the Draft International Standards (DIS) among 9 work items. The next plenary session of ISO/TC212 will be held on May 19-21, 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. PMID:9816905

  3. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  4. A Statistical Approach To An Expert Diagnostic Ultrasonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insana, Michael F.; Wagner, Robert F.; Garra, Brian S.; Shawker, Thomas H.

    1986-06-01

    The techniques of statistical pattern recognition are implemented to determine the best combination of tissue characterization parameters for maximizing the diagnostic accuracy of a given task. In this paper, we considered combinations of four ultrasonic tissue parameters to discriminate between normal liver and chronic hepatitis. The separation between normal and diseased samples was made by application of the Bayes test for minimum risk which minimizes the error rate for classifying tissue states while including the prior probability for the presence of disease and the cost of misclassification. Large differences in classification performance of various tissue parameter combinations were demonstrated by ROC analysis. The power of additional features to classify tissue states, even those derived from other imaging modalities, can be compared directly in this manner.

  5. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1993-01-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures.

  6. Plasma Diagnostics For The Investigation of Silane Based Glow Discharge Deposition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataras, Dimitrios

    2001-10-01

    In this work is presented the study of microcrystalline silicon PECVD process through highly diluted silane in hydrogen discharges. The investigation is performed by applying different non intrusive plasma diagnostics (electrical, optical, mass spectrometric and laser interferometric measurements). Each of these measurements is related to different plasma sub-processes (gas physics, plasma chemistry and plasma surface interaction) and compose a complete set, proper for the investigation of the effect of external discharge parameters on the deposition processes. In the specific case these plasma diagnostics are applied for prospecting the optimal experimental conditions from the ic-Si:H deposition rate point of view. Namely, the main characteristics of the effect of frequency, discharge geometry, power consumption and total gas pressure on the deposition process are presented successively. Special attention is given to the study of the frequency effect (13.56 MHz 50 MHz) indicating that the correct way to compare results of different driving frequency discharges is by maintaining constant the total power dissipation in the discharge. The important role of frequency in the achievement of high deposition rates and on the optimization of all other parameters is underlined. Finally, the proper combination of experimental conditions that result from the optimal choice of each of the above-mentioned discharge parameters and lead to high microcrystalline silicon deposition rates (7.5 Å/sec) is presented. The increase of silane dissociation rate towards neutral radicals (frequency effect), the contribution of highly sticking to the surface radicals (discharge geometry optimum) and the controlled production of higher radicals through secondary gas phase reactions (total gas pressure), are presented as prerequisites for the achievement of high deposition rates.

  7. Network command processing system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Yon-Woo; Murphy, Lisa D.

    1993-01-01

    The Network Command Processing System (NCPS) developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ground Network (GN) stations is a spacecraft command system utilizing a MULTIBUS I/68030 microprocessor. This system was developed and implemented at ground stations worldwide to provide a Project Operations Control Center (POCC) with command capability for support of spacecraft operations such as the LANDSAT, Shuttle, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, and Nimbus-7. The NCPS consolidates multiple modulation schemes for supporting various manned/unmanned orbital platforms. The NCPS interacts with the POCC and a local operator to process configuration requests, generate modulated uplink sequences, and inform users of the ground command link status. This paper presents the system functional description, hardware description, and the software design.

  8. XCPU2 process management system

    SciTech Connect

    Ionkov, Latchesar; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  9. A pulsed-laser calibration system for the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Sorce, C; Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Loughman, K; Knight, R; Glenzer, S H; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2009-10-09

    A calibration system has been developed that allows a direct determination of the sensitivity of the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser. A motorized mirror at the target location redirects individual pulses of a mJ-class laser onto the diagnostic to allow the in-situ measurement of the local point response of the backscatter diagnostics. Featuring dual wavelength capability at the 2nd and 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, both spectral channels of the backscatter diagnostics can be directly calibrated. In addition, channel cross-talk and polarization sensitivity can be determined. The calibration system has been employed repeatedly over the last two years and has enabled precise backscatter measurements of both stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hohlraum targets that emulate conditions relevant to those in inertial confinement fusion targets.

  10. An evidence-based diagnostic classification system for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Robert; Potocki, Eric; Seidman, Michael; Morgenthal, A. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: While clinicians generally accept that musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) can arise from specific tissues, it remains difficult to confirm specific sources. Methods: Based on evidence supported by diagnostic utility studies, doctors of chiropractic functioning as members of a research clinic created a diagnostic classification system, corresponding exam and checklist based on strength of evidence, and in-office efficiency. Results: The diagnostic classification system contains one screening category, two pain categories: Nociceptive, Neuropathic, one functional evaluation category, and one category for unknown or poorly defined diagnoses. Nociceptive and neuropathic pain categories are each divided into 4 subcategories. Conclusion: This article describes and discusses the strength of evidence surrounding diagnostic categories for an in-office, clinical exam and checklist tool for LBP diagnosis. The use of a standardized tool for diagnosing low back pain in clinical and research settings is encouraged. PMID:23997245

  11. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  12. Knowledge-based process control and diagnostics for orbital cryogen transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, Eric A.

    1989-01-01

    AFDex is a rule based system designed to provide intelligent process control, diagnosis, and error recovery for a Shuttle based cryogenic experiment, SHOOT (Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer). This paper describes the AFDex system in the context of traditional associative, model-based, and qualitative systems and discusses the implications of this first expert system in space.

  13. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  14. A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere during HAARP Modification Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Elder, John H.; Williams, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    This research program focused on the construction of several key radio wave diagnostics in support of the HF Active Auroral Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP). Project activities led to the design, development, and fabrication of a variety of hardware units and to the development of several menu-driven software packages for data acquisition and analysis. The principal instrumentation includes an HF (28 MHz) radar system, a VHF (50 MHz) radar system, and a high-speed radar processor consisting of three separable processing units. The processor system supports the HF and VHF radars and is capable of acquiring very detailed data with large incoherent scatter radars. In addition, a tunable HF receiver system having high dynamic range was developed primarily for measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). A separate processor unit was constructed for the SEE receiver. Finally, a large amount of support instrumentation was developed to accommodate complex field experiments. Overall, the HAARP diagnostics are powerful tools for studying diverse ionospheric modification phenomena. They are also flexible enough to support a host of other missions beyond the scope of HAARP. Many new research programs have been initiated by applying the HAARP diagnostics to studies of natural atmospheric processes.

  15. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  16. [Indicators of inflammatory process in stool in diagnostics and monitoring of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Iwańczak, Franciszek

    2015-12-01

    In the recent decades the rapid development of the studies on new methods used in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and monitoring the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has been observed. To the diagnostics of gastrointestinal disorders new methods such as endoscopic capsule and imaging methods including magnetic resonance have been introduced. Markers of inflammation detected in stool play significant role in the diagnostics. To the best known belong calprotectine and lactoferrin, which are produced by neutral granulocytes. In the present review we have presented the clinical usefulness of detection in the stool of calprotectin, lectoferrin, S100A12 protein and pyruvate kinase. Clinical usefulness of these markers were used in diagnosis, assessment of the treatment results, disease relapse and mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. Determination of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin in the process of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease are of particular value. Confirmation of these results in multicenter prospective trials will enable in the future to reduce the number of control colonoscopies, which in children are performer under general anesthesia. PMID:26802694

  17. The possibilities of improvement in the sensitivity of cancer fluorescence diagnostics by computer image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledwon, Aleksandra; Bieda, Robert; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Polanski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Latos, Wojciech; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-02-01

    Background: Fluorescence diagnostics uses the ability of tissues to fluoresce after exposition to a specific wavelength of light. The change in fluorescence between normal and progression to cancer allows to see early cancer and precancerous lesions often missed by white light. Aim: To improve by computer image processing the sensitivity of fluorescence images obtained during examination of skin, oral cavity, vulva and cervix lesions, during endoscopy, cystoscopy and bronchoscopy using Xillix ONCOLIFE. Methods: Function of image f(x,y):R2 --> R 3 was transformed from original color space RGB to space in which vector of 46 values refers to every point labeled by defined xy-coordinates- f(x,y):R2 --> R 46. By means of Fisher discriminator vector of attributes of concrete point analalyzed in the image was reduced according to two defined classes defined as pathologic areas (foreground) and healthy areas (background). As a result the highest four fisher's coefficients allowing the greatest separation between points of pathologic (foreground) and healthy (background) areas were chosen. In this way new function f(x,y):R2 --> R 4 was created in which point x,y corresponds with vector Y, H, a*, c II. In the second step using Gaussian Mixtures and Expectation-Maximisation appropriate classificator was constructed. This classificator enables determination of probability that the selected pixel of analyzed image is a pathologically changed point (foreground) or healthy one (background). Obtained map of probability distribution was presented by means of pseudocolors. Results: Image processing techniques improve the sensitivity, quality and sharpness of original fluorescence images. Conclusion: Computer image processing enables better visualization of suspected areas examined by means of fluorescence diagnostics.

  18. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  19. NOAO observing proposal processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, David J.; Gasson, David; Hartman, Mia

    2002-12-01

    Since going electronic in 1994, NOAO has continued to refine and enhance its observing proposal handling system. Virtually all related processes are now handled electronically. Members of the astronomical community can submit proposals through email, web form or via Gemini's downloadable Phase-I Tool. NOAO staff can use online interfaces for administrative tasks, technical reviews, telescope scheduling, and compilation of various statistics. In addition, all information relevant to the TAC process is made available online. The system, now known as ANDES, is designed as a thin-client architecture (web pages are now used for almost all database functions) built using open source tools (FreeBSD, Apache, MySQL, Perl, PHP) to process descriptively-marked (LaTeX, XML) proposal documents.

  20. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  1. Automated satellite telemetry processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parunakian, David; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Vera

    In this paper we describe the design and important implementation details of the new automated system for processing satellite telemetry developedat Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP MSU) . We discuss the most common tasks and pitfall for such systems built around data stream from a single spacecraft or a single instrument, and suggest a solution that allows to quickly develop telemetry processing modules and to integrate them with an existing polling mechanism, support infrastructure and data storage in Oracle or MySQL database systems. We also demonstrate the benefits of this approach using modules for processing three different spacecraft data streams: Coronas-Photon (2009-003A), Tatiana-2 (2009-049D) and Meteor-M no.1 (2009-049A). The data format and protocols used by each of these spacecraft have distinct peculiarities, which nevertheless did not pose a problem for integrating their modules into the main system. Remote access via web interface to Oracle databases and sophisticated visualization tools create a possibility of efficient scientific exploitation of satellite data. Such a system is already deployed at the web portal of the Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of SINP MSU (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru).

  2. Diagnostic and prognostic histopathology system using morphometric indices

    DOEpatents

    Parvin, Bahram; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Fontenay, Gerald V

    2015-05-12

    Determining at least one of a prognosis or a therapy for a patient based on a stained tissue section of the patient. An image of a stained tissue section of a patient is processed by a processing device. A set of features values for a set of cell-based features is extracted from the processed image, and the processed image is associated with a particular cluster of a plurality of clusters based on the set of feature values, where the plurality of clusters is defined with respect to a feature space corresponding to the set of features.

  3. Microwave tomography for GPR data processing in archaeology and cultural heritages diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most feasible and friendly instrumentation to detect buried remains and perform diagnostics of archaeological structures with the aim of detecting hidden objects (defects, voids, constructive typology; etc..). In fact, GPR technique allows to perform measurements over large areas in a very fast way thanks to a portable instrumentation. Despite of the widespread exploitation of the GPR as data acquisition system, many difficulties arise in processing GPR data so to obtain images reliable and easily interpretable by the end-users. This difficulty is exacerbated when no a priori information is available as for example arises in the case of historical heritages for which the knowledge of the constructive modalities and materials of the structure might be completely missed. A possible answer to the above cited difficulties resides in the development and the exploitation of microwave tomography algorithms [1, 2], based on more refined electromagnetic scattering model with respect to the ones usually adopted in the classic radaristic approach. By exploitation of the microwave tomographic approach, it is possible to gain accurate and reliable "images" of the investigated structure in order to detect, localize and possibly determine the extent and the geometrical features of the embedded objects. In this framework, the adoption of simplified models of the electromagnetic scattering appears very convenient for practical and theoretical reasons. First, the linear inversion algorithms are numerically efficient thus allowing to investigate domains large in terms of the probing wavelength in a quasi real- time also in the case of 3D case also by adopting schemes based on the combination of 2D reconstruction [3]. In addition, the solution approaches are very robust against the uncertainties in the parameters of the measurement configuration and on the investigated scenario. From a theoretical point of view, the linear models allow

  4. Blast wave diagnostic for the petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K. S., LLNL

    1998-06-03

    We report on a diagnostic to measure the trajectory of a blast wave propagating through a plastic target 400 {micro}m thick. This blast wave is generated by the irradiation of the front surface of the target with {approximately} 400 J of 1 {micro}m laser radiation in a 20 ps pulse focused to a {approximately} 50 {micro}m diameter spot, which produces an intensity in excess of 1O{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. These conditions approximate a point explosion and a blast wave is predicted to be generated with an initial pressure nearing 1 Gbar which decays as it travels approximately radially outward from the interaction region We have utilized streaked optical pyrometry of the blast front to determine its time of arrival at the rear surface of the target Applications of a self-similar Taylor-Sedov blast wave solution allows the amount of energy deposited to be estimated The experiment, LASNEX design simulations and initial results are discussed.

  5. PCR diagnostic system in the treatment of prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Benedík, J; Pokorný, D; Judl, T; Barták, V; Jahodová, I; Fulín, P; Síbek, M

    2015-09-01

    In our prospective study, we examined whether a multiplex PCR diagnostic method is suitable for the primary detection of pathogens. We also examined the possibility and sensitivity of detecting genes responsible for biofilm production and methicillin resistance. From 2007 to 2009, 94 patients were included in the study. A UNB (universal detection of 16S ribosomal bacterial DNA) and UNF (universal detection of pathogenic fungi) were used in the primary detection. A multiplex assay for biofilm production, methicillin resistance allowed us to distinguish between Gram positivity and negativity and to detect Staphylococci. From all the samples, the culture was positive in 53.2 % of cases, and by using the UNB method, we detected bacteria in 79.8 % of cases-the UNF detection of fungi was positive in 10.6 % of cases. In 75 % of positive findings, we detected a Gram-negative bacterium in 65.3 % of cases. In 47.2 % of Staphylococci detected, the ability to produce biofilm was confirmed. 61.1 % of the Staphylococci exhibited a methicillin resistance. Our multiplex scheme cannot yet fully replace microbial cultivation but can be a rational guide when choosing an appropriate antibiotic therapy in cases where the microbial culture is negative. PMID:25523034

  6. A CLIPS based personal computer hardware diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Often the person designated to repair personal computers has little or no knowledge of how to repair a computer. Described here is a simple expert system to aid these inexperienced repair people. The first component of the system leads the repair person through a number of simple system checks such as making sure that all cables are tight and that the dip switches are set correctly. The second component of the system assists the repair person in evaluating error codes generated by the computer. The final component of the system applies a large knowledge base to attempt to identify the component of the personal computer that is malfunctioning. We have implemented and tested our design with a full system to diagnose problems for an IBM compatible system based on the 8088 chip. In our tests, the inexperienced repair people found the system very useful in diagnosing hardware problems.

  7. Diagnostic Overshadowing and Other Challenges Involved in the Diagnostic Process of Patients with Mental Illness Who Present in Emergency Departments with Physical Symptoms – A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Henderson, Claire; Howard, Louise M.; Murray, Joanna; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study in the Emergency Departments (EDs) of four hospitals in order to investigate the perceived scope and causes of ‘diagnostic overshadowing’ – the misattribution of physical symptoms to mental illness – and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of people with mental illness who present in EDs with physical symptoms. Eighteen doctors and twenty-one nurses working in EDs and psychiatric liaisons teams in four general hospitals in the UK were interviewed. Interviewees were asked about cases in which mental illness interfered with diagnosis of physical problems and about other aspects of the diagnostic process. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Interviewees reported various scenarios in which mental illness or factors related to it led to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment with various degrees of seriousness. Direct factors which may lead to misattribution in this regard are complex presentations or aspects related to poor communication or challenging behaviour of the patient. Background factors are the crowded nature of the ED environment, time pressures and targets and stigmatising attitudes held by a minority of staff. The existence of psychiatric liaison team covering the ED twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, can help reduce the risk of misdiagnosis of people with mental illness who present with physical symptoms. However, procedures used by emergency and psychiatric liaison staff require fuller operationalization to reduce disagreement over where responsibilities lie. PMID:25369130

  8. Digital signal processing of cylinder pressure data for combustion diagnostics of HCCI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Maurya, Rakesh; Pal, Dev Datt; Kumar Agarwal, Avinash

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of combustion is necessary for the estimation of the combustion quality, and control of combustion timing in advanced combustion concepts like HCCI. Combustion diagnostics is often performed using digital processing of pressure signals measured using piezoelectric sensor installed in the combustion chamber of the engine. Four-step pressure signal processing consisting of (i) absolute pressure correction, (ii) phasing w.r.t. crank angle, (iii) cycle averaging and (iv) smoothening is used to get cylinder pressure data from the engine experiments, which is further analyzed to get information about combustion characteristics. This study focuses on various aspect of signal processing (cycle averaging and smoothing) of in-cylinder pressure signal from a HCCI engine acquired using a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Experimental investigations are conducted on a HCCI combustion engine operating at different engine speed/load/air-fuel ratio conditions. The cylinder pressure history of 3000 consecutive engine cycles is acquired for analysis using piezoelectric pressure sensor. This study determines the optimum number of engine cycles to be acquired for reasonably good pressure signals based on standard deviation of in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and rate of heat release signals. Different signal smoothening methods (using various digital filters) are also analyzed and their results are compared. This study also presents effect of signal processing methods on pressure, pressure rise rate and rate of heat release curves at different engine operating conditions.

  9. Correlation processing of polarization inhomogenous images in laser diagnostics of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonyuk, L.

    2012-10-01

    The model of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue as a two-component amorphous-crystalline matrix was proposed. The processes of formation of polarization of laser radiation are considered, taking into account birefringence network protein fibrils. Measurement of the coordinate distribution of polarization states in the location of the laser micropolarimetr was conducted .The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of histological sections of women's reproductive sphere tissues and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of the prolapse of the vaginal tissue arising are determined.

  10. Treatment protocols: nonfluoride management of the caries disease process and available diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Twetman, Svante

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the evidence for saliva diagnostics and some antibacterial concepts with potential to interfere with the caries process. It concludes that there is incomplete evidence to evaluate the role of chair-side tests and to recommend general topical applications of antibacterial agents to prevent caries lesions. However, such measures may be considered to control the disease in caries-active individuals. There is evidence that xylitol has antibacterial properties that alter the oral ecology but the clinical evidence for caries prevention is rated as fair. However, preventive programs should include as many complementary strategies as possible, especially when directed toward caries-active patients. Therefore, any antibacterial intervention should always be combined with a fluoride program, until stronger evidence for its use in caries prevention and management becomes available. PMID:20630194

  11. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  12. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  13. Teaching dual-process diagnostic reasoning to doctor of nursing practice students: problem-based learning and the illness script.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Kennedy, Sally

    2014-11-01

    Accelerating the development of diagnostic reasoning skills for nurse practitioner students is high on the wish list of many faculty. The purpose of this article is to describe how the teaching strategy of problem-based learning (PBL) that drills the hypothetico-deductive or analytic reasoning process when combined with an assignment that fosters pattern recognition (a nonanalytic process) teaches and reinforces the dual process of diagnostic reasoning. In an online Doctor of Nursing Practice program, four PBL cases that start with the same symptom unfold over 2 weeks. These four cases follow different paths as they unfold leading to different diagnoses. Culminating each PBL case, a unique assignment called an illness script was developed to foster the development of pattern recognition. When combined with hypothetico-deductive reasoning drilled during the PBL case, students experience the dual process approach to diagnostic reasoning used by clinicians. PMID:25350904

  14. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  15. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-02-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  16. A balanced diagnostic system compatible with a barotropic prognostic model. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.; Yangarber, V.

    1977-01-01

    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, for a barotropic primitive-equation model of large-scale atmospheric flow is derived. Attention is given to the classical balance equation and its ellipticity condition. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system are presented, including examples of cases of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type and cases with non-zero divergence. Procedures for implementing such a system are outlined, along with a review of factors in using the technique for operational numerical weather prediction.

  17. A handheld point-of-care genomic diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Henrikson, Richard H; Bone, Jennifer M; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    , and source code for the µBAR instrument with the goal of spurring further innovation toward low-cost genetic diagnostics. PMID:23936402

  18. Diagnostic-management system and test pulse acquisition for WEST plasma measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes current status of electronics, firmware and software development for new plasma measurement system for use in WEST facility. The system allows to perform two dimensional plasma visualization (in time) with spectrum measurement. The analog front-end is connected to Gas Electron Multiplier detector (GEM detector). The system architecture have high data throughput due to use of PCI-Express interface, Gigabit Transceivers and sampling frequency of ADC integrated circuits. The hardware is based on several years of experience in building X-ray spectrometer system for Joint European Torus (JET) facility. Data streaming is done using Artix7 FPGA devices. The system in basic configuration can work with up to 256 channels, while the maximum number of measurement channels is 2048. Advanced firmware for the FPGA is required in order to perform high speed data streaming and analog signal sampling. Diagnostic system management has been developed in order to configure measurement system, perform necessary calibration and prepare hardware for data acquisition.

  19. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  20. A design for decision making: construction and connection of knowledge bases for a diagnostic system in medicine.

    PubMed

    Biczyk do Amaral, M; Satomura, Y; Honda, M; Sato, T

    1993-01-01

    We describe the process of organizing medical knowledge into knowledge bases and designing one architecture for a decision support system in clinical psychiatry. We define a set of knowledge bases that we regard as the necessary and sufficient structures to represent the medical knowledge to provide clinical consultations: disease profiles; frames with semantic relations to represent clinical findings; production rules with probabilities, to relate findings with diagnoses; a hierarchical classification tree, to represent disease categories; heuristic questions, to narrow the diagnostic hypotheses; and diagnostic criteria to conclude the clinical investigation. We propose one new architecture for a support system connecting these knowledge bases in a particular way to simulate medical clinical reasoning. PMID:8072339

  1. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  2. A relational approach to the development of expert diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposition that, given a structural and/or functional description of any real or abstract system, an expert system can be built based on this description is examined. First, a model is developed for a microprocessor-controlled end effector/sensor system using a modeling approach called a relational Knowledge-Base Machine (RKBM). Next, an explanation of how the end effector model could be used for the error diagnosis on the operational end effector is given and two versions of an error diagnosis algorithm based on the model are presented. Finally, areas of further research are described that are necessary before an expert system using this approach becomes a reality.

  3. Data processing for soft X-ray diagnostics based on GEM detector measurements for fusion plasma imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement system based on GEM - Gas Electron Multiplier detector is developed for X-ray diagnostics of magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. The Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (T-GEM) is presented as soft X-ray (SXR) energy and position sensitive detector. The paper is focused on the measurement subject and describes the fundamental data processing to obtain reliable characteristics (histograms) useful for physicists. So, it is the software part of the project between the electronic hardware and physics applications. The project is original and it was developed by the paper authors. Multi-channel measurement system and essential data processing for X-ray energy and position recognition are considered. Several modes of data acquisition determined by hardware and software processing are introduced. Typical measuring issues are deliberated for the enhancement of data quality. The primary version based on 1-D GEM detector was applied for the high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer KX1 in the JET tokamak. The current version considers 2-D detector structures initially for the investigation purpose. Two detector structures with single-pixel sensors and multi-pixel (directional) sensors are considered for two-dimensional X-ray imaging. Fundamental output characteristics are presented for one and two dimensional detector structure. Representative results for reference source and tokamak plasma are demonstrated.

  4. The information-expert system for complex diagnostics and researches of technological plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kresnin, Yu.A.; Stervoedov, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    The information-expert system for complex diagnostics and researches of technological plasma includes closely connected hardware and program part. The hardware consists of the set of intelligent sensors, possessing optical isolation on information channels, and functional modules, incorporated crate CAMAC. Crate is connected by serial interface with IBM-compatible computer. The intelligent sensors are realized on the basis of microcontroller Intel MCS51. They are used for multisensor and spectroscopical measurements of plasma parameters, laser measurement of plasma etched surfaces thickness, measurements of parameters of generators and power supplies of plasma sources. The information from the sensor sis sent on functional modules for preliminary processing and compression, and further, through controller crate--in computer. The program part provides the exchange by information of computer with crate, restores the amplitude-frequent and temporary characteristics of signals, compares them with chosen models of technological process, produces the recommendations on change of operating modes, optimizes technological process as a whole and carries out the documenting of researches.

  5. Diagnostic Assessment of Troubleshooting Skill in an Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others

    This paper lays out the rationale and implementation of student modeling and updating in the HYDRIVE intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for aircraft hydraulic systems. An epistemic level of modeling concerns the plans and goals students are using to guide their problem solving, as inferred from specific actions in specific contexts. These results…

  6. Diagnostic Solution Assistant cornerstone for intelligent system monitoring, management, analysis and administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaseng, Gordon; Holland, Courtney; Nelson, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides diagnostics for space hardware and subsystems. Advanced Honewell `smart' model-based technology performs the real-time fault detection, isolation and diagnostics. This model-based technology provides 24-hour access to the operational knowledge of the system experts. The complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) and other manned space vehicles requires that a full staff of ground based system diagnosis experts be trained and available at all times. Response to critical situations must be immediate no matter what time of the day or night. Installation of new systems plus normal staff turnover cause personnel to be in training constantly. Domain knowledge lost due to staff attrition may also never be regained. All of these factors lead to higher cost ground based flight system monitoring stations and sub-optimal efficiency. The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides a solution to these issues. The DSA can be deployed into the ISS Mission Control Center to enhance Flight Controller awareness and decision making. DSA can be utilized onboard the vehicle to enhance crew awareness and potentially offload the crew in time- or safety-critical situations. The DSA can be used to isolate and diagnose faults during flight preparation, thus reducing the overall vehicle turn-around time. In addition to having diagnostic capability, DSA is a tremendous requirements and operations knowledge capture tool that could streamline training for the flight controller and crew, and facilitate the rapid location of important information. .

  7. An integrated real-time diagnostic concept using expert systems, qualitative reasoning and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.; Kumara, S.; Levine, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    An approach for an integrated real-time diagnostic system is being developed for inclusion as an integral part of a power plant automatic control system. In order to participate in control decisions and automatic closed loop operation, the diagnostic system must operate in real-time. Thus far, an expert system with real-time capabilities has been developed and installed on a subsystem at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) in Idaho, USA. Real-time simulation testing of advanced power plant concepts at the Pennsylvania State University has been developed and was used to support the expert system development and installation at EBR-II. Recently, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have funded a Penn State research program to further enhance application of real-time diagnostic systems by pursuing implementation in a distributed power plant computer system including microprocessor based controllers. This paper summarizes past, current, planned, and possible future approaches to power plant diagnostic systems research at Penn State. 34 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  9. Mobile processing in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sapaty, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    A universal spatial automaton, called WAVE, for highly parallel processing in arbitrary distributed systems is described. The automaton is based on a virus principle where recursive programs, or waves, self-navigate in networks of data or processes in multiple cooperative parts while controlling and modifying the environment they exist in and move through. The layered general organization of the automaton as well as its distributed implementation in computer networks have been discussed. As the automaton dynamically creates, modifies, activates and processes any knowledge networks arbitrarily distributed in computer networks, it can easily model any other paradigms for parallel and distributed computing. Comparison of WAVE with some known programming models and languages, and ideas of their possible integration have also been given.

  10. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  11. Ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials supported by in-situ diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumkar, M.; Kaiser, M.; Kleiner, J.; Grossmann, D.; Flamm, D.; Bergner, K.; Nolte, S.

    2016-03-01

    For the development of industrial NIR ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials, the absorption inside the bulk material has to be controlled. Applications we aim for are front and rear side ablation, drilling and inscription of modifications for cleaving and selective laser etching of glass and sapphire in sheet geometry. We applied pump probe technology and in situ stress birefringence microscopy for fundamental studies on the influence of energy and duration (100 fs - 20 ps), temporal and spatial spacing, focusing and beam shaping of the laser pulses. Applying pump probe technique we are able to visualize differences of spatio-temporal build up of absorption, self focusing, shock wave generation for standard, multispot and beam shaped focusing. Incubation effects and disturbance of beam propagation due to modifications or ablation can be observed. In-situ imaging of stress birefringence gained insight in transient build up of stress with and without translation. The results achieved so far, demonstrate that transient stress has to be taken into account in scaling the laser machining throughput of brittle materials. Furthermore it points out that transient stress birefringence is a good indicator for accumulation effects, supporting tailored processing strategies. Cutting results achieved for selective laser etching by single pass laser modification exemplifies the benefits of process development supported by in situ diagnostics.

  12. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR FEL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Steven Moore; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2006-10-24

    An Ethernet based embedded system has been developed to upgrade the Beam Viewer and Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems within the free-electron laser (FEL) project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded microcontroller was mounted on the front-end I/O cards with software packages such as Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) running as an Input/Output Controller (IOC). By cross compiling with the EPICS, the RTEMS kernel, IOC device supports, and databases all of these can be downloaded into the microcontroller. The first version of the BPM electronics based on the embedded controller was built and is currently running in our FEL system. The new version of BPM that will use a Single Board IOC (SBIOC), which integrates with an Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) and a ColdFire embedded microcontroller, is presently under development. The new system has the features of a low cost IOC, an open source real-time operating system, plug&play-like ease of installation and flexibility, and provides a much more localized solution.

  13. SERS diagnostic platforms, methods and systems microarrays, biosensors and biochips

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-11

    A Raman integrated sensor system for the detection of targets including biotargets includes at least one sampling platform, at least one receptor probe disposed on the sampling platform, and an integrated circuit detector system communicably connected to the receptor. The sampling platform is preferably a Raman active surface-enhanced scattering (SERS) platform, wherein the Raman sensor is a SERS sensor. The receptors can include at least one protein receptor and at least one nucleic acid receptor.

  14. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  15. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  16. Chemical production processes and systems

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  17. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  18. NDMAS System and Process Description

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Hull

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data generated by the Very High Temperature Reactor Program need to be more available to users in the form of data tables on Web pages that can be downloaded to Excel or in delimited text formats that can be used directly for input to analysis and simulation codes, statistical packages, and graphics software. One solution that can provide current and future researchers with direct access to the data they need, while complying with records management requirements, is the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This report describes the NDMAS system and its components, defines roles and responsibilities, describes the functions the system performs, describes the internal processes the NDMAS team uses to carry out the mission, and describes the hardware and software used to meet Very High Temperature Reactor Program needs.

  19. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  20. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, P.; Cimmino, P.; Girone, M.; Commara, G. La; Maisto, D.; Manna, C.; Pezzetti, M.

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy.

  1. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Arpaia, P; Cimmino, P; Girone, M; La Commara, G; Maisto, D; Manna, C; Pezzetti, M

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy. PMID:25273768

  2. System of polarization phasometry of polycrystalline blood plasma networks in mammary gland pathology diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Oliinychenko, Bogdan P.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia K.; Shcherba, Olga K.

    2015-09-01

    The polarizing phase meter system of polycrystalline networks of human blood plasma which is used for the mammary gland pathology diagnostics was proposed in this paper. Increasing the accuracy of the phase value determination was achieved using a combination of low coherent source of radiation and circularly polarized probing of biological object. Thus, high informativity of polarizing phase meter system for the diagnosis of breast pathology using the phase mapping of the human blood plasma films were determined, thereafter statistical, correlational, fractal structure analysis of the obtained phase maps was carried out and the quantitative criterias of the phase diagnostics and differentiation of the breast pathological conditions were determined too.

  3. Small-scale on-line diagnostics for an HVAC system

    SciTech Connect

    Dodier, R.H.; Kreider, J.F.; Curtiss, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes an automated fault detection and diagnosis scheme for HVAC equipment, the Real-Time Diagnostic System (RTDS). The principles of operation of the RTDS are outlined, a computer implementation of the RTDS is described, and results of applying the RTDS to HVAC laboratory data are presented. The tests indicated that application of this inference system to the diagnosis of mixing box failures yields encouraging results. Although misdiagnosis of failure conditions is more frequent than the authors might like, false alarms are uncommon. The tests also show that training a diagnostic model on one mixing box and using the model on the other mixing boxes yields good results.

  4. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  5. Primary systemic amyloidosis as a real diagnostic challenge – case study

    PubMed Central

    Jerzykowska, Sonia; Gil, Lidia A.; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Komarnicki, Mieczysław A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) is a rare variety of plasma cell dyscrasia, the diagnosis of which is often difficult to establish. Pathogenesis of amyloidosis involves extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils in tissues, leading to insufficiency of affected organs. According to various sources, mean survival rate of patients with primary amyloidosis ranges from 12 to 24 months, making primary amyloidosis a disease with a very poor prognosis. Survival rate is significantly lowered in case of cardiac manifestation of amyloidosis (about 6 months survival in untreated patients). In recent years a considerable progress in AL treatment has been observed. Nowadays we are able not only to delay progression of amyloidosis, but also to improve the function of the affected organs. Unfortunately as first signs and symptoms of AL are usually nonspecific, the diagnosis of AL is often delayed, resulting in late introduction of optimal therapy. There are many diagnostic tests which can be used in diagnostic process of amyloidosis, i.e. electrophoresis, serum and urine immunofixation or affected organs and bone marrow biopsy. On establishing the diagnosis in a patient with suspected amyloidosis it should be remembered that particular diagnostic methods vary considerably in sensitivity. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a 27-year-old patient with primary amyloidosis focusing on diagnostic aspect of this condition. On the basis of this case, the authors would like to emphasize the value of precise diagnostic process, with immunological techniques playing undoubtedly a crucial role. PMID:26155101

  6. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  7. Cooperating Expert Systems For Automated Monitoring And Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Veregge, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Human operators freer to perform nonrepetitive tasks. Expert software system for monitoring multiple streams of sensory data from interacting equipment subsystems undergoing development. Organized hierarchically to monitor multiple equipment subsystems simultaneously. Each expert software subsystem responsible for one of equipment subsystems. Intended to assist human analysts in interpretation of telemetry data indicating operating statuses of subsystems of spacecraft, enables analysts to maintain desired mode(s) of operation, and helps to correct anomalies in subsystems or in overall spacecraft system. Other versions devised for industrial monitoring and analysis tasks similarly complicated.

  8. TMX-U neutral pressure measurement diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.

    1984-09-14

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) has a large and complex system of Baird Alpert, magnetron, and Penning gauges, in addition to mass spectrometers (RGA), all of which measure neutral pressures in the many internal regions of TMX-U. These pressure measurements are used as part of the confinement physics data base as well as for management of the TMX-U vacuum system. Dynamic pressures are modeled by a coupled-volumes simulation code, which includes wall reflus, getter pumping, and plasma pumping.

  9. Megahertz pulse-burst alexandrite laser diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Jon David

    Megahertz pulse-burst laser systems coupled with megahertz-rate framing cameras have proven (over the last ten years) to be very robust in imaging of high-speed reacting and nonreacting supersonic flows. These Nd:YAG systems produce 20--30 pulses (at variable rates from 500 kHz to 1 MHz) with 50--100 mJ/pulse (lambda = 1064nm) and have been used with narrow, spectral-linewidth, iodine, atomic filters to image turbulence in supersonic boundary layers with great success (when operating at lambda = 532nm). To extend this pulse-burst capability at other wavelengths (wavelengths outside of the 5--30 GHz tuning range of Nd:YAG: lambda = 1064 nm fundamental, and lambda = 532 nm second harmonic), two unique, tunable, megahertz-rate alexandrite laser systems were designed and built. This dissertation documents these two systems and discusses the potential for tunable, megahertz, pulse-burst systems that have more tuning range than Nd:YAG. These tunable alexandrite systems substantially extend the wavelength range of pulse-burst laser technology, but, to date, have pulse-energy limitations. Tunable from 710 nm to 800 nm (in the fundamental), these lasers provide researchers one laser to reach multiple molecular or atomic resonances with variable pulse-burst pulse separations. The molecular and atomic species of interest in reacting and nonreacting flows are presented in Chapter 1, providing a road-map for the development of these tunable lasers. This dissertation presents the design and development of these systems, including mode control, Herriott cell design for pulse separation, and the megahertz-tuning ringmaster-oscillator. Chapter 2 covers the physics of alexandrite as a solid-state, lamp-pumped, tunable medium and compares it to the tunability of Ti:sapphire. Chapter 3 and 4 present the pulse-burst alexandrite systems. The first system, built in Princeton's Applied Physics group (PAPG) (Chapter 3), produced 1-5 mJ total pulse-packet energy of 20--30 pulses, or

  10. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  11. Strategic Explanations for a Diagnostic Consultation System. Technical Report #8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasling, Diane Warner; And Others

    This paper examines the problem of automatic explanation of reasoning, or the ability of a program to discuss what it is doing in some understandable way, particularly as part of an expert system. An introduction presents a general framework in which to view explanation and reviews some of the research in this area. This is followed by a…

  12. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  13. A Diagnostic Decision Support System for BMP Selection in Small Urban Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Montas, H. J.; Leisnham, P.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Brubaker, K. L.; Reiling, S.

    2013-12-01

    Overall water quality in the United States has improved since the establishment of the Clean Water Act in 1972. While waste water and other point source discharge treatments are expanding and improving in quality, non-point source pollution remains a problem. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are structural and nonstructural methods to mitigate these problems. Much attention has focused on non-point source pollutants in rural areas, where agricultural activities increase the nutrients (fertilizers), toxics (pesticides), and sediments in surface water. Urban and suburban areas also suffer from severe water quantity and quality problems, largely due to stormwater. Low Impact Development (LID), a series of spatially distributed and engineered small-scale hydrologic controls, is an appropriate approach to reduce flow rate and improve urban stormwater quality before it discharges into surface water bodies. This research sought to develop a Diagnostic Decision Support System (DDSS) for urban BMP/LID selection. The process-based hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was used to simulate the hydrologic processes and to estimate related water quality variables. A logic based simple method was developed to identify the critical water quality and quantity hotspots using the SWAT outputs for multiple Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) within the study watershed. The DDSS consisted of two parts: a Diagnostic Expert System (DES), which identifies the most likely reasons for excessive pollutants; and a Prescriptive Expert System (PES), which selects the best set of spatially distributed BMPs. The DDSS is tested in Watts Branch, a small urban subwatershed in metropolitan Washington D.C. A SWAT model for the watershed was calibrated and validated first. The DDSS was then applied. The final selected series of BMPs was simulated again in the SWAT model for a ten-year period to quantify their effectiveness. The identified hotspots, possible reasons, and BMP solutions

  14. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  15. Dynamic security assessment processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    The architecture of dynamic security assessment processing system (DSAPS) is proposed to address online dynamic security assessment (DSA) with focus of the dissertation on low-probability, high-consequence events. DSAPS upgrades current online DSA functions and adds new functions to fit into the modern power grid. Trajectory sensitivity analysis is introduced and its applications in power system are reviewed. An index is presented to assess transient voltage dips quantitatively using trajectory sensitivities. Then the framework of anticipatory computing system (ACS) for cascading defense is presented as an important function of DSAPS. ACS addresses various security problems and the uncertainties in cascading outages. Corrective control design is automated to mitigate the system stress in cascading progressions. The corrective controls introduced in the dissertation include corrective security constrained optimal power flow, a two-stage load control for severe under-frequency conditions, and transient stability constrained optimal power flow for cascading outages. With state-of-the-art computing facilities to perform high-speed extended-term time-domain simulation and optimization for large-scale systems, DSAPS/ACS efficiently addresses online DSA for low-probability, high-consequence events, which are not addressed by today's industrial practice. Human interference is reduced in the computationally burdensome analysis.

  16. A vibration monitoring acquisition and diagnostic system for helicopter drive train bench tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousis, Dimitri A.

    An automated drive train test stand vibration monitoring system called VMADS has been developed by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., and has been installed at Bell's transmission bench test facility. VMADS provides the operator with warning and alarm indications for preselected degraded conditions, and acquires vibration data to be used by engineers to improve the diagnostics for better fault detection and fault isolation. VMADS is used as a test bed for new monitoring and diagnostic algorithm evaluation and validation, a necessary step to ensure development of accurate, reliable integrated health usage monitoring systems for the Bell rotorcraft fleet. This paper highlights the VMADS features for helicopter and tiltrotor aircraft drive train bench test monitoring and diagnostics and discusses supportive ongoing health and usage monitoring activities at BHTI, both military and commercial for enhanced safety and reduced maintenance costs. Bell is translating VMADS developed capability to airborne applications, while simultaneously enhancing the original VMADS capabilities.

  17. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

  18. In situ diagnostics of the crystal-growth process through neutron imaging: application to scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Makowska, Małgorzata G.; Perrodin, Didier; Shalapska, Tetiana; Khodyuk, Ivan V.; Trtik, Pavel; Boillat, Pierre; Vogel, Sven C.; Losko, Adrian S.; Strobl, Markus; Kuhn, L. Theil; Bizarri, Gregory A.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrons are known to be unique probes in situations where other types of radiation fail to penetrate samples and their surrounding structures. In this paper it is demonstrated how thermal and cold neutron radiography can provide time-resolved imaging of materials while they are being processed (e.g. while growing single crystals). The processing equipment, in this case furnaces, and the scintillator materials are opaque to conventional X-ray interrogation techniques. The distribution of the europium activator within a BaBrCl:Eu scintillator (0.1 and 0.5% nominal doping concentrations per mole) is studied in situ during the melting and solidification processes with a temporal resolution of 5–7 s. The strong tendency of the Eu dopant to segregate during the solidification process is observed in repeated cycles, with Eu forming clusters on multiple length scales (only for clusters larger than ∼50 µm, as limited by the resolution of the present experiments). It is also demonstrated that the dopant concentration can be quantified even for very low concentration levels (∼0.1%) in 10 mm thick samples. The interface between the solid and liquid phases can also be imaged, provided there is a sufficient change in concentration of one of the elements with a sufficient neutron attenuation cross section. Tomographic imaging of the BaBrCl:0.1%Eu sample reveals a strong correlation between crystal fractures and Eu-deficient clusters. The results of these experiments demonstrate the unique capabilities of neutron imaging for in situ diagnostics and the optimization of crystal-growth procedures. PMID:27275133

  19. Combined pulse-oximeter-NIRS system for biotissue diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    2005-08-01

    Multi-wavelength (670, 805, 848 and 905 nm), multi-detector device for non-invasive measurement of biochemical components concentration in human or animal tissues, combining the methods of conventional pulse-oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy, is developed. The portable and clinically applicable system allows to measure heart pulse rate, oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin (pulse-oximetry method) and local absolute concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and oxidized cytochrome aa3 or other IR absorbed compounds (NIRS method). The system can be applied in monitoring of oxygen availability and utilization by the brain in neonatal and adults, neuro- traumatology, intensive care medicine, transplantation and plastic surgery, in sport, high-altitude and aviation medicine.

  20. Absolute calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph system for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Numada, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Cho, T.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2004-10-01

    A space- and time-resolving vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrograph system has been applied to diagnose impurity ions behavior in plasmas produced in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 and the reversed field pinch TPE-RX. We have carried out ray tracing calculations for obtaining the characteristics of the VUV spectrograph and calibration experiments to measure the absolute sensitivities of the VUV spectrograph system for the wavelength range from 100 to 1100 A. By changing the incident angle, 50.6 deg. -51.4 deg., to the spectrograph whose nominal incident angle is 51 deg., we can change the observing spectral range of the VUV spectrograph. In this article, we show the ray tracing calculation results and absolute sensitivities when the angle of incidence into the VUV spectrograph is changed, and the results of VUV spectroscopic measurement in both GAMMA 10 and TPE-RX plasmas.

  1. Development of a BPM Lock-In Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Dickson

    2003-05-12

    A system has been developed for the acquisition and analysis of high rate, time coherent BPM data across the Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This system will allow the acquisition of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) position and intensity information at a rate in excess 7 KHz for approximately 200 BPMs in a time synchronous manner. By inducing minute sinusoidal transverse beam motion in the CEBAF injector, with known phase relative to the synchronized BPM acquisition, it is possible to derive several types of useful information. Analysis of the BPM intensity data, which is proportional to beam current, by beating the signal with an in-phase sinusoidal representation of the transverse kick can localize beam scraping to a particular BPM. Similarly, real-time optics information may be deduced with an analysis of BPM position data. This paper will detail the frequency lock-in technique applied and present status.

  2. Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

  3. Beam Diagnostics Based on AC Modulation of System Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tiefenback

    2004-11-10

    To improve the performance of operating accelerators, quantities such as lattice functions, beam transfer functions, betatron frequencies, etc, can be measured turn by turn with beam position monitors or from difference measurements using step changes in system parameters. Spectral measurements in closed orbit machines provide accurate values for some properties. But for open-ended systems and some measurements in closed-orbit machines, periodic modulation can be very useful for obtaining information about the beam line. Using examples from existing machines, we compare and contrast beam based modulation techniques and step function or passive measurements. For example, large amplitude dipole modulation in rings can be used in dedicated exploration of nonlinear optical properties without beam degradation, even allowing for tune spread effects. Low-level modulation can provide real-time system monitoring with no adverse effect on beam users. Examples considered include fully resonant dipole modulation in storage rings such as RHIC (hadrons) and PEP-II (electrons), and the continuous low-level modulation used in the CEBAF recirculating electron linac for real-time feedback to improve availability.

  4. Real-time expert system diagnostics and monitoring for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Targeted Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macalou, A.; Glass, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    An automated monitoring and diagnostics system (MDS) using virtual real-time software was developed for NASA's High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Targeted Search System (TSS). The four main tasks required of the MDS were monitoring and recording system health, alerting operators of problems, diagnosing poor system performance, and performing an emergency system shutdown. The MDS was implemented using commercial expert system software tools in addition to interface hardware and software developed on site. The expert system used objects, rules, and schematics in its TSS knowledge representation. The MDS was successfully integrated into the HRMS computer environment, and its performance met or exceeded its requirements.

  5. TPX diagnostics for tokamak operation, plasma control and machine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The diagnostics for TPX are at an early design phase, with emphasis on the diagnostic access interface with the major tokamak components. Account has to be taken of the very severe environment for diagnostic components located inside the vacuum vessel. The placement of subcontracts for the design and fabrication of the diagnostic systems is in process.

  6. Development and improvement of the operating diagnostics systems of NPO CKTI works for turbine of thermal and nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Rakovskii, V. G.; Isakov, N. Yu.; Sandovskii, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The work results on the development and improvement of the techniques, algorithms, and software-hardware of continuous operating diagnostics systems of rotating units and parts of turbine equipment state are presented. In particular, to ensure the full remote service of monitored turbine equipment using web technologies, the web version of the software of the automated systems of vibration-based diagnostics (ASVD VIDAS) was developed. The experience in the automated analysis of data obtained by ASVD VIDAS form the basis of the new algorithm of early detection of such dangerous defects as rotor deflection, crack in the rotor, and strong misalignment of supports. The program-technical complex of monitoring and measuring the deflection of medium pressure rotor (PTC) realizing this algorithm will alert the electric power plant staff during a deflection and indicate its value. This will give the opportunity to take timely measures to prevent the further extension of the defect. Repeatedly, recorded cases of full or partial destruction of shrouded shelves of rotor blades of the last stages of low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines defined the need to develop a version of the automated system of blade diagnostics (ASBD SKALA) for shrouded stages. The processing, analysis, presentation, and backup of data characterizing the mechanical state of blade device are carried out with a newly developed controller of the diagnostics system. As a result of the implementation of the works, the diagnosed parameters determining the operation security of rotating elements of equipment was expanded and the new tasks on monitoring the state of units and parts of turbines were solved. All algorithmic solutions and hardware-software implementations mentioned in the article were tested on the test benches and applied at some power plants.

  7. Transformation of Personal Computers and Mobile Phones into Genetic Diagnostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer rapid and sensitive means for detecting infectious disease, but prohibitive costs have impeded their use in resource-limited settings where such diseases are endemic. In this work, we report an innovative method for transforming a desktop computer and a mobile camera phone—devices that have become readily accessible in developing countries—into a highly sensitive DNA detection system. This transformation was achieved by converting a desktop computer into a de facto thermal cycler with software that controls the temperature of the central processing unit (CPU), allowing for highly efficient PCR. Next, we reconfigured the mobile phone into a fluorescence imager by adding a low-cost filter, which enabled us to quantitatively measure the resulting PCR amplicons. Our system is highly sensitive, achieving quantitative detection of as little as 9.6 attograms of target DNA, and we show that its performance is comparable to advanced laboratory instruments at approximately 1/500th of the cost. Finally, in order to demonstrate clinical utility, we have used our platform for the successful detection of genomic DNA from the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, directly in whole, unprocessed human blood at concentrations 4-fold below the clinical titer of the parasite. PMID:25223929

  8. Transformation of personal computers and mobile phones into genetic diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Faye M; Ahmad, Kareem M; Eisenstein, Michael; Soh, H Tom

    2014-09-16

    Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer rapid and sensitive means for detecting infectious disease, but prohibitive costs have impeded their use in resource-limited settings where such diseases are endemic. In this work, we report an innovative method for transforming a desktop computer and a mobile camera phone--devices that have become readily accessible in developing countries--into a highly sensitive DNA detection system. This transformation was achieved by converting a desktop computer into a de facto thermal cycler with software that controls the temperature of the central processing unit (CPU), allowing for highly efficient PCR. Next, we reconfigured the mobile phone into a fluorescence imager by adding a low-cost filter, which enabled us to quantitatively measure the resulting PCR amplicons. Our system is highly sensitive, achieving quantitative detection of as little as 9.6 attograms of target DNA, and we show that its performance is comparable to advanced laboratory instruments at approximately 1/500th of the cost. Finally, in order to demonstrate clinical utility, we have used our platform for the successful detection of genomic DNA from the parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, directly in whole, unprocessed human blood at concentrations 4-fold below the clinical titer of the parasite. PMID:25223929

  9. Diagnostic system for measurement of particle balance in TMX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. L.; Correll, D. L.; Hill, D. N.; Wood, R. D.; Brown, M. D.

    1986-08-01

    Several diagnostics measure the particle sources and losses in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) plasma. An absolutely calibrated high-speed (0.5 ms per frame) filtered (6561 Å) video camera measures the total ionization source as a function of radius. An axial view of the plasma automatically integrates the axial variations within the depth of field of the system. Another camera, viewing the plasma radially, measures the axial source variations near the deuterium fueling source. Axial ion losses are measured by an array of Faraday cups that are equipped with grids for repelling electrons and are mounted at each end of the experiment. Unequal ion and electron (nonambipolar) radial losses are inferred from net current measurements on an array of grounded plates at each end. Any differences between the measured particle losses and sources may be attributed to ambipolar radial losses and/or azimuthal asymmetries in the particle-loss profiles. Methods of system calibration, along with details of computer data acquisition and processing of this relatively large set of data, are also presented.

  10. [Systemic sarcoidosis: a diagnostic challenge in pediatrics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Díaz Angarita, Tomás; Morales Camacho, William; Lozano Neira, Laura; Plata Ortiz, Jessica; Zárate Taborda, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, evidenced most often in young adults, which can compromise several organs, mainly lung, lymph nodes, eyes and skin. The presence of the disease in pediatric population is rare. Denomination in pediatrics is made based on age and clinical manifestations of the patient. The aim of this report is to present a case of systemic sarcoidosis in a pediatric patient without lung involvement with severe extrapulmonary manifestations. Fifteen year old patient who debuted with nonspecific symptoms (emesis, weight loss). Radiographic studies without lung involvement but with findings suggestive of Langerhans cell histiocytosis; however, histopathological report (bone and lymph) showed the presence of chronic granulomatous nonnecrotizing disease, sarcoidosis type. Childhood sarcoidosis is a rare and difficult entity to diagnose, mainly by the lack of specific biomarkers for diagnosis. PMID:27606655

  11. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  12. A Model-Based Expert System for Space Power Distribution Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Todd M.; Schlegelmilch, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    When engineers diagnose system failures, they often use models to confirm system operation. This concept has produced a class of advanced expert systems that perform model-based diagnosis. A model-based diagnostic expert system for the Space Station Freedom electrical power distribution test bed is currently being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of this expert system is to autonomously detect and isolate electrical fault conditions. Marple, a software package developed at TRW, provides a model-based environment utilizing constraint suspension. Originally, constraint suspension techniques were developed for digital systems. However, Marple provides the mechanisms for applying this approach to analog systems such as the test bed, as well. The expert system was developed using Marple and Lucid Common Lisp running on a Sun Sparc-2 workstation. The Marple modeling environment has proved to be a useful tool for investigating the various aspects of model-based diagnostics. This report describes work completed to date and lessons learned while employing model-based diagnostics using constraint suspension within an analog system.

  13. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  14. Fault diagnostic instrumentation design for environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; You, K. C.; Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    As a development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. As part of continous development efforts, a program to evaluate, design, and demonstrate advanced instrumentation fault diagnostics was successfully completed. Fault tolerance designs for reliability and other instrumenation capabilities to increase maintainability were evaluated and studied.

  15. Evaluating the Diagnostic Validity of a Facet-Based Formative Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBarger, Angela Haydel; DiBello, Louis; Minstrell, Jim; Feng, Mingyu; Stout, William; Pellegrino, James; Haertel, Geneva; Harris, Christopher; Ructinger, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes methods for an alignment study and psychometric analyses of a formative assessment system, Diagnoser Tools for physics. Diagnoser Tools begin with facet clusters as the interpretive framework for designing questions and instructional activities. Thus each question in the diagnostic assessments includes distractors that…

  16. A portable hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) device for automotive diagnostic control systems.

    PubMed

    Palladino, A; Fiengo, G; Lanzo, D

    2012-01-01

    In-vehicle driving tests for evaluating the performance and diagnostic functionalities of engine control systems are often time consuming, expensive, and not reproducible. Using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation approach, new control strategies and diagnostic functions on a controller area network (CAN) line can be easily tested in real time, in order to reduce the effort and the cost of the testing phase. Nowadays, spark ignition engines are controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) with a large number of embedded sensors and actuators. In order to meet the rising demand of lower emissions and fuel consumption, an increasing number of control functions are added into such a unit. This work aims at presenting a portable electronic environment system, suited for HIL simulations, in order to test the engine control software and the diagnostic functionality on a CAN line, respectively, through non-regression and diagnostic tests. The performances of the proposed electronic device, called a micro hardware-in-the-loop system, are presented through the testing of the engine management system software of a 1.6 l Fiat gasoline engine with variable valve actuation for the ECU development version. PMID:22075387

  17. Diagnostic opto-electronic system for measuring physical and biological characteristics of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makara, Ivanna V.; Kozhukhar, Oleksander T.; Komada, Pawel; Dussembayeva, Shynar

    2015-12-01

    Actuality development of optoelectronic rapid diagnostic system for measuring physical and biological characteristics of the skin in vivo with radiation of electromagnetic radiation in the optical range to obtain objective information on the spatial distribution of biochemical and morphological and anatomical components are different for state standards and pathology.

  18. Medicare Program; Medicare Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Payment System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-23

    This final rule implements requirements of section 216 of the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA), which significantly revises the Medicare payment system for clinical diagnostic laboratory tests. This final rule also announces an implementation date of January 1, 2018 for the private payor rate-based fee schedule required by PAMA. PMID:27373013

  19. Adaptive-array Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics using data streaming in a Software Defined Radio system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idei, H.; Mishra, K.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Hamasaki, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Onchi, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; the QUEST team

    2016-04-01

    Measurement of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) spectrum is one of the most popular electron temperature diagnostics in nuclear fusion plasma research. A 2-dimensional ECE imaging system was developed with an adaptive-array approach. A radio-frequency (RF) heterodyne detection system with Software Defined Radio (SDR) devices and a phased-array receiver antenna was used to measure the phase and amplitude of the ECE wave. The SDR heterodyne system could continuously measure the phase and amplitude with sufficient accuracy and time resolution while the previous digitizer system could only acquire data at specific times. Robust streaming phase measurements for adaptive-arrayed continuous ECE diagnostics were demonstrated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis with the SDR system. The emission field pattern was reconstructed using adaptive-array analysis. The reconstructed profiles were discussed using profiles calculated from coherent single-frequency radiation from the phase array antenna.

  20. 2-D PSD Diagnostic System for the Pellet Trajectory in LHD Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Mitsuyasu; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Kumagai, Kohki; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Watari, Tetsuo; LHD Experimental Group

    Ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet in hot plasmas of Large Helical Device (LHD) has been studied. A position sensitive detector (PSD) diagnostics has been newly installed to measure the trajectory of ablating pellets. 2-D diagnostics enables the measurement with high time (1 MHz) and spatial resolutions (80 μm). A 3-D pellet trajectory can be described by a combination of 2-D images and information of initial pellet direction and velocity. A deflection of the pellet trajectory in the neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas of LHD has been observed. Means of improving the measurement accuracy of this system are also discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet Spectral Diagnostics of the Age of Old Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ruth

    2007-05-01

    For our Hubble Treasury program GO-9455, we are modeling the mid- and near-ultraviolet regions of old stars across the color-magnitude diagram. After revising the list of input atomic and molecular line parameters from 2200A to 9000A, we are calculating spectra of individual stars from first principles, and combining their weighted fluxes to form composite spectra representing single-age, single-metallicity populations older than 1Gyr. We are doing this for metallicities from one-hundredth to three times solar, and for three different ratios of the abundances of light versus iron-peak elements. We show plots comparing the calculated spectra with observations of stars, M31 globular clusters, and more distant galaxies. We find that the light-element ratio affects not only the strengths of individual lines and bands, but also the blue continuum in cool stars of near-solar metallicity and higher, as the continuous opacity is increased by high magnesium abundance. We also note that at such metallicities, the mid-ultraviolet spectrum of composite systems is suppressed below 2500A, and the near-ultraviolet becomes the spectral region providing the strongest observable constraints on age, metallicity, and abundance ratio.

  2. Feature extraction from Doppler ultrasound signals for automated diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Güler, Inan

    2005-11-01

    This paper presented the assessment of feature extraction methods used in automated diagnosis of arterial diseases. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Different feature extraction methods were used to obtain feature vectors from ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial Doppler signals. In addition to this, the problem of selecting relevant features among the features available for the purpose of classification of Doppler signals was dealt with. Multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNNs) with different inputs (feature vectors) were used for diagnosis of ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial diseases. The assessment of feature extraction methods was performed by taking into consideration of performances of the MLPNNs. The performances of the MLPNNs were evaluated by the convergence rates (number of training epochs) and the total classification accuracies. Finally, some conclusions were drawn concerning the efficiency of discrete wavelet transform as a feature extraction method used for the diagnosis of ophthalmic and internal carotid arterial diseases. PMID:16278106

  3. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  4. Diagnostic Boundary Layer Moistening Process for Three MJO Events During DYNAMO IOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, K.; Sui, C.; Li, T.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze data observation during DYNAMO field experiment from October 1 to December 31 2011. Three MJO events were observed and analyzed. The data includes ECMWF Interim and TRMM (2A23, 3B42) to focus on the diagnostic process of boundary layer moistening and shallow convection. We examine the dynamics of low level moistening of the sounding array through scale-separation and moisture budget in Indian Ocean. Variables are separated into four different time scales which are over 60 days (low frequency), 20 to 60 days (MJO scale), below 20 days (synoptic scales) and the unresolved dynamics (eddy activity). The result reveals that dominant balance comes from synoptic scale and unresolved dynamics. During phase 5 to 8 of MJO that occurred in October and November, eddy activities contribute to moistening but synoptic-scale subsidence causes drying in the boundary layer, somewhat different from Hsu et al (2012) who emphasized that mean state moisture and wave activity contribute dominantly to boundary layer moisture convergence. From TRMM 2A23, low- and mid-level cloud increases during the suppressed phase, suggesting that developing shallow convection plays an important role in the low-level moistening prior to the deep convective phase of MJO. This is consistent with previous findings over western Pacific that cloud top height increases from suppressed phase (phase3 and 4) to convective phase (phase 5). This is also line with studies emphasizing hierarchy cloud structure embedded in MJOs multi-scale waves.

  5. Improvement in data processing of Thomson scattering diagnostic on HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Wang, Y. Q.; Feng, Z.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There are two types of digitizers to acquire the values of Thomson scattering signals in HL-2A tokamak. One is charge-sensitive analogue-to-digital converters (Q-ADCs) which simply integrates the signal over a gate interval, and the other is transient recorders with 12 bits resolution and 1 GHz sampling rate at each channel. Because the Thomson scattering diagnostic is prone to electrical noisy environment, in which Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers and polychromators are located closely to the HL-2A device, the high speed transient digitizers are found helpful to reduce noise overlapped in Thomson scattering signals. After triggered by the front of TTL pulse generated by laser light, data acquisition is fulfilled from -250 ns to 250 ns, so that the temporal evolution of Thomson scattering signals is obtained. A Gaussian function is utilized to fit the pulse shape of the digitized scattering signal by nonlinear least square methods. By pulse fitting and data processing, the influence of background perturbations is substantially reduced.

  6. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  7. Emotional disorders in patients with different types of pituitary adenomas and factors affecting the diagnostic process.

    PubMed

    Flitsch, J; Spitzner, S; Lüdecke, D K

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study of 48 patients with pituitary adenomas, 19 adenomas causing Cushing's disease, 18 adenomas causing acromegaly, and 11 clinically hormone-inactive adenomas (inactive adenomas), was performed to study emotional disorders occurring before and after transsphenoidal microsurgery. Factors which led to an obvious delay in the diagnostic process were identified. - The tools utilised were an interview and repeated personality assessments. The personality assessments were begun preoperatively and continued for about half a year postoperatively. The interview data, including retrospective statements regarding somatic difficulties, was analysed. - The thesis of a uniform psychopathology due to the influence of elevated hormone levels, and a lack in patients' sensitivity towards their changed appearance in acromegaly could not be confirmed. A high variability of reported emotional problems was found. The most common psychopathological signs for Cushing's disease were excitability and depression, for acromegaly fatigue/loss of energy was the most frequent complaint. Six to eight months postoperatively, a majority of patients noticed an increase of physical well-being. In acromegaly, the time span between first consultation and diagnosis averaged 6.2 years, in Cushing's disease it was 4.3 years, and in inactive adenomas it was 3.9 years. Only a small part of the delay in diagnosis, less than two years, could be attributed to the patients' hesitation to consult a physician. PMID:11083069

  8. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  9. Diagnostic system for cryogenically cooled 10 Hz Yb:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubíková, Lucia; Thoma, Jiří; Naylon, Jack A.; Indra, Lukáš; Fibrich, Martin; Kramer, Daniel; Rus, Bedrich

    2015-01-01

    The ELI Beamlines facility will house repetition rate high-power lasers with pulse durations down to 15 fs and over petawatt peak powers. Our research group participates in the construction of a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG multi-slab amplifier; part of the L2 beamline. The system shall provide square, super-Gaussian beam with nearly 2 ns pulses with rectangular temporal profile and energy of up to 10 J at 10 Hz. The laser will provide pump beams for broadband OPCPA stages. The diagnostic system of the pump laser is critical for the correct performance analysis, stabilization feedback and mostly for the machine interlock system as damages of the expensive optical components can develop very fast with the 10 Hz repetition rate. The diagnostic system provides key laser parameters and characteristics in temporal, spectral and spatial domain. The paper describes testing of the setup for measurements of the final 10 J output. Its design is based on a combination of optical wedges and diffractive sampler to facilitate multiple diagnostics on a relatively small footprint. The laser diagnostics package covers measurements in spatial domain such as near-field, far-field, or wavefront analysis, further optical spectrum, pulse energy and temporal shape. In order to detect possible damage dark-field analysis was implemented as well. The final setup was modeled in optical design software (Radiant Zemax) to understand its behavior and later tested together with real-time LabVIEW code developed by our group as being part of the machine interlock system. The first results of the tests as well as detailed description of the diagnostics package design are presented.

  10. Measurement and simulation of stilbene scintillator response for the KSTAR neutron diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Son, Jae Bum; Kang, JeongSoo; Seo, Hee; Won, Byung-Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Kang, Byoung Hwi; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-03-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) project was started in December 1995, and its construction was completed in August 2007. On June 13, 2008, the KSTAR successfully produced its first plasma, and the diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving the first successful plasma operation. In fact, various diagnostic systems are required to protect reactor devices, to the control plasma, and to evaluate the plasma's performance in fusion reactors. One of the most essential tools for control of the burning plasma in fusion reactors may be a neutron diagnostic system to prove the presence of the plasma by measuring the neutrons from fusion reactions directly. The stilbene scintillator has been proposed as a good candidate for a neutron diagnostic system in the KSTAR fusion reactor because the stilbene scintillator is well-known to be an excellent material for detection of fast neutrons in a high gamma-ray background environment. If fast-neutron spectra are to be measured amid a high gamma-ray background, especially-designed electronics are necessary. For instance, a digital charge pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method, utilizing a total-to-partial-charge-ratio analysis, discriminates neutron from gamma-ray signals. Also, a flash analog-to-digital convertor (FADC) with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) increases the data-transfer rate for real-time evaluation of plasma performance. In the present study, measurements and simulations were performed in order to confirm the stilbene scintillator's response to D-D fusion reaction neutrons. Additionally, the count-rate limit of the neutron diagnostic system was determined by using measurements with a 252Cf source at different distances.

  11. Evaluation of the medical diagnostic imaging support system based on 2 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Smith, D V; Smith, S; Bender, G N; Carter, J R; Kim, Y; Cawthon, M A; Leckie, R G; Weiser, J C; Romlein, J; Goeringer, F

    1995-05-01

    The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support (MDIS) system at Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) has been operational in a phased approach since March 1992. Since then, nearly all image acquisition has been digital with progressively increasing primary softcopy diagnosis used. More than 375,000 computed radiography (CR) images as well as other modality images have been archived. Considerable experience in installation and implementation phasing has been gained. The location and ergonomic aspects of equipment placement were refined with time. The original clinical scenario was insufficiently detailed and additions were made to facilitate smoother and more complete transition toward a filmless environment. The MDIS system effectiveness and performance have been good in terms of operational workload throughout, background operations, and reliability. The important areas regarding reliability are image acquisition, output, display, database operations, storage, and the local area network. Fail-safe strategies have been continually improved to maintain continuous clinical image availability during the times when the MDIS system or components malfunction. Many invaluable lessons have been learned for effective quality assurance in a hospital-wide picture archiving and communication system. These issues include training, operational quality control, practical aspects of CR image quality, and increased timeliness in the generation and distribution of radiographic reports. Clinical acceptability has been a continuous process as each phase has been implemented. Clinical physicians quickly used the workstations soon after the start of MDIS at MAMC. The major advantage for clinicians has been the amount of time saved when retrieving multimodality images for review. On the other hand, the radiologists have been slower in their acceptance of the workstation for routine use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612705

  12. Early diagnostic of concurrent gear degradation processes progressing under time-varying loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    This study develops a gear diagnostic procedure for the detection of multi- and concurrent degradation processes evolving under time-varying loads. Instead of a conventional comparison between a descriptor and an alarm level, this procedure bases its detection strategy on a descriptor evolution tracking; a lasting descriptor increase denotes the presence of ongoing degradation mechanisms. The procedure works from time domain residual signals prepared in the frequency domain, and accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. To extract the load fluctuation repercussions, the procedure integrates a scaling factor. The investigation first examines a simplification assuming a linear connection between the load and the dynamic response amplitudes. However, while generally valuable, the precision losses associated with large load variations may mask the contribution of tiny flaws. To better reflect the real non-linear relation, the paper reformulates the scaling factor; a power law with an exponent value of 0.85 produces noticeable improvements of the load effect extraction. To reduce the consequences of remaining oscillations, the procedure also includes a filtering phase. During the validation program, a synthetic wear progression assuming a commensurate relation between the wear depth and friction assured controlled evolutions of the surface degradation influence, whereas the fillet crack growth remained entirely determined by the operation conditions. Globally, the tested conditions attest that the final strategy provides accurate monitoring of coexisting isolated damages and general surface deterioration, and that its tracking-detection capacities are unaffected by severe time variations of external loads. The procedure promptly detects the presence of evolving abnormal phenomena. The tests show that the descriptor curve shapes virtually describe the constant wear progression superimposed on the crack length evolution. At the tooth fracture, the mean values of

  13. X-ray and EUV micro-imaging systems for laser ICF diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Mu, B.; Wang, X.; Huang, W.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Plasma imaging diagnostics plays an important role for laser ICF. Based on the urgent need to carry out high-resolution, high-throughput plasma diagnostics, grazing-incidence X-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes and normal-incidence EUV Schwarzschild imaging system were developed. The X-ray multilayer KB microscopes were successfully been applied in the physics experiments of SGII laser facility. Combined with streaked camera, the Mo-backlit implosion flow line of hollow Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) spherical target was obtained in SGII. The 4.75keV single-channel and four-channel KB microscopes were also developed for self-emission and short-pulse backlit imaging diagnostic of CH cylindrical target. In addition, according to the need of ultra-short laser pulse plasma diagnostics, the Schwarzschild imaging system working at 68eV was researched, and the physical experiments of hot electron transport with Schwarzschild imaging system were performed in SILEX-I laser facility.

  14. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  15. Routine compliance testing for diagnostic x-ray systems or components of diagnostic x-ray systems to which 21 CFR subchapter J is applicable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This manual was developed by the National Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, to establish procedures for routine testing of diagnostic x-ray systems for compliance with Federal Performance Standard 21 CFR 1021.30. It has been prepared to instruct FDA personnel and State officials who assist FDA in the use of the various devices that FDA may procure. The procedures and routine test equipment will be used for screening diagnostic x-ray systems for evidence of non-compliance with the Performance Standard. More rigorous followup testing will be performed as required. The manual has two major subject areas: testing procedures and test equipment. The first section presently contains procedures that provide efficient means of testing against many performance requirements and are applicable to many different types of x-ray systems. It includes detailed drawings of the routine compliance test stand, operating manuals for the x-ray exposure monitor and the photometer, and descriptions of how to use the direct-print paper.

  16. Repeated Diagnostic Imaging Studies in Ontario and the Impact of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Liu, Kuan; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Ordon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health information exchange systems can link the results of diagnostic imaging tests across hospitals and geographic areas. One of the potential benefits of these systems is a reduction in imaging studies ordered by physicians who do not know about or have access to the previous imaging results. We used administrative data from Ontario, Canada (from the year 2013), to measure how frequently the same cross-sectional imaging study is repeated in a patient. Overall, 12.8% of the specified imaging tests were repeated within 90 days. An area of Southwestern Ontario with a health information exchange system for diagnostic imaging tests had a 13% lower rate of repeat cross-sectional imaging compared with the rest of the province (11.2 vs 12.8%, p < 0.01). The use of linked radiology systems may be able to reduce the number of repeated imaging tests and improve patient safety and hospital efficiency. PMID:27133604

  17. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  18. A Study of Laser System Requirements for Application in Beam Diagnostics And Polarimetry at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Howell, D.F.; Peach, K.; Quelch, G.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Hirst, G.; Ross, I.; Urakawa, J.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; Brachmann, A.; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Advanced laser systems will be essential for a range of diagnostics devices and polarimetry at the ILC. High average power, high beam quality, excellent stability and reliability will be crucial in order to deliver the information required to attain the necessary ILC luminosity as well as for efficient polarimetry. The key parameters are listed together with the R & D required to achieve the necessary laser system performance.

  19. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  20. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    SciTech Connect

    Bongers, W. A.; Beveren, V. van; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A. P. H.; Krijger, B.; Berg, M. A. van den; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C.; Thoen, D. J.; Nuij, P. J. W. M.; Baar, M. R. de; Donne, A. J. H.; Hennen, B. A.; Kantor, M.

    2011-06-15

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100-200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the full wave information of the mm-wave signals under investigation. The system is based on directly digitizing the IF band after down conversion. The enabling technology consists of a fast multi-giga sample analog to digital converter that has recently become available. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are implemented to accomplish versatile real-time data analysis. A prototype system has been developed and tested and its performance has been compared with conventional electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrometer systems. On the TEXTOR Tokamak a proof of principle shows that ECE, together with high power injected and scattered radiation, becomes amenable to measurement by this device. In particular, its capability to measure the phase of coherent signals in the spectrum offers important advantages in diagnostics and control. One case developed in detail employs the FPGA in real-time fast Fourier transform (FFT) and additional signal processing. The major benefit of such a FFT-based system is the real-time trade-off that can be made between frequency and time resolution. For ECE diagnostics this corresponds to a flexible spatial resolution in the plasma, with potential application in smart sensing of plasma instabilities such as the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) and sawtooth instabilities. The flexible resolution would allow for the measurement of the full mode content of plasma instabilities contained within the system bandwidth.

  1. Beam Transport and Diagnostics for the NSLS-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller III,R.; Alforque, R.; Heese, R.; Meier, R.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is a state of the art 3 GeV synchrotron light source being developed at BNL. The injection system will consist of a 200 MeV linac, 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and associated transfer lines. The transport lines between the linac and booster (LtB) and the booster and storage ring (BSR) must satisfy a number of requirements. In addition to transporting the beam while maintaining the beam emittance, these lines must allow for commissioning, provide appropriate diagnostics, allow for the appropriate safety devices and in the case of the BSR line, provide a stable beam for top off injection. Appropriate diagnostics are also necessary in the linac and booster to complement the measurements in the transfer lines and to allow for fast commissioning. In this paper we discuss the design of the transfer lines for the NSLSII along with the incorporated diagnostics and safety systems. Necessary diagnostics in the linac and booster are also discussed.

  2. Laser system for high resolution Thomson scattering diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, P.; Sestak, D.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Dunstan, M. R.; Naylor, G.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic has been designed and is currently being installed on the COMPASS tokamak in IPP Prague in the Czech Republic. The requirements for this system are very stringent with approximately 3 mm spatial resolution at the plasma edge. A critical part of this diagnostic is the laser source. To achieve the specified parameters, a multilaser solution is utilized. Two 30 Hz 1.5 J Nd:YAG laser systems, used at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, are located outside the tokamak area at a distance of 20 m from the tokamak. The design of the laser beam transport path is presented. The approach leading to a final choice of optimal focusing optics is given. As well as the beam path to the tokamak, a test path of the same optical length was built. Performance tests of the laser system carried out using the test path are described.

  3. What is depression? Psychiatrists’ and GPs’ experiences of diagnosis and the diagnostic process

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Annette S.; Fosgerau, Christina F.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners’ (GPs’) treatment of depression is insufficient and a collaborative care (CC) model between general practice and psychiatry has been proposed to overcome this. However, for successful implementation, a CC model demands shared agreement about the concept of depression and the diagnostic process in the two sectors. We aimed to explore how depression is understood by GPs and clinical psychiatrists. We carried out qualitative in-depth interviews with 11 psychiatrists and 12 GPs. Analysis was made by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. We found that the two groups of physicians differed considerably in their views on the usefulness of the concept of depression and in their language and narrative styles when telling stories about depressed patients. The differences were captured in three polarities which expressed the range of experiences in the two groups. Psychiatrists considered the diagnosis of depression as a pragmatic and agreed construct and they did not question its validity. GPs thought depression was a “gray area” and questioned the clinical utility in general practice. Nevertheless, GPs felt a demand from psychiatry to make their diagnosis based on instruments created in psychiatry, whereas psychiatrists based their diagnosis on clinical impression but used instruments to assess severity. GPs were wholly skeptical about instruments which they felt could be misleading. The different understandings could possibly lead to a clash of interests in any proposed CC model. The findings provide fertile ground for organizational research into the actual implementation of cooperation between sectors to explore how differences are dealt with. PMID:25381757

  4. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  5. OpenID connect as a security service in Cloud-based diagnostic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weina; Sartipi, Kamran; Sharghi, Hassan; Koff, David; Bak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of cloud computing is driving the next generation of diagnostic imaging (DI) systems. Cloud-based DI systems are able to deliver better services to patients without constraining to their own physical facilities. However, privacy and security concerns have been consistently regarded as the major obstacle for adoption of cloud computing by healthcare domains. Furthermore, traditional computing models and interfaces employed by DI systems are not ready for accessing diagnostic images through mobile devices. RESTful is an ideal technology for provisioning both mobile services and cloud computing. OpenID Connect, combining OpenID and OAuth together, is an emerging REST-based federated identity solution. It is one of the most perspective open standards to potentially become the de-facto standard for securing cloud computing and mobile applications, which has ever been regarded as "Kerberos of Cloud". We introduce OpenID Connect as an identity and authentication service in cloud-based DI systems and propose enhancements that allow for incorporating this technology within distributed enterprise environment. The objective of this study is to offer solutions for secure radiology image sharing among DI-r (Diagnostic Imaging Repository) and heterogeneous PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) as well as mobile clients in the cloud ecosystem. Through using OpenID Connect as an open-source identity and authentication service, deploying DI-r and PACS to private or community clouds should obtain equivalent security level to traditional computing model.

  6. Studying the Impact of Spaceflight Environment on Immune Functions Using New Molecular Diagnostics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Luchino

    Immune functions are altered during space flights. Latent virus reactivation, reduction in the number of immune cells, decreased cell activation and increased sensitivity of astronauts to infections following their return on Earth demonstrate that the immune system is less efficient during space flight. The causes of this immune deficiency are not fully understood and this dysfunction during long-term missions could result in the appearance of opportunistic infections or a decrease in the immuno-surveillance mechanisms that eradicate cancer cells. Therefore, the immune functions of astronauts will have to be monitored continuously during long-term missions in space, using miniature and semi-automated diagnostic systems. The objectives of this project are to study the causes of space-related immunodeficiency, to develop countermeasures to maintain an optimal immune function and to improve our capacity to detect infectious diseases during space missions through the monitoring of astronauts' immune system. In order to achieve these objectives, an Immune Function Diagnostic System (IFDS) will be designed to perform a set of immunological assays on board spacecrafts or on planet-bound bases. Through flow cytometric assays and molecular biology analyses, this diagnostic system could improve medical surveillance of astronauts and could be used to test countermeasures aimed at preventing immune deficiency during space missions. The capacity of the instrument to assess cellular fluorescence and to quantify the presence of soluble molecules in biological samples would support advanced molecular studies in space life sciences. Finally, such diagnostic system could also be used on Earth in remote areas or in mobile hospitals following natural disasters to fight against infectious diseases and other pathologies.

  7. An Update of The Diagnostic Systems Proposed for The New Third Generation UK Light Source, DIAMOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Stephen R.; Dufau, Michael J.; Smith, Robert J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the currently proposed systems for electron beam position monitoring (EBPM) and diagnostics for the DIAMOND synchrotron. Although the basic requirements have remained unaltered, the philosophy of implementation has been subject to change, influenced by the experiences of other national light sources, and the emerging availability of commercial equipment, suited to the needs of DIAMOND. This paper focuses in greatest detail on the storage ring systems, including data acquisition and control. Details of Total Current Monitor (TCM) systems, and an active, beam position based interlock system for protecting ID vessels against thermal damage, by beam mis-steer, are also included.

  8. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  9. [Diseases of the digestive system and a system for patient classification: diagnostic-related groups (DRG)].

    PubMed

    Poves Martínez, E

    1996-10-01

    In the last years different classification systems for hospitalized patients have been developed in the United States, that allow to evaluate different aspects of any Hospital: The quality, the efficacy and the efficiency. The classification of "The Diagnosis Related Groups" (DRG) relates the hospitalized patients with the expenses that they generate, and it is the most used in Europe. In the version DRG-All Patient, all the diagnoses and procedures of the hospitalized patients, using the International Classification of Diseases, are divided in to 25 Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC) where each one excludes all the others. We describe the behavior with respect to the age, sex and stay of all the GDR integrated in the CDM 6 and 7: diseases and disorders of the digestive tract, and diseases and disorders of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas. The study has been carried out with a national data base of two millions of cases seen from 214 acute-care Hospitals. The MDC number 6 is the most frequent, with an important number of patients in the pediatric age; it is more frequent in males; the average stay is 8.59 days and 19 GDR (36.5%) have a variation coefficient greater than one. The other MDC, number 7 is less frequent, the majority of the patients are between 60-80 years of age, the average stay is 12.2 days with a coefficient of variation greater than one in 4 GDR (17.4%). Clinical Services should know the characteristics and behavior of their patients, as well as the comparison with the national data bases. This may allow a control of the quality and the costs by using a common "language" with the managers. PMID:8983307

  10. Solar-thermal complex sample processing for nucleic acid based diagnostics in limited resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Ahsan, Syed; Dogan, Belgin; Jiang, Li; Snodgrass, Ryan; Gardner, Andrea; Lu, Zhengda; Simpson, Kenneth; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of point-of-care (POC) devices in limited resource settings where access to commonly used infrastructure, such as water and electricity, can be restricted represents simultaneously one of the best application fits for POC systems as well as one of the most challenging places to deploy them. Of the many challenges involved in these systems, the preparation and processing of complex samples like stool, vomit, and biopsies are particularly difficult due to the high number and varied nature of mechanical and chemical interferents present in the sample. Previously we have demonstrated the ability to use solar-thermal energy to perform PCR based nucleic acid amplifications. In this work demonstrate how the technique, using similar infrastructure, can also be used to perform solar-thermal based sample processing system for extracting and isolating Vibrio Cholerae nucleic acids from fecal samples. The use of opto-thermal energy enables the use of sunlight to drive thermal lysing reactions in large volumes without the need for external electrical power. Using the system demonstrate the ability to reach a 95°C threshold in less than 5 minutes and maintain a stable sample temperature of +/− 2°C following the ramp up. The system is demonstrated to provide linear results between 104 and 108 CFU/mL when the released nucleic acids were quantified via traditional means. Additionally, we couple the sample processing unit with our previously demonstrated solar-thermal PCR and tablet based detection system to demonstrate very low power sample-in-answer-out detection. PMID:27231636

  11. Solar-thermal complex sample processing for nucleic acid based diagnostics in limited resource settings.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Ahsan, Syed; Dogan, Belgin; Jiang, Li; Snodgrass, Ryan; Gardner, Andrea; Lu, Zhengda; Simpson, Kenneth; Erickson, David

    2016-05-01

    The use of point-of-care (POC) devices in limited resource settings where access to commonly used infrastructure, such as water and electricity, can be restricted represents simultaneously one of the best application fits for POC systems as well as one of the most challenging places to deploy them. Of the many challenges involved in these systems, the preparation and processing of complex samples like stool, vomit, and biopsies are particularly difficult due to the high number and varied nature of mechanical and chemical interferents present in the sample. Previously we have demonstrated the ability to use solar-thermal energy to perform PCR based nucleic acid amplifications. In this work demonstrate how the technique, using similar infrastructure, can also be used to perform solar-thermal based sample processing system for extracting and isolating Vibrio Cholerae nucleic acids from fecal samples. The use of opto-thermal energy enables the use of sunlight to drive thermal lysing reactions in large volumes without the need for external electrical power. Using the system demonstrate the ability to reach a 95°C threshold in less than 5 minutes and maintain a stable sample temperature of +/- 2°C following the ramp up. The system is demonstrated to provide linear results between 10(4) and 10(8) CFU/mL when the released nucleic acids were quantified via traditional means. Additionally, we couple the sample processing unit with our previously demonstrated solar-thermal PCR and tablet based detection system to demonstrate very low power sample-in-answer-out detection. PMID:27231636

  12. The video fluorescent device for diagnostics of cancer of human reproductive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brysin, Nickolay N.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the advanced methods of treatment of skin cancer and surfaces of internal organs. The basic advantages of PDT are high efficiency and low cost of treatment. PDT technique is needed for providing fluorescent diagnostics. Laser-based systems are widely applied to the fluorescence excitations for diagnostic because of a narrow spectrum of fluorescence excitation and high density of radiation. Application of laser systems for carrying out fluorescent diagnostics gives the image of a tumor distorted by speckles that does not give an opportunity to obtain full information about the form of a tumor quickly. Besides, these laser excitation systems have complicated structure and high cost. As a base for the development and creation of a video fluorescent device one of commercially produced colposcopes was chosen. It allows to decrease cost of the device, and also has enabled to make modernization for already used colposcopes. A LED-based light source was offered to be used for fluorescence excitation in this work. The maximum in a spectrum of radiation of LEDs corresponds to the general spectral maximum of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) absorption. Irradiance in the center of a light spot is 31 mW/cm2. The receiving optical system of the fluorescent channel is adjusted at 635 nm where a general spectral maximum of fluorescence PPIX is located. Also the device contains a RGB video channel, a white light source and a USB spectrometer LESA-01-BIOSPEC, for measurement of spectra of fluorescence and diffusion reflections in treatment area. The software is developed for maintenance of the device. Some studies on laboratory animals were made. As a result, areas with the increased concentration of a PPIX were correctly detected. At present, the device is used for diagnostics of cancer of female reproductive system in Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow, Russia).

  13. Experimental analysis of a novel and low-cost pin photodiode dosimetry system for diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y.; Mahmoudieh, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    Silicon PIN photodiode has recently found broad and exciting applications in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. In this study a compact and novel dosimetry system using a commercially available PIN photodiode (BPW34) has been experimentally tested for diagnostic radiology. The system was evaluated with clinical beams routinely used for diagnostic radiology and calibrated using a secondary reference standard. Measured dose with PIN photodiode (Air Kerma) varied from 10 to 430 μGy for tube voltages from 40 to 100 kVp and tube current from 0.4 to 40 mAs. The minimum detectable organ dose was estimated to be 10 μGy with 20% uncertainty. Results showed a linear correlation between the PIN photodiode readout and dose measured with standard dosimeters spanning doses received. The present dosimetry system having advantages of suitable sensitivity with immediate readout of dose values, low cost, and portability could be used as an alternative to passive dosimetry system such as thermoluminescent dosimeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology.

  14. Ontology-oriented diagnostic system for traditional Chinese medicine based on relation refinement.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun; Yu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS) is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method-92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts' expectations. PMID:23533534

  15. Comparison of measures to assess change in diagnostic performance due to a decision support system.

    PubMed Central

    Maisiak, R. S.; Berner, E. S.

    2000-01-01

    Little has been done to examine the relative merit of measures used to assess the impact of diagnostic decision support systems (DDSS) on physician performance. In this study, 10 different single-measures of diagnostic performance were compared empirically. The measures were of three types: rank-order, all-or-none, and appropriateness. The responsiveness (RESP) of each measure was estimated under two repeated-measures experimental conditions. RESP is the degree to which a measure could detect differences between conditions of low and high performance. The diagnostic performance of 108 physicians was compared on medical cases of varying diagnostic difficulty and with or without a high level of assistance from a DDSS. The results showed that the RESP among the measures varied nearly tenfold. The rank-order measures tended to provide the highest RESP values (maximum = 2.14) while appropriateness measures provided the lowest RESP values (maximum = 1.41). The most responsive measures were rank-orders of the correct diagnosis within the top 5 to 10 listed diagnoses. PMID:11079940

  16. DNA Diagnostics of Hereditary Hearing Loss: A Targeted Resequencing Approach Combined with a Mutation Classification System.

    PubMed

    Sommen, Manou; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Vandeweyer, Geert; Boeckx, Nele; Corneveaux, Jason J; van den Ende, Jenneke; Boudewyns, An; De Leenheer, Els; Janssens, Sandra; Claes, Kathleen; Verstreken, Margriet; Strenzke, Nicola; Predöhl, Friederike; Wuyts, Wim; Mortier, Geert; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Moser, Tobias; Coucke, Paul; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Although there are nearly 100 different causative genes identified for nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL), Sanger sequencing-based DNA diagnostics usually only analyses three, namely, GJB2, SLC26A4, and OTOF. As this is seen as inadequate, there is a need for high-throughput diagnostic methods to detect disease-causing variations, including single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), insertions/deletions (Indels), and copy-number variations (CNVs). In this study, a targeted resequencing panel for hearing loss was developed including 79 genes for NSHL and selected forms of syndromic hearing loss. One-hundred thirty one presumed autosomal-recessive NSHL (arNSHL) patients of Western-European ethnicity were analyzed for SNVs, Indels, and CNVs. In addition, we established a straightforward variant classification system to deal with the large number of variants encountered. We estimate that combining prescreening of GJB2 with our panel leads to a diagnosis in 25%-30% of patients. Our data show that after GJB2, the most commonly mutated genes in a Western-European population are TMC1, MYO15A, and MYO7A (3.1%). CNV analysis resulted in the identification of causative variants in two patients in OTOA and STRC. One of the major challenges for diagnostic gene panels is assigning pathogenicity for variants. A collaborative database collecting all identified variants from multiple centers could be a valuable resource for hearing loss diagnostics. PMID:27068579

  17. Performance of a diagnostic system (Iliad) as a tool for quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Quality Assurance improves health care through detection of quality problems and feedback to the care giver. Current review procedures employed by the Peer Review Organizations (PROs), however, appear to underdetect quality problems, particularly those arising from diagnostic errors. We studied the use of an expert diagnostic system, Iliad, to detect quality problems arising from diagnostic errors. 100 cases were selected from among those Medicare cases reviewed by the Utah PRO (UPRO) and which contained diagnoses recognized by Iliad. Iliad flagged 28 cases out of the 100 as containing diagnostic errors, and a gold standard physician review confirmed quality problems in 17 cases (60.7%). The UPRO review found 28 cases with quality problems, mostly treatment and documentation errors. The quality problems detected by Iliad appeared to be more serious than those detected by the UPRO review. Among the six cases with quality problems detected by both the UPRO and Iliad review, there was none for which the same quality problem was detected by the two procedures. The two review procedures were therefore complementary. PMID:1807567

  18. Performance of a diagnostic system (Iliad) as a tool for quality assurance.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L. M.; Warner, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Quality Assurance improves health care through detection of quality problems and feedback to the care giver. Current review procedures employed by the Peer Review Organizations (PROs), however, appear to under-detect quality problems, particularly those arising from diagnostic errors. We studied the use of an expert diagnostic system, Iliad, to detect quality problems arising from diagnostic errors. 100 cases were selected from among those Medicare cases reviewed by the Utah PRO (UPRO) and which contained diagnoses recognized by Iliad. Iliad flagged 28 cases out of the 100 as containing diagnostic errors, and a gold standard physician review confirmed quality problems in 17 cases (60.7%). The UPRO review found 28 cases with quality problems, mostly treatment and documentation errors. The quality problems detected by Iliad appeared to be more serious than those detected by the UPRO review. Among the six cases with quality problems detected by both the UPRO and Iliad review, there was none for which the same quality problem was detected by the two procedures. The two review procedures were therefore complementary. PMID:1807563

  19. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R.; Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C.

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Diagnostic expert systems: Encoding geological knowledge for an exploration play analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.M. )

    1993-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently exploring the feasibility of applying diagnostic expert systems and knowledge-based acquisition techniques to the geologic analysis of sedimentary basins and petroleum exploration plays. This paper describes a unique approach to the design and application of a rule-based expert system to the analysis of exploration plays, a methodology commonly used to assess petroleum resources in a basin. This technique consists of using various geologic models and Monte Carlo simulation or probabilistic methods for analyzing geologic and reservoir conditions favorable to the occurrence of petroleum resources. Work is in progress to adapt the geologic model used in the play analysis to an expert-systems and knowledge base, the object being to capture the logic and reasoning used to characterize the geologic model and to evaluate the play. Expert systems techniques now being developed are capable of dealing with inexact reasoning or reasoning under uncertainty by incorporating degrees of uncertainty to deal effectively with incomplete, inferred, or interpretive data involved in the knowledge base. The goal of this study is to provide an embedded diagnostic expert-system approach for characterizing the geologic model to expand upon the play-analysis system. Such a system provides the geologist with capabilities to document major basin components, such as stratigraphy, structural geology, and sedimentation, and to analyze the traditional concepts of source, reservoir, and trapping mechanisms. This expert system will assist the geologist in compiling and interpreting the geologic and reservoir engineering data necessary for running the probabilistic methods to calculate the amount of probable petroleum resources within each play. Diagnostic expert-systems technology can provide challenging new tools in knowledge acquisition and data interpretation in petroleum geology.