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Sample records for processed low-rank coals

  1. Anaerobic processing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (i) continuation of microbial consortia maintenance and completion of coal decarboxylation using batch reactor system, (ii) decarboxylation of model polymer, (iii) characterization of biotreated coals, and (iv) microautoclave liquefaction of the botreated coal. Progress is reported on the thermogravimetric analysis of coal biotreated in the absence of methanogens and under 5% hydrogen gas exhibits increased volatile carbon to fixed carbon ratio; that the microbial consortia developed on coal are being adapted to two different model polymers containing free carboxylic groups to examine decarboxylation ability of consortium; completion of experiments to decarboxylate two model polymers, polyacrylic acid and polymethyl methacrylate, have been completed; that the biotreated coal showed increase in THF-solubles.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  4. Upgrading low rank coal using the Koppelman Series C process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Development of the K-Fuel technology began after the energy shortage of the early 1970s in the United States led energy producers to develop the huge deposits of low-sulfur coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. PRB coal is a subbituminous C coal containing about 30 wt % moisture and having heating values of about 18.6 megajoules/kg (8150 Btu/lb). PRB coal contains from 0.3 to 0.5 wt % sulfur, which is nearly all combined with the organic matrix in the coal. It is in much demand for boiler fuel because of the low-sulfur content and the low price. However, the low-heating value limits the markets for PRB coal to boilers specially designed for the high- moisture coal. Thus, the advantages of the low-sulfur content are not available to many potential customers having boilers that were designed for bituminous coal. This year about 250 million tons of coal is shipped from the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The high- moisture content and, consequently, the low-heating value of this coal causes the transportation and combustion of the coal to be inefficient. When the moisture is removed and the heating value increased the same bundle of energy can be shipped using one- third less train loads. Also, the dried product can be burned much more efficiently in boiler systems. This increase in efficiency reduces the carbon dioxide emissions caused by use of the low-heating value coal. Also, the processing used to remove water and restructure the coal removes sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and chlorides from the coal. This precombustion cleaning is much less costly than stack scrubbing. PRB coal, and other low-rank coals, tend to be highly reactive when freshly mined. These reactive coals must be mixed regularly (every week or two) when fresh, but become somewhat more stable after they have aged for several weeks. PRB coal is relatively dusty and subject to self-ignition compared to bituminous coals. When dried using conventional technology, PRB coal is even more dusty and

  5. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  6. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  8. Oxidation properties of processed low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.T.; Fauth, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Thermally treated subbituminous coals tend to self-heat, leading to spontaneous ignition. Evidence is presented indicating that thermally treated Rosebud subbituminous coal may be oxidized at 80 C under moist conditions to provide sample stability as measured by oxygen adsorption tests.

  9. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  10. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  11. Improvement of thermal properties of low-rank coals treated by hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, X.F.; Ohki, A.; Maeda, S.

    1999-07-01

    Australian low-rank coals, Loy Yang coal, Yallourn coal and Indonesian Adaro coal are hydrothermally treated at 200-350 C. The simultaneous TG/DTA is used to investigate the thermal properties, which include the volatile release profile under a nitrogen atmosphere and the burning profile under an air atmosphere. It is found that the temperature of volatile matter combustion (Ti1) of the hot water dried coals (upgraded coals) increases with heat treatment temperature (HTT), whereas the temperature of char combustion (Ti2), the temperature of maximum reaction (Tmax) and the temperature of char burn out (Tout) do not have large increase on the HTT. These results suggest that the HWD process can raise the volatile matter ignition temperature, resulting in improving the spontaneous ignition temperature, but it still maintains the original combustion behavior. Results from TG-DTA measurements are consistent with those determined by FTIR and solid state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR.

  12. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  13. Anaerobic processing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (i) continuation of microbial consortia maintenance and completion of coal decarboxylation using batch reactor system, (ii) decarboxylation of model polymer, (iii) characterization of biotreated coals, and (iv) microautoclave liquefaction of the botreated coal. Progress is reported on the thermogravimetric analysis of coal biotreated in the absence of methanogens and under 5% hydrogen gas exhibits increased volatile carbon to fixed carbon ratio; that the microbial consortia developed on coal are being adapted to two different model polymers containing free carboxylic groups to examine decarboxylation ability of consortium; completion of experiments to decarboxylate two model polymers, polyacrylic acid and polymethyl methacrylate, have been completed; that the biotreated coal showed increase in THF-solubles.

  14. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  15. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-07-14

    We are seeking to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were : continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, evaluation of commercial decarboxylase, decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymer, and characterization of biotreated coals. Specifically we report that two batch fermentor systems were completed and three other fermentors under optimum conditions for coal decarboxylation are in progress; that inhibition of growth of methanogens in the batch fermentor system enhanced the carbon dioxide production; that adapted microbial consortium produced more gas from lignite than Wyodak subbituminous coal; that phenylalanine decarboxylase exhibited insignificant coal decarboxylation activity; that two different microbial consortia developed on coal seem to be effective in decarboxylation of a polymer containing free carboxylic groups; and that CHN analyses of additional biotreated coals reconfirm increase in H/C ratio by 3--6%.

  16. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) enrichment of anaerobic microbial consortia in a coal fed chemostat, (2) characterization of biocoal products and examination of liquefaction potential, (3) isolation of decarboxylating organisms and evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation. The project began on September 12, 1990. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    2000-07-18

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  19. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  20. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  1. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  2. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  3. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  4. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  5. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Barton

    2009-03-05

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass

  6. Investigation of the role of aromatic carboxylic acids in cross-linking processes in low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    In the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low-rank coals, low-temperature cross-linking reactions have been correlated with the loss of carboxyl groups and the evolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. It is not clearly understood how decarboxylation leads to cross-linking beyond the suggestion that decarboxylation could be a radical process that involves radical recombination or radical addition reactions. We have recently conducted a study of the pyrolysis of 1,2-(3,3{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (1) and 1,2-(4,4{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (2) and found that decarboxylation occurs readily between 350-425 {degrees}C with no evidence of coupling products or products representative of cross-links. We proposed that decarboxylation occurred primarily by an acid-promoted cationic pathway, and the source of acid was a second carboxylic acid. The decarboxylation of 1 and 2 was investigated in diphenyl ether and naphthalene as inert diluents. In each solvent, the rate of decarboxylation dropped by roughly a factor of 2 upon dilution from the neat liquid to ca. 0.4 mole fraction of acid, but further dilution had no effect on the rate. This could be a consequence of hydrogen bonding or an intramolecular protonation. Molecular mechanics calculations indicated that 1 and 2 can adopt an appropriate conformation for internal proton transfer from a carboxy group on one ring to the second aryl ring without a significant energy penalty. In addition, the dicarboxylic acid could internally hydrogen bond, which may further complicate the reaction mechanism. Therefore, we have conducted a study of the pyrolysis of a monocarboxybibenzyl, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-biphenyl)ethane (3), to determine if decarboxylation occurs by an ionic pathway in the absence of intramolecular pathways.

  7. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  8. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar. PMID:27209750

  9. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  10. Upgrading method of low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, H.; Kuge, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nogita, Sh.

    1984-07-24

    A coal is finely pulverized. The finely pulverized coal is subjected to dry distillation. A tar obtained by the dry distillation is added to an aqueous slurry together with the dry-distilled coal to effect the submerged granulation.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON PRODUCTS FROM LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the production of carbon fibers from low-rank coal (LRC) tars. To this end, the effect of demineralization on the tar yields and composition was investigated using high-sodium and high-calcium lignites commonly mined in North Dakota. These coals were demineralized by ion exchange with ammonium acetate and by cation dissolution with nitric acid. Two types of thermal processing were investigated for obtaining suitable precursors for pitch and fiber production. Initially, tars were produced by simple pyrolysis of the set of samples at 650 C. Since these experiments produced little usable material from any of the samples, the coals were heated at moderate temperatures (380 and 400 C) in tetralin solvent to form and extract the plastic material (metaplast) that forms at these temperatures.

  12. Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

  13. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  14. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Guruz, K.; Kranich, W.L.; La Violette, L.J.; Mendes, C.

    1983-01-01

    Hydroliquefaction behavior of ..cap alpha..-cellulose, leonardite, four lignites, and two subbituminous coals suspended in an anthracene oil carrier has been investigated in the presence of Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 425/sup 0/C and at an average pressure of 1,300 psig in a batch reactor for 30-min reaction time. Both total conversion of moisture-ash free solids and total yield of liquid products were greater for all but one of the lignites than for the subbituminous coals. Partial demineralization by HCl washing decreased both the total conversion of and pentane-soluble oil yield from lignites. It had relatively little effect on subbituminous coals. Although cellulose was almost completely converted to liquids and gases, no pentane-soluble oils were produced.

  15. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Gueruez, K.; Kranich, W.L.; La Violette, L.J.; Mendes, C.

    1983-01-01

    Hydroliquefaction behaviour of a-cellulose, leonardite, four lignites, and two subbituminous coals suspended in an anthracene oil carrier has been investigated in the presence of Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 425/sup 0/C and at an average pressure of 1,300 psig in a batch reactor for 30-min reaction time. Both total conversion of moisture-ash free solids and total yield of liquid products were greater for all but one of the lignites than for the subbituminous coals. Partial demineralization by HCl washing decreased both the total conversion of and pentane-soluble oil yield from lignites. It had relatively little effect on subbituminous coals. Although cellulose was almost completely converted to liquids and gases, no pentane-soluble oils were produced.

  16. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  17. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Combustion behavior of low rank coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.; Williams, A.

    1996-12-31

    Coal water slurries have been developed over the last 15 years as an alternative to fuel oil mainly in industry and power station boilers. Observing of droplet lifetime reveals details of the mechanism of the slurry combustion. In the present investigation, single droplet combustion of lignite water slurries using different Turkish lignites were experimentally studied by using single droplet combustion technique. The technique is based on thermometric method. Results of combustion behavior of low rank coal water slurries were compared with that of high rank coal water slurries which were found in the literature.

  19. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  20. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  1. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  2. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  3. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. Mcvay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration performance in coalbed methane reservoirs under various operational conditions. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Therefore, we interpreted and created isopleth maps of coal occurrences, and correlated individual coal seams within the coal bearing subdivisions of the Wilcox Group--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations. Preliminary modeling studies were run to determine if gravity effects would affect the performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs. Results indicated that gravity could adversely affect sweep efficiency and, thus, volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced in thick, vertically continuous coals. Preliminary modeling studies were also run to determine the effect of injection gas composition on sequestration in low-rank coalbeds. Injected gas composition was varied from pure CO{sub 2} to pure N{sub 2}, and results show that increasing N{sub 2} content degrades CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production performance. We have reached a Data Exchange Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. We are currently incorporating the Anadarko data into our work, and expect these data to greatly enhance the accuracy and value of our studies.

  4. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

  5. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) estimate the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and methane production from, low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the east-central Texas region, (2) quantify uncertainty associated with these estimates, (3) conduct reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells, and (4) compare the results with those obtained from previous studies of vertical wells. To estimate the total volumes of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered in, and total volumes of methane that can be produced from, the Wilcox Group low-rank coals in east-central Texas, we used data provided by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, data obtained during this research, and results of probabilistic simulation modeling studies we conducted. For the analysis, we applied our base-case coal seam characteristics to a 2,930-mi{sup 2} (1,875,200-ac) area where Calvert Bluff coal seams range between 4,000 and 6,200 ft deep. Results of the probabilistic analysis indicate that potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor, range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we presented the paper SPE 100584 at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on May 15-18, 2006. Also, we submitted an abstract to be considered for inclusion in a special volume dedicated to CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic media, which

  6. Ultrafine grinding of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-08-01

    A study of ultrafine grinding of low-rank coals in a fluid-energy mill was undertaken. This report presents the results of the Phase I effort which included a review of the literature on ultrafine grinding, a review of theories of grinding, a combined grinding and drying experiment on Martin Lake Texas lignite, an evaluation of the energy requirements for the process, and an evaluation of the properties of the products from the grinding tests. A sample of Martin Lake Texas lignite was obtained and a series of tests were conducted in a fluid-energy mill at the Ergon, Inc., Micro-Energy Division development facility at Vicksburg, MS. The grinding fluids used were air at 116 F and steam at 225, 310, 350, 400, and 488 F as measured in the mill. The products of these tests were analyzed for volatile mattr, ash, total moisture, equilibrium moisture, heating value, density distribution, aerodynamic particle size classification, angle of repose, porosity, density, and particle size distribution. ASTM test procedures were followed where applicable. Ultimate and ash mineral analyses were also conducted on the samples. Results of the various tests are presented in detail in the report. In general, the fluid energy mill was used succssfully in simultaneous grinding and drying of the lignite. Particle size reduction to less than 10 microns on a population basis was achieved. The equilibrium moisture of the samples decreased with increasing grinding fluid temperatures. Density distribution studies showed that a significant fraction of the ash appeared in the >1.6 specific gravity particles. The energy required for the grinding/drying process increased with increasing mill temperatures. 29 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. In this reporting period we revised all of the economic calculations, participated in technology transfer of project results, and began working on project closeout tasks in anticipation of the project ending December 31, 2005. In this research, we conducted five separate simulation investigations, or cases. These cases are (1) CO{sub 2} sequestration base case scenarios for 4,000-ft and 6,200-ft depth coal beds in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of east-central Texas, (2) sensitivity study of the effects of well spacing on sequestration, (3) sensitivity study of the effects of injection gas composition, (4) sensitivity study of the effects of injection rate, and (5) sensitivity study of the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection/sequestration. Results show that, in most cases, revenue from coalbed methane production does not completely offset the costs of CO{sub 2} sequestration in Texas low-rank coals, indicating that CO{sub 2} injection is not economically feasible for the ranges of gas prices and carbon credits investigated. The best economic performance is obtained with flue gas (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) injection, as compared to injection of 100% CO{sub 2} and a mixture of 50% CO{sub 2} and 50% N{sub 2}. As part of technology transfer for this project, we presented results at the West Texas Geological Society Fall Symposium in October 2005 and at the COAL-SEQ Forum in November 2005.

  8. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) determine the effects of permeability anisotropy on performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas, and (2) begin reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells. To evaluate the effects of permeability anisotropy on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds, we conducted deterministic reservoir modeling studies of 100% CO{sub 2} gas injection for the 6,200-ft depth base case (Case 1b) using the most likely values of the reservoir parameters. Simulation results show significant differences in the cumulative volumes of CH{sub 4} produced and CO{sub 2} injected due to permeability anisotropy, depending on the orientation of injection patterns relative to the orientation of permeability anisotropy. This indicates that knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of permeability anisotropy will be an important consideration in the design of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects. We continued discussions with Anadarko Petroleum regarding plans for additional coal core acquisition and laboratory work to further characterize Wilcox low-rank coals. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we submitted the paper SPE 100584 for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium to be held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 15-18, 2006.

  9. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox

  10. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  11. Low-rank coal drying technologies current status and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Wu, Z.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their vast reserves, low-rank coals are considered undesirable because their high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Their high moisture content, greater tendency to combust spontaneously, high degree of weathering, and the dusting characteristics restrict widespread use of such coals. The price of coal sold to utilities depends upon the heating value of the coal. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals (LRC) is an important operation. Furthermore, LRC can be used cost effectively for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction processes. This article provides an overview the diverse processes both those that utilize conventional drying technologies and those that are not yet commercialized and hence in need of RD. Relative merits and limitations of the various technologies and the current state of their development are presented. Drying characteristics of low-rank coal as well as factors affecting drying characteristics of coal samples are also discussed.

  12. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to further characterize the three areas selected as potential CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Thus, we purchased 12 hardcopy well logs (in addition to 15 well logs obtained during previous quarter) from a commercial source and digitized them to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Thus, we correlated and mapped Wilcox Group subdivisions--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations, as well as the coal-bearing intervals of the Yegua and Jackson formations in well logs. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to Big Brown and Martin Lake coal mines. This quarter we also received CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses of the Sandow Mine samples, and we are assessing the results. GEM, a compositional simulator developed by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG), was selected for performing the CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CBM modeling tasks for this project. This software was used to conduct preliminary CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production simulations in a 5-spot injection pattern. We are continuing to pursue a cooperative agreement with Anadarko Petroleum, which has already acquired significant relevant data near one of our potential sequestration sites.

  13. Investigation of oxygen functional groups in low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, E.W.; Lee, S.K.

    1993-07-01

    The distribution of the organic oxygen content of coals among the principal oxygen containing functional groups typically is determined by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods (1,2) and results in a classification scheme such as % carboxyl, % hydroxyl, % carbonyl, and % ether. A notable subdivision in this classification scheme is the differentiation of phenols in a coal on the basis of their ortho-substitution pattern (3). Apart from this distinction, the further classification of oxygen into functional group subsets is virtually nonexistent. This paper presents initial experiments that indicate a fuller characterization of oxygen distribution in low rank coal is possible. The experimental approach couples selective chemical perturbation and solid state NMR analysis of the material, specifically, the fluorination of Argonne Premium Coal {number_sign}8, North Dakota lignite, and spectroscopic examination by high resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR (4). The fluorination reagent is diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST), (Et){sub 2}NSF{sub 3}, which promotes a rich slate of oxygen functional group interconversions that introduce fluorine into the coal matrix (5). The virtual absence of this element in coals make {sup 19}F an attractive NMR nuclei for this application (6). The present experiments use direct detection of the {sup 19}F nucleus under conditions of proton ({sup 1}H) heteronuclear dipolar decoupling and magic angle spinning (MAS). The ca 300 ppm range of {sup 19}F chemical shifts in common carbon-fluorine bonding configurations and high {sup 19}F nuclear sensitivity permit the identification of unique and chemically dilute functional groups in the coal milieu. The unique detection of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary and secondary alcohols provide examples of the exquisite functional group detail that is revealed by this combination of techniques.

  14. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of

  15. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  16. Production of hydrogen from low-rank coals: (Task 6. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, R.E.; Timpe, R.C.; Musich, M.A.; Cisney, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    The principal goal of this research project is to establish the feasibility of low-rank coal gasification for low-cost hydrogen production. This research involves a proof-of-concept and the early stages of engineering development using a continuous process unit (CPU). In parallel with this process development work, an evaluation of the relationship between the fundamental properties of low-rank coals and their reactivity under hydrogen-producing conditions is also being conducted. A 20--40 lb/hr fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) CPU was commissioned during this time period and has logged over 400 hours of operation during shakedown and operability testing. Maximum hydrogen production rates from the operability testing were over 17 SCF/lb MAF coal for both Wyodak and Velva test coals with a limestone bed, and for Martin Lake coal using 10 wt % trona, at 800{degree}C and a 2:1 steam:carbon ratio to 2:1 and increased with bed temperature over the range of 700{degree} to 800{degree}C. Agglomeration of the bed material when using trona as the catalyst was an operation problem during the CPU operability testing. The char of the low-rank coals was four to six times more reactive than that of the bituminous coal tested in the laboratory using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface analysis of the chars showed that the uniform distribution of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst decreased with increasing coal rank. 8 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to

  18. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  19. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  20. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  1. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  2. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions. PMID:23286316

  4. Energy and environmental (JSR) research emphasizing low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, L.L.

    1994-12-01

    The products of plastic thermal depolymerization can be used for the manufacture of new plastics or various other hydrocarbon-based products. One thermal depolymerization development effort is ongoing at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) of the University of North Dakota, under joint sponsorship of the American Plastics Council, the 3M corporation, and the Department of Energy. Thermal depolymerization process development began at the EERC with a benchscale program that ran from 9/92 to 6/93 (1). Testing was conducted in a 1-4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) unit using individual virgin resins and resin blends and was intended to determine rough operating parameters and product yields and to identify product stream components. Process variables examined included temperature and bed material, with a lesser emphasis on gas fluidization velocity and feed material mix. The following work was performed: (1) a short program to determine the suitability of using CaO in a postreactor, fixed bed for chlorine remediation, (2) thermal depolymerization of postconsumer plastics, and (3) testing of industrial (3M) products and wastes to determine their suitability as feed to a thermal depolymerization process. The involvement of DOE in the development of the plastics thermal depolymerization process has helped to facilitate the transfer of coal conversion technology to a new and growing technology area -- waste conversion. These two technology areas are complementary. The application of known coal conversion technology has accelerated the development of plastics conversion technology, and findings from the plastics depolymerization process development, such as the development of chlorine remediation techniques and procedures for measurement of organically associated chlorine, can be applied to new generations of coal conversion processes.

  5. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  6. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Bixel, J.C.; Heaney, W.F.; Yan, T.Y.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of passivating and cooling heated dried coal comprising: (a) heating particulate coal to a temperature between about 190 and about 230/sup 0/F to dry to the desired level: and (b) coating the resulting heated particulate coal with an aqueous emulsion of a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of petroleum resid, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, clarified slurry oil, durene, asphaltenes, coal tar and coal tar pitch.

  7. Upgrading low-rank coals by TEK-KOL`s Liquids From Coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Gibbens, R.J.; Weber, K.L.; Knotternerus, B.A.

    1997-12-31

    TEK-KOL is a partnership between SGI International of La Jolla, California, and a unit of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, Fairview Heights, Illinois. TEK-KOL`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process uses a mild gasification process to convert low-rank coals into value added products. Two primary products are generated as a result of LFC processing: (1) Process-Derived Fuel (PDF), a high heating value, clean burning solid fuel and carbon source for a variety of utility and industrial applications, and (2) Coal-Derived Liquid (CDL), a low sulfur hydrocarbon liquid suitable for fuel oil and chemical feedstock uses. Both PDF and CDL have been successfully utilized on a commercial scale. The LFC Process has been thoroughly demonstrated at the ENCOAL LFC Demonstration Plant at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The 1,000 short ton per day plant, constructed and operated at a cost of US $90 million, was designed and built to commercial standards. Construction and initial operating costs were partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round Three of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The plant employs commercially available equipment and state of the art control system, and best available control technologies insure compliance with strict environmental standards. It became operational in June 1992. In the last five years, the plant and its supporting facilities have operated in an integrated mode for more than 14,500 hours. The major pieces of equipment, including the large blowers, combustors, dryer, pyrolyzer, and cooler have operated far more hours overall considering hot standby and ramping operations. The equipment has been demonstrated to operate reliably. The plant has processed 246,900 short tons of raw coal and produced 114,900 short tons of PDF and 116,100 barrels of CDL. A multi-phase process to identify and develop technically and financially viable LFC projects has been developed by TEK-KOL. Commercialization of the LFC technology is

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  9. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  10. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  11. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  12. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. [Veillonella alcalescens and Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-30

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives of this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development, (2) evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation, (3) selection of best performing culture (known cultures vs. new isolates), and (4) coal decarboxylation using activated carbon as blanks. The project began on September 12, 1990.

  13. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-01-30

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives of this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development, (2) evaluation of the isolated organisms for decarboxylation, (3) selection of best performing culture (known cultures vs. new isolates), and (4) coal decarboxylation using activated carbon as blanks. The project began on September 12, 1990.

  14. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. An integrated approach to the utilization of low rank coals and biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S.; Sen, M.; Moitra, N.

    1999-08-01

    While suggesting an integrated approach for utilization of inferior low rank coals for power in India, the importance of low temperature carbonization followed by retrieval of all value-based products has been stressed. It is further suggested that tar, obtained in the process, could be hydrogenated and fractionated in a central plant for conversion to hydrocarbons. High ash char, the principal product of pyrolysis, has been experimentally found to be amenable to beneficiation, yielding suitable fractions for power generation, briquetting, or blending. Experimental studies have shown that forest litters and agricultural wastes, containing significant proportions of spore, cuticle, and exine--considered as precursors of hydrocarbon-generating coal macerals--also yield large quantities of tar, ammonical liquor, and the principal product, char, which can be respectively utilized for the production of petroleum substitutes, value-based chemicals, and source material for blending, briquette making, and char-water slurries, opening up new avenues for fuel utilization and conservation.

  16. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  17. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  18. Studies of low rank coal stabilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh Research Center, tested feed coal and product samples from Wyoming and Montana for thermal stability in the adiabatic oven and sealed flask apparatus. The results indicated that the products had higher thermal stabilities in comparison with the feed coals. However, both the products samples and feed coals exhibited high spontaneous combustion potentials. A report on these studies was submitted in December 1995. Experiments were also completed in the adiabatic oven to determine the rate of decrease in the heating rate of a reactive sample on exposure to pulses of moist air, and moist nitrogen. The results indicated that with each succeeding pulse, longer time were required to reach selected elevated temperatures. The results also indicated some level of synergy between water and oxygen in the heat generation reaction. The data and results were transmitted to Dr. Dennis Finseth upon completion of the experiments.

  19. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  20. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  1. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  2. Investigation of mechanisms of ash deposit formation from low-rank coal combustion: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, F.T.; O'Donnell, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    This project was undertaken to determine the chemical behavior of alkali metal and other species implicated in the ash fouling which can occur during the combustion of low rank coals. The coal combustion was studied in unaugmented premixed pulverized coal flames. Vapor species were measured by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Temperatures were also measured, and time-resolved coal/ash particulate samples were collected and analyzed. A major part of the research on this project was devoted to: (1) the development and refinement of techniques for the MBMS analysis of trace quantities of unstable and reactive high temperature vapor species from the pulverized coal flames; and (2) the time-resolved sampling and collection of particulates. The equipment is now operating very satisfactorily. Inorganic species, some of which were present at parts-per-million levels, were quantitatively sampled and measured in the pulverized coal flames. Time-resolved particulate samples which were free of vapor deposited contaminants were collected without the use of an interfering substrate. Profiles of the alkali metal species in Beulah lignite and Decker subbituminous coal flames were obtained. It was found in both flames that sodium is volatilized as the atomic species early (milliseconds) in the combustion process. The gaseous Na reacts, also in milliseconds, to form an unknown species which is probably an oxide fume, but which is not NaOH or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. This is probably the mechanism for the formation of the alkali ''fumes'' observed in other systems. Measurements were also made of a number of other gaseous species, and time-resolved coal/ash samples were obtained and analyzed. 27 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  4. Structural features of low rank coals with a tendency to spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Artemov, A.V.; Saranchuk, V.I.; Semenenko, V.K.; Temerova, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was made of the structural properties of low-rank Donets coals, including coals liable to spontaneous combustion. The coals showed marked differences in structure, elemental composition, aromaticity, organic sulphur and paramagnetic properties. During metamorphism, these structural differences tend to even out so that at the 80% carbon coalification stage, the chemical composition and structure of the coals susceptible to spontaneous combustion acquire a distinct similarity to those which are not susceptible, to the extent that the in-situ coal can no longer be considered self-heating.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  6. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-07-14

    We are seeking to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were : continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, evaluation of commercial decarboxylase, decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymer, and characterization of biotreated coals. Specifically we report that two batch fermentor systems were completed and three other fermentors under optimum conditions for coal decarboxylation are in progress; that inhibition of growth of methanogens in the batch fermentor system enhanced the carbon dioxide production; that adapted microbial consortium produced more gas from lignite than Wyodak subbituminous coal; that phenylalanine decarboxylase exhibited insignificant coal decarboxylation activity; that two different microbial consortia developed on coal seem to be effective in decarboxylation of a polymer containing free carboxylic groups; and that CHN analyses of additional biotreated coals reconfirm increase in H/C ratio by 3--6%.

  7. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  8. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  9. Desulfurization of low-rank Turkish coals by multi-gravity separator

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, M.E.; Yildirim, I.; Dogan, M.Z.; Onal, G.; Celik, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Istanbul Region coals are characterized by high moisture contents (avg. 35%), high volatile matter values (avg. 45%), and more importantly high levels of sulfur in the range of 1 to 5%. These lignitic coals generally have relatively low ash (10%), and higher levels of calorific values over 5,000 Kcal/kg. The Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS), a new fine size gravity separation equipment, was tested to evaluate its potential for the desulfurization of these low-rank coals. Systematic tests conducted on two different samples of minus 1 mm size indicate that despite the finely distributed nature of coal and relatively small difference between coal and its associated gangue minerals, the degree of pyritic sulfur removal is 65.7% and 85.9% for the respective coals.

  10. Effect of pretreatment with carbonic acid on 'Hypercoal' (ash-free coal) production from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kensuke Masaki; Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Shinya Sato; Akimitsu Matsumura; Ikuo Saito

    2005-10-01

    The use of 'HyperCoal' (ash-free coal) as feedstock for gas turbines results in higher net power output with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. HyperCoal can be produced by thermal extraction from low-rank coals with industrial organic solvents in an inert atmosphere, providing raw materials. The pretreatment of low-rank coals with carbonic acid (CO{sub 2} dissolved in water - CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) produced a strong increase in HyperCoal yields at relatively lower CO{sub 2} pressures of 0.1-0.5 MPa; the thermal extraction yields at 360{sup o}C increased by 7%-15% with extraction yields of 52% and 45% obtained for Wyodak sub-bituminous coal and Beulah-Zap lignite, respectively. In the range of 320-360{sup o}C, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO) extraction yields of pretreated Wyodak coal increased significantly (by 4%-11%) over those of raw coal. The enhanced extraction yields of these low-rank coals are attributed to disruption of cation-bridging crosslinks on acid pretreatment, and the release of the hydrogen bonds by CMNO extraction. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Characteristics and Thermal Behaviour of Low Rank Malaysian Coals towards Liquefaction Performance via Thermogravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. A. M.; Ismail, K.; Nawawi, W. I.; Jawad, A. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Kasim, M. N.; Ani, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thermal behaviour of two low-rank Malaysian coals namely Mukah Balingian (MB) and Batu Arang (BA) were obtained under pyrolysis conditions via Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a heating rate of 20°C min-1. The thermal characteristics of the coals were investigated prior to direct liquefaction in order to determine the liquefaction performance, i.e. coal conversion and oil yield. The differential weight loss (DTG) results for both coals showed that there are three main stages evolved which consists of moisture, volatile matter and heavier hydrocarbons that correspond to temperature range of 150, 200-500 and 550-800°C, respectively. Apparently, the DTG curves of BA coal reveals a similar pattern of thermal evolution profile in comparison to that of the MB coal. However, the calculated mean reactivity of BA coal is higher than that of MB, which implied that BA would probably enhance coal conversion and oil yield in comparison to MB coal. Interestingly, results showed that under the same liquefaction conditions (i.e. at 4MPa pressure and 420°C), conversion and oil yield of both coals were well correlated with their reactivity and petrofactor value obtained.

  12. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  13. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  14. Application of a boiler performance model to evaluate low-rank coal fired subcritical and supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.K.; Buchanan, T.L.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1995-12-31

    A number of thermal drying processes that could be used to dry and upgrade Low-Rank Coals (LRCs) are under development. G/C evaluated these processes and selected the SynCoal process as the optimum process to dry the LRC. Initially, the evaluation was made on the basis of the cost of dried LRC, delivered to Korea, and later the evaluation was made on a cost-of-electricity (COE) basis. Two cases were evaluated: firing the dried LRC in an existing subcritical PC plant and in a new supercritical boiler. For the existing PC plant, Korea Electric Power Corporation`s (KEPCO`s) 270 MWe Honam plant was selected. A Boiler Performance Model (BPM) was used to evaluate performances of both subcritical and supercritical units for firing various coals. The results showed that upgraded Usibelli coal was marginally competitive due to its high mine-mouth cost, but Rosebud coal was very competitive due to its low mine-mouth cost. In these cases the coals were upgraded by using the SynCoal process. This report investigates the impact of tax incentives resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 1992 on the competitiveness of the upgraded Alaska Usibelli and Montana Rosebud coals for application to PC plants. The SynCoal process has been qualified by the Internal Revenue Service for tax benefits derived from the Energy Policy Act. The economic analyses include costs and sensitivity analyses for alternative ways of selling fines produced during the SynCoal process: briquetting fines and adding them to the finished product, or cooling fines and selling them to users at the same price as SynCoal product in the domestic market. These analyses included the effects of tax incentive when applicable.

  15. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Kuzu, H.; Peksel, A.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained by microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.

  16. Computer molecular models of low-rank coal and char containing inorganic complexes.

    PubMed

    Domazetis, George; James, Bruce D; Liesegang, John

    2008-07-01

    Molecular models of low-rank coal containing water, aqua-ionic species, and transition metal aqua-complexes, were optimised using semi-empirical (SE) quantum mechanics; the model was constructed with properties similar to brown coal; 10-20 wt% water was hydrogen bonded to coal oxygen groups, and the remainder was bulk water. Single point self-consistent field (1scf) computations of coal models provided octahedral mono-, and di-nuclear complexes of Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni, but SE computations often provided distorted structures. Models of char were developed by transforming the coal model containing multi-nuclear metal species into char according to pyrolysis chemistry; the composition of char models containing iron oxides was similar to char samples obtained over 250-800 degrees C. Density functional theory (DFT) optimisation of char models with metal clusters provided low energy configurations of disordered structures with a shallow energy minimum. SE and DFT calculations of char models containing metal clusters were conducted for mechanisms for H2 and CO formation from pyrolysis and iron-catalysed steam gasification; the active site for gasification was [Fe-C] and its accessibility to H2O was related to the configuration of the char model. The major steps in iron-catalysed steam gasification were chemi-adsorption of water on [Fe-C], hydrogen abstraction, and oxygen transfer. PMID:18478281

  17. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  18. CO{sub 2} SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. There were three main objectives for this reporting period, which related to obtaining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and modeling reservoir performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The first objective was to collect and desorb gas from 10 sidewall core coal samples from an Anadarko Petroleum Corporation well (APCL2 well) at approximately 6,200-ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. The second objective was to measure sorptive capacities of these Wilcox coal samples for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}. The final objective was to contract a service company to perform pressure transient testing in Wilcox coal beds in a shut-in well, to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal. Bulk density of the APCL2 well sidewall core samples averaged 1.332 g/cc. The 10 sidewall core samples were placed in 4 sidewall core canisters and desorbed. Total gas content of the coal (including lost gas and projected residual gas) averaged 395 scf/ton on an as-received basis. The average lost gas estimations were approximately 45% of the bulk sample total gas. Projected residual gas was 5% of in-situ gas content. Six gas samples desorbed from the sidewall cores were analyzed to determine gas composition. Average gas composition was approximately 94.3% methane, 3.0% ethane, and 0.7% propane, with traces of heavier hydrocarbon gases. Carbon dioxide averaged 1.7%. Coal from the 4 canisters was mixed to form one composite sample that was used for pure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} isotherm analyses. The composite sample was 4.53% moisture, 37.48% volatile matter, 9.86% ash, and 48.12% fixed carbon. Mean vitrinite reflectance was 0

  19. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-04-30

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

  20. Investigation of pyrolysis kinetics of humic acids from low rank Anatolian coal by thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tonbul, Y.; Erdogan, S.

    2007-07-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of humic acid samples from low rank Anatolian (east of Turkey, Bingol) coal were investigated under atmospheric pressure. The samples were subjected for the decomposition of organic matter ambient to 800{sup o} C at four different heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees C min{sup -1}). The humic acid samples were started at decomposition between 170 - 206{sup o}C and amount of residues varied 55-60% according to heating rate. Each of samples showed a single step mass loss. TG/DTG data of samples were analyzed to determine activation energy values by Coats and Redfern method and Arrhenius method. Activation energy values are similar obtained from Coats and Redfern method and Arrhenius method and varied from 25 to 29 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  1. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  2. Thermolysis of a polymer model of aromatic carboxylic acids in low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mungall, W.S.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    To compliment our current investigation into the role that decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids plays in the low-temperature cross-linking of low-rank coals, we are investigating the thermolysis of a polymeric coal model compound to determine if the polymeric network structure of coal can alter the decarboxylation pathways. In this investigation, a bibenzylic polymer, poly-(m-xylylene-co-5-carboxy-m-xylylene), 1, was synthesized containing 2.3 carboxylic acids per 100 carbons, which is similar to that found in Zapp lignite. The pyrolysis of 1 was compared to poly-m-xylylene, 2, and the methyl ester of 1, 3, to determine if the carboxy group enhances cross-linking reactions. The major product from the pyrolysis of 1 at 375{degrees} C or 400{degrees} C for 1 h was a THF insoluble residue (60-75 wt%), while pyrolysis of 2 or the methyl ester of 1 produced only a THF soluble product. The mechanistic pathways leading to cross-linking will be discussed.

  3. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  4. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  5. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-12-31

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  6. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. The study to change in the molecule structure of low rank coal by using of low temperature pyrolysis deoxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongshu, D.; Yuhui, Z.; Lihong, M.

    1999-07-01

    A series of experiments were performed on the oxygen functional group of low rank coal by use of the low temperature pyrolysis Deoxy method. The order of chemical activity of oxygen functional group in coal was obtained; also the results show the redistribution of the oxygen in the coals and a little decrease of sulfur and nitrogen. In addition to FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, accelerated surface area and porosimetry distribution were used to characterize coal pyrolyzed at various low temperatures. The results have shown that the distribution of hydrogen, carbon and porosity of the coal are also changed along with the deoxidization. It is suggested that the chemical and physical structures of the coal molecule are changed, which leads to modification of coal. The tests of coking properties of single coals and compatibility of blend before and after the low temperature pyrolysis treatment were studied. The results indicate that the low temperature pyrolysis deoxygen can improve utilization of low rank coal.

  8. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

  9. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  10. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  11. Study of Indonesia low rank coal utilization on modified fixed bed gasification for combined cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardianto, T.; Amalia, A. R.; Suwono, A.; Riauwindu, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gasification is a conversion process converting carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous products that have considerable amount of calorific value. One of the carbon-based solid fuel that serves as feed for gasification is coal. Gasification gaseous product is termed as syngas (synthetic gas) that is composed of several different gases. Syngas produced from gasification vary from one process to another, this is due to several factors which are: feed characteristics, operation condition, gasified fluid condition, and gasification method or technology. One of the utilization of syngas is for combined cycle power plant fuel. In order to meet the need to convert carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous fuel for combined cycle power plant, engineering adjustment for gasification was done using related software to create the syngas with characteristics of natural gas that serve as fuel for combined cycle power plant in Indonesia. Feed used for the gasification process in this paper was Indonesian Low Rank Coal and the method used to obtain syngas was Modified Fixed Bed Gasifier. From the engineering adjustment process, the yielded syngas possessed lower heating value as much as 31828.32 kJ/kg in gasification condition of 600°C, 3.5 bar, and steam to feed ratio was 1 kg/kg. Syngas characteristics obtained from the process was used as a reference for the adjustment of the fuel system modification in combined cycle power plant that will have the same capacity with the conversion of the system's fuel from natural gas to syngas.

  12. Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H.

    2006-03-15

    Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

  13. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  14. Conversion of low value coal fines and low rank coals into higher value products through binderless briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, K.N.; Chao, C.; Kalb, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    Whether it be the need to reduce the moisture and handling problems associated with fine bituminous coals or the need to overcome fine coal and handling problems associated with the drying of sub-bituminous coals an effective and low cost solution may be available through the development of the low temperature binderless briquetting technology. Briquetting of the coal fines has generally been seen as an unsatisfactory solution to problems associated with coal fines or improving sub-bituminous coal`s marketability with high production costs and a product which frequently broke down as a result of handling and weathering. An analysis of the problem shows that the binders are the single feature most responsible for the failure of briquetting to be acceptable. Binderless briquetting has been demonstrated, at both the laboratory and pilot scale, to be able to agglomerate coals ranging from sub-bituminous through to semi-anthracite. For bituminous coking coals the key features of the binderless briquetting product are: Good handling properties, i.e., strength and abrasion resistance; Low moisture readsorption; and Retention of chemical and coking properties. For sub-bituminous coals the key features of the binderless briquetting product are: Good handling properties; Good weathering resistance; Reduced spontaneous combustion; Long term physical stability; No change to chemical properties; and Excellent thermal shock resistance. The total production cost of binderless briquettes falls in the range of $8.00/tonne to $12.00/tonne including labor and capital costs which are substantially less than binder type processes.

  15. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  16. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.9 catalytic tar cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment, including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure-swing absorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means of removing these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generating useful products, such as methane gas, which is crucial to operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. Aerosol tars are not readily removed from gas streams by conventional means and, as a consequence, often end up plugging filters or fouling fuel cells, turbines, or sorbents. Catalytic cracking of these tars to molecular moieties of C{sub 10} or smaller would prevent the problems commonly attributed to the tars. As an example, the moving Bourdon fixed-bed gasifier, by virtue of its efficient countercurrent heat exchange and widespread commercial use, may offer the lowest-cost integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system if tar generation and wastewater contamination can be minimized. We evaluate the potential of selected catalysts to minimize tar accumulation and maximize char conversion to useful liquid and/or gaseous products. Owing to the potential for production of extremely toxic nickel carbonyl gas, care must be exercised in the use of a NISMM catalyst for cracking tars at high temperatures in reducing atmospheres such as those produced by coal gasification. We observed a fifty percent or more of tar produced during steam gasification of Beulah lignite at temperatures of 400{degrees}-800+{degrees}C when cracked by either dolomite or zeolite maintained at a temperature of 50{degrees}C-100{degrees}C below that of the reactor.

  17. Physical Properties of Low-Rank Coal Samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagin, P. N.; Zoback, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the mechanical properties of coal samples from the Powder River Basin (Wyoming, USA) by conducting laboratory experiments. We present results from laboratory measurements of adsorption, static and dynamic elastic moduli, and permeability as a function of effective stress, pore pressure, and gas species. Notably, we observe that CO2 adsorption causes the static bulk modulus to decrease by a factor of two, while simultaneously causing the dynamic bulk modulus to increase by several percent. Permeability of both intact and powdered samples decreases by approximately an order of magnitude in the presence of CO2, which is consistent with observations of adsorption-related swelling of the coal matrix. Interestingly, CO2 appears to change the constitutive behavior of coal; helium saturated samples exhibit elastic behavior, while CO2 saturated samples exhibit viscous, anelastic behavior, as evidenced by creep strain observations.

  18. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  19. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.7, Fuel utilization properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Gasification-type entrained ash and deposits were produced in a pressurized test furnace at high temperature. For the subbituminous Black Thunder coal, the effect of fuel-rich conditions was an increase in quartz, calcite, dolomite, and calcium-rich phases in the entrained ash. Lower particle temperatures, as compared to full air conventional combustion, and the oxygen-lean atmosphere may have caused a reduction in the interaction and assimilation of pure quartz and organically bound calcium into calcium aluminosilicate phases. For the Illinois No. 6 entrained fly ash fuel-rich conditions prevented the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite to iron oxide. Lower temperatures within and surrounding char particles during reducing conditions combustion may have prevented the decomposition of pyrrhotite and enhanced the reaction of iron with aluminosilicate phases. The deposits show similar trends, with the Illinois No. 6 deposit grown under pressurized conditions at a lower temperature having Na and (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K) aluminosilicates, calcium carbonate, and an iron sulfide, probably pyrrohotite, present. At higher temperature, loss of sulfur occurs with the increased formation of iron aluminosilicate phases. The Illinois No. 6 and Black Thunder coals were tested with kaolin and lime additives under highly reducing conditions to simulate a gasification environment. The deposit collection zone temperature was varied from 750{degree}C to 1OOO{degree}C. Although no clear trends were evident for the interaction of kaolin or lime with the deposits, the deposits did become more porous, with greatly reduced strength shown for both additives.

  20. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. PMID:23603187

  1. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  2. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  3. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Andrew; Goyal, Amit; McCabe, Kevin; Gangwal, Santosh

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  5. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration. PMID:21770402

  6. Macromolecular structure of low rank coals and lignites. Report for the period November 1, 1985-March 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Baskar, A.J.; Larsen, J.W.; Wei, Y.C.

    1986-03-06

    Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been employed in studies of the hydrogen-bonds in Rawhide and Illinois No. 6 coals. Since the last report, it has been found that the controlled environment cell and attached vacuum line could not deliver the necessary amount of pyridine vapor to the coal sample within the cell. A new approach was undertaken, and greatly improved spectra were recorded. Analysis of these spectra indicates that pyridine vapor swells the coals and that residual pyridine remains within the coal after swelling hydrogen-bonded species within the coal network and after evacuation for 10 to 22 hours.

  7. Gas chromatographic techniques for the analysis of hydrocarbons in low-rank coal liquefaction products. Part II. Instrumental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Raynie, D.E.; Farnum, S.A.; Potts, Y.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two long Continuous Processing Unit (CPU) runs were carried out to: (1) study the effect of two different start-up solvents on the composition of the recycle product; and (2) thoroughly characterize any change caused by the start-up solvent during the recycle process. Capillary gas chromatography has been chosen as the major analytical tool in these line-out studies of coal liquefaction products. Initial separations of distillate oils from CPU passes were carried out by the silical gel chromatographic method previously reported. The resulting hydrocarbon fractions were combined into four groups for gas chromatographic analysis. The four groups were chromatographed against the appropriate calibration mixture. Some components of the distillate oil were identified but not quantified due to insufficient amounts of some standards. Over 300 samples also necessitated the use of up to 30 components in a calibration standard. Resulting chromatograms showed near-ideal peak shapes. Peak areas were integrated, ratioed to the internal standard and compared to the appropriate calibration curve. Components were identified by comparing retention times and were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Parameters such as threshold, peak width, and baseline construction mode were adjusted for optimum sensitivity. For valid comparisons to be made conditions were carefully reproduced. Although chromatography is not often thought of as an exact science, chromatographic systems can be optimized for a given analytical situation. In this case, we have successfully used capillary gas chromatography for the automated identification and quantification of up to 30 species in a single coal liquefaction fraction. We have quantified 87 compounds in the distillate oil. This method may also serve as the basis for analysis of other complex samples.

  8. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  9. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  10. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  11. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal--Task 4.4: Development of supercritical fluid extraction methods for the quantitation of sulfur forms in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Current analytical methods are inadequate for accurately measuring sulfur forms in coal. This task was concerned with developing methods to quantitate and identify major sulfur forms in coal based on direct measurement (as opposed to present techniques based on indirect measurement and difference values). The focus was on the forms that were least understood and for which the analytical methods have been the poorest, i.e., organic and elemental sulfur. Improved measurement techniques for sulfatic and pyritic sulfur also need to be developed. A secondary goal was to understand the interconversion of sulfur forms in coal during thermal processing. This task had as its focus the development of selective extraction methods that will allow the direct measurement of sulfur content in each form. Therefore, selective extraction methods were needed for the major sulfur forms in coal, including elemental, pyritic, sulfatic, and organic sulfur. This study was a continuation of that of previous analytical method development for sulfur forms in coal which resulted in the successful isolation and quantitation of elemental and sulfatic sulfur. Super- and subcritical extractions with methanol or water with and without additives were investigated in an attempt to develop methods for pyritic and organic sulfur forms analysis in coal. Based on these studies, a sequential extraction scheme that is capable of selectively determining elemental, sulfatic, pyritic and two forms of organic sulfur is presented here.

  12. Integrating flotation to improve the performance of an HMC circuit treating a low-rank fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, H.; Polat, M.

    2005-11-01

    One reason that heavy media cyclone (HMC) circuits suffer from the inadvertent loss of magnetite and fine coal is the presence of nonmagnetic material in the magnetic separator feed. In this study, flotation was applied to the undersize fractions of the HMC drain-and-rinse screens to minimize these problems. These fractions, which contain 17.9% nonmagnetic material, are currently sent to magnetic separators and the nonmagnetic portion from the separators contains 39.1% ash. Applying flotation resulted in a clean coal product with an ash content of 8.7% and a calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg. The refuse from flotation, which will be sent to the magnetic separators, contains 7.7% nonmagnetics.

  13. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  14. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  15. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 3.8, Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-03-01

    The goal of the PFBC activity is to generate fundamental process information that will further the development of an economical and environmentally acceptable second-generation PFBC. The immediate objectives focus on generic issues, including the performance of sulfur sorbents, fate of alkali, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals in PFBC. A great deal of PFBC performance relates to the chemistry of the bed and the contact between gas and solids that occurs during combustion. These factors can be studied in a suitably designed bench-scale reactor. The present studies are focusing on the emission control strategies applied in the bed, rather than in hot-gas cleaning. Emission components include alkali and heavy metals in addition to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, and CO. The report presents: a description of the pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR); a description of the alkali sampling probe; shakedown testing of the bench-scale PFBR; results from alkali sampling; results from sulfur sorbent performance tests; and results from refuse-derived fuel and lignite combustion tests.

  16. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Two long gasification tests were accomplished (66 and 72 hours of slagging operation) this quarter, and the balance of the wastewater needed for the second cooling tower (CT) test (approx. 11,000 gallons) was generated. Eleven thousand gallons of slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) wastewater were solvent extracted and ammonia stripped (AS) to nominal levels of 160 mg/1 phenol and 600 mg/1 NH/sub 3/. This wastewater is being further treated by activated sludge (AS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) processing to prepare a high quality makeup for the second CT test. Phenol mass balances indicated that > 90 pct of the phenol was stripped from the tower, indicating that previous assumptions of high levels of biodegradation were erroneous. Over 80 pct of the ammonia and about 25 pct of the methanol were also stripped. Data collected during steady state operation of the bench-scale rotating biological contractor indicate complete removal of phenolics and alcohols, and 94 pct removal of BOD. Nitrification also occurred in this unit, with over 30 pct removal of ammonia. Problems due to individual bacteria, present in the biotreated wastewater, passing through the multi-media filter and thus decreasing the carbon adsorption efficiency of the GAC system, have resulted in lower treatment rates than originally anticipated. As a result, to achieve the desired treatment, the contact time of the wastewater with the carbon in the granular activated carbon system has been increased. Since this has decreased the treatment rate, a larger carbon adsorption system has been designed and is presently being constructed.

  17. Beyond Low Rank + Sparse: Multiscale Low Rank Matrix Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Frank; Lustig, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Low rank methods allow us to capture globally correlated components within matrices. The recent low rank + sparse decomposition further enables us to extract sparse entries along with the globally correlated components. In this paper, we present a natural generalization and consider the decomposition of matrices into components of multiple scales. Such decomposition is well motivated in practice as data matrices often exhibit local correlations in multiple scales. Concretely, we propose a multi-scale low rank modeling that represents a data matrix as a sum of block-wise low rank matrices with increasing scales of block sizes. We then consider the inverse problem of decomposing the data matrix into its multi-scale low rank components and approach the problem via a convex formulation. Theoretically, we show that under an incoherence condition, the convex program recovers the multi-scale low rank components exactly. Practically, we provide guidance on selecting the regularization parameters and incorporate cycle spinning to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimentally, we show that the multi-scale low rank decomposition provides a more intuitive decomposition than conventional low rank methods and demonstrate its effectiveness in four applications, including illumination normalization for face images, motion separation for surveillance videos, multi-scale modeling of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and collaborative filtering exploiting age information.

  18. Gas chromatographic techniques for the analysis of hydrocarbons in low-rank coal liquefaction products. Part I. Treatment of the data

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, Y.R.; Farnum, S.A.; Raynie, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The project that provided the impetus for this research involved the conversion of coal into refinable oils. The goals of the project were two-fold. First was to study the effects of two very different start-up solvents on the composition of the coal liquefaction product at line-out. Second was to characterize the changes that occurred during the line-out process. A major effort was on the analysis of the hydrocarbons oils by capillary gas chromatography. The distillate oil samples were first separated by silica gel column chromatography into 11 fractions to simplify the complex mixtures. Fractions were combined into four groups so that similar polarities resulted: (1) alkanes; (2) light aromatics; (3) di, tri, and tetra aromatics; and (4) heavy aromatics. Calibration standards, containing up to 30 standard compounds, were prepared and diluted to several different concentrations. An aliquot of the appropriate internal standard was added to each calibration standard as well as to the diluted column fractions. Because the relative response of the internal standard may vary at different concentrations, it was important that the same amount be added every time. To calibrate the GC, the calibration standard dilutions were each injected twice and run with the same temperature program as the samples to be analyzed. There are some limitations to this technique which are linked. 3 references, 1 figure.

  19. Low-Rank Preserving Projections.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuwu; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Zhang, David; Yuan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    As one of the most popular dimensionality reduction techniques, locality preserving projections (LPP) has been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. However, in practical applications, data is always corrupted by noises. For the corrupted data, samples from the same class may not be distributed in the nearest area, thus LPP may lose its effectiveness. In this paper, it is assumed that data is grossly corrupted and the noise matrix is sparse. Based on these assumptions, we propose a novel dimensionality reduction method, named low-rank preserving projections (LRPP) for image classification. LRPP learns a low-rank weight matrix by projecting the data on a low-dimensional subspace. We use the L21 norm as a sparse constraint on the noise matrix and the nuclear norm as a low-rank constraint on the weight matrix. LRPP keeps the global structure of the data during the dimensionality reduction procedure and the learned low rank weight matrix can reduce the disturbance of noises in the data. LRPP can learn a robust subspace from the corrupted data. To verify the performance of LRPP in image dimensionality reduction and classification, we compare LRPP with the state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction methods. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed method with encouraging results. PMID:26277014

  20. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. PMID:20153633

  1. Effects of Adsorbed Gases on the Physical and Transport Properties of Low-Rank Coal, PRB, WY: Implications for Carbon Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zoback, M. D.; Hagin, P. N.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is injected into unminable coalbeds, it has the potential to enhance the amount of methane production (ECBM) and to geologically sequester CO2 as an adsorbed phase. In this study we study the effects of adsorption of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, on the mechanical and flow properties of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) on both intact and crushed samples. The coal samples were vacuum dried before each test, then saturated by each test gas at a series of either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress until steady state was reached. Thus, the amount of adsorption can be measured as a function of pore pressure Permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Preliminary results show that the adsorption of CO2 is twice as large as CH4, and almost four times that of N2. Hysteresis is observed among pure component adsorption and desorption isotherms which are characterized Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Permeability decreases with increasing effective stress for He, CH4 and CO2. At constant effective stress, permeability decreases when the saturating gas changes from He to CH4 and CO2. Hysteresis of permeability with increasing and decreasing effective stress is not observed in crushed samples. The coal swells when CH4 displaces He and swells more when CO2 displaces He. Viscoplastic creep behavior is observed in the presence of CH4 and CO2 with both intact and crushed samples, which may affect maintaining permeability for long-term CO2 injection. Adsorption Isotherm of Crushed Coal Sample, WY Permeability as a function of effective stress with different gas saturation

  2. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  3. Coal burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.C.; Cowan, T.L.

    1980-02-05

    This process is for devolatilizing coal to produce a volatile hydrocarbon gas leaving a residue of unburned coal. The volatile hydrocarbon gas and other coal or said residual coal are thereafter burned together in a common furnace. The volatilization of the coal may be carried out substantially endothermically, and preferably on the plant site where the burning of the volatilized hydrocarbon takes place together with other coal or the residue coal. The volatile matter is removed from the coal in a volatile state before the residue coal exits from the burner nozzle and then enters the combustion chamber where the volatilized hydrocarbon gas and residue coal are burned together. The removed volatilized hydrocarbon gas can be placed within the same coal burning plant to join with the unburned residual coal, passing to the burner to burn therewith.

  4. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 5. 8, Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization. Topical report, January--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, B.A.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1995-10-01

    The scope of work for this task was limited to the development of a general process to evaluate coal fly ash for use in applications beyond cement and concrete. Two coal fly ash samples were evaluated for appropriateness in structural fill as an example of how to use alternative classification protocol as ash use standards are developed for the industry. The goal of this project is to develop a classification system for fly ash based on parameters that relate to performance specification of engineering and construction applications. The new classification system will provide a means of evaluating the suitability of coal ash for use in certain products that currently have no reality-based standards or classifications. Recent work by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee E50 on Pollution Prevention has proposed a standard practice for use of coal ash for structural fill applications. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) coal ash researchers have worked on preparing this standard practice, and the development of criteria for the coal ash to be used in this application will facilitate the use of this standard once approved by ASTM. A preliminary flowchart for classification criteria was developed and is shown in figure 1.

  5. A low rank approach to automatic differentiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Hovland, P. D.; Lyons, A.; Stover, T. E.; Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; North Carolina State Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript introduces a new approach for increasing the efficiency of automatic differentiation (AD) computations for estimating the first order derivatives comprising the Jacobian matrix of a complex large-scale computational model. The objective is to approximate the entire Jacobian matrix with minimized computational and storage resources. This is achieved by finding low rank approximations to a Jacobian matrix via the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM). Low rank Jacobian matrices arise in many of today's important scientific and engineering problems, e.g. nuclear reactor calculations, weather climate modeling, geophysical applications, etc. A low rank approximation replaces the original Jacobian matrix J (whose size is dictated by the size of the input and output data streams) with matrices of much smaller dimensions (determined by the numerical rank of the Jacobian matrix). This process reveals the rank of the Jacobian matrix and can be obtained by ESM via a series of r randomized matrix-vector products of the form: Jq, and J{sup T} {omega} which can be evaluated by the AD forward and reverse modes, respectively.

  6. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 7.2, Resource data evaluation. Topical report, July 1994--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Resource Data Evaluation subtask of the US Department of Energy (DOE) base program represents an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiative to promote the integration of geographic information system (GIS) technologies with other ongoing and planned EERC research in the areas of resource utilization, remediation, land use planning, and regulatory and policy assessment. Significant demand for GIS-based information already exists for energy resource evaluation, interpretation of remote sensing data, environmental assessment at the state and local levels, and use in strategic planning. The objective of this task was to determine the appropriate platform and approach upon which to develop GIS applications for optimizing resource evaluation and integrating this information with related areas of interest. Activities associated with Task 7.2, Resource Data Evaluation, were conducted primarily during the first half of the project year. These activities included tasks associated with the development and implementation of GIS databases and construction of digitized files for research pertaining to energy studies. As previously noted, database design was undertaken for two EERC projects: 1) coal occurrence in Bowman and adjacent counties in the Fort Union Coal Region of southwestern North Dakota and 2) energy resource utilization concerns for selected sites in Alaska.

  7. Coal processing and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, H.-D.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that the rising price of oil as well as supply concerns have lead to an increase in the use of coal. It is shown that in order for coal to take a greater role in energy supply, work must commence now in the areas of coal extraction and processing. Attention is given to new technologies such as coke production, electricity and heat generation, coal gasification, and coal liquifaction. Also covered are a separator for nitrogen oxides and active coal regeneration. Finally, the upgrading of coal is examined.

  8. Effects of metal cations present naturally in coal on the fate of coal-bound nitrogen in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with different ranks: correlation between inherent Fe cations and N{sub 2} formation from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuo Ohtsuka; Zhiheng Wu

    2009-09-15

    The fate of coal-N in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with 62-81 wt % (daf) C has been studied with a quartz reactor at 1000 C under ambient pressure to examine the effects of metal cations present naturally in these coals on the partitioning of coal-N into N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, tar-N, and char-N. Nitrogen mass balances for all runs fall within the reasonable range of 100 {+-} 5%, and N{sub 2} is the predominant product for all of the coals. As the N{sub 2} yield increases, the sum of NH{sub 3}, HCN, and tar-N is unchanged significantly, whereas the char-N yield decreases almost linearly, showing that most of N{sub 2} originates from char-N. When eight kinds of inherent metals, such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe, and Ti, are determined by the conventional method and related with the N{sub 2} yield, there exists a strong, direct correlation between the Fe content and N{sub 2} formation for low-rank coals with less than 75 wt % (daf) C. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (TEM-EDAX) measurements after pyrolysis at 1000{sup o}C of a German brown coal, which provides the highest N{sub 2} yield of about 60%, reveal the existence of lamella structures because of graphitized carbon as well as nanoscale Fe particles with different sizes and shapes. The mechanism for conversion reactions of char-N to N{sub 2} is discussed in terms of the catalysis by nanoparticles of metallic Fe formed from inherent Fe cations. 34 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  10. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  11. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  13. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  14. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  15. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  20. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  1. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, R.; Hosoi, T.; Kanou, T.; Okamura, S.; Sunami, Y.

    1984-03-20

    A coal liquefaction process and apparatus therefor are disclosed. According to this invention, a finely divided coal slurry and a solvent are contacted with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, the slurry is separated into a gaseous component, a liquid component and a solid residue, the solid residue (which is the liquefaction residue) is then supplied to a molten metal bath together with oxygen gas to generate a gas entraining fine powdery solids, and the thus recovered fine powdery solids are returned to the liquefaction process as a catalyst.

  4. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  5. The Resource Potential of Low-rank Coalbed Methane in the Eastern Zone of Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, Chaochun; He, Jian

    The Eastern Zone of Junggar Basin is a typical and favorable low-rank coal CBM gathering area. This paper firstly, calculates and evaluates the CBM resources of 4 sections and 23 units divided in the Eastern Zone of Junggar Basin; then points out the favorable areas and their burial depth range for further exploration. The results here will provide practical guidance for the whole basin's low-rank CBM investigation and exploration, and impact the understanding of other low-rank CBM resources around the world.

  6. Low-Rank Total Variation for Image Super-Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Most natural images can be approximated using their low-rank components. This fact has been successfully exploited in recent advancements of matrix completion algorithms for image recovery. However, a major limitation of low-rank matrix completion algorithms is that they cannot recover the case where a whole row or column is missing. The missing row or column will be simply filled as an arbitrary combination of other rows or columns with known values. This precludes the application of matrix completion to problems such as super-resolution (SR) where missing values in many rows and columns need to be recovered in the process of up-sampling a low-resolution image. Moreover, low-rank regularization considers information globally from the whole image and does not take proper consideration of local spatial consistency. Accordingly, we propose in this paper a solution to the SR problem via simultaneous (global) low-rank and (local) total variation (TV) regularization. We solve the respective cost function using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Experiments on MR images of adults and pediatric subjects demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the details of the recovered high-resolution images, and outperforms the nearest-neighbor interpolation, cubic interpolation, non-local means, and TV-based up-sampling. PMID:24505661

  7. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  8. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  10. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  11. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  12. Continuous process for conversion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Willson, Warrack G.; Baker, Gene G.; Sondreal, Everett A.; Farnum, Sylvia A.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for converting coal to liquid and gaseous products wherein the liquid products predominate and wherein reactor, tubing, and valve plugging due to carbonate salt formation is reduced by reacting crushed low-rank coal containing about 12 to 30% by weight of water in a solvent at a temperature in the range of about 455.degree. to 500.degree. C., under about 2000 to 5000 psi pressure of a H.sub.2 /CO mixture for a liquid residence time of about 20 to 60 minutes. The solvent is a fraction of liquid product defined on a weight basis as being made up of about 55% of which distills at less than 250.degree. C./lmm, about 20% of which is soluble in THF, and about 25% of which is carbon polymer and indigenous inorganic matter. The solvent is further defined as containing at least about 5 weight % of partially hydrogenated aromatics and/or fully hydrogenated aromatics and little or no alkylated aromatics or higher alkanes.

  13. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  14. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  15. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  16. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  17. Process for beneficiating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; Herman, D.E.; McGarry, P.E.

    1982-06-01

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water insoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal and particularly the iron pyrites remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. The carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry,'' or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  18. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  19. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  20. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  1. An Overview of Low-Rank Matrix Recovery From Incomplete Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Mark A.; Romberg, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Low-rank matrices play a fundamental role in modeling and computational methods for signal processing and machine learning. In many applications where low-rank matrices arise, these matrices cannot be fully sampled or directly observed, and one encounters the problem of recovering the matrix given only incomplete and indirect observations. This paper provides an overview of modern techniques for exploiting low-rank structure to perform matrix recovery in these settings, providing a survey of recent advances in this rapidly-developing field. Specific attention is paid to the algorithms most commonly used in practice, the existing theoretical guarantees for these algorithms, and representative practical applications of these techniques.

  2. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  3. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  4. Bayes method for low rank tensor estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Taiji; Kanagawa, Heishiro

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the statistical convergence rate of a Bayesian low-rank tensor estimator, and construct a Bayesian nonlinear tensor estimator. The problem setting is the regression problem where the regression coefficient forms a tensor structure. This problem setting occurs in many practical applications, such as collaborative filtering, multi-task learning, and spatio-temporal data analysis. The convergence rate of the Bayes tensor estimator is analyzed in terms of both in-sample and out-of-sample predictive accuracies. It is shown that a fast learning rate is achieved without any strong convexity of the observation. Moreover, we extend the tensor estimator to a nonlinear function estimator so that we estimate a function that is a tensor product of several functions.

  5. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  8. Construction of a 150 t/d pilot plant for bituminous coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hirohito; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Satoru

    1994-12-31

    This present paper covers bituminous coal liquefaction R and D carried out by Nippon Coal Oil Co., Ltd. (NCOL). Construction of a 150 ton/day bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant will be presented. The NEDOL process is characterized by the wide applicability of various coal grades, such as low-rank bituminous coal, subbituminous coal and low-rank subbituminous coal, and a single-stage liquefaction method that combines the advantages of a hydrogen-donor solvent and a fine iron catalyst. A vacuum distillation system for solid-liquid separation is used to improve reliability. The simplicity of this process ensures a high degree of stability.

  9. Laplacian Regularized Low-Rank Representation and Its Applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Gao, Junbin; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank representation (LRR) has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its pleasing efficacy in exploring low-dimensional subspace structures embedded in data. For a given set of observed data corrupted with sparse errors, LRR aims at learning a lowest-rank representation of all data jointly. LRR has broad applications in pattern recognition, computer vision and signal processing. In the real world, data often reside on low-dimensional manifolds embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space. However, the LRR method does not take into account the non-linear geometric structures within data, thus the locality and similarity information among data may be missing in the learning process. To improve LRR in this regard, we propose a general Laplacian regularized low-rank representation framework for data representation where a hypergraph Laplacian regularizer can be readily introduced into, i.e., a Non-negative Sparse Hyper-Laplacian regularized LRR model (NSHLRR). By taking advantage of the graph regularizer, our proposed method not only can represent the global low-dimensional structures, but also capture the intrinsic non-linear geometric information in data. The extensive experimental results on image clustering, semi-supervised image classification and dimensionality reduction tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27046494

  10. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  11. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  12. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide catalysis of low rank coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stenberg, V.I.; Baltisberger, R.J.; Ogawa, T.; Raman, K.; Woolsey, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented for reduction of bibenzyl, diphenylmethane, and diphenyl sulfide by H/sub 2/S which indicate that the chemical reactions are of more than one type. The H/sub 2/S is more effective in the hydrocracking of bibenzyl to benzene and toluene than is H/sub 2/. H/sub 2/S also appears to be a hydrogen donor and forms aromatic-sulfur bonds which implies that the sulfur can attack aromatic rings. Various reactions are proposed for the formation of sulfur which catalyzes the conversion of diphenylmethane. (BLM)

  15. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  16. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Washington and the Gulf Science and Technology Company Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania, for the Department of Energy during the month of October, 1980. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down the entire month of October, 1980 for inspection and maintenance. PDU P-99 completed two runs during October investigating potential start-up modes for the Demonstration Plant.

  17. Granuflow and Mulled coal: Alternative processes for fine coal recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1999-07-01

    Granuflow and Mulled Coal were developed in parallel to enhance the ability to recover and process wet coal fines. There are some similarities in the processes; however, the end products are quite different. This paper will compare the properties of the two products prepared from the same coal and identify the unique properties of each. Criteria for selecting between the two processes, including cost, will be discussed.

  18. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  19. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  20. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L.

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  1. Relations Among Some Low-Rank Subspace Recovery Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Junbin

    2015-09-01

    Recovering intrinsic low-dimensional subspaces from data distributed on them is a key preprocessing step to many applications. In recent years, a lot of work has modeled subspace recovery as low-rank minimization problems. We find that some representative models, such as robust principal component analysis (R-PCA), robust low-rank representation (R-LRR), and robust latent low-rank representation (R-LatLRR), are actually deeply connected. More specifically, we discover that once a solution to one of the models is obtained, we can obtain the solutions to other models in closed-form formulations. Since R-PCA is the simplest, our discovery makes it the center of low-rank subspace recovery models. Our work has two important implications. First, R-PCA has a solid theoretical foundation. Under certain conditions, we could find globally optimal solutions to these low-rank models at an overwhelming probability, although these models are nonconvex. Second, we can obtain significantly faster algorithms for these models by solving R-PCA first. The computation cost can be further cut by applying low-complexity randomized algorithms, for example, our novel l2,1 filtering algorithm, to R-PCA. Although for the moment the formal proof of our l2,1 filtering algorithm is not yet available, experiments verify the advantages of our algorithm over other state-of-the-art methods based on the alternating direction method. PMID:26161818

  2. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  3. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  4. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes a 3-year evaluation of coal cleaning processes. It discusses: physical coal cleaning (PCC) technology; the potential role of PCC in producing coals for compliance with SO2 emission regulations; pollution controls for PCC plants; assessment criteria and test ...

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1991-09-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  9. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  10. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  12. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  13. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  14. On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M J

    2009-10-06

    The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

  15. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  16. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  17. Sparse/Low Rank Constrained Reconstruction for Dynamic PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xingjian; Chen, Shuhang; Hu, Zhenghui; Liu, Meng; Chen, Yunmei; Shi, Pengcheng; Liu, Huafeng

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET), an estimate of the radio activity concentration is obtained from a series of frames of sinogram data taken at ranging in duration from 10 seconds to minutes under some criteria. So far, all the well-known reconstruction algorithms require known data statistical properties. It limits the speed of data acquisition, besides, it is unable to afford the separated information about the structure and the variation of shape and rate of metabolism which play a major role in improving the visualization of contrast for some requirement of the diagnosing in application. This paper presents a novel low rank-based activity map reconstruction scheme from emission sinograms of dynamic PET, termed as SLCR representing Sparse/Low Rank Constrained Reconstruction for Dynamic PET Imaging. In this method, the stationary background is formulated as a low rank component while variations between successive frames are abstracted to the sparse. The resulting nuclear norm and l1 norm related minimization problem can also be efficiently solved by many recently developed numerical methods. In this paper, the linearized alternating direction method is applied. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is illustrated on three data sets. PMID:26540274

  18. Low-Rank Regularization for Learning Gene Expression Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Guibo; Tang, Mengfan; Cai, Jian-Feng; Nie, Qing; Xie, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Learning gene expression programs directly from a set of observations is challenging due to the complexity of gene regulation, high noise of experimental measurements, and insufficient number of experimental measurements. Imposing additional constraints with strong and biologically motivated regularizations is critical in developing reliable and effective algorithms for inferring gene expression programs. Here we propose a new form of regulation that constrains the number of independent connectivity patterns between regulators and targets, motivated by the modular design of gene regulatory programs and the belief that the total number of independent regulatory modules should be small. We formulate a multi-target linear regression framework to incorporate this type of regulation, in which the number of independent connectivity patterns is expressed as the rank of the connectivity matrix between regulators and targets. We then generalize the linear framework to nonlinear cases, and prove that the generalized low-rank regularization model is still convex. Efficient algorithms are derived to solve both the linear and nonlinear low-rank regularized problems. Finally, we test the algorithms on three gene expression datasets, and show that the low-rank regularization improves the accuracy of gene expression prediction in these three datasets. PMID:24358148

  19. Efficient completion for corrupted low-rank images via alternating direction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Duanqing; Lu, Dongming

    2014-05-01

    We propose an efficient and easy-to-implement method to settle the inpainting problem for low-rank images following the recent studies about low-rank matrix completion. In general, our method has three steps: first, corresponding to the three channels of RGB color space, an incomplete image is split into three incomplete matrices; second, each matrix is restored by solving a convex problem derived from the nuclear norm relaxation; at last, the three recovered matrices are merged to produce the final output. During the process, in order to efficiently solve the nuclear norm minimization problem, we employ the alternating direction method. Except for the basic image inpainting problem, we also enable our method to handle cases where corrupted images not only have missing values but also have noisy entries. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the existing inpainting techniques both quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrate that our method is capable of processing many other situations, including block-wise low-rank image completion, large-scale image restoration, and object removal.

  20. EXXON donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epperly, W. R.; Swabb, L. E., Jr.; Tauton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A solvent coal liquefaction process to produce low-sulfur liquid products from a wide range of coals is described. An integrated program of laboratory and engineering research and development in conjunction with operation of a 250 T/D pilot plant is discussed.

  1. Coal treatment process and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Getsoian, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a process for obtaining product coal agglomerates. It comprises mixing an aqueous slurry of finely divided coal particles and particles of pyrites and other mineral matter with an organic, water-insoluble, steam-strippable, bridging liquid selected from the group consisting of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons having from 5 to 9 carbon atoms and mixtures thereof, under high shear conditions effective to wet the coal particles with the bridging liquid and convert same into microagglomerates, then mixing the aqueous slurry of the microagglomerates of coal and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matters together with an organic, water-insoluble binder comprising asphalt and the bridging liquid, under low shear conditions effective to agglomerate the microagglomerates to form product coal agglomerates, then separating water and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matter from the product coal agglomerates, then heating the product coal agglomerates and thereby evaporating and removing the bridging liquid from the product coal agglomerates, and then recovering the product coal agglomerates substantially free of the bridging liquid.

  2. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

  3. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Alejandro; Liu, Vincent; Wan, Joe; Callahan, Alison; Udell, Madeleine; Stark, David E; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  4. Low rank approximation in G 0 W 0 calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, MeiYue; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Liu, Fang; Da Jornada, Felipe H.; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-08-01

    The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn--Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in transport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green's function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The $G_0W_0$ approximation is a widely used technique in which the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a non-interacting Green's function ($G_0$) and a screened Coulomb interaction ($W_0$) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating $W_0$ at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cost of $G_0W_0$ calculation can be reduced by constructing a low rank approximation to the frequency dependent part of $W_0$. In particular, we examine the effect of such a low rank approximation on the accuracy of the $G_0W_0$ approximation. We also discuss how the numerical convolution of $G_0$ and $W_0$ can be evaluated efficiently and accurately by using a contour deformation technique with an appropriate choice of the contour.

  5. Integrated Low-Rank-Based Discriminative Feature Learning for Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pan; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Feature learning plays a central role in pattern recognition. In recent years, many representation-based feature learning methods have been proposed and have achieved great success in many applications. However, these methods perform feature learning and subsequent classification in two separate steps, which may not be optimal for recognition tasks. In this paper, we present a supervised low-rank-based approach for learning discriminative features. By integrating latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) with a ridge regression-based classifier, our approach combines feature learning with classification, so that the regulated classification error is minimized. In this way, the extracted features are more discriminative for the recognition tasks. Our approach benefits from a recent discovery on the closed-form solutions to noiseless LatLRR. When there is noise, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based denoising step can be added as preprocessing. When the scale of a problem is large, we utilize a fast randomized algorithm to speed up the computation of robust PCA. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:26080387

  6. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SCHULER, ALEJANDRO; LIU, VINCENT; WAN, JOE; CALLAHAN, ALISON; UDELL, MADELEINE; STARK, DAVID E.; SHAH, NIGAM H.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  7. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  8. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winshel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The first objective will utilize analytical techniques which have not been fully demonstrated; the second objective involves more previously proven methods. This quarter, two feed coals and 39 process oils from Wilsonville Run 258 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 258 was operated in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. The subbituminous feed coals were from the Spring Creek Mine (Anderson and Dietz seams) and from the Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams). Shell 324 catalyst was used in the second stage. Various coal samples related to Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed for chemical and petrographic composition. These results will be given in a future report, which covers all of Run 259. 18 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  12. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  13. Denoised Wigner distribution deconvolution via low-rank matrix completion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin; Barbastathis, George

    2016-09-01

    Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) is a decades-old method for recovering phase from intensity measurements. Although the technique offers an elegant linear solution to the quadratic phase retrieval problem, it has seen limited adoption due to its high computational/memory requirements and the fact that the technique often exhibits high noise sensitivity. Here, we propose a method for noise suppression in WDD via low-rank noisy matrix completion. Our technique exploits the redundancy of an object's phase space to denoise its WDD reconstruction. We show in model calculations that our technique outperforms other WDD algorithms as well as modern iterative methods for phase retrieval such as ptychography. Our results suggest that a class of phase retrieval techniques relying on regularized direct inversion of ptychographic datasets (instead of iterative reconstruction techniques) can provide accurate quantitative phase information in the presence of high levels of noise. PMID:27607616

  14. Respirable coal mine dust sample processing

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.D.; Tomb, T.F.; Parobeck, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established mandatory dust standards for coal mines. Regulatory requirements for complying with the provisions of the Act were prescribed in Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 70 and 71, which were published in the Federal Register on April 3, 1970, and March 28, 1972, respectively. These standard and sampling requirements of coal mine operators, along with a description of the laboratory which was established to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with these requirements, were published in MESA Informational Report (MESA, the acronym for the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, was changed to MSHA, the acronym for the Mine Safety and Health Administration, in 1977). These standards and regulatory requirements continued under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 until November 1980, when major regulatory revisions were made in the operator's dust sampling program. This paper describes the changes in the respirable coal mine dust sampling program and the equipment and procedures used by MSHA to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with regulatory requirements. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less

  16. Simultaneously Sparse and Low-Rank Abundance Matrix Estimation for Hyperspectral Image Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampouras, Paris V.; Themelis, Konstantinos E.; Rontogiannis, Athanasios A.; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos D.

    2016-08-01

    In a plethora of applications dealing with inverse problems, e.g. in image processing, social networks, compressive sensing, biological data processing etc., the signal of interest is known to be structured in several ways at the same time. This premise has recently guided the research to the innovative and meaningful idea of imposing multiple constraints on the parameters involved in the problem under study. For instance, when dealing with problems whose parameters form sparse and low-rank matrices, the adoption of suitably combined constraints imposing sparsity and low-rankness, is expected to yield substantially enhanced estimation results. In this paper, we address the spectral unmixing problem in hyperspectral images. Specifically, two novel unmixing algorithms are introduced, in an attempt to exploit both spatial correlation and sparse representation of pixels lying in homogeneous regions of hyperspectral images. To this end, a novel convex mixed penalty term is first defined consisting of the sum of the weighted $\\ell_1$ and the weighted nuclear norm of the abundance matrix corresponding to a small area of the image determined by a sliding square window. This penalty term is then used to regularize a conventional quadratic cost function and impose simultaneously sparsity and row-rankness on the abundance matrix. The resulting regularized cost function is minimized by a) an incremental proximal sparse and low-rank unmixing algorithm and b) an algorithm based on the alternating minimization method of multipliers (ADMM). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated in experiments conducted both on simulated and real data.

  17. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.

  18. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W.; Givens, Edwin N.; Skinner, Ronald W.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  19. Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

    1980-05-01

    A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

  20. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are consideredmore » individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.« less

  1. The H-Coal processes: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic process (H-Coal) involving the direct hydrogenation of coal to produce hydrocarbon liquids is described. Bench-scale and pilot plant development of the H-Coal process is reported. Emphasis is placed on a proposed pilot plant which will be the largest coal liquefaction plant on-line in the U.S., processing up to 600 tpd of coal. Economic considerations are given.

  2. Statistically efficient tomography of low rank states with incomplete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anirudh; Kypraios, Theodore; Guţă, Mădălin

    2016-04-01

    The construction of physically relevant low dimensional state models, and the design of appropriate measurements are key issues in tackling quantum state tomography for large dimensional systems. We consider the statistical problem of estimating low rank states in the set-up of multiple ions tomography, and investigate how the estimation error behaves with a reduction in the number of measurement settings, compared with the standard ion tomography setup. We present extensive simulation results showing that the error is robust with respect to the choice of states of a given rank, the random selection of settings, and that the number of settings can be significantly reduced with only a negligible increase in error. We present an argument to explain these findings based on a concentration inequality for the Fisher information matrix. In the more general setup of random basis measurements we use this argument to show that for certain rank r states it suffices to measure in O(r{log}d) bases to achieve the average Fisher information over all bases. We present numerical evidence for random states of up to eight atoms, which suggests that a similar behaviour holds in the case of Pauli bases measurements, for randomly chosen states. The relation to similar problems in compressed sensing is also discussed.

  3. Missing Modality Transfer Learning via Latent Low-Rank Constraint.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengming; Shao, Ming; Fu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Transfer learning is usually exploited to leverage previously well-learned source domain for evaluating the unknown target domain; however, it may fail if no target data are available in the training stage. This problem arises when the data are multi-modal. For example, the target domain is in one modality, while the source domain is in another. To overcome this, we first borrow an auxiliary database with complete modalities, then consider knowledge transfer across databases and across modalities within databases simultaneously in a unified framework. The contributions are threefold: 1) a latent factor is introduced to uncover the underlying structure of the missing modality from the known data; 2) transfer learning in two directions allows the data alignment between both modalities and databases, giving rise to a very promising recovery; and 3) an efficient solution with theoretical guarantees to the proposed latent low-rank transfer learning algorithm. Comprehensive experiments on multi-modal knowledge transfer with missing target modality verify that our method can successfully inherit knowledge from both auxiliary database and source modality, and therefore significantly improve the recognition performance even when test modality is inaccessible in the training stage. PMID:26241972

  4. Biochemistry of bond breaking in coal: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-22

    The goal of this program was to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms by which natural microorganisms solubilize low-rank coals. Specific objectives which were met to attain this goal included: (1) identification of microbes capable of solubilizing low-rank coals; (2) optimization of coal biosolubilization; (3) characterization of the products resulting from microbial coal solubilization; and (4) postulation of biochemical mechanisms involved in coal solubilization using model compound studies to identify bonds which are susceptible to cleavage. Several bacterial and fungal cultures were examined for coal solubilization. A microbial consortium (CP1/plus/2) that was developed at ARCTECH exhibited the best coal solubilization of the cultures tested. This mixture of bacteria and fungi solubilized untreated Leonardite coal as well as pretreated (HNO/sub 3/ or H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) lignites and a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Complex mechanisms of bond breaking are likely involved in coal biosolubilization. The solubilization of coal may be mediated by a combination of biological and non-biological factors. Model compound studies indicated that a variety of bonds thought to be present in coal can potentially be cleaved by the CP1/plus/2 coal solubilizing agents. Solubilization of coals by CP1/plus/2 was most rapid during the initial stages of the reaction. The overall biosolubilization process could not be defined in terms of zero or first order kinetics with respect to product appearance over time. 51 refs., 49 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  6. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Ruether, John A.; Simpson, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  7. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Ruether, John A.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture of agglomerates, excess water, dissolved catalyst, and unagglomerated solids is pumped to reaction pressure and then passed through a drainage device where all but a small amount of surface water is removed from the agglomerates. Sufficient catalyst for the reaction is contained in surface water remaining on the agglomerates. The agglomerates fall into the liquefaction reactor countercurrently to a stream of hot gas which is utilized to dry and preheat the agglomerates as well as deposit catalyst on the agglomerates before they enter the reactor where they are converted to primarily liquid products under hydrogen pressure.

  8. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-04

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  9. Dual Low-Rank Pursuit: Learning Salient Features for Saliency Detection.

    PubMed

    Lang, Congyan; Feng, Jiashi; Feng, Songhe; Wang, Jingdong; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-06-01

    Saliency detection is an important procedure for machines to understand visual world as humans do. In this paper, we consider a specific saliency detection problem of predicting human eye fixations when they freely view natural images, and propose a novel dual low-rank pursuit (DLRP) method. DLRP learns saliency-aware feature transformations by utilizing available supervision information and constructs discriminative bases for effectively detecting human fixation points under the popular low-rank and sparsity-pursuit framework. Benefiting from the embedded high-level information in the supervised learning process, DLRP is able to predict fixations accurately without performing the expensive object segmentation as in the previous works. Comprehensive experiments clearly show the superiority of the proposed DLRP method over the established state-of-the-art methods. We also empirically demonstrate that DLRP provides stronger generalization performance across different data sets and inherits the advantages of both the bottom-up- and top-down-based saliency detection methods. PMID:27046853

  10. Robust Low-Rank Tensor Recovery With Regularized Redescending M-Estimator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuning; Feng, Yunlong; Suykens, Johan A K

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the robust low-rank tensor recovery problems. Tensor recovery aims at reconstructing a low-rank tensor from some linear measurements, which finds applications in image processing, pattern recognition, multitask learning, and so on. In real-world applications, data might be contaminated by sparse gross errors. However, the existing approaches may not be very robust to outliers. To resolve this problem, this paper proposes approaches based on the regularized redescending M-estimators, which have been introduced in robust statistics. The robustness of the proposed approaches is achieved by the regularized redescending M-estimators. However, the nonconvexity also leads to a computational difficulty. To handle this problem, we develop algorithms based on proximal and linearized block coordinate descent methods. By explicitly deriving the Lipschitz constant of the gradient of the data-fitting risk, the descent property of the algorithms is present. Moreover, we verify that the objective functions of the proposed approaches satisfy the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, which establishes the global convergence of the algorithms. The numerical experiments on synthetic data as well as real data verify that our approaches are robust in the presence of outliers and still effective in the absence of outliers. PMID:26302521

  11. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  12. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Doohee

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

  13. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOEpatents

    Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

  14. Minimization of moisture readsorption in dried coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Low-rank coals constitute a major energy source for the future as reserves of such high-moisture coals around the world are vast. Currently they are considered undesirable since high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Furthermore, low-moisture-content coal is needed for the various coal pyrolysis and gasification processes. Hence, various upgrading processes have been developed to reduce the moisture content. Moisture readsorption and spontaneous combustion are important issues in coal upgrading processes. This article discusses results of laboratory experiments conducted to study the options for minimization of readsorption of moisture after drying of selected coal samples. Results suggest that there is little benefit in drying low-rank coal at high temperatures. It was found that the higher the amount of bitumen used for coating, the lower is the readsorption of moisture by dried coal. Also, mixing high-temperature-dried coal with wet coal in appropriate proportion can yield reduced moisture content as the sensible heat in the hot coal is utilized for evaporation.

  15. Spectral thresholding quantum tomography for low rank states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butucea, Cristina; Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    The estimation of high dimensional quantum states is an important statistical problem arising in current quantum technology applications. A key example is the tomography of multiple ions states, employed in the validation of state preparation in ion trap experiments (Häffner et al 2005 Nature 438 643). Since full tomography becomes unfeasible even for a small number of ions, there is a need to investigate lower dimensional statistical models which capture prior information about the state, and to devise estimation methods tailored to such models. In this paper we propose several new methods aimed at the efficient estimation of low rank states and analyse their performance for multiple ions tomography. All methods consist in first computing the least squares estimator, followed by its truncation to an appropriately chosen smaller rank. The latter is done by setting eigenvalues below a certain ‘noise level’ to zero, while keeping the rest unchanged, or normalizing them appropriately. We show that (up to logarithmic factors in the space dimension) the mean square error of the resulting estimators scales as r\\cdot d/N where r is the rank, d={2}k is the dimension of the Hilbert space, and N is the number of quantum samples. Furthermore we establish a lower bound for the asymptotic minimax risk which shows that the above scaling is optimal. The performance of the estimators is analysed in an extensive simulations study, with emphasis on the dependence on the state rank, and the number of measurement repetitions. We find that all estimators perform significantly better than the least squares, with the ‘physical estimator’ (which is a bona fide density matrix) slightly outperforming the other estimators.

  16. Evaluation of coal pretreatment prior to co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Barbour, F.A.; Blake, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The Western Research Institute is currently developing a mild gasification process for the recovery of a stabilized char product for use as a fuel. A liquid product of limited value is produced during the mild gasification process that may be suited as a co-processing vehicle for coal-oil co-processing. Research was conducted to evaluate co-processing of this mild gasification liquid with coal. The two major areas of research discussed in this report are: (1) coal pretreatment with a coal-derived liquid to induce coal swelling and promote catalyst dispersion and (2) co-processing coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid. The results of the investigation to evaluate co-processing of coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid indicate that the thermal pretreatment adversely affected the coal-oil co-processing under hydrogen pressure. Thermally pretreated coals co-processed under a hydrogen atmosphere and without benefit of catalyst exhibited about 86 wt % conversion as compared to 96 wt % for coal that was only thermally dried. The addition of the iron pentacarbonyl catalyst precursor to the thermally pretreated coals did improve the conversion to near that of the dried coal. Results from analysis of the product obtained from co-processing the Illinois No. 6 coal showed it was upgraded in terms of oxygen content and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio when compared to the mild gasification liquid.

  17. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi, Second quarterly report, [October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.

    1995-01-26

    Since our last quarterly report our research activities have focused on characterization of coal macromolecule by P. chrysosporium in vivo in ;two different culture media and by sodium oxalate in vitro. Wood rotting fungi mediate solubilization of low rank coal by secreting oxalic acid which chelates metal ions whose chelating metal ions oxalic acid breaks these ionic bridges rendering the coal macromolecules water soluble. Thus solubization by sodium oxalate in vitro represents a biomimetic process.

  18. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B. )

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate on coal solubilization by this organism.

  19. Process for detoxifying coal tars

    DOEpatents

    Longwell, John P.; Peters, William A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for treating liquid hydrocarbons to remove toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons comprises feeding the hydrocarbons into a reactor where vapors are thermally treated in contact with a catalyst consisting essentially of calcium oxide or a calcium oxide containing mineral. Thermally treating liquid hydrocarbons in contact with calcium oxide preferentially increases the cracking of aromatics thus producing a product having a reduced amount of aromatic compounds.

  20. Two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    An improved SRC-I two-stage coal liquefaction process which improves the product slate is provided. Substantially all of the net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate from the LC-Finer is combined with the SRC process solvent, substantially all of the net 400.degree.-650.degree. F. middle distillate from the SRC section is combined with the hydrocracker solvent in the LC-Finer, and the initial boiling point of the SRC process solvent is increased sufficiently high to produce a net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate of zero for the two-stage liquefaction process.

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. )

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  2. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  3. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  5. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT STUDIES ON THE BATTELLE HYDROTHERMAL COAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for...

  6. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  7. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  8. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  9. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  10. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  11. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  12. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  13. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  14. Process for improving soluble coal yield in a coal deashing process

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Coal liquefaction products are contacted with a deashing solvent and introduced into a first separation zone. The first separation zone is maintained at an elevated temperature and pressure, determined to maximize the recovery of soluble coal products, to cause said coal liquefaction products to separate into a first light phase and a first heavy phase. Under these conditions the heavy phase while still fluid-like in character is substantially non-flowable. Flowability is returned to the fluid-like heavy phase by the introduction of an additional quantity of deashing solvent into the first separation zone at a location below the interface between the first light and heavy phases or into the heavy phase withdrawal conduit during withdrawal of the first heavy phase and prior to any substantial pressure reduction. The first heavy phase then is withdrawn from the first separation zone for additional downstream processing without plugging either the withdrawal conduit or the downstream apparatus. The first light phase comprising the soluble coal products is withdrawn and recovered in an increased yield to provide a more economical coal deashing process.

  15. Upgrading coke strength by a coal-blend-compaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Fun, F.; Brayton, W.E.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the continuing effort to upgrade the strength of coke made from available coal blends, US Steel is developing coal-blend compaction as an alternative method to coal preheating. In this process the coal blend is compacted to produce relatively weak compacted materials, which are subsequently degraded into controlled size fractions of intimately integrated particles of the multicomponent coal blend. The degraded blend particles are charged into conventional coke ovens for coking. Coal-blend-compaction tests conducted in the laboratory with coals from the Appalachian basin showed substantial improvement in coke strength. The encouraging laboratory results dictated a commerical scale test at US Steel's Gary Works. This plant test, in which more than 200 tons of coal blend was used, further confirmed the improvement in coke strength by the coal-blend-compaction process. Potential benefits of the process include (1) retrospective adaptation to existing coke batteries, (2) improved strength of coke from regular coal blends, (3) maintenance of same or higher coke strength with poor coal blends, and (4) economics that are competitive with or better than those of coal preheating. Continuing developments are being investigated in a compaction pilot plant and commercial coke ovens at US Steel's Clairton Works, mainly to establish engineering criteria and optimal controls for large-scale installations. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  16. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  17. Process of beneficiating coal and product

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; McGarry, P.E.

    1981-12-08

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water unsoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal, particularly the iron pyrites, remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically, and the carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  18. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Tobey, M.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current physical coal cleaning process is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from the coal, that is, to remove the mineral particles from the coal. In order to separate mineral from coal particles efficiently, the finely disseminated mineral matter must be liberated from the coal matrix with the help of an ultrafine grinding operation. The coal becomes very difficult to dewater because of the small particle size produced. Difficulty in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at the utility plants are also problems associated with the small coal particles resulting from ultrafine grinding. During this project, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale hydraulic compacting device. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  19. Continuous extrusion of coal. [plastic fluidizing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Kushida, R.; Daksla, C.

    1978-01-01

    A feeding method for use with bituminous coals that exhibit plasticity at elevated temperatures is described and demonstrated on a small screw extruder previously used to extrude polyethylene. A metered feed of coal heated to a temperature just below that of incipient caking (approximately 450 C) is used. Modifications to the extruder consisting of ceramic band heaters, auxiliary cooling coils on the thrust bearing and special quick opening dies are detailed. Coals successfully extruded include high volatile A bituminous coals, high volatile B bituminous coals, a high volatile C bituminous coal and a coal with high ash content. The computer program, EXTRUD, used to simulate the extruder is described. Predicted power consumption exhibits 30% scatter, which is explained by the sensitivity of the coal friction coefficient to temperature profiles. Detailed analysis reveals some discrepancies in the program that need to be resolved.

  20. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  1. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  2. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  3. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  5. Coal conversion processes. Final report, September 13-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental work on the following four projects related to coal conversion processes is reported: (1) thermal behavior of slurry reactors used for indirect coal liquefaction; (2) acid gas removal by absorption in organic solvents; (3) cobalt-catalyzed synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO/H/sub 2/, studied with transient kinetics; and (4) extraction and conversion of coal using supercritical fluids. Each section has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors' Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development''. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.

  7. Effect of the process conditions of aerobic bioconversion on the characteristics of biologically processed brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-04-15

    The effect of the laboratory and pilot process conditions of the aerobic bioconversion of brown coals on the elemental composition and technical characteristics of the organic matter of the resulting biologically processed coals is reported.

  8. Coal filtration process and dewatering aids therefore

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, R.O.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for dewatering an aqueous slurry of solid coal particulates wherein the aqueous slurry contains between about 10 and 60 percent of solid coal particulates and a dewatering aid is added to the slurry followed by vacuum filtration thereof to produce a filter cake of the coal particulates. The improvement for lowering the water content of the filter cake comprises adding to the slurry prior to filtration an effective amount of a dewatering aid selected.

  9. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  10. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  12. Ultra low radiation dose digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging using low rank constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Kai; Li, Yinsheng; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Wu, Yijing; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this work we developed a novel denoising algorithm for DSA image series. This algorithm takes advantage of the low rank nature of the DSA image sequences to enable a dramatic reduction in radiation and/or contrast doses in DSA imaging. Both spatial and temporal regularizers were introduced in the optimization algorithm to further reduce noise. To validate the method, in vivo animal studies were conducted with a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system using different radiation dose levels and contrast concentrations. Both conventionally processed DSA images and the DSA images generated using the novel denoising method were compared using absolute noise standard deviation and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). With the application of the novel denoising algorithm for DSA, image quality can be maintained with a radiation dose reduction by a factor of 20 and/or a factor of 2 reduction in contrast dose. Image processing is completed on a GPU within a second for a 10s DSA data acquisition.

  13. Electricity Market Forecasting via Low-Rank Multi-Kernel Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekatos, Vassilis; Zhang, Yu; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2014-12-01

    The smart grid vision entails advanced information technology and data analytics to enhance the efficiency, sustainability, and economics of the power grid infrastructure. Aligned to this end, modern statistical learning tools are leveraged here for electricity market inference. Day-ahead price forecasting is cast as a low-rank kernel learning problem. Uniquely exploiting the market clearing process, congestion patterns are modeled as rank-one components in the matrix of spatio-temporally varying prices. Through a novel nuclear norm-based regularization, kernels across pricing nodes and hours can be systematically selected. Even though market-wide forecasting is beneficial from a learning perspective, it involves processing high-dimensional market data. The latter becomes possible after devising a block-coordinate descent algorithm for solving the non-convex optimization problem involved. The algorithm utilizes results from block-sparse vector recovery and is guaranteed to converge to a stationary point. Numerical tests on real data from the Midwest ISO (MISO) market corroborate the prediction accuracy, computational efficiency, and the interpretative merits of the developed approach over existing alternatives.

  14. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  15. Robust visual tracking via L 0 regularized local low-rank feature learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Risheng; Bai, Shanshan; Su, Zhixun; Zhang, Changcheng; Sun, Chunhai

    2015-05-01

    Visual tracking is a fundamental task and has many applications in computer vision. We incorporate local dictionary and L0 regularized low-rank features into the particle filter framework to address this problem. Specifically, by developing an efficient L0 regularized sparse coding model to incrementally learn low-rank features for the tracking target and incorporating a local dictionary into low-rank features to build the observation model, we establish a robust online object tracking system. As a nontrivial byproduct, we also develop numerical algorithms to efficiently solve the resulting nonconvex optimization problems. Compared with conventional methods, which often directly use corrupted observations to form the dictionary, our low-rank feature-based dictionary successfully removes occlusions and exactly represents the intrinsic structure of the object. Furthermore, in contrast to the traditional holistic methods, the local strategy contains abundant partial and spatial information, thus enhancing the discrimination of our observation model. More importantly, the L0 norm-based hard sparse coding can successfully reduce the redundant information while preserving the intrinsic low-rank features of the target object, leading to a better appearance subspace updating scheme. Experimental results on challenging sequences show that our method consistently outperforms several state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Annihilating Filter-Based Low-Rank Hankel Matrix Approach for Image Inpainting.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kyong Hwan; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a patch-based image inpainting method using a low-rank Hankel structured matrix completion approach. The proposed method exploits the annihilation property between a shift-invariant filter and image data observed in many existing inpainting algorithms. In particular, by exploiting the commutative property of the convolution, the annihilation property results in a low-rank block Hankel structure data matrix, and the image inpainting problem becomes a low-rank structured matrix completion problem. The block Hankel structured matrices are obtained patch-by-patch to adapt to the local changes in the image statistics. To solve the structured low-rank matrix completion problem, we employ an alternating direction method of multipliers with factorization matrix initialization using the low-rank matrix fitting algorithm. As a side product of the matrix factorization, locally adaptive dictionaries can be also easily constructed. Despite the simplicity of the algorithm, the experimental results using irregularly subsampled images as well as various images with globally missing patterns showed that the proposed method outperforms existing state-of-the-art image inpainting methods. PMID:26087492

  17. Low-Rank Modeling of Local k-Space Neighborhoods (LORAKS) for Constrained MRI

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Justin P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical results on low-rank matrix reconstruction have inspired significant interest in low-rank modeling of MRI images. Existing approaches have focused on higher-dimensional scenarios with data available from multiple channels, timepoints, or image contrasts. The present work demonstrates that single-channel, single-contrast, single-timepoint k-space data can also be mapped to low-rank matrices when the image has limited spatial support or slowly varying phase. Based on this, we develop a novel and flexible framework for constrained image reconstruction that uses low-rank matrix modeling of local k-space neighborhoods (LORAKS). A new regularization penalty and corresponding algorithm for promoting low-rank are also introduced. The potential of LORAKS is demonstrated with simulated and experimental data for a range of denoising and sparse-sampling applications. LORAKS is also compared against state-of-the-art methods like homodyne reconstruction, ℓ1-norm minimization, and total variation minimization, and is demonstrated to have distinct features and advantages. In addition, while calibration-based support and phase constraints are commonly used in existing methods, the LORAKS framework enables calibrationless use of these constraints. PMID:24595341

  18. Joint Low-Rank and Sparse Principal Feature Coding for Enhanced Robust Representation and Visual Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Li, Fanzhang; Zhao, Mingbo; Zhang, Li; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-06-01

    Recovering low-rank and sparse subspaces jointly for enhanced robust representation and classification is discussed. Technically, we first propose a transductive low-rank and sparse principal feature coding (LSPFC) formulation that decomposes given data into a component part that encodes low-rank sparse principal features and a noise-fitting error part. To well handle the outside data, we then present an inductive LSPFC (I-LSPFC). I-LSPFC incorporates embedded low-rank and sparse principal features by a projection into one problem for direct minimization, so that the projection can effectively map both inside and outside data into the underlying subspaces to learn more powerful and informative features for representation. To ensure that the learned features by I-LSPFC are optimal for classification, we further combine the classification error with the feature coding error to form a unified model, discriminative LSPFC (D-LSPFC), to boost performance. The model of D-LSPFC seamlessly integrates feature coding and discriminative classification, so the representation and classification powers can be enhanced. The proposed approaches are more general, and several recent existing low-rank or sparse coding algorithms can be embedded into our problems as special cases. Visual and numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for representation and classification. PMID:27046875

  19. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  20. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  1. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  2. A low-rank approximation-based transductive support tensor machine for semisupervised classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolan; Guo, Tengjiao; He, Lifang; Yang, Xiaowei

    2015-06-01

    In the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision, the data are usually represented by the tensors. For the semisupervised tensor classification, the existing transductive support tensor machine (TSTM) needs to resort to iterative technique, which is very time-consuming. In order to overcome this shortcoming, in this paper, we extend the concave-convex procedure-based transductive support vector machine (CCCP-TSVM) to the tensor patterns and propose a low-rank approximation-based TSTM, in which the tensor rank-one decomposition is used to compute the inner product of the tensors. Theoretically, concave-convex procedure-based TSTM (CCCP-TSTM) is an extension of the linear CCCP-TSVM to tensor patterns. When the input patterns are vectors, CCCP-TSTM degenerates into the linear CCCP-TSVM. A set of experiments is conducted on 23 semisupervised classification tasks, which are generated from seven second-order face data sets, three third-order gait data sets, and two third-order image data sets, to illustrate the performance of the CCCP-TSTM. The results show that compared with CCCP-TSVM and TSTM, CCCP-TSTM provides significant performance gain in terms of test accuracy and training speed. PMID:25700447

  3. L₁-Norm Low-Rank Matrix Decomposition by Neural Networks and Mollifiers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiguang; Yang, Songfan; Wu, Pengfei; Li, Chunguang; Yang, Menglong

    2016-02-01

    The L1-norm cost function of the low-rank approximation of the matrix with missing entries is not smooth, and also cannot be transformed into a standard linear or quadratic programming problem, and thus, the optimization of this cost function is still not well solved. To tackle this problem, first, a mollifier is used to smooth the cost function. High closeness of the smoothed function to the original one can be obtained by tuning the parameters contained in the mollifier. Next, a recurrent neural network is proposed to optimize the mollified function, which will converge to a local minimum. In addition, to boost the speed of the system, the mollifying process is implemented by a filtering procedure. The influence of two mollifier parameters is theoretically analyzed and experimentally confirmed, showing that one of the parameters is critical to computational efficiency and accuracy, while the other not. A large number of experiments on synthetic data show that the proposed method is competitive to the state-of-the-art methods. In particular, the experiments on large matrices and a real application in the structure from motion indicate that the memory requirement of the proposed algorithm is mild, making it suitable for real applications that often involve large-scale matrix decomposition. PMID:26595933

  4. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  5. A Non-Local Low-Rank Approach to Enforce Integrability.

    PubMed

    Badri, Hicham; Yahia, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new approach to enforce integrability using recent advances in non-local methods. Our formulation consists in a sparse gradient data-fitting term to handle outliers together with a gradient-domain non-local low-rank prior. This regularization has two main advantages: 1) the low-rank prior ensures similarity between non-local gradient patches, which helps recovering high-quality clean patches from severe outliers corruption and 2) the low-rank prior efficiently reduces dense noise as it has been shown in recent image restoration works. We propose an efficient solver for the resulting optimization formulation using alternate minimization. Experiments show that the new method leads to an important improvement compared with previous optimization methods and is able to efficiently handle both outliers and dense noise mixed together. PMID:27214898

  6. Adaptive low-rank approximation and denoised Monte Carlo approach for high-dimensional Lindblad equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, C.; Rouchon, P.; Roussel, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a twofold contribution to the numerical simulation of Lindblad equations. First, an adaptive numerical approach to approximate Lindblad equations using low-rank dynamics is described: a deterministic low-rank approximation of the density operator is computed, and its rank is adjusted dynamically, using an on-the-fly estimator of the error committed when reducing the dimension. On the other hand, when the intrinsic dimension of the Lindblad equation is too high to allow for such a deterministic approximation, we combine classical ensemble averages of quantum Monte Carlo trajectories and a denoising technique. Specifically, a variance reduction method based on the consideration of a low-rank dynamics as a control variate is developed. Numerical tests for quantum collapse and revivals show the efficiency of each approach, along with the complementarity of the two approaches.

  7. Low-Rank and Eigenface Based Sparse Representation for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:25334027

  8. Image restoration via patch orientation-based low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; He, Jiazhong; Du, Minghui

    2016-03-01

    Low-rank matrix approximation and nonlocal means (NLM) are two popular techniques for image restoration. Although the basic principle for applying these two techniques is the same, i.e., similar image patches are abundant in the image, previously published related algorithms use either low-rank matrix approximation or NLM because they manipulate the information of similar patches in different ways. We propose a method for image restoration by jointly using low-rank matrix approximation and NLM in a unified minimization framework. To improve the accuracy of determining similar patches, we also propose a patch similarity measurement based on curvelet transform. Extensive experiments on image deblurring and compressive sensing image recovery validate that the proposed method achieves better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both quantitative measures and visual perception.

  9. A combined physical/microbial process for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, K.S.; Glenn, A.W.; Stevens, C.J.; McAtee, N.B.; McIlwain, M.E.; Andrews, G.F.

    1993-11-01

    A combined physical/microbial process for the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal was demonstrated in a 200 L aerated trough slurry reactor. The reactor was divided into six sections, each of which acted as both a physical separator and a bioreactor. Settled solids from sections 2 through 6 were recycled to section 1 which acted as a rougher. The objective was physical removal of the larger pyritic inclusions, which would take many days to biodegrade, and biodegradation of the micropyrite, which is difficult to remove physically. The process was operated continuously for 8 months, treating two Illinois No. 6 coals (4 months each). Reduction of 90% in-pyritic sulfur with 90% energy recovery and 35% ash removal was obtained for a low pyrite Monterey coal at a 5 day coal retention time and 20% (w/w) slurry concentration. Increased coal loading reduced performance apparently due to losses of sulfur oxidizing bacteria. A low pyrite Consol coal gave 63--77% pyrite reduction with 23--30% ash removal and 77--90% heating value recovery. Product coal pyritic sulfur analysis indicated no differences between treatments of Consol coal. This suggests that the coal residence time could be further reduced and the slurry concentration increased in future work.

  10. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. ); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. . Research and Development Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  12. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Eckert

    1997-11-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we developed a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as one model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was selected as a second model system, and it was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a background against which requirements for further developments of coal cleaning technology and control techniques for the associated pollutants can be established, as part of a review of U.S. coal cleaning process technologies and related technologies for envir...

  14. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES; MASTER TEST PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a master test plan, presenting the objectives and general structure of a field testing program designed for an environmental source assessment of coal cleaning processes. The report, to be used to prepare test plans for individual coal cleaning sites, reflects th...

  16. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  17. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.; Heintz, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  18. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard... one of these equations: ER06NO97.003 (2) EM equals excess moisture percentage. TM equals total...

  19. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  20. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM standard.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a)(1) Calculate the excess moisture percentage...

  1. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30 °C are incorporated by reference as published in the 1994... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM...

  2. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30 °C are incorporated by reference as published in the 1994... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM...

  3. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30 °C are incorporated by reference as published in the 1994... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Each applicable ASTM...

  4. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, April-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-07-01

    The lignite used for Phase I of the project was a Texas lignite from the Martin Lake mine obtained from the stockpile for the Martin Lake Power Plant of the Texas Utilities Generating Company. The power requirements for the fluid-energy mill were determined from the measured steam (or air) temperatures, pressures and pressure drops and the lignite flow rate. The instrument locations for the tests are shown on Figure 1. All of the instruments were connected to a microcomputer via an analog input interface board. Data were recorded on disks periodically throughout the tests. Appropriate calibration procedures were followed to assure that reliable data were being obtained. The combined grinding/drying tests were conducted in Vicksbuth, MS at Ergon, Inc.'s fluid-energy-mill facility. both steam and air were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were run with the following temperatures maintained inside the pulverizer: 310/sup 0/F, 350/sup 0/F, 400/sup 0/F, 488/sup 0/F. The materials from the grinding/drying tests have been analyzed. Tests included particle size distribution, density distribution, proximate and ultimate analyses, ash mineral analyses, electron microscope pictures, angle of repose and equilibrium moisture tests. These data have been correlated with the drying temperatures. The pulverized material was separated into different particle size groups with an air classifier. The samples from these tests were used to determine if one particle range had a higher ash content than the others. Very little difference in ash content was noted. Fluids at 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 specific gravities were used in a centrifuge to separate the ultrafine lignite into different density groups.

  5. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, January-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-04-01

    The specific goals for Phase I of this project were to: (1) select a friable Texas lignite for Phase I investigation. (2) In three separate tests, micropulverize the lignite in a fluid-energy mill utilizing steam as the drying agent and carrier media to produce at three levels of moisture content. (3) Measure the power requirements to micropulverize the lignite at each level of product moisture. (4) Measure the product size distribution, ash content as a function of particle size, particle shape, angle of repose and moisture reabsorption. (5) Submit a technical report on the test lignite. Preliminary results are reported.

  6. The zinc chloride process for the hydrocracking of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasca, F. E.; Greene, C. R.; Clark, W. E.; Struck, R. T.

    1980-06-01

    The molten zinc chloride process is a hydrocracking system that converts coal to gasoline in a single step. An economically attractive process is currently under development at the one ton per day process development unit scale. The design and economics of a plant for the production of 53,000 bbl/day of gasoline with 90-92 unleaded research octane number from Western coals are discussed.

  7. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  8. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  9. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  10. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  11. Supervised descent method with low rank and sparsity constraints for robust face alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yubao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Jiankang; Li, Xing

    2015-03-01

    Supervised Descent Method (SDM) learns the descent directions of nonlinear least square objective in a supervised manner, which has been efficiently used for face alignment. However, SDM still may fail in the cases of partial occlusions and serious pose variations. To deal with this issue, we present a new method for robust face alignment by utilizing the low rank prior of human face and enforcing sparse structure of the descent directions. Our approach consists of low rank face frontalization and sparse descent steps. Firstly, in terms of the low rank prior of face image, we recover such a low-rank face from its deformed image and the associated deformation despite significant distortion and corruption. Alignment of the recovered frontal face image is more simple and effective. Then, we propose a sparsity regularized supervised descent model by enforcing the sparse structure of the descent directions under the l1constraint, which makes the model more effective in computation and robust to partial occlusion. Extensive results on several benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to facial occlusions and pose variations

  12. Smoothed low rank and sparse matrix recovery by iteratively reweighted least squares minimization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canyi; Lin, Zhouchen; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a general framework for solving the low-rank and/or sparse matrix minimization problems, which may involve multiple nonsmooth terms. The iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLSs) method is a fast solver, which smooths the objective function and minimizes it by alternately updating the variables and their weights. However, the traditional IRLS can only solve a sparse only or low rank only minimization problem with squared loss or an affine constraint. This paper generalizes IRLS to solve joint/mixed low-rank and sparse minimization problems, which are essential formulations for many tasks. As a concrete example, we solve the Schatten-p norm and l2,q-norm regularized low-rank representation problem by IRLS, and theoretically prove that the derived solution is a stationary point (globally optimal if p,q ≥ 1). Our convergence proof of IRLS is more general than previous one that depends on the special properties of the Schatten-p norm and l2,q-norm. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that our IRLS is much more efficient. PMID:25531948

  13. Anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery based on low-rank and sparse decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoguang; Tian, Yuan; Weng, Lubin; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) based model for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images. In our model, a local image region is represented as a low-rank matrix plus spares noises in the spectral space, where the background can be explained by the low-rank matrix, and the anomalies are indicated by the sparse noises. The detection of anomalies in local image regions is formulated as a constrained LSD problem, which can be solved efficiently and robustly with a modified "Go Decomposition" (GoDec) method. To enhance the validity of this model, we adapts a "simple linear iterative clustering" (SLIC) superpixel algorithm to efficiently generate homogeneous local image regions i.e. superpixels in hyperspectral imagery, thus ensures that the background in local image regions satisfies the condition of low-rank. Experimental results on real hyperspectral data demonstrate that, compared with several known local detectors including RX detector, kernel RX detector, and SVDD detector, the proposed model can comfortably achieves better performance in satisfactory computation time.

  14. Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches. PMID:25634552

  15. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems studies have been directed at...

  17. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  18. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  19. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  20. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  1. A model of coal particle drying in fluidized bed combustion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Komatina, M.; Manovic, V.; Saljnikov, A.

    2007-02-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigation on drying of a single coal particle in fluidized bed combustor is presented. Coal particle drying was considered via the moist shrinking core mechanism. The results of the drying test runs of low-rank Serbian coals were used for experimental verification of the model. The temperature of the coal particle center was measured, assuming that drying was completed when the temperature equalled 100{sup o}C. The influence of different parameters (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of coal, fluidized bed temperature, moisture content and superheating of steam) on drying time and temperature profile within the coal particle was analyzed by a parametric analysis. The experimentally obtained results confirmed that the moist shrinking core mechanism can be applied for the mathematical description of a coal particle drying, while dependence between drying time and coal particle radius, a square law relationship, implicates heat transfer control of the process and confirms the validity of assumptions used in modeling.

  2. Coal desulfurization by a microwave process

    SciTech Connect

    Zavitsanos, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Bleiler, K.W.; Jacobs, I.S.

    1981-03-01

    A laboratory size flow reactor was developed and tested on coal samples up to 100 g/batch. A modified version of the applicator will increase sample size to 1000 g; when run continuously it can handle 500 g to 1000 g/minute. Recent measurements on typical 1/4 in. size (particle size) coal has validated previous results which show up to 50% sulfur removal mainly by converting pyrite to FeS which is shown to have strong magnetic properties and the spectral characteristics of pyrrhotite. Subsequent crushing and physical separation steps such as float sink or magnetic separation further reduces the sulfur level (and more effectively than conventional separation). Crushing of coal (to 30 to 100 mesh) and further exposure to the microwave field can further reduce the total sulfur level. An 80% to 90% removal is possible with the proper concentration of NaOH and/or multiple exposures. Results are presented for several important Pennsylvania and Kentucky coals. The results evaluated in terms of pounds of sulfur per 10/sup 6/ Btu suggest that this method had the potential of meeting environmental requirements.

  3. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  4. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  5. Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gunnink, Brett; Kanunar, Jayanth; Liang, Zhuoxiong

    2002-01-01

    A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

  6. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  7. Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

  8. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, James B.; McLean, Joseph B.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    1989-01-01

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  9. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  10. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  11. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  13. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  14. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Gerald C.

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  15. Power recovery system for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Joel R.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for minimizing energy required to inject reactant such as coal-oil slurry into a reaction vessel, using high pressure effluent from the latter to displace the reactant from a containment vessel into the reaction vessel with assistance of low pressure pump. Effluent is degassed in the containment vessel, and a heel of the degassed effluent is maintained between incoming effluent and reactant in the containment vessel.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, Charles A

    1997-07-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide. Kinetic data have been previously collected for pure CO2 at 40C and pressures between the critical pressure of CO2 (73.8 bar) and 216 bar. These data support the theory of local density enhancements suggested in the literature. Data taken at 50C and pressures ranging from 70 bar to 195 bar are currently reported; they do not exhibit the molecular clustering evident closer to the critical temperature. The data taken at 40C are now being used to construct mathematical forms which can model these pressure-induced kinetic changes. One promising avenue of investigation involves treating the supercritical medium as a dense gas, which allows a kinetic model based on high reference pressure fugacity coefficients to be derived.

  17. Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

  18. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  19. Pyrolysis of simple coal model compounds containing aromatic carboxylic acids: Does decarboxylation lead to cross-linking?

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, it has been proposed that oxygen functional groups, prevalent in low rank coals, are major actors in retrograde reactions which inhibit their efficient thermochemical processing. In the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low-rank coals, low temperature cross-linking reactions have been correlated with the loss of carboxyl groups and the evolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Pretreatments such as methylation, demineralization, or ion-exchange of the inorganic cations reduce cross-linking and CO{sub 2} evolution in pyrolysis, while the exchange of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, and Ba{sup ++} into demineralized coal increases cross-linking and CO{sub 2} evolution in pyrolysis and liquefaction. These results suggest, in part, that decarboxylation pathways in coal may play an important role in the cross-linking of the coal polymer. However, the reaction pathways associated with the decarboxylation and cross-linking events in low rank coal are currently unknown. Furthermore, it is not known whether the reaction pathway that leads to decarboxylation also leads to cross-linking. Radical recombination or addition reactions have been suggested as being involved in retrograde reactions. However, the involvement of radical pathways in thermal decarboxylation reactions has recently been brought into question by the observation that decarboxylation of benzoic acid derivatives under coal liquefaction conditions yielded only small amounts of aryl-aryl coupling products. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role decarboxylation plays in cross-linking reactions in low rank coals, we have studied the pyrolysis of several bibenzyls containing aromatic carboxylic acids. The structures currently under investigation are 1,2-(3,3`-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (1) and 1,2-(4,4`-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane(2). These compounds are capable of forming reactive free-radical intermediates at ca. 400{degrees}C through homolysis of the weak bibenzylic bonds.

  20. Rate of coal devolatilization in iron and steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, R.S.; Rio Doce, C.V. do; Fruehan, R.J.; Ozturk, B. . Center for Iron and Steel Making Research)

    1991-01-01

    The devolatilization of coal particles under ironmaking and steelmaking conditions was studied. A new experimental technique was developed to measure the rates of devolatilization. A unique method was used to prepare coal particles based on thick coal bands rich in a given maceral group. Experiments with these single particles gave good reproducibility. The rates of devolatilization for all coal types from low to high rank coals were measured in the gaseous atmosphere and within the slag phase. Real time x-ray images were taken for high volatile, low volatile and anthracite coals devolatilizing in a molten smelting slag. The rate in terms of percentage devolatilization were relatively independent of coal type and a small function of furnace temperature at high heating rates and temperatures studied. The rates depended on particle size and heating rates. The results were consistent with internal transport controlled processes primarily heat transfer. Furthermore the rates were the same in the gas and slag phase which is consistent with heat transfer control.

  1. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  2. WATER CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN COAL CONVERSION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine water consumption and environmental impacts of coal conversion processes in Western states. Part 1 gives brief descriptions and process water requirements for nine conversion processes. Detailed designs and analyses are given for t...

  3. Dynamic networks community detection via low rank component recovery of adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wei; Michailidis, George

    Dynamic community detection in networks has been of high interest due to its various applications. In this work, we apply low rank extraction technique on adjacency matrices to approximate the community structures. Not only can we accurately identify the phase transition time points where significant changes in the community structures occur, but also we can increase the accuracy of the core community structures recovered in the `peace' time ranges by averaging the low rank components. A systematic methodology has been proposed as how to accomplish the target. Factor model, and stochastic block model (including weighted scenario) have been tested for the robustness of our model. Besides, applications on both Kuramoto model and US Senate Roll Call data are also carried out and interesting results are obtained.

  4. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  5. Bayesian Generalized Low Rank Regression Models for Neuroimaging Phenotypes and Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Khondker, Zakaria; Lu, Zhaohua; Ibrahim, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian generalized low rank regression model (GLRR) for the analysis of both high-dimensional responses and covariates. This development is motivated by performing searches for associations between genetic variants and brain imaging phenotypes. GLRR integrates a low rank matrix to approximate the high-dimensional regression coefficient matrix of GLRR and a dynamic factor model to model the high-dimensional covariance matrix of brain imaging phenotypes. Local hypothesis testing is developed to identify significant covariates on high-dimensional responses. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. A simulation study is performed to evaluate the finite sample performance of GLRR and its comparison with several competing approaches. We apply GLRR to investigate the impact of 1,071 SNPs on top 40 genes reported by AlzGene database on the volumes of 93 regions of interest (ROI) obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). PMID:25349462

  6. Target detection in GPR data using joint low-rank and sparsity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Abeynayake, Canicious

    2016-05-01

    In ground penetrating radars, background clutter, which comprises the signals backscattered from the rough, uneven ground surface and the background noise, impairs the visualization of buried objects and subsurface inspections. In this paper, a clutter mitigation method is proposed for target detection. The removal of background clutter is formulated as a constrained optimization problem to obtain a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix. The low-rank matrix captures the ground surface reflections and the background noise, whereas the sparse matrix contains the target reflections. An optimization method based on split-Bregman algorithm is developed to estimate these two matrices from the input GPR data. Evaluated on real radar data, the proposed method achieves promising results in removing the background clutter and enhancing the target signature.

  7. A New Direction of Cancer Classification: Positive Effect of Low-Ranking MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feifei; Piao, Minghao; Piao, Yongjun; Li, Meijing; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Many studies based on microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles showed a new aspect of cancer classification. Because one characteristic of miRNA expression data is the high dimensionality, feature selection methods have been used to facilitate dimensionality reduction. The feature selection methods have one shortcoming thus far: they just consider the problem of where feature to class is 1:1 or n:1. However, because one miRNA may influence more than one type of cancer, human miRNA is considered to be ranked low in traditional feature selection methods and are removed most of the time. In view of the limitation of the miRNA number, low-ranking miRNAs are also important to cancer classification. Methods We considered both high- and low-ranking features to cover all problems (1:1, n:1, 1:n, and m:n) in cancer classification. First, we used the correlation-based feature selection method to select the high-ranking miRNAs, and chose the support vector machine, Bayes network, decision tree, k-nearest-neighbor, and logistic classifier to construct cancer classification. Then, we chose Chi-square test, information gain, gain ratio, and Pearson's correlation feature selection methods to build the m:n feature subset, and used the selected miRNAs to determine cancer classification. Results The low-ranking miRNA expression profiles achieved higher classification accuracy compared with just using high-ranking miRNAs in traditional feature selection methods. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the m:n feature subset made a positive impression of low-ranking miRNAs in cancer classification. PMID:25389514

  8. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  9. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  10. Color correction with blind image restoration based on multiple images using a low-rank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that can handle the color correction of multiple photographs with blind image restoration simultaneously and automatically. We prove that the local colors of a set of images of the same scene exhibit the low-rank property locally both before and after a color-correction operation. This property allows us to correct all kinds of errors in an image under a low-rank matrix model without particular priors or assumptions. The possible errors may be caused by changes of viewpoint, large illumination variations, gross pixel corruptions, partial occlusions, etc. Furthermore, a new iterative soft-segmentation method is proposed for local color transfer using color influence maps. Due to the fact that the correct color information and the spatial information of images can be recovered using the low-rank model, more precise color correction and many other image-restoration tasks-including image denoising, image deblurring, and gray-scale image colorizing-can be performed simultaneously. Experiments have verified that our method can achieve consistent and promising results on uncontrolled real photographs acquired from the Internet and that it outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Robust Semi-Supervised Subspace Clustering via Non-Negative Low-Rank Representation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung

    2016-08-01

    Low-rank representation (LRR) has been successfully applied in exploring the subspace structures of data. However, in previous LRR-based semi-supervised subspace clustering methods, the label information is not used to guide the affinity matrix construction so that the affinity matrix cannot deliver strong discriminant information. Moreover, these methods cannot guarantee an overall optimum since the affinity matrix construction and subspace clustering are often independent steps. In this paper, we propose a robust semi-supervised subspace clustering method based on non-negative LRR (NNLRR) to address these problems. By combining the LRR framework and the Gaussian fields and harmonic functions method in a single optimization problem, the supervision information is explicitly incorporated to guide the affinity matrix construction and the affinity matrix construction and subspace clustering are accomplished in one step to guarantee the overall optimum. The affinity matrix is obtained by seeking a non-negative low-rank matrix that represents each sample as a linear combination of others. We also explicitly impose the sparse constraint on the affinity matrix such that the affinity matrix obtained by NNLRR is non-negative low-rank and sparse. We introduce an efficient linearized alternating direction method with adaptive penalty to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that NNLRR is effective in semi-supervised subspace clustering and robust to different types of noise than other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26259210

  12. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  13. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOEpatents

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  14. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of the process of formation of sulfur compounds in oxygen gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    G.Ya. Gerasimov; T.M. Bogacheva

    2001-05-15

    A thermodynamic approach to the description of the behavior of the system fuel-oxidizer in oxygen gasification of coal is used to reveal the main mechanisms of the process of capture of sulfur by the mineral part of the coal and to determine the fundamental possibility of the process for coals from different coal fields.

  16. A synoptic description of coal basins via image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, K. W., Jr.; Wherry, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    An existing image processing system is adapted to describe the geologic attributes of a regional coal basin. This scheme handles a map as if it were a matrix, in contrast to more conventional approaches which represent map information in terms of linked polygons. The utility of the image processing approach is demonstrated by a multiattribute analysis of the Herrin No. 6 coal seam in Illinois. Findings include the location of a resource and estimation of tonnage corresponding to constraints on seam thickness, overburden, and Btu value, which are illustrative of the need for new mining technology.

  17. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  18. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    technological behavior, by-product characteristics, and environmental and human health impacts. In this chapter, we will try to make geochemical sense of this wonderfully complex and important resource. (5K)Figure 1. Photograph of a low rank coal bed (lignite of Pliocene age) from southwestern Romania.

  20. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  1. Sparse-view spectral CT reconstruction using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Li, Quanzheng

    2015-03-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) is a promising technique with the potential for improving lesion detection, tissue characterization, and material decomposition. In this paper, we are interested in kVp switching-based spectral CT that alternates distinct kVp X-ray transmissions during gantry rotation. This system can acquire multiple X-ray energy transmissions without additional radiation dose. However, only sparse views are generated for each spectral measurement; and the spectra themselves are limited in number. To address these limitations, we propose a penalized maximum likelihood method using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected at the same position in spectral images. The main advantage is that the relatively small number of materials within each patch allows us to employ the low-rank penalty that is less sensitive to intensity changes while preserving edge directions. In our optimization formulation, the cost function consists of the Poisson log-likelihood for X-ray transmission and the nonconvex patch-based low-rank penalty. Since the original cost function is difficult to minimize directly, we propose an optimization method using separable quadratic surrogate and concave convex procedure algorithms for the log-likelihood and penalty terms, which results in an alternating minimization that provides a computational advantage because each subproblem can be solved independently. We performed computer simulations and a real experiment using a kVp switching-based spectral CT with sparse-view measurements, and compared the proposed method with conventional algorithms. We confirmed that the proposed method improves spectral images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, our GPU implementation significantly reduces the computational cost. PMID:25532170

  2. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  3. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  4. On matrices with low-rank-plus-shift structure: Partial SVD and latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Zhang, Z.

    1998-08-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of matrices satisfying the so-called low-rank-plus-shift property in connection with the computation of their partial singular value decomposition. The application they have in mind is Latent Semantic Indexing for information retrieval where the term-document matrices generated from a text corpus approximately satisfy this property. The analysis is motivated by developing more efficient methods for computing and updating partial SVD of large term-document matrices and gaining deeper understanding of the behavior of the methods in the presence of noise.

  5. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Brune, P.

    2013-07-01

    Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)

  6. Parrallel Implementation of Fast Randomized Algorithms for Low Rank Matrix Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Andrew J.; Stalizer, Mark; Feo, John T.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the parallel performance of randomized interpolative decomposition by de- composing low rank complex-valued Gaussian random matrices larger than 100 GB. We chose a Cray XMT supercomputer as it provides an almost ideal PRAM model permitting quick investigation of parallel algorithms without obfuscation from hardware idiosyncrasies. We obtain that on non-square matrices performance scales almost linearly with runtime about 100 times faster on 128 processors. We also verify that numerically discovered error bounds still hold on matrices two orders of magnitude larger than those previously tested.

  7. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  8. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  9. Main trends in the biotechnological processing of coals: a review

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-02-15

    A review of the literature concerning the studies of the biotechnological processing of coal in Russia and abroad is presented. This environmentally safe technology is demonstrated to be promising for the conversion of solid fossil fuels into valuable fuel and chemical products. 73 refs.

  10. Controlling the Furnace Process in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatil', A. A.; Klepikov, N. S.; Smyshlyaev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    We give an outline of methods using which the furnace process in coal-fired boilers can be controlled to expand the range of loads, reduce the extent to which the furnace is contaminated with slag and the amount of harmful substances is emitted, and when a change is made to another kind of fuel.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  12. Process for hydroliquefying coal or like carbonaceous solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Malek, John Michael

    1977-01-01

    In this process the products of the dissolution-hydrogenation of coal or the like material in a hydrocarbon rich solvent are subjected in their slurryform fraction to an asphaltenes decomposing action of an alkali, like caustic soda or, being admixed after the gasiform fraction of the hydrogenation products has been taken off the slurryform fraction of the hydrogenation products now including the admixed alkali is subjected to a rehydrogenation by a hydrogen rich gas which after its rehydrogenating use is preferably applied, as source of hydrogen, to said dissolution-hydrogenation of coal. Optionally the admixed alkali includes minor amounts of a carboxylic acid salt of calcium.

  13. Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng

    1995-12-31

    A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

  14. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  15. Process for refining coal-based heavy oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Y.; Iwahashi, T.; Sasaki, K.

    1983-09-06

    A coal-based heavy oil is refined so as to remove quinoline insolubles and provide a hydrocarbon product suitable for making carbon stocks by heating to remove the volatile components which have boiling points ranging from the initial boiling point of the heavy oil to up to at least 200/sup 0/C and at most 270/sup 0/C, thereby leaving a residual coal-based heavy oil. The residual coal-based heavy oil is mixed with a ketone-type solvent having a boiling point less than 200/sup 0/C to form an insoluble precipitate (including quinoline insolubles) and a supernatent. The supernatent is treated to recover the ketone-type solvent, and the remaining hydrocarbon mixture is easily processed by vacuum distillation to produce a hydrocarbon product suitable for making carbon stocks.

  16. Decarboxylation of coal model compounds under liquefaction conditions: Does decarboxylation lead to retrograde reactions?

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, it has become clear that oxygen functional groups in low-rank coals are major actors in retrograde reactions which inhibit their efficient thermochemical processing. In the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low-rank coals, low-temperature cross-linking reactions have been correlated with the loss of carboxyl groups and the evolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Pretreatments such as methylation, demineralization, or ion-exchange of the inorganic cations reduce cross-linking and CO{sub 2} evolution in pyrolysis. Cross-linking reactions also have a deleterious effect on liquefaction yields and the distribution of oils, preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. These results suggest that decarboxylation may occur by a pathway that initiates retrograde (cross-linking) reactions in the coal polymer independent of the reaction conditions. However, the decarboxylation pathways in liquefaction and pyrolysis of low-rank coals are not known, and it is not clear how decarboxylation leads to cross-linking. Radical recombination or radical addition reactions have been suggested as being involved in retrograde reactions. However, the involvement of radical pathways in thermal decarboxylation reactions has recently been brought into question. We have presented evidence that in the pyrolysis of several bibenzyls containing aromatic carboxylic acids, radical pathways are not involved in thermal decarboxylation reactions and no cross-linking or coupling products are formed. Further, Manion et al. observed that decarboxylation of benzoic acid derivatives in tetralin yielded only small amounts of aryl-aryl coupling products. To gain a better understanding of the role decarboxylation plays in cross-linking reactions during liquefaction in low-rank coals, we have studied the thermal decomposition of several bibenzyls containing aromatic carboxylic acids, and their salts, in the presence of a hydrogen donor solvent (tetrahn) and a nondonor solvent (naphthalene).

  17. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  18. The Mulled Coal process: An advanced fine coal preparation technology used to improve the handling characteristics of fine wet coal products

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Mulled Coal process is a simple low cost method of improving the handling characteristics of the fine wet coal. The process involves the addition of a specifically formulated reagent to fine wet coal by mixing the two together in a pug mill. The converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, but it handles, stores and transports like dry coal. It does not cause any of the sticking, fouling, bridging and freezing problems normally associated with fine wet coal, and, unlike thermally dried fine coal, it will not rewet and it is not dusty. In the process, large (baseball size) loosely bound sticky masses of fine wet coal particles are broken down into granules which are fairly uniform in the 28 Mesh x 0 size range. Due to the unique combination of the mixing action of the pug mill, the surface chemistry of the fine coal particles and the properties of the reagent; the individual granules are tightly bound, and they become completely enveloped by a very thin film of reagent. The reagent envelope will allow moisture out in the vapor stage, but it will not allow moisture back into the agglomerated granule. The envelope also prevents individual granules from adhering to or freezing to one another. The end result is a fine coal product which is free flowing, which is not dusty, and which will not rewet.

  19. Discriminative Transfer Subspace Learning via Low-Rank and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Xiaozhao; Wu, Jian; Li, Xuelong; Zhang, David

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of unsupervised domain transfer learning in which no labels are available in the target domain. We use a transformation matrix to transfer both the source and target data to a common subspace, where each target sample can be represented by a combination of source samples such that the samples from different domains can be well interlaced. In this way, the discrepancy of the source and target domains is reduced. By imposing joint low-rank and sparse constraints on the reconstruction coefficient matrix, the global and local structures of data can be preserved. To enlarge the margins between different classes as much as possible and provide more freedom to diminish the discrepancy, a flexible linear classifier (projection) is obtained by learning a non-negative label relaxation matrix that allows the strict binary label matrix to relax into a slack variable matrix. Our method can avoid a potentially negative transfer by using a sparse matrix to model the noise and, thus, is more robust to different types of noise. We formulate our problem as a constrained low-rankness and sparsity minimization problem and solve it by the inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier method. Extensive experiments on various visual domain adaptation tasks show the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the art methods. The MATLAB code of our method will be publicly available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html. PMID:26701675

  20. Shape-Constrained Sparse and Low-Rank Decomposition for Auroral Substorm Detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Han, Bing; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An auroral substorm is an important geophysical phenomenon that reflects the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. Detecting substorms is of practical significance in order to prevent disruption to communication and global positioning systems. However, existing detection methods can be inaccurate or require time-consuming manual analysis and are therefore impractical for large-scale data sets. In this paper, we propose an automatic auroral substorm detection method based on a shape-constrained sparse and low-rank decomposition (SCSLD) framework. Our method automatically detects real substorm onsets in large-scale aurora sequences, which overcomes the limitations of manual detection. To reduce noise interference inherent in current SLD methods, we introduce a shape constraint to force the noise to be assigned to the low-rank part (stationary background), thus ensuring the accuracy of the sparse part (moving object) and improving the performance. Experiments conducted on aurora sequences in solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) show that the proposed SCSLD method achieves good performance for motion analysis of aurora sequences. Moreover, the obtained results are highly consistent with manual analysis, suggesting that the proposed automatic method is useful and effective in practice. PMID:25826810

  1. Enhanced low-rank + sparsity decomposition for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    Speckle artifacts can strongly hamper quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is necessary to provide assessment of ocular disorders associated with vision loss. Here, we introduce a method for speckle reduction, which leverages from low-rank + sparsity decomposition (LRpSD) of the logarithm of intensity OCT images. In particular, we combine nonconvex regularization-based low-rank approximation of an original OCT image with a sparsity term that incorporates the speckle. State-of-the-art methods for LRpSD require a priori knowledge of a rank and approximate it with nuclear norm, which is not an accurate rank indicator. As opposed to that, the proposed method provides more accurate approximation of a rank through the use of nonconvex regularization that induces sparse approximation of singular values. Furthermore, a rank value is not required to be known a priori. This, in turn, yields an automatic and computationally more efficient method for speckle reduction, which yields the OCT image with improved contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast and edge fidelity. The source code will be available at www.mipav.net/English/research/research.html.

  2. Low-rank approach for image nonblind deconvolution with variance estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang; Hu, Guosheng; Wang, Yuqing; Wu, Xiaotian

    2015-11-01

    We develop a low-rank approach for image restoration by exploiting the image's nonlocal self-similarity. We assume that the matrix stacked by the vectors of nonlocal similar patches is of low rank and has sparse singular values. Based on this assumption, we propose a new image deconvolution algorithm that decouples the deblurring and denoising steps. Specifically, in the deblurring step, we involve a regularized inversion of the blur in the Fourier domain, which amplifies and colors the noise and corrupts the image information. Hence, in the denoising step, a singular-value decomposition of similar packed patches is used to efficiently remove the colored noise. Furthermore, we derive an approach to update the estimation of noise variance for setting the threshold parameter at each iteration. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many state-of-the-art deblurring algorithms such as iterative decoupled deblurring BM3D in terms of both improvement in signal-to-noise-ratio and visual perception quality.

  3. Performance of low-rank QR approximation of the finite element Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B

    2006-10-16

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is easily implemented on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. While an octree partitioning of the matrix may be ideal, for ease of parallel implementation we employ a partitioning based on number of processors. The rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  4. Evaluation of US coal performance in the shell coal gasification process (SCGP). Volume 1. Texas lignite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, W.L.; McCullough, G.R.; Gierman, H.; van Kessel, M.M.

    1984-02-01

    The Shell Coal Gasificaton Process was included in the EPRI evaluation of the more promising gasification technologies. This report evaluates the performance of Texas lignite in the SCGP. A companion report (RP2094-1) evaluates the performance of an Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Tests were conducted in the Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V. Amsterdam laboratory process development unit (6 metric ton per day nominal throughput). Shell also has a 150 metric ton per day gasification process development unit at Deutsche Shell's Harburg Refinery, Federal Republic of Germany. These initial tests indicate that Texas lignite is as suitable for the Shell Coal Gasification Process as any bituminous coal previously tested and that only moderate conditions are required for gasification. Process variables included oxygen/MAF (moisture and ash free) coal ratios of 0.82 to 0.96 kg/kg, throughputs of 74 to 207 kg MAF coal/hr, and pressures of 2.1 to 2.8 MPa (1 MPa = 10 bar or 145 psia). Extensive environmental sampling programs were carried out with 50% of normal bleed water recycled to the process via an evaporating venturi. Carbon conversion was nearly complete (99+ %) at reactor outlet temperatures as low as 1250/sup 0/C; at a pressure of 2.1 MPa, a maximum thermal efficiency (76% of LHV-coal) was obtained at an oxygen/MAF coal ratio of 0.90 kg/kg. Process results were only marginally influenced by variations in coal throughput but an increase in pressure at constant throughput increased the cold gas efficiency by two percentage points to 78% of LHV coal (mainly through a reduction in heat loss). In a test on load-following characteristics of the process, the unit pressure remained constant and the flow of product gas responded within one minute to a stepwise change in coal feed rate.

  5. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specified conversion behavior is ARF's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (1) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (2) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (3) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  8. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  9. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  10. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1996-07-28

    Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  11. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  12. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  13. Low-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Absil, O.; Absil, P.-A.; Van Droogenbroeck, M.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space

  14. Low-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Absil, O.; Absil, P.-A.; Van Droogenbroeck, M.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space

  15. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  16. The BGL coal gasification process -- Applications and status

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, H.S.; Vierrath, H.E.; Johnson, K.S.; Kluttz, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    In 1991 British Gas completed a 15 year program for the development and demonstration of the BGL gasification process for Substitute Natural Gas and power generation. The final two objectives in this program at the Westfield Development Centre of British Gas were to demonstrate the suitability of the BGL gasifier for power generation under utility load requirements using typical UK power station coals and to operate the gasifier at pressures up to 65 bar. The first part of the program was an $18 million joint demonstration with National Power and PowerGen and supported by British Coal, the UK Department of Energy and the European Community which confirmed conclusively in tests spanning 40 days of operation that the full range of available UK power station coals can be gasified at very high efficiency in the BGL Gasifier. The development program then concluded with tests on a new, purpose designed, high pressure gasifier to determine the effect of pressure on gasification performance and operability. The use of the new ABB GT 24/26 gas turbines in BGL IGCC plant is explored and the BGL IGCC project in the US Clean Coal Technology Programme (CCTV) is described briefly.

  17. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  18. Process for coal liquefaction using electrodeposited catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of solid hydrocarbonaceous materials is disclosed. Particles of such materials are electroplated with a metal catalyst and are then suspended in a hydrocarbon oil and subjected to hydrogenolysis to liquefy the solid hydrocarbonaceous material. A liquid product oil is separated from residue solid material containing char and the catalyst metal. The catalyst is recovered from the solid material by electrolysis for reuse. A portion of the product oil can be employed as the hydrocarbon oil for suspending additional particles of catalyst coated solid carbonaceous material for hydrogenolysis.

  19. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  20. Super-resolution images fusion via compressed sensing and low-rank matrix decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kan; Xu, Fuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Most of available image fusion approaches cannot achieve higher spatial resolution than the multisource images. In this paper we propose a novel simultaneous images super-resolution and fusion approach via the recently developed compressed sensing and multiscale dictionaries learning technology. Under the sparse prior of image patches and the framework of compressed sensing, multisource images fusion is reduced to a task of signal recovery from the compressive measurements. Then a set of multiscale dictionaries are learned from some groups of example high-resolution (HR) image patches via a nonlinear optimization algorithm. Moreover, a linear weights fusion rule is advanced to obtain the fused high-resolution image at each scale. Finally the high-resolution image is derived by performing a low-rank decomposition on the recovered high-resolution images at multiple scales. Some experiments are taken to investigate the performance of our proposed method, and the results prove its superiority to the counterparts.

  1. A Characterization of Deterministic Sampling Patterns for Low-Rank Matrix Completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel-Alarcon, Daniel L.; Boston, Nigel; Nowak, Robert D.

    2016-06-01

    Low-rank matrix completion (LRMC) problems arise in a wide variety of applications. Previous theory mainly provides conditions for completion under missing-at-random samplings. An incomplete $d \\times N$ matrix is $\\textit{finitely completable}$ if there are at most finitely many rank-$r$ matrices that agree with all its observed entries. Finite completability is the tipping point in LRMC, as a few additional samples of a finitely completable matrix guarantee its $\\textit{unique}$ completability. The main contribution of this paper is a full characterization of finitely completable observation sets. We use this characterization to derive sufficient deterministic sampling conditions for unique completability. We also show that under uniform random sampling schemes, these conditions are satisfied with high probability if at least $\\mathscr{O}(\\max\\{r,\\log d \\})$ entries per column are observed.

  2. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  3. Hyperspectral Super-Resolution of Locally Low Rank Images From Complementary Multisource Data.

    PubMed

    Veganzones, Miguel A; Simoes, Miguel; Licciardi, Giorgio; Yokoya, Naoto; Bioucas-Dias, Jose M; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing hyperspectral images (HSIs) are quite often low rank, in the sense that the data belong to a low dimensional subspace/manifold. This has been recently exploited for the fusion of low spatial resolution HSI with high spatial resolution multispectral images in order to obtain super-resolution HSI. Most approaches adopt an unmixing or a matrix factorization perspective. The derived methods have led to state-of-the-art results when the spectral information lies in a low-dimensional subspace/manifold. However, if the subspace/manifold dimensionality spanned by the complete data set is large, i.e., larger than the number of multispectral bands, the performance of these methods mainly decreases because the underlying sparse regression problem is severely ill-posed. In this paper, we propose a local approach to cope with this difficulty. Fundamentally, we exploit the fact that real world HSIs are locally low rank, that is, pixels acquired from a given spatial neighborhood span a very low-dimensional subspace/manifold, i.e., lower or equal than the number of multispectral bands. Thus, we propose to partition the image into patches and solve the data fusion problem independently for each patch. This way, in each patch the subspace/manifold dimensionality is low enough, such that the problem is not ill-posed anymore. We propose two alternative approaches to define the hyperspectral super-resolution through local dictionary learning using endmember induction algorithms. We also explore two alternatives to define the local regions, using sliding windows and binary partition trees. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is illustrated with synthetic and semi real data. PMID:26540685

  4. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  5. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.F.

    1986-08-12

    A process is described for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials comprising the steps of: (a) forming a slurry of finely divided solid carbonaceous material and a suitable solvent of diluent; (b) subjecting the slurry from step (a) to liquefaction at an elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid bottoms product; (c) separating the product from step (b) into a gas phase, a liquid phase and a normally solid phase and further separating the liquid portion of the product into a naphtha boiling range product; (d) combining from about 5 wt% to about 20 wt% of the solvent boiling range product with from about 50 wt% to about 100 wt% of the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product and passing the mixture first to a hydrotreater and then to a catalytic cracker; (e) separating the product from the catalytic cracker into a naphtha boiling range product and a solvent boiling range product; (f) combining the solvent boiling range product from the catalytic cracker with the solvent boiling range materials separated from the liquid product; and (g) hydrotreating the combined solvent boiling range streams.

  6. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: HOMER CITY POWER COMPLEX TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a preliminary, preoperational environmental survey conducted at a newly constructed advanced physical coal cleaning plant near Homer City, PA. The work is part of a comprehensive environmental assessment of physical and chemical coal cleaning processes perfor...

  8. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANICS IN LIQUID WASTES FROM COAL GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory me...

  9. Briquetting of coal with roller processes. An important technology for the production of coal based compliance fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, I.W.

    1995-12-31

    This will be the third of a series of papers at this Conference discussing the briquetting of coal. While the first presentation in 1993 covered the historical and technical fundamentals, equipment designs, as well as traditional and contemporary applications, the second paper in 1994 looked at briquetting as an upgrading process for different types of coal. This years Conference theme is: {open_quotes}1995 - The year of Compliance{close_quotes}. Therefore, the paper will show that briquetting plays an important, often critical role in the production of coal based compliance fuel. After summarizing present clean coal technologies and the characteristics of coal based compliance fuels resulting from such processes the beneficial and economical application of modem roller presses is being dismissed.

  10. Low-rank approximation based non-negative multi-way array decomposition on event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Cong, Fengyu; Zhou, Guoxu; Astikainen, Piia; Zhao, Qibin; Wu, Qiang; Nandi, Asoke K; Hietanen, Jari K; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) has been successfully applied to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs), and shown superiority in terms of capturing multi-domain features. However, the time-frequency representation of ERPs by higher-order tensors are usually large-scale, which prevents the popularity of most tensor factorization algorithms. To overcome this issue, we introduce a non-negative canonical polyadic decomposition (NCPD) based on low-rank approximation (LRA) and hierarchical alternating least square (HALS) techniques. We applied NCPD (LRAHALS and benchmark HALS) and CPD to extract multi-domain features of a visual ERP. The features and components extracted by LRAHALS NCPD and HALS NCPD were very similar, but LRAHALS NCPD was 70 times faster than HALS NCPD. Moreover, the desired multi-domain feature of the ERP by NCPD showed a significant group difference (control versus depressed participants) and a difference in emotion processing (fearful versus happy faces). This was more satisfactory than that by CPD, which revealed only a group difference. PMID:25164246

  11. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a “bottom-up” manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives. PMID:27597862

  12. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken; Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a "bottom-up" manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives. PMID:27597862

  13. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1993-04-01

    This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

  14. A Course in Fundamentals of Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovic, Ljubisa R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the content, objectives, and requirements for a one-semester (30 20-hour sessions) graduate engineering course at the University of Concepcion, Chile. Major course topics include: structure and properties of coal; coal pyrolysis and carbonization; coal liquefaction; coal combustion and gasification; and economic and environmental…

  15. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1999-02-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the sixteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period April 1 through June 30, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized nine process stream samples received from Exxon Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) operations conducted in 1994 with Rawhide Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal and all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) The University of Delaware subcontract related to resid reactivity was completed with issuance of the Topical Report covering work performed by Delaware. (3) Computational studies of the coal liquefaction resid models developed at the University of Delaware were continued at CONSOL R and D. The two reaction models, consisting of the reaction optimization and reaction once-through programs, were the focus of these studies. The updated resid structure data and results were used in the reaction models to predict percent conversion values that were compared with the experimentally-measured values from the University of Delaware. (4) Small samples of high-sulfur Hondo resid and anthracene oil were shipped to John Verkade of Iowa State University at his request. Verkade is testing a desulfurization method.

  16. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1998-12-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

  17. Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

  18. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  19. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  20. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progresss report, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1991-09-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  3. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Anthony G; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice. PMID:27498337

  4. k-t FASTER: Acceleration of functional MRI data acquisition using low rank constraints

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Koopmans, Peter J; Graedel, Nadine N; Blumensath, Thomas; Miller, Karla L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In functional MRI (fMRI), faster sampling of data can provide richer temporal information and increase temporal degrees of freedom. However, acceleration is generally performed on a volume-by-volume basis, without consideration of the intrinsic spatio-temporal data structure. We present a novel method for accelerating fMRI data acquisition, k-t FASTER (FMRI Accelerated in Space-time via Truncation of Effective Rank), which exploits the low-rank structure of fMRI data. Theory and Methods Using matrix completion, 4.27× retrospectively and prospectively under-sampled data were reconstructed (coil-independently) using an iterative nonlinear algorithm, and compared with several different reconstruction strategies. Matrix reconstruction error was evaluated; a dual regression analysis was performed to determine fidelity of recovered fMRI resting state networks (RSNs). Results The retrospective sampling data showed that k-t FASTER produced the lowest error, approximately 3–4%, and the highest quality RSNs. These results were validated in prospectively under-sampled experiments, with k-t FASTER producing better identification of RSNs than fully sampled acquisitions of the same duration. Conclusion With k-t FASTER, incoherently under-sampled fMRI data can be robustly recovered using only rank constraints. This technique can be used to improve the speed of fMRI sampling, particularly for multivariate analyses such as temporal independent component analysis. Magn Reson Med 74:353–364, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25168207

  5. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging based on compressed sensing using joint sparsity and low-rank approximation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Wang, Lihui; Chu, Chunyu; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Wanyu; Zhu, Yuemin

    2016-04-29

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been widely used to probe noninvasively biological tissue structures. However, DTI suffers from long acquisition times, which limit its practical and clinical applications. This paper proposes a new Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction method that employs joint sparsity and rank deficiency to reconstruct cardiac DTMR images from undersampled k-space data. Diffusion-weighted images acquired in different diffusion directions were firstly stacked as columns to form the matrix. The matrix was row sparse in the transform domain and had a low rank. These two properties were then incorporated into the CS reconstruction framework. The underlying constrained optimization problem was finally solved by the first-order fast method. Experiments were carried out on both simulation and real human cardiac DTMR images. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach had lower reconstruction errors for DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivities (MD), compared to the existing CS-DTMR image reconstruction techniques. PMID:27163322

  6. Conflict-cost based random sampling design for parallel MRI with low rank constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan; Zhou, Yihang; Lyu, Jingyuan; Ying, Leslie

    2015-05-01

    In compressed sensing MRI, it is very important to design sampling pattern for random sampling. For example, SAKE (simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation) is a parallel MRI reconstruction method using random undersampling. It formulates image reconstruction as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. Variable density (VD) Poisson discs are typically adopted for 2D random sampling. The basic concept of Poisson disc generation is to guarantee samples are neither too close to nor too far away from each other. However, it is difficult to meet such a condition especially in the high density region. Therefore the sampling becomes inefficient. In this paper, we present an improved random sampling pattern for SAKE reconstruction. The pattern is generated based on a conflict cost with a probability model. The conflict cost measures how many dense samples already assigned are around a target location, while the probability model adopts the generalized Gaussian distribution which includes uniform and Gaussian-like distributions as special cases. Our method preferentially assigns a sample to a k-space location with the least conflict cost on the circle of the highest probability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed random pattern, we compare the performance of SAKEs using both VD Poisson discs and the proposed pattern. Experimental results for brain data show that the proposed pattern yields lower normalized mean square error (NMSE) than VD Poisson discs.

  7. Distributed Compressive Sensing of Hyperspectral Images Using Low Rank and Structure Similarity Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingchao; Xu, Ke; Wan, Jianwei; Liu, Xu

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method and system for distributed compressive sensing of hyperspectral images is presented, which exploit the low rank and structure similarity property of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, by integrating the respective characteristics of DSC and CS, a distributed compressive sensing framework is proposed to simultaneously capture and compress hyperspectral images. At the encoder, every band image is measured independently, where almost all computation burdens can be shifted to the decoder, resulting in a very low-complexity encoder. It is simple to operate and easy to hardware implementation. At the decoder, each band image is reconstructed by the method of total variation norm minimize. During each band reconstruction, the low rand structure of band images and spectrum structure similarity are used to give birth to the new regularizers. With combining the new regularizers and other regularizer, we can sufficiently exploit the spatial correlation, spectral correlation and spectral structural redundancy in hyperspectral imagery. A numerical optimization algorithm is also proposed to solve the reconstruction model by augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Experimental results show that this method can effectively improve the reconstruction quality of hyperspectral images.

  8. Low-rank separated representation surrogates of high-dimensional stochastic functions: Application in Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect

    Validi, AbdoulAhad

    2014-03-01

    This study introduces a non-intrusive approach in the context of low-rank separated representation to construct a surrogate of high-dimensional stochastic functions, e.g., PDEs/ODEs, in order to decrease the computational cost of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations in Bayesian inference. The surrogate model is constructed via a regularized alternative least-square regression with Tikhonov regularization using a roughening matrix computing the gradient of the solution, in conjunction with a perturbation-based error indicator to detect optimal model complexities. The model approximates a vector of a continuous solution at discrete values of a physical variable. The required number of random realizations to achieve a successful approximation linearly depends on the function dimensionality. The computational cost of the model construction is quadratic in the number of random inputs, which potentially tackles the curse of dimensionality in high-dimensional stochastic functions. Furthermore, this vector-valued separated representation-based model, in comparison to the available scalar-valued case, leads to a significant reduction in the cost of approximation by an order of magnitude equal to the vector size. The performance of the method is studied through its application to three numerical examples including a 41-dimensional elliptic PDE and a 21-dimensional cavity flow.

  9. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J.; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1 mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10 min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice.

  10. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  11. Calibrationless Parallel Imaging Reconstruction Based on Structured Low-Rank Matrix Completion

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Peter J.; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Ohliger, Michael A.; Elad, Michael; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Lustig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A calibrationless parallel imaging reconstruction method, termed simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation (SAKE), is presented. It is a data-driven, coil-by-coil reconstruction method that does not require a separate calibration step for estimating coil sensitivity information. Methods In SAKE, an under-sampled multi-channel dataset is structured into a single data matrix. Then the reconstruction is formulated as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. An iterative solution that implements a projection-onto-sets algorithm with singular value thresholding is described. Results Reconstruction results are demonstrated for retrospectively and prospectively under-sampled, multi-channel Cartesian data having no calibration signals. Additionally, non-Cartesian data reconstruction is presented. Finally, improved image quality is demonstrated by combining SAKE with wavelet-based compressed sensing. Conclusion As estimation of coil sensitivity information is not needed, the proposed method could potentially benefit MR applications where acquiring accurate calibration data is limiting or not possible at all. PMID:24248734

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  13. Low-dose cerebral perfusion computed tomography image restoration via low-rank and total variation regularizations

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Shanli; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Yu, Gaohang; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) is an important functional imaging modality for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases and has been widely used in clinics over the past decades. However, due to the protocol of PCT imaging with repeated dynamic sequential scans, the associative radiation dose unavoidably increases as compared with that used in conventional CT examinations. Minimizing the radiation exposure in PCT examination is a major task in the CT field. In this paper, considering the rich similarity redundancy information among enhanced sequential PCT images, we propose a low-dose PCT image restoration model by incorporating the low-rank and sparse matrix characteristic of sequential PCT images. Specifically, the sequential PCT images were first stacked into a matrix (i.e., low-rank matrix), and then a non-convex spectral norm/regularization and a spatio-temporal total variation norm/regularization were then built on the low-rank matrix to describe the low rank and sparsity of the sequential PCT images, respectively. Subsequently, an improved split Bregman method was adopted to minimize the associative objective function with a reasonable convergence rate. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted using a digital phantom and clinical cerebral PCT datasets to evaluate the present method. Experimental results show that the presented method can achieve images with several noticeable advantages over the existing methods in terms of noise reduction and universal quality index. More importantly, the present method can produce more accurate kinetic enhanced details and diagnostic hemodynamic parameter maps. PMID:27440948

  14. Lanczos-based Low-Rank Correction Method for Solving the Dyson Equation in Inhomogenous Dynamical Mean-Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Pierre; Tang, Jok M.; Saad, Yousef; Freericks, James K.

    Inhomogeneous dynamical mean-field theory has been employed to solve many interesting strongly interacting problems from transport in multilayered devices to the properties of ultracold atoms in a trap. The main computational step, especially for large systems, is the problem of calculating the inverse of a large sparse matrix to solve Dyson's equation and determine the local Green's function at each lattice site from the corresponding local self-energy. We present a new e_cient algorithm, the Lanczos-based low-rank algorithm, for the calculation of the inverse of a large sparse matrix which yields this local (imaginary time) Green's function. The Lanczos-based low-rank algorithm is based on a domain decomposition viewpoint, but avoids explicit calculation of Schur complements and relies instead on low-rank matrix approximations derived from the Lanczos algorithm, for solving the Dyson equation. We report at least a 25-fold improvement of performance compared to explicit decomposition (such as sparse LU) of the matrix inverse. We also report that scaling relative to matrix sizes, of the low-rank correction method on the one hand and domain decomposition methods on the other, are comparable.

  15. Development of video processing based on coal flame detector system

    SciTech Connect

    He Wanqing; Yu Yuefeng; Xu Weiyong; Ma Liqun

    1999-07-01

    The principle and development of a set of pulverized coal combustion flame detection system, which is called intelligent image flame detector device based on digital video processing, is addressed in this paper. The system realizes multi-burner flame detection and processing using a distributive structure of engineering workstation and flame detectors via multi-serial-port communication. The software can deal with multi-tasks in a parallel way based on multi-thread mechanism. Streaming video capture and storage is provided to safe and playback the accidental Audio and Visual Interfaces (AVI) clips. The layer flame detectors can give the flame on/off signal through image processing. Pseudo-color visualization of flame temperature calculated from chromatic CCD signal is integrated into the system. The image flame detector system has been successfully used in thermal power generation units in China.

  16. Experience in feeding coal into a liquefaction process development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhtar, S.; Friedman, S.; Mazzocco, N. J.; Yavorsky, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A system for preparing coal slurry and feeding it into a high pressure liquefaction plant is described. The system was developed to provide supporting research and development for the Bureau of Mines coal liquefaction pilot plant. Operating experiences are included.

  17. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  18. Modeling of the acid-leaching process in the preparation of chemical ultraclean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Wang, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is continued from ``Modeling of the Preparation of Chemical Ultraclean Coal`` presented at 11th Pittsburgh Coal Conference. As to acid-alkali deashing process, acid-leaching is a post-processing for the preparation of ultraclean coal, which can be used to remove chemical products caused by alkali-leaching processing. A soluble model is developed to establish an acid-leaching rate equation, which indicates that model result is compatible well with the experimental data.

  19. Learning Low-Rank Class-Specific Dictionary and Sparse Intra-Class Variant Dictionary for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Feng, Guo-can; Li, Xiao-xin; Cai, Jia-xin

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is challenging especially when the images from different persons are similar to each other due to variations in illumination, expression, and occlusion. If we have sufficient training images of each person which can span the facial variations of that person under testing conditions, sparse representation based classification (SRC) achieves very promising results. However, in many applications, face recognition often encounters the small sample size problem arising from the small number of available training images for each person. In this paper, we present a novel face recognition framework by utilizing low-rank and sparse error matrix decomposition, and sparse coding techniques (LRSE+SC). Firstly, the low-rank matrix recovery technique is applied to decompose the face images per class into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix. The low-rank matrix of each individual is a class-specific dictionary and it captures the discriminative feature of this individual. The sparse error matrix represents the intra-class variations, such as illumination, expression changes. Secondly, we combine the low-rank part (representative basis) of each person into a supervised dictionary and integrate all the sparse error matrix of each individual into a within-individual variant dictionary which can be applied to represent the possible variations between the testing and training images. Then these two dictionaries are used to code the query image. The within-individual variant dictionary can be shared by all the subjects and only contribute to explain the lighting conditions, expressions, and occlusions of the query image rather than discrimination. At last, a reconstruction-based scheme is adopted for face recognition. Since the within-individual dictionary is introduced, LRSE+SC can handle the problem of the corrupted training data and the situation that not all subjects have enough samples for training. Experimental results show that our method achieves the

  20. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  1. Higher rank numerical ranges and low rank perturbations of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chi-Kwong; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Sze, Nung-Sing

    2008-12-01

    For a positive integer k, the rank-k numerical range [Lambda]k(A) of an operator A acting on a Hilbert space of dimension at least k is the set of scalars [lambda] such that PAP=[lambda]P for some rank k orthogonal projection P. In this paper, a close connection between low rank perturbation of an operator A and [Lambda]k(A) is established. In particular, for 1[less-than-or-equals, slant]r

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-08-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS [sup 13]C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425[degree]C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

  3. Hydrothermally treated coals for pulverized coal injection. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Ogunsola, O.; Lin, H.K.

    1995-10-01

    This project investigated the suitability of hydrothermally dried low-rank coals for pulverized fuel injection into blast furnaces in order to reduce coke consumption. Coal samples from the Beluga coalfield and the Usibelli Coal Mine, Alaska, were used for the study. Crushed coal samples were hydrothermally treated at three temperatures, 275, 300 and 325{degrees}C, for residence times of 10, 60 and 120 minutes. Products were characterized to determine their suitability for pulverized coal injection. Characterization included proximate and ultimate analyses, vitrinite reflectance and TGA reactivity. A literature survey was also conducted.

  4. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  5. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Briquetting as an upgrading process for different types of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, I.W.; Guenter, I.H.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 100 years ago briquetting plays an important role in many countries during the upgrading of different types of coal, from soft to hard. In addition to the better shape and size of briquetted coal, often other properties are also improved such as heating value, water resistance, thermal shock resistance as well as transport and storage characteristics. In many cases coal is also dried in connection with briquetting. The paper will present a survey of technologies which are available for binderless briquetting of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as well as for briquetting with binders of sub-bituminous and bituminous coal or anthracite.

  7. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  8. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  9. Cells on fibers to degrade PAH and upgrade coal

    SciTech Connect

    Clyde, R.

    1997-12-31

    There are over 2000 sites contaminated with PAH`s from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  12. Upgraded coal interest group. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    The interest group got under way effective January 1, 1994, with nine utility members, EPRI, Bechtel, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute. DOE participation was effective October 1, 1994. The first meeting was held on April 22, 1994 in Springfield, Illinois and the second meeting was held on August 10--11, 1994 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Technical reviews were prepared in several areas, including the following: status of low rank coal upgrading, advanced physical coal cleaning, organic sulfur removal from coal, handling of fine coal, combustion of coal water slurries. It was concluded that, for bituminous coals, processing of fines from coal cleaning plants or impoundments was going to be less costly than processing of coal, since the fines were intrinsically worth less and advanced upgrading technologies require fine coal. Penelec reported on benefits of NOX reductions when burning slurry fuels. Project work was authorized in the following areas: Availability of fines (CQ, Inc.), Engineering evaluations (Bechtel), and Evaluation of slurry formulation and combustion demonstrations (EER/MATS). The first project was completed.

  13. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  14. Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Investigation of operating variables in the fine coal dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, S.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Dharman, T.

    1998-04-01

    Illinois basin coals contain minerals, including pyrite, which are finely disseminated in micron-size particles. To liberate these mineral matters from the coal matrix, an ultra-fine grinding operation is required, followed by a wet physical cleaning process, such as column flotation. However, the resulting product possesses large surface areas that conventional dewatering techniques cannot perform effectively, and this creates transportation, storage and handling problems at utility plants. To take full advantage of these cleaning technologies, a new dewatering and coal consolidation method must be developed at the downstream end of the deep coal-cleaning process. Following an initial study at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), briquetting was chosen to perform the dual purpose of dewatering and consolidating the fine coal. A bitumen-based emulsion, Orimulsion, proved to be an effective binder and dewatering agent in the briquetting process that assisted in the expulsion of water from the fine coal.

  16. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  17. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 6.2. Joining of advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nowok, J.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    1995-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered an attractive material for structural applications in fossil energy systems because of its corrosion and wear resistance, high thermoconductivity, and high temperature strength. These same properties make it difficult to sinter or join SiC. Conventional sintering techniques require applying pressure and heating to temperatures near 2000{degree}C, or the use of binders with lower melting temperatures, or pressureless sintering with the aid of carbon and boron to near full density about 2100{degree}C. The sintering temperature can be reduced to 1850{degree}--2000{degree}C if SiC is sintered with the addition of small quantities of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {plus} Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, reaction sintering has been used by mixing Si and C with SiC powder and heating the mixture to 1400{degree}C to cause the Si and C to react and form SiC, which bonds the aggregate together. Work proposed for this year was to center on determining gas compositions that could be used to increase the sinterability of oxide binders and on using the binder and gas combinations to join bars of SiC, alumina, and mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{center_dot}2SiO{sub 2}). During the course of the year the focus was shifted to SiC joining alone, because it was felt that alumina and mullite are too prone to thermal shock for use in structural applications in fossil energy systems. Because of a thermal expansion mismatch between alumina and SiC, only SiC and mullite were investigated as joining aides for SiC. Therefore, the objectives of this work evolved into examining the sintering phenomena of SiC and mullite-derived binders at and below 1500{degree}C in various atmospheres and determining which conditions are suitable to form strong joints in monolithic SiC structures to be used at temperatures of 1000{degree}--1400{degree}C.

  18. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  19. A Random Algorithm for Low-Rank Decomposition of Large-Scale Matrices With Missing Entries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiguang; Lei, Yinjie; Li, Chunguang; Xu, Wenzheng; Pu, Yifei

    2015-11-01

    A random submatrix method (RSM) is proposed to calculate the low-rank decomposition U(m×r)V(n×r)(T) (r < m, n) of the matrix Y∈R(m×n) (assuming m > n generally) with known entry percentage 0 < ρ ≤ 1. RSM is very fast as only O(mr(2)ρ(r)) or O(n(3)ρ(3r)) floating-point operations (flops) are required, compared favorably with O(mnr+r(2)(m+n)) flops required by the state-of-the-art algorithms. Meanwhile, RSM has the advantage of a small memory requirement as only max(n(2),mr+nr) real values need to be saved. With the assumption that known entries are uniformly distributed in Y, submatrices formed by known entries are randomly selected from Y with statistical size k×nρ(k) or mρ(l)×l , where k or l takes r+1 usually. We propose and prove a theorem, under random noises the probability that the subspace associated with a smaller singular value will turn into the space associated to anyone of the r largest singular values is smaller. Based on the theorem, the nρ(k)-k null vectors or the l-r right singular vectors associated with the minor singular values are calculated for each submatrix. The vectors ought to be the null vectors of the submatrix formed by the chosen nρ(k) or l columns of the ground truth of V(T). If enough submatrices are randomly chosen, V and U can be estimated accordingly. The experimental results on random synthetic matrices with sizes such as 13 1072 ×10(24) and on real data sets such as dinosaur indicate that RSM is 4.30 ∼ 197.95 times faster than the state-of-the-art algorithms. It, meanwhile, has considerable high precision achieving or approximating to the best. PMID:26208344

  20. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1993-05-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the processes in coal/petroleum coprocessing systems which led to coke formation. Specifically, the interactions between the petroleum residue and coal, leading to retrogressive products, were investigated. Five coals were reacted with five model compounds in order to investigate the coal conversions in a variety of solvents and to determine the role of the solvent in promoting or inhibiting coal conversion. The selected model compounds range from paraffinic to fully aromatic and were chosen as representative of types of compounds that are found in petroleum residua. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using the five coals and three petroleum residua. The effect of temperature on coal conversions was crucial. The coal conversions at 350 and 400{degree}C seem to be governed by the nature of the coal and to a lesser extent by the petroleum residua. Negative coal conversions were observed above 400{degree}C indicating that retrogressive processes had occurred. At temperatures higher than 400{degree}C, the petroleum residua undergo physical and chemical transformations and the influence of the petroleum residua on coal conversions is significant. The structural features of the residues indicated that the residues were predominately coal-derived. An overall increase in aromaticity was observed with increasing temperature which was also accompanied by loss of oxygen functional groups. The retrogressive reactions with non-caking coals involve carbonyl and carboxyl group leading to a final solid characterized by a cross-linked structure. In the case of caking coal, these reactions are governed by loss of aromatic oxygen groups and loss of alkyl groups.

  1. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1991-01-01

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100 {endash} 1000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam).

  2. Coal combustion: Effect of process conditions on char reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1992-01-01

    The project will quantify the effect of the following pyrolysis conditions on the macropore structure and on the subsequent reactivity of chars: (a) pyrolysis heating rate; (b) final heat treatment temperature (HTT); (c) duration of heat treatment at HTT (or soak time); (d) pyrolysis atmosphere (N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures); (e) coal particle size (100--1,000 {mu}m in diameter); (f) sulfur-capturing additives (limestone); and (g) coal rank. Pyrolysis experiments will be carried out for three coals from the Argonne collection: (1) a high-volatile bituminous coal with high ash content (Illinois {number sign}6), (2) a bituminous coal with low ash content (Utah Blind Canyon) and (3) a lower rank subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam). (VC)

  3. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  4. Improving synthesis and analysis prior blind compressed sensing with low-rank constraints for dynamic MRI reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul

    2015-01-01

    In blind compressed sensing (BCS), both the sparsifying dictionary and the sparse coefficients are estimated simultaneously during signal recovery. A recent study adopted the BCS framework for recovering dynamic MRI sequences from under-sampled K-space measurements; the results were promising. Previous works in dynamic MRI reconstruction showed that, recovery accuracy can be improved by incorporating low-rank penalties into the standard compressed sensing (CS) optimization framework. Our work is motivated by these studies, and we improve upon the basic BCS framework by incorporating low-rank penalties into the optimization problem. The resulting optimization problem has not been solved before; hence we derive a Split Bregman type technique to solve the same. Experiments were carried out on real dynamic contrast enhanced MRI sequences. Results show that, with our proposed improvement, the reconstruction accuracy is better than BCS and other state-of-the-art dynamic MRI recovery algorithms. PMID:25179137

  5. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...

  6. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...

  7. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...

  8. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR H-COAL AND EXXON DONOR SOLVENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the control technology of two coal liquefaction processes, H-Coal and Exxon Donor Solvent. The effluent streams were characterized and quantified for both processes and plants (pilot and conceptualized commercial). The gaseous-, liquid...

  9. Progress in donor assisted coal liquefaction: Hydroaromatic compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P.

    1993-12-31

    The role of hydrogen donor compounds in coal liquefaction has been extensively investigated since the mid 1960`s using model compounds and process derived hydrogen donor solvents. Our recent research and that of other investigators have shown that two model compounds in particular have great efficacy in solvating low rank coals. 1,2,3,10b tetrahydrofluoranthene (H{sub 4}Fl) and 1,2,3,6,7,8 hexahydropyrene (H{sub 6}Py) have been used to dissolve Wyodak coal to > 95% soluble material as measured by tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although these hydrogen donors are very effective, they may not be found in any significant concentrations in actual liquefaction process recycle solvents. Therefore, studies with process derived recycle materials are necessary to understand donor solvent chemistry. The objective of this paper is to present results of solvent hydrogenation experiments using heavy distillate solvents produced during testing at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility. We evaluated the impact of hydrogenation conditions upon hydrogen donor formation in process derived distillates and compared these process derived solvents with the highly effective H{sub 4}Fl and H{sub 6}Py donors in coal liquefaction tests. This paper presents data on reaction conditions used for distillate hydrotreating and subsequent coal liquefaction, with an aim toward understanding the relationship between reaction conditions and donor solvent quality in recycle distillates.

  10. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept. [Quarterly report], May 24--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Derbyshire, F.J.; Kimber, G.; Anderson, R.K.; Carter, S.D.; Peluso, M.

    1995-11-08

    CONSOL Inc., the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), and LDP Associates are conducting a three-year research program to explore the technical and economic feasibility of a novel direct coal liquefaction concept. The purpose of this research program is to explore a new approach to direct coal liquefaction in which the primary coal dissolution step is effected by chemical rather than thermal cleavage of bonds in the coal. This is done at a temperature which is significantly lower than that typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. Reaction at this low temperature results in high conversion of the coal to a solubilized form, with little hydrocarbon gas make, and avoids the thermally induced retrograde reactions which are unavoidable in conventional thermal processes. In addition, for low-rank coals, a substantial portion of the oxygen in the coal is removed as CO and CO{sub 2} during the dissolution. The higher selectivity to liquid products and rejection of oxygen as carbon oxides should result in improved hydrogen utilization. The basis of the novel concept is the discovery made by CONSOL R&D that certain hydride transfer agents are very active for coal dissolution at temperatures in the range of 350{degree}C. Because of the exploratory nature of the research, the project is divided into sequential tasks that are designed to first evaluate key elements of the process is presented for the following tasks: management plan; evaluation of process steps; engineering and economic study and reporting.

  11. Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

    1980-06-01

    Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of a novel laboratory-scale batch reactor, designed by the University of Delaware, to study the kinetics of coal liquefaction resid reactivity. The short time batch reactor (STBR) is capable of conducting reactions at temperatures up to 450{degrees}C and pressures up to 2500 psi at well-defined reaction times from a few seconds to 30 min or longer. Sixty experiments were conducted with the STBR in this project. The products of the resid/tetralin/hydrogen reaction were separated by solubility, and several analytical procedures were used to evaluate the reaction products, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Changes were monitored in the boiling ranges of the products, as a function of process conditions (time, temperature, and tetralin donor solvent-to-resid ratio), with and without catalysts. Two distillation resid samples were studied; Sample 1 is the resid of the second stage product stream from Wilsonville Run 259 which used Pittsburgh seam coal (Ireland mine) bituminous coal, and Sample 2 is the resid of the same streak from Wilsonville Run 260 which used Wyodak and Anderson (Black Thunder Mine) subbituminous coal. It was determined that the resid reactivity was different for the two samples studied. The results demonstrate that further development of this experimental method is warranted to empirically assess resid reactivity and to provide data for use in the construction of an empirical model of coal conversion in the direct liquefaction process.

  13. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams The Kinetics of Coal Liquefaction Distillation Resid Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    D.Campbell; D.G. Nichols; D.J. Pazuchanics; H.Huang; M.T.Klein; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes; S.Wang; W.H. Calkins

    1998-06-04

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (DOE Contract N o. DE- AC22- 94PC93054), the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. Th e program at Delaware was conducted be tween August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivit y toward hydrocracking of coal- derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An Introduction and Summary of th e project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here. INTRODUCTION Resid hydrocracking is a key reaction of modern (i. e., distillate- producing) coal liquefactio n processes. Coals are readily converted to resid a nd lighter products in the liquefaction process. The resid is combined with fr esh coal in a ratio often greater than 1: 1, and some vacuum gas oil and is recycled to be further converted. Understanding the chemistry of resids and resi d reactivity is important to improve direct liquefaction process design and to achieve economi c objectives for direct coal liquefaction. Computational models that predict resid conversion from the chemical characteristics of the resids and reaction conditions would be a cost- efficient way to explore process variables. Implementation of such models could aid in the design an d operation of liquefaction facilities.

  14. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  15. Prototype Commercial Coal/Oil Co-Processing Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    With the successful demonstration of the Co-Processing Process for simultaneously converting and upgrading Ohio coal and Cold Lake atmospheric resid, a hydrotreating program was subcontracted out to Sun Refining and Marketing by Ohio Clean Fuels to define operating conditions that will produce a distillate product meeting 0.05 wt % sulfur and a naphtha product with 1 wppm nitrogen maximum. Two hydrotreating runs were carried out: one on a 350/650{degree}F distillate blend and other on the C5/350{degree}F co-pro naphtha. Both runs scoped process conditions by varying temperature, pressure and space velocity while maintaining hydrogen treat gas rate constant at 1,000 SCF/Barrel. Each run took about 30 days to complete and consisted of a test matrix of 8 conditions and a referee'' condition at the beginning and the end of the run, and as well, several other optimal conditions to define further information. While catalyst life test were originally planned, they were not carried out due to lack of funds. The tests identified hydrotreating conditions that can effectively reduce distillate blend sulfur from 0.55 wt % to as low as 0.15 wt % sulfur. The co-pro naphtha was denitrogenated from 46 wppm to below 1 wppm with mild hydrotreating conditions. There were anomalies in the results in that lower feed space velocities resulted in higher product nitrogen. 3 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Environmental studies of materials from the H-coal liquefaction process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1982-12-01

    H-coal is a process for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce synthetic fuels. Its development has progressed from bench-scale testing through operation of a 2.7 Mg/d (3 ton/d) Process Development Unit. A large-scale H-Coal pilot plant is presently operating at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and there are plans for the construction of a commercial H-Coal liquefaction facility by the end of the decade. Two of the environmental concerns of the developing direct coal liquefaction industry are accidental spills of synthetic oils and treatment/storage of solid wastes. As a means of obtaining preliminary information on the severity of these potential impacts well in advance of commercialization, samples of product oils and solid wastes were obtained from the H-Coal Process Development Unit (PDU). These samples were subjected to a battery of rapid screening tests, including chemical characterization and bioassays with a variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Water-soluble fraction (WSFs) of H-Coal PDU oils had considerably higher concentrations of phenols and anilines and were commonly one to two orders of magnitude more toxic to aquatic organisms than WSFs of analogous petroleum crude oil. Whole H-Coal PDU oils were also more toxic to the cricket than petroleum-based oils, and some H-Coal samples showed evidence of teratogenicity. Leachates from H-Coal PDU solid wastes, on the other hand, had relatively low concentrations of selected elements and had essentially no acute toxicity to a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species. These studies indicate that environmental effects of product oil spills from a commercial H-Coal liquefaction plant are likely to be more severe than those of conventional petroleum spills. Product upgrading or special transportation and storage techniques may be needed to ensure environmentally sound commercialization of the H-Coal process.

  17. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  18. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  19. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  20. Studies of coupled chemical and catalytic coal conversion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Liquefaction of coal by depolymerization in an organic solvent has been studied for several years. The liquefied coal extract which results from such a process is far more suitable for conversion into liquid fuel by hydrogenolysis than is the untreated coal. Investigations on the chemical structure and the reactive sites of coal can help to select useful reactions for the production of liquids from coal. Sternberg et al. demonstrated that the reductive alkylation method transforms bituminous coal into an enormously soluble substance, irrespective of the mild reaction conditions. The effectiveness of newly introduced alkyl groups for the disruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interactions between the aromatic sheets in coal macromolecules has been recognized. It has been reported by Ignasiak et al. that a C-alkylabon reaction using sodium or potassium amide in liquid ammonia can be used to introduce alkyl groups at acidic carbon sites. A method has been developed recently in this laboratory for the solubilization of high rank coals. In the previous reports it was shown that n-butyl lithium and potassium t-butoxide in refluxing heptane produced coal anions which could be alkylated with different alkyl halides. Such alkylated coals were soluble up to 92% in solvents like pyridine. Though the solubilization of coal depended very much on the length of the alkyl group, it also depended very much on the nature of the base used. Strong bases like n-butyl lithium (pKa=42) can cause proton abstraction from aromatic structures, if the more acidic benzylic protons are absent. The utility of this procedure, initially developed and used by Miyake and Stock, has now been tested with the high oxygen containing, low rank Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals.