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1

Performance Properties of Saltstone Produced using SWPF Simulants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overwhelming majority of waste to be immobilized at the Saltstone Production Facility will come from the waste stream exiting the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). These SWPF batches are salt solutions that result from pretreatment of the High Le...

J. Harbour T. Edwards

2010-01-01

2

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE PRODUCED USING SWPF SIMULANTS  

SciTech Connect

The overwhelming majority of waste to be immobilized at the Saltstone Production Facility will come from the waste stream exiting the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). These SWPF batches are salt solutions that result from pretreatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) supernate by an Actinide Removal Process followed by Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. The concentration of aluminate within these streams will vary and be determined by (1) the concentration in the incoming salt waste stream, (2) the degree of aluminum leaching from the HLW, (3) the method for introducing the aluminate into the waste stream (continuous or batch) and (4) and any operational or regulatory limitations. The overall Performance Assessment outcome for the Saltstone Disposal Facility will depend significantly on the performance properties of the SWPF Saltstone grouts. This report identifies and quantifies, when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected SWPF grouts. Previous work has identified aluminate concentration in the salt waste stream as a key factor in determining performance. Consequently, significant variation in the aluminate concentration to a maximum level of 0.65 M was investigated in this report. The SWPF baseline grout is a mix with a 0.60 water to cementitious ratio and a premix composition of 45 wt % slag, 45 wt % fly ash and 10 wt % portland cement. The key factors that drive performance of the SWPF mixes were determined to be (1) the time/temperature profile for curing, (2) water to cementitious materials ratio, (3) aluminate concentration in the waste stream, and (4) wt % slag in the premix. An increase in the curing temperature for mixes with 45 wt % slag resulted in a 2.5 times decrease in Young's modulus. The reduction of Young's modulus measured at 60 C versus 22 C was mitigated by an increase in the aluminate concentration but was still significant. For mixes containing 60 wt % slag, the reduction in Young's modulus between these two curing temperatures was significantly lessened. The importance of curing conditions can not be overemphasized. The gain realized in performance by, e.g., a higher level of aluminate or wt % slag or a reduction in w/cm ratio, can be offset by the effects of a higher curing temperature. In fact, the final performance properties of a mix cured at 60 C can be lower than the initial values before any of the performance enhancing changes are introduced. Control of the time/temperature curing profile can be managed by pour schedules and other temperature control measures. The reduction in performance at higher curing temperatures is consistent with results obtained in a separate study. Although preliminary, results from this task on the measurement of hydraulic conductivity at MACTEC showed that curing of a Saltstone mix at 60 C increased the hydraulic conductivity by several orders of magnitude. The permeability data are based on only one mix but, were consistent with a measured reduction in Young's modulus for these same samples. Therefore, it is recommended that impact of curing temperature on performance properties be further investigated. An increase in dynamic Young's modulus (indicator of performance) is observed as the water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio decreases. The w/cm ratio is a process parameter which can be adjusted to improve performance as long as the processing properties of the grout are still within an operational window that will lead to successful placement. The same conclusions apply to wt % slag in the premix. That is, an increase in the wt % slag at the expense of fly ash in the premix increases Young's modulus and performance. An increase in wt % slag (as with a decrease in w/cm ratio) increases viscosity and yield stress and a final mix design must be balanced such that acceptable processing properties are obtained. The performance properties of SWPF mixes show a non-linear dependence on aluminate concentration. As the aluminate concentration is increased from 0.1 M to 0.25 M, the Young's modulus and compressive strength inc

Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.

2010-02-16

3

Salt Processing Project: Off-Line Analysis Methods to Meet Process Cycle Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) requires analyses to verify that strontium and total alpha content of treated wastes meet Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The SWPF will require that results are available in time to meet process cycle requirements. SWPF personnel sought on-line and at-line monitors to follow trends in strontium-90 and alpha concentrations in order

Sigg

2002-01-01

4

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10

5

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF DWPF IMPACTS OF BORIC ACID USE IN CESIUM STRIP FOR SWPF AND MCU  

SciTech Connect

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with boric acid. To support this effort, the impact of using 0.01M, 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M boric acid in place of 0.001M nitric acid was evaluated for impacts on the DWPF facility. The evaluation only covered the impacts of boric acid in the strip effluent and does not address the other changes in solvents (i.e., the new extractant, called MaxCalix, or the new suppressor, guanidine). Boric acid additions may lead to increased hydrogen generation during the SRAT and SME cycles as well as change the rheological properties of the feed. The boron in the strip effluent will impact glass composition and could require each SME batch to be trimmed with boric acid to account for any changes in the boron from strip effluent additions. Addition of boron with the strip effluent will require changes in the frit composition and could lead to changes in melt behavior. The severity of the impacts from the boric acid additions is dependent on the amount of boric acid added by the strip effluent. The use of 0.1M or higher concentrations of boric acid in the strip effluent was found to significantly impact DWPF operations while the impact of 0.01M boric acid is expected to be relatively minor. Experimental testing is required to resolve the issues identified during the preliminary evaluation. The issues to be addressed by the testing are: (1) Impact on SRAT acid addition and hydrogen generation; (2) Impact on melter feed rheology; (3) Impact on glass composition control; (4) Impact on frit production; and (5) Impact on melter offgas. A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with boric acid. To support this effort, the impact of using 0.01M, 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M boric acid in place of 0.001M nitric acid was evaluated for impacts on the DWPF facility. The evaluation only covered the impacts of boric acid in the strip effluent and does not address the other changes in solvents (i.e., the new extractant, called MaxCalix, or the new suppressor, guanidine). Experimental testing with the improved solvent is required to determine the impact of any changes in the entrained solvent on DWPF processing.

Stone, M.

2010-09-28

6

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)  

SciTech Connect

All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

CHANG, ROBERT

2006-02-02

7

Sample Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mobile Sample Processing Facility was designed and successfully operated during Operation Roller Coaster to provide: (1) a unified method of processing and packaging samples, (2) onsite counting of selected samples, and (3) a complete record of all samp...

A. L. Baietti A. Zirkes

1965-01-01

8

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

9

Studsvik Processing Facility Update  

SciTech Connect

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

2003-02-25

10

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

11

Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the

Michael R. Norton; Hasmukh B. Shah; Michael E. Stone; Larry E. Johnson; Richard O'Driscoll

2002-01-01

12

Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor.

Doherty, J P; Eibling, R E; Marek, J C

1986-03-01

13

Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is designed to facilitate remote operation and direct maintenance. Two general deployment concepts were considered: (1) deployment in an existing but unused SRS facility and (2) deployment in transportable containers. Deployment in three transportable containers was selected as the preferred option, based on concerns regarding facility availability (due to competition from other processing alternatives) and decontamination and renovation costs. A risk assessment identified environmental, safety, and health issues that exist. These concerns have been addressed in the conceptual design by inclusion of mitigating system features. Due to the highly developed state of CSSX technology, only a few technical issues remain unresolved; however, none of these issues have the potential to make the technology unviable. Recommended development tasks that need to be performed to address technical uncertainties are discussed in this report. Deployment of the proposed CSSX-A system provides significant qualitative and quantitative benefits. The qualitative benefits include (1) verification of full-scale contactor performance under CSSX conditions that will support SWPF CSSX design and deployment; (2) development of design, fabrication, and installation experience bases that will be at least partially applicable to the SWPF CSSX system; and (3) availability of the CSSX-A system as a means of providing contactor-based solvent extraction system operating experience to SWPF CSSX operating personnel. Estimates of fixed capital investment, development costs, and annual operating cost for SRS deployment of the CSSX-A system (in mid-2003 dollars) are $9,165,199, $2,734,801, and $2,108,820, respectively. When the economics of the CSSX-A system are compared with those of the baseline SWPF CSSX system, benefit-to-cost ratios ranging from 20 to 47 are obtained. The benefits in the cost/benefit comparison arise from expedited tank closure and reduced engineering, construction, and operating costs for the SWPF CSSX system. No significant impediments to deployment were determined in the reported a

Birdwell, JR.J.F.

2004-05-12

14

Safety assessment of the tape processing facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of specific processes performed in the Mound tape processing facility was done to determine the potential risk to the operator. A fault tree methodology was used, with quantitative aspects obtained from risk matrices and histograms derived f...

P. W. Seabaugh M. D. Prisc C. D. Barklay

1991-01-01

15

AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS IN SHELL EGG PROCESSING FACILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads were determined in the air of three shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same ...

16

SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-10-01

17

Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel  

SciTech Connect

The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given.

Oberst, E.F.

1985-01-15

18

SALTSTONE PROCESSING FACILITY TRANSFER SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Production Facility inadvertently transferred 1800 gallons of untreated waste from the salt feed tank to Vault 4. During shut down, approximately 70 gallons of the material was left in the Saltstone hopper. A sample of the slurry in the hopper was sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze the density, pH and the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals. The sample was hazardous for chromium, mercury and pH. The sample received from the Saltstone hopper was analyzed visually while obtaining sample aliquots and while the sample was allowed to settle. It was observed that the sample contains solids that settle in approximately 20 minutes (Figure 3-1). There is a floating layer on top of the supernate during settling and disperses when the sample is agitated (Figure 3-2). The untreated waste inadvertently transferred from the SFT to Vault 4 was toxic for chromium and mercury. In addition, the pH of the sample is at the regulatory limit. Visually inspecting the sample indicates solids present in the sample.

Cozzi, A.; Reigel, M.

2010-08-04

19

15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Energy facility planning process...Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process...contain a planning process for energy facilities likely to...

2010-01-01

20

15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Energy facility planning process...Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process...contain a planning process for energy facilities likely to...

2009-01-01

21

10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING...Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance. (a) Following the...

2013-01-01

22

Defense Waste Processing Facility canister impact testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes impact testing of seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high level waste canisters during FY 1988. Impact testing was conducted to demonstrate compliance of DWPF canisters with the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification. The prototypical stainless steel canisters were filled with simulated waste to about 85% capacity at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). They

K. M. Olson; J. M. Alzheimer

1989-01-01

23

Defense Waste Processing Facility canister impact testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has drop tested seven Defense Waste Processing Facility high-level waste canisters for Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) (1). The canisters were filled with simulated waste glass to \\/approximately\\/85% capacity and sealed by SRL before being shipped to PNL. Each 304L stainless steel canister was approximately 300 cm (9 ft 10 in.) long,

K. M. Olson; J. M. Alzheimer

1989-01-01

24

Signal Processing Test Facility Target Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Target Simulator was designed, built, and installed in the Signal Processing Test Facility (SPTF) located at the Floyd Test Annex, RADC, Rome, N.Y. It is used to generate fixed and moving targets for evaluation of the performance of the high-resolution ...

J. M. Tegins

1971-01-01

25

Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities  

SciTech Connect

This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

Ayres, D.A.

1997-08-01

26

Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

DeeEarl Vaden

2005-10-01

27

Processing facility on modified oil tanker  

SciTech Connect

Now operating offshore California, a modified 50,000-d.w.t. oil tanker supports a crude oil and natural gas processing facility and temporary oil-storage tanks. A single-anchor-leg mooring (SALM) device stabilizes the tanker, which is subjected to significant roll, pitch, and heave by wind and wave forces. Natural gas, after compression on the production platform, travels by subsea pipeline to provide fuel for the facility's gas-turbine power generators. A Sulfinol treatment plant on the vessel lowers the gas's sulfur content, then a Claus sulfur-recovery unit removes essentially all of the H/sub 2/S from the acid gas.

Harper, H.S.

1982-06-21

28

Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy.

Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

1991-01-01

29

Defense Waste Processing Facility prototypic analytical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Analytical Laboratory is a relatively new laboratory facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). It is a non-regulated, non-radioactive laboratory whose mission is to support research and development (R & D) and waste treatment operations by providing analytical and experimental services in a way that is safe, efficient, and produces quality results in a timely manner so that R & D personnel can provide quality technical data and operations personnel can efficiently operate waste treatment facilities. The modules are sample receiving, chromatography I, chromatography II, wet chemistry and carbon, sample preparation, and spectroscopy.

Policke, T.A.; Bryant, M.F.; Spencer, R.B.

1991-12-31

30

Processing facility on modified oil tanker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now operating offshore California, a modified 50,000-d.w.t. oil tanker supports a crude oil and natural gas processing facility and temporary oil-storage tanks. A single-anchor-leg mooring (SALM) device stabilizes the tanker, which is subjected to significant roll, pitch, and heave by wind and wave forces. Natural gas, after compression on the production platform, travels by subsea pipeline to provide fuel for

1982-01-01

31

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

1999-09-19

32

Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets  

SciTech Connect

The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

Ali, S.A. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., New Orleans, LA (United States); Hill, D.G. [Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States); McConnell, S.B. [Schlumberger Dowell, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, M.R. [Gulf States Environmental Solutions Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-02-10

33

Material Selection for Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steel is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines. It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable stress corrosion cracking resistance in solutions containing formic acid and chloride. Scouting tests were performed on twelve commercial nickel-based alloys in simulated process solutions containing halides, sulfates, nitrates, mercury and formic acid. Mercuric ions and halides interact in acidic environments to increase pitting and crevice attack. Alloys with combined chromium plus molybdenum contents greater than 30 percent, that also contain greater than 9 percent molybdenum, were most resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. Based on this testing, Alloy C-276 has been selected as the reference process equipment material, with Inconel 690 and ALLCORR selected for specialty areas.

Bickford, D.F.

1985-07-17

34

Material selection for nuclear waste processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steels is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines. It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable stress corrosion cracking resistance in solutions containing formic acid and chloride. Scouting tests were performed on twelve commercial nickel-based alloys in simulated process solutions containing halides, sulfates, nitrates, mercury, and formic acid. Mercuric ions and halides interact in acidic environments to increase pitting and crevice attack. Alloys with combined chromium plus molybdenum contents greater than 30 pct, that also contain greater than 9 pct molybdenum, were most resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. Based on this testing, Alloy C-276 has been selected as the reference process equipment material, with INCONEL 690 and ALLCORR selected for specialty areas.

Bickford, D.F.; Corbett, R.A.

1986-09-01

35

Defense waste processing facility startup progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

1992-01-01

36

Defense waste processing facility startup progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950`s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

1992-07-01

37

Waste minimization and pollution prevention at a plutonium processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

If nuclear facilities are to achieve public acceptance, they must develop strong programs in waste minimization, pollution prevention, and environmentally sound recycling. These programs are specially essential for defense production facilities that process large quantities of special nuclear materials. The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has initiated a focused research and development program with a strategic goal of becoming

K PILLAY; K. K. S

1994-01-01

38

Design and construction innovations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is essentially complete. The facility is designed to convert high level radioactive waste, now contained in large steel tanks as aqueous salts and sludge, into b...

J. M. McKibben C. R. Pair H. K. Bethmann

1990-01-01

39

Facility Planning Process Small Alternative Wastewater Systems Workshops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Small Communities and Their Special Needs; Barriers to Successful Facility Planning in Small Communities; The Facility Planning Process; Community Pofile; Problem Area Definition; Alternative Generation and Selection; Envi...

1981-01-01

40

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-01-01

41

A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities.

Cowen, M.L.

1992-09-01

42

10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...behavior of items relied on for safety. (b) Facility and system design and facility layout must be based on defense-in-depth practices...As used in § 70.64, Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing...

2013-01-01

43

Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities  

SciTech Connect

This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

Not Available

1986-09-01

44

Defense Waste Processing Facility canister impact testing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes impact testing of seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high level waste canisters during FY 1988. Impact testing was conducted to demonstrate compliance of DWPF canisters with the drop test specification of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification. The prototypical stainless steel canisters were filled with simulated waste to about 85% capacity at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). They were received from SRL in April 1988. Each canister was approximately 300 cm (9 ft 10 in.) long, and 61 cm (2 ft) in diameter, and weighed about 2150 kg (4740 lb). Each canister was dropped twice from a height of 7 m (23 ft). The first drop was a vertical bottom impact where the bottom of the canister was oriented parallel to the impact pad. The second was a center-of-gravity-over-the-corner top impact. Procedures used to examine the canisters were the application and analysis of strain circles, helium leak testing, dye penetrant examination, and canister dimensional measurements. 39 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

Olson, K.M.; Alzheimer, J.M.

1989-09-01

45

RADCAP: an operational parallel processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of RADCAP, the operational associative array processor (AP) facility installed at Rome Air Development Center (RADC). Basically, this facility consists of a Goodyear Aerospace STARAN associative array (parallel) processor and various peripheral devices, all interfaced with a Honeywell Information Systems (HIS) 645 sequential computer, which runs under the Multics timeshared operating system. The RADCAP hardware and

James D. Feldman; Louis C. Fulmer

1974-01-01

46

10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee...site, structures, processes, systems, equipment...including any necessary training or retraining before...site, structures, processes, systems, equipment...is implemented. The evaluation of the change must...

2013-01-01

47

Personal Dust Exposures at a Food Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed within a larger warehouse-type facility. Workers were exposed to various fruit and vegetable

Steven E. Lacey; Lorraine M. Conroy; John E. Franke; Richard A. Wadden; Donald R. Hedeker; Linda S. Forst

2006-01-01

48

Water Use and Reuse in Commercial Turkey Processing Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A survey of turkey processing facilities was conducted to determine the average volume of water used per bird during processing, the average amount of recycled processing water, and the types of poultry processing antimicrobial treatments. Ninety-three surveys were sent out to turkey processing facilities in the United States. Twenty-six surveys were completed and returned (28%). Thecombinedprocessingcapacityofthe26facilitiesthatrespondedtothesurveywasapproximately 1.03 million birds

J. K. Northcutt

2007-01-01

49

Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitrite-Destruction Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium/sup 137/ and other alkali tetraphenylborate precipitates will be an important step in preparing high level waste for vitrification in the Savannah River Plant's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The tetraphenylborates will be hydrolyzed with formic acid and copper (II) catalyst to form primarily benzene and boric acid. The precipitate slurry will contain nitrite ion at concentrations ranging from about 0.05/endash/0.2 M. High-boiling side products (diphenylamine, terphenyl), which reduce the removal of aromatic carbon, are formed during hydrolysis at these levels of nitrate. To achieve aromatic carbon removals of over 90%, a two-stage process was developed. Nitrite in the precipitate feed will be converted to nitrous oxide (N20) with hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) as the precipitate slurry is fed into the reactor. After the feed to the reactor is complete, the reactor contents will be heated to boiling (/approximately/101/degree/C) for five hours to complete the hydrolysis reactions. Engineering data and hazards prevention are presented for the DWPF Nitrite-Destruction Precipitate Hydrolysis Process. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Jacobs, R.A.; Randall, C.T.

1988-01-01

50

Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility Shield Integrity Examinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, will receive and store spent metal-clad fuel and then dissolve this fuel using the new Fluorinel Disso...

E. E. Hochhalter

1985-01-01

51

Managing the Rural School Facility Construction Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The decision to renovate or replace a school building is the starting point for a long and challenging journey with many phases: planning, development, and project delivery and construction. Each phase requires different levels of expertise, skills, and activities. The challenge of a rural facility project is to find leadership to provide

Passarelli, Angelo; Goehring, Wade; Harley, Anne

52

Material Selection for Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steel is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines. It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable stress corrosion cracking resistance

Bickford

1985-01-01

53

Image processing technology for nuclear facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is devel...

J. M. Lee Y. B. Lee W. K. Kim S. Y. Park

1993-01-01

54

Material selection for nuclear waste processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department\\u000a of Energys Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steels is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines.\\u000a It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable\\u000a stress corrosion cracking

D. F. Bickford; R. A. Corbett

1986-01-01

55

Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling.

Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.

1996-12-31

56

Radwaste processing at the Advanced Test Reactor facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250-MW (thermal) water-cooled reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The reactor is used primarily to test materials in a radiation environment for defense related programs. Operation of this facility includes processing of radioactive waste streams in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. Since the materials tested in reactor experiment facilities are sometimes

R. N. Beatty; R. A. Livingston

1985-01-01

57

Capabilities for processing shipping casks at spent fuel storage facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent fuel is received at a storage facility in heavily shielded casks transported either by rail or truck. The casks are inspected, cooled, emptied, decontaminated, and reshipped. The spent fuel is transferred to storage. The number of locations or space inside the building provided to perform each function in cask processing will determine the rate at which the facility can

W. H. Baker; L. M. Arnett

1978-01-01

58

46. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING AT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING AT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

59

Advanced Alarm Processing Facilities Installed on Eskom's Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eskom's Transmission division is commissioning a new Energy Management System (EMS) known as TEMSE. This EMS included requirements for advanced alarm processing facilities and enhanced Human Machine Interface functionality. The requirements covered alarm data reduction and the provision of \\

Richard Candy; J. Taisne

2007-01-01

60

Estimating and Bidding for the Space Station Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government...

J. A. Brown

1993-01-01

61

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of a test of the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during nonradioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination...

M. C. Swenson

2001-01-01

62

Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility. This investigation was performed using the internal resources of HC&S with research collaboration from the University ...

2006-01-01

63

The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of

J. A. Michelbacher; Henslee; M. D. S. P. McDermott; J. R. Price; K. E. Rosenberg; P. B. Wells

1998-01-01

64

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup test program: Glass characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual geologic disposal. Six simulated glass compositions will be processed in the DWPF during initial startup. The glass in 86 of the first

Jantzen

1992-01-01

65

Constructibility Review Process for Transportation Facilities. Workbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This workbook supports the development of a process for assessing and improving highway-construction-project contract documents to ensure rational bids and to minimized problems during construction. The contents of this workbook are, therefore, of immedia...

S. D. Anderson D. J. Fisher

1997-01-01

66

Standard process for the roles and responsibilities for facility reuse of DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of the standard process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, and real property for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objective of this process is to facilitate the reindustrialization of the ORR for the Department of Energy (DOE). The roles and responsibilities in this standard, as defined in

A. S. Loebl; D. G. Trost; J. A. Pastel; S. G. Payne; R. M. Fleenor

1996-01-01

67

Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

1997-12-31

68

Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation`s first and world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage.

Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

1997-06-01

69

Remote video technology status, Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is under construction at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In the DWPF an immobilization process solidifies high-level waste material into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. The molten mixture of waste and glass is produced in an electrically heated melter. The mixture is subsequently allowed to solidify in stainless steel canisters for eventual transportation to an

Heckendorn; F. M. II

1989-01-01

70

Remote video technology status, Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is under construction at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In the DWPF an immobilization process solidifies high-level waste material into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. The molten mixture of waste and glas...

F. M. Heckendorn

1989-01-01

71

Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

1994-06-01

72

Remote viewing of melter interior: defense waste processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is under construction at the Savannah River Plant. In DWPF, an immobilization process solidifies high-level radioactive waste material into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. A molten mixture of waste and glass is produced in an electrically heated melter. The mixture is subsequently allowed to solidify in a stainless steel canister for eventual transportation to an

Heckendorn

1986-01-01

73

Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process  

SciTech Connect

The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this State-level approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied to facility modifications or new designs Modifications of the design that could mitigate a potential safeguards issue or facilitate a more efficient application of the safeguards approach Possible innovative ideas for more efficient application of safeguards The potential for changes in elements of the safeguard approach that may be required by IAEA as a result of facility design features and characteristics Other potential concerns These issues will then be presented to the IAEA and the state regulator to be resolved in a timely manner, ensuring that the planned safeguards approach is acceptable and compatible with the facility design. The proposed approach should be validated by application to suitable facilities to assess its utility, comprehensiveness, and cost-effectiveness. The approach and example application should also be reviewed by industry to confirm the conclusions reached in the DOE review.

Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

2011-10-10

74

Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1  

SciTech Connect

A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

Lewis, C.J.

1995-10-01

75

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

1999-04-02

76

Standard process for the roles and responsibilities for facility reuse of DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of the standard process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, and real property for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objective of this process is to facilitate the reindustrialization of the ORR for the Department of Energy (DOE). The roles and responsibilities in this standard, as defined in the attached narrative and flow diagrams, were agreed upon among various representatives from the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). Reindustrialization for the DOE encompasses several areas which include: facilities reuse, materials and equipment recycling, and worker transition activities. The DOE-ORO`s vision for the ORR is to have completed the reindustrialization activities for the K-25 Site by the year 2010. Several steps have already been taken to aggressively pursue this vision, such as determining the most efficient and cost-effective ways to expedite the facilities reuse process. This report provides the time-phased, step-by-step, process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, land, and suggestions on streamlining the required regulatory processes.

Loebl, A.S.; Trost, D.G.; Pastel, J.A.; Payne, S.G.; Fleenor, R.M.

1996-04-01

77

Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study  

SciTech Connect

A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m/sup 3/ (1.3 million ft/sup 3/) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction.

Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

1985-09-30

78

The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

1998-05-01

79

Defense Waste Processing Facility Radioactive Operations - Year Two  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first high-level radioactive waste vitrification facility. This waste (130 million liters) which has been stored in carbon steel underground tanks and is now being pretreated, melted into a highly durable borosilicate glass and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Following a ten-year construction period and nearly three-year nonradioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. The first nine months of radioactive operations have been reported previously. As with any complex technical facility, difficulties were encountered during the transition to radioactive operations. Results of the second year of radioactive operations are presented in this paper. The discussion includes: feed preparation and glass melting, resolution of the melter pouring issues, improvements in processing attainment and throughput, and planned improvements in laboratory attainment and throughput.

Occhipinti, J.E.; Carter, J.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Beck, R.S.; Iverson, D.C.

1998-03-01

80

10 CFR 95.15 - Approval for processing licensees and others for facility clearance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for processing licensees and others for facility clearance. 95.15 Section 95...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING...for processing licensees and others for facility clearance. (a) A...

2013-01-01

81

AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS IN COMMERCIAL SHELL EGG PROCESSING FACILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted to determine airborne microorganisms in three different types of shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations). Sampling sites were evaluated from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples were drawn ...

82

Remote viewing of melter interior Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote system has been developed and demonstrated for continuous reviewing of the interior of a glass melter, which is used to vitrify highly radioactive waste. The system is currently being implemented with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The environment in which the borescope\\/TV unit is implemented combines high temperature,

Heckendorn; F. M. II

1986-01-01

83

Stability of ellipsoidal conductors in microgravity electromagnetic containerless processing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate forces and torques arising on ellipsoidal conductors placed in electromagnetic containerless processing facilities in an ambient of microgravity assuming small displacements from equilibrium. We show that oblate conductors could be unstable to flipping motion when oscillating longitudinal (or heating) magnetic fields are used, while prolate ones are unstable when their elongation is below 2 if only positioning coils

Abdala Mohamed Saleh; Roberto Antonio Clemente

2002-01-01

84

Energy Conservation Opportunities at a Pineapple Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process followed to quantify no-cost and low-cost energy conservation opportunities found during a five-day energy audit at a pineapple processing facility in Kenya. The project started with an energy audit conducted to identify energy conservation opportunities. Various energy conservation opportunities were identified during the walkthrough audit and from metered data. The conservation opportunities included repairing faulty

A. Z. Dalgleish; L. J. Grobler

2008-01-01

85

Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

1996-06-01

86

Geotechnical Seismic Assessment Report for Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

High level waste facilities at the Savannah River Site include several major structures that must meet seismic requirements, including the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Numerous geotechnical and geological investigations have been performed to characterize the in-situ static and dynamic properties of the soil sediments. These investigations have led to conclusions concerning the stability of foundation soils in terms of liquefaction potential and structure settlement. This report reviews past work that addresses seismic soil stability and presents the results of more recent analyses incorporating updated seismic criteria.

McHood, M.

2000-10-04

87

Defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes produced by defense activities at the site. At the present time engineering and design are 45% complete, the site has been cleared, and startup is expected in 1989. This paper will describe project status as well as features of the design. 9 figures.

Baxter, R G; Maher, R; Mellen, J B; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

1984-01-01

88

APET methodology for Defense Waste Processing Facility: Mode C operation  

SciTech Connect

Safe operation of SRS facilities continues to be the highest priority of the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of these facilities, the Defense Waste Processing Facility or DWPF, is currently undergoing cold chemical runs to verify the design and construction preparatory to hot startup in 1995. The DWPFF is a facility designed to convert the waste currently stored in tanks at the 200-Area tank farm into a form that is suitable for long term storage in engineered surface facilities and, ultimately, geologic isolation. As a part of the program to ensure safe operation of the DWPF, a probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF has been completed. The results of this analysis are incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for DWPF. The usual practice in preparation of Safety Analysis Reports is to include only a conservative analysis of certain design basis accidents. A major part of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment is the development and quantification of an Accident Progression Event Tree or APET. The APET provides a probabilistic representation of potential sequences along which an accident may progress. The methodology used to determine the risk of operation of the DWPF borrows heavily from methods applied to the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of SRS reactors and to some commercial reactors. This report describes the Accident Progression Event Tree developed for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF.

Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Massey, W.M.

1995-04-01

89

Minimizing Work-in-Process in Design of Facility Layouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a formulation of the facility layout design problem where the objective is to minimize work-in-process (WIP). In contrast to some recent research, we show that layouts obtained using a WIP-based formulation can be very different from those obtained using the conventional quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. For example, we show that a QAP-optimal layout can

Saifallah Benjaafar

2000-01-01

90

Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

1991-12-31

91

Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

1991-01-01

92

Some features of a branched process flowchart for an HTGR power and chemical process facility  

SciTech Connect

The article treats some features of the process flowchart for VGR-50 reactor process facility designed to handle generation of electric power plus radiation processing of products and materials, using gamma emissions from fission products accumulating in the circuit core - irradiator - core packed with spherical fuel pellets.

Emel'yunov, I.Ya.; Knyazev, V.A.

1983-01-01

93

DYMAC digital electronic balance. [LASL Plutonium Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance.

Stephens, M.M.

1980-06-01

94

Overview of planning process at FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)  

SciTech Connect

The planning process at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is controlled through a hierarchy of documents ranging from a ten-year strategic plan to a weekly schedule. Within the hierarchy are a Near-Term (three-year) Operating Plan, a Cycle (six-month) Plan, and an Outage/Operating Phase Schedule. Coordination of the planning process is accomplished by a dedicated preparation team that also provides an overview of the formal planning timetable which identifies key action items required to be completed before an outage/operating phase can begin.

Gadeken, A.D.

1986-03-01

95

Accident Fault Trees for Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document fault tree analyses which have been completed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety analysis. Logic models for equipment failures and human error combinations that could lead to flammable gas explosions in various process tanks, or failure of critical support systems were developed for internal initiating events and for earthquakes. These fault trees provide frequency estimates for support systems failures and accidents that could lead to radioactive and hazardous chemical releases both on-site and off-site. Top event frequency results from these fault trees will be used in further APET analyses to calculate accident risk associated with DWPF facility operations. This report lists and explains important underlying assumptions, provides references for failure data sources, and briefly describes the fault tree method used. Specific commitments from DWPF to provide new procedural/administrative controls or system design changes are listed in the ''Facility Commitments'' section. The purpose of the ''Assumptions'' section is to clarify the basis for fault tree modeling, and is not necessarily a list of items required to be protected by Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs).

Sarrack, A.G.

1999-06-22

96

Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

1996-03-01

97

An Automated 476 MHz RF Cavity Processing Facility at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

The 476 MHz accelerating cavities currently used at SLAC are those installed on the PEP-II B-Factory collider accelerator. They are designed to operate at a maximum accelerating voltage of 1 MV and are routinely utilized on PEP-II at voltages up to 750 kV. During the summer of 2003, SPEAR3 will undergo a substantial upgrade, part of which will be to replace the existing 358.54 MHz RF system with essentially a PEP-II high energy ring (HER) RF station operating at 476.3 MHz and 3.2 MV (or 800 kV/cavity). Prior to installation, cavity RF processing is required to prepare them for use. A dedicated high power test facility is employed at SLAC to provide the capability of conditioning each cavity up to the required accelerating voltage. An automated LabVIEW based interface controls and monitors various cavity and test stand parameters, increasing the RF fields accordingly such that stable operation is finally achieved. This paper describes the high power RF cavity processing facility, highlighting the features of the automated control system and illustrating its operation with some recent high power processing results.

McIntosh, P.

2003-07-29

98

Statistical process control support during Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) has been developed to ensure that the wasteforms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will satisfy the regulatory and processing criteria that will be imposed. The PCCS provides rigorous, statistically-defensible management of a noisy, multivariate system subject to multiple constraints. The system has been successfully tested

1994-01-01

99

Tributylphosphate in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Facilities  

SciTech Connect

A material balance investigation and evaluation of n- tributylphosphate (TBP) recycle throughout ITP and its carryover to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was performed. Criticality and DWPF-related issues were determined to pose no adverse consequences due to TBP addition. Effects of decomposition products were also considered. Flammability of 1-butanol, a TBP decomposition product, in Tank 22 was investigated. Calculations show that Tank 22 would be ventilated with air at a rate sufficient to maintain a 1-butanol concentration (volume percent) well below 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for 1-butanol.

Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs, D.T.; Swingle, R.F.

1993-11-23

100

40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section...COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...20 Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities. (a) Request...

2013-07-01

101

Generator Certification Process for Envirocare's Containerized Class A Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

On October 19, 2001, the Utah Division of Radiation Control issued Amendment 12 to Radioactive Material License UT2300249 (RML) for Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) disposal operations. The license amendment provides the mechanism for Envirocare to receive and dispose of containerized Class A Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) at the newly constructed Containerized Waste Facility (CWF). Due to the increased radioactivity and external dose rates of waste that will be shipped to the CWF, a Generator Certification Program has been implemented that eliminates the requirement to sample incoming shipments, thus keeping worker doses to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This paper presents the key elements of the Generator Certification Program and describes the review and approval process for certifying generators to ship waste to the CWF. Each phase of the program will be discussed to assist generators in gaining a better understanding of the certification process. Additionally, the paper will present unique differences between the CWF Waste Acceptance Criteria and the requirements from other commercial disposal facilities.

Rogers, B. C.

2002-02-25

102

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-01-01

103

Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

1992-12-31

104

A MCNP model of gloveboxes in a plutonium processing facility  

SciTech Connect

A room in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glovebox for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glovebox will be located in a room containing other gloveboxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. A MCNP model of the room and gloveboxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glovebox and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glovebox. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

1998-12-31

105

Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

Lambert, D.P.

2000-03-22

106

The ATOVS and AVHRR product processing facility for EPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATOVS/AVHRR Product Processing Facility (PPF) of the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) Core Ground Segment comprises the Level 1 processing of the data from the ATOVS sounding instruments AMSU-A, MHS and HIRS/4, and the imager AVHRR/3 into calibrated and navigated radiances. A second component includes the level 2 processing, which uses as input the level 1 products of the aforementioned instruments. The specification of the PPF is based on two well-known and well-established software packages, which have been used by the international community for some years: The AAPP (ATOVS and AVHRR Pre-processing Package) and ICI (Inversion Coupled with Imager). The PPF is able to process data from instruments flown on the Metop and NOAA satellites. For the level 1 processing of the sounding instruments' data (HIRS, AMSU-A and MHS), the basic functionality of AAPP has been kept; however, the individual chains for each instrument have been separated and additional functionality has been integrated. For HIRS a global calibration, as performed by NOAA/NESDIS today, has been included. For AMSU-A and MHS the moon contamination of the calibration space view can be corrected for. Additional functionality has also been included in the AVHRR processing. In particular, an enhanced navigation by landmark processing has been implemented to ensure accurate geo-location. Additionally, the PPF can digest and process the global AVHRR data either at full pixel resolution (1 km at nadir), which is the nominal mode for the Metop processing, or at the reduced resolution of the NOAA/GAC (Global Area Coverage) data (about 4 km resolution at nadir). For the level 2 processing the ICI had to be modified to include the most recent improvement in fast radiative transfer modelling as included in the RTTOV-7. As a first step towards the realisation of the PPF a prototype has been generated for the purpose to help specifying the details of the PPF, and for verification of the latter by generation of reference and test data. The prototype is able to process HRPT data, GAC data from the NOAA satellite active archive (SAA), and also Local Area Coverage (LAC) data. GAC data processing means that the processing of whole orbits is possible. Current work is aimed to assess the quality of the Level 2 retrievals and to generate reference test data for the operational PPF.

Klaes, D.; Ackermann, J.; Schraidt, R.; Patterson, T.; Schlssel, P.; Phillips, P.; Arriaga, A.; Grandell, J.

107

Personal dust exposures at a food processing facility.  

PubMed

A field study was performed to quantify personal dust exposures at a food processing facility. A review of the literature shows very little exposure information in the food processing industry. The processing area consisted of a series of four rooms, connected by a closed-loop ventilation system, housed within a larger warehouse-type facility. Workers were exposed to various fruit and vegetable dusts during the grinding, sieving, mixing and packaging of freeze-dried or air-dried products. Eight two-hour periods were monitored over two days. Personal total suspended particulate samples were collected on 37 mm PVC filters with 5 microm pore size according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 0500. The filters were analyzed gravimetrically. The two-hour task sampling personal dust exposures ranged from 0.33-103 mg/m3. For each worker, an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) concentration was calculated, and these ranged from 3.08-59.8 mg/m3. Although there are no directly appropriate occupational exposure limits that may be used for comparison, we selected the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for particulates not otherwise classified (PNOC) of 10 mg/m3 for inhalable particles. Neglecting the respiratory protection used, five out of eight of the worker time-weighted averages exceeded the TLV. It should be noted that the TLV is based on the inhalable fraction and in this study total suspended particulate was measured; additionally, the TLV is applicable for dusts that are insoluble or poorly soluble, and have low toxicity, which may have limited protective ability in this case due to the irritant nature of certain dusts (e.g., jalapeno peppers, aloe vera). Sieving resulted in significantly higher exposure than grinding and blending. Measuring area concentrations alone in this environment is not a sufficient method of estimating personal exposures due to work practices for some operations. PMID:16893837

Lacey, Steven E; Conroy, Lorraine M; Forst, Linda S; Franke, John E; Wadden, Richard A; Hedeker, Donald R

2006-01-01

108

Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report  

SciTech Connect

WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

Not Available

1993-10-01

109

Process Technical Basis Documentation Diagram for a solid-waste processing facility  

SciTech Connect

The Process Technical Basis Documentation Diagram is for a solid-waste processing facility that could be designed to treat, package, and certify contact-handled mixed low-level waste for permanent disposal. The treatment processes include stabilization using cementitious materials and immobilization using a polymer material. The Diagram identifies several engineering/demonstration activities that would confirm the process selection and process design. An independent peer review was conducted at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the technical adequacy of the technical approach for waste form development. The peer review panel provided comments and identified documents that it felt were needed in the Diagram as precedence for Title I design. The Diagram is a visual tool to identify traceable documentation of key activities, including those documents suggested by the peer review, and to show how they relate to each other. The Diagram is divided into three sections: (1) the Facility section, which contains documents pertaining to the facility design, (2) the Process Demonstration section, which contains documents pertaining to the process engineering/demonstration work, and 3) the Regulatory section, which contains documents describing the compliance strategy for each acceptance requirement for each feed type, and how this strategy will be implemented.

Benar, C.J.; Petersen, C.A.

1994-02-01

110

OVERVIEW OF TESTING TO SUPPORT PROCESSING OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site began processing of its third sludge batch in March 2004. To avoid a feed outage in the facility, the next sludge batch will have to be prepared and ready for transfer to the DWPF by the end of 2006. The next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), will consist of a significant volume of HM-type sludge. HM-type sludge is very high in aluminum compared to the mostly Purex-type sludges that have been processed to date. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with Liquid Waste Operations to define the sludge preparation plans and to perform testing to support qualification and processing of SB4. Significant challenges have arisen during SB4 preparation and testing to include poor sludge settling behavior and lower than desired projected melt rates. An overview of the testing activities is provided.

Herman, C

2006-09-20

111

Process safety and risk management: Is your facility under control?  

SciTech Connect

By 1990, the US Congress had passed two significant pieces of legislation dealing with the prevention of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances--Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and legislation that required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to issue its Process Safety Management regulations. On June 20, 1996, the final Rule on Risk Management Plans (RMP) for Chemical Accident Prevention was published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The final RMP Rule requires facilities with covered processes to be in full compliance with EPA`s Risk Management and Certification requirements by June 21, 1999. Meanwhile, the OSHA regulations, issued in final form in February 1992 (29CFR1910.119), provided a five-year compliance phase-in. One principal difference between the EPA and OSHA Rules arises from EPA`s position on exemptions: there are none under EPA`s Rule. With the RMP Rule, only the presence of a process containing a regulated substance above its threshold quantity determines applicability; the nature of the business is not considered in determining specific compliance requirements. Compliance of these regulations is discussed.

Sulkowski, J. [Sulkowski (John), Charleston, SC (United States)

1997-08-01

112

Dowa process demonstration: Shawnee test facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Dowa flue gas desulfurization process, an aluminum-based double alkali process that uses forced oxidation, limestone neutralization, and produces gypsum, was evaluated at a 10-MW scale on a coal-fired boiler at the EPA Shawnee test facility. Although SO/sub 2/ removal with a Turbulent Contact Absorber was less than expected, SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies of 90% were obtained at flue gas velocities of 7 to 11 ft/sec and liquid-to-gas ratios of 80 to 95 gal/kaft/sup 3/ by using an adsorber containing 6 to 9 feet of rigid packing with a pressure drip of 2 to 9 inches H/sub 2/O. Efficient air-liquid contact in the in-loop forced oxidation tank and control of absorbent basicity were essential to efficient SO/sub 2/ removal. No scaling or corrosion of high-alloy or organic-coated materials was observed during the six-month test. Fly ash appeared to have served as an oxidation promoter, a function normally served by a metal catalyst. A product consisting of over 99% gypsum filterable to over 80% solids was produced. Further evaluation is needed to completely define Dowa process operation on coal-fired boilers.

Puschauer, E.J.; Veitch, J.D.; Jackson, S.B.; Smith, D.B.; Treshier, J.R.; Propp, W.A.

1982-04-01

113

A Survey of Common Practices in Shell Egg Processing Facilities and Water Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell egg processing facilities in the U. S. were surveyed for common production practices and water use. Results were compiled and analyzed for frequency and significance via chi-square analysis. Of the respondents, 65.8 % utilized wells as their primary source of water. Furthermore, 19.2 % of the facilities discharged water to city sewers. Over half of the facilities processed 7

2005-01-01

114

Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform and canister description: Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the reference wasteform and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The principal changes include revised feed and glass product compositions, an estimate of glass product characteristics as a function of time after the start of vitrification, and additional data on glass leaching performance. The feed and glass product composition data are identical to that described in the DWPF Basic Data Report, Revision 90/91. The DWPF facility is located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and it is scheduled for construction completion during December 1989. The wasteform is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance consisting of glass-forming chemicals, primarily glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its stability toward reaction with potential repository groundwaters, its relatively high ability to incorporate nuclides found in the sludge into the solid matrix, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 71% SiO/sub 2/, 12% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 10% Na/sub 2/O. Tests to quantify the stability of DWPF waste glass have been performed under a wide variety of conditions, including simulations of potential repository environments. Based on these tests, DWPF waste glass should easily meet repository criteria. The canister is filled with about 3700 lb of glass which occupies 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 690 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and precipitate from 15-year-old supernate. The radionuclide activity of the canister is about 233,000 curies, with an estimated radiation level of 5600 rad/hour at the canister surface. 14 figs., 28 tabs.

Baxter, R.G.

1988-12-01

115

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael Clair

2001-09-01

116

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

Swenson, Michael C.

2001-09-30

117

Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

118

Defense waste processing facility: the vitrification of high-level nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be the United States' first production scale facility and the worlds' largest plant for the vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. The EDWPF, which is under construction at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) will immobilize the highly radioactive fraction f over 33 million gallons of high-level nuclear waste. The facility is

Brumley

1986-01-01

119

Reducing health care costs through optimised facility management-related processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German health care system is in dire straits financially. The costs of stationary patient care in hospitals are prohibitive. Currently, 30 per cent of hospital costs are a result of facility related processes, a percentage representing the equivalent of more than 14bn annually. Optimising facility-related processes in hospitals has the potential to incur major savings and improve medical processes

Kunibert Lennerts; Jochen Abel; Uwe Pfrnder; Vishal Sharma

2003-01-01

120

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer's attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant gu...

E. T. Gitau G. A. Coles J. Hockert M. D. Zentner

2013-01-01

121

Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process  

SciTech Connect

A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility.

Blanchard, A.

1998-10-16

122

Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

2006-02-27

123

The release of technetium from defense waste processing facility glasses  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests are being, conducted using two radionuclide-doped Defense Waste Processing, Facility (DWPF) glasses (referred to as SRL 13IA and SRL 202A) to characterize the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SN) ratio on the release and disposition of {Tc} and several actinide elements. Tests are being conducted at 90{degrees}C in a tuff ground water solution at SN ratios of 10, 2000, and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} and have been completed through 1822 days. The formation of certain alteration phases in tests at 2000 and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} results in an increase in the dissolution rates of both classes. The release of {Tc} parallels that of B and Na under most test conditions and its release increases when alteration phases form. However, in tests with SRL 202A glass at 20,000 ,{sup {minus}1}, the {Tc} concentration in solution decreases coincidentally with an increase in the nitrite/nitrate ratio that indicates a decrease in the solution Eh. This may have occurred due to radiolysis, glass dissolution, the formation of alteration phases, or vessel interactions. Technetium that was reduced from {Tc}(VII) to {Tc}(IV) may have precipitated, thou-h the amount of {Tc} was too low to detect any {Tc}-bearing phases. These results show the importance of conducting long-term tests with radioactive glasses to characterize the behavior of radionuclides, rather than relying on the observed behavior of nonradioactive surrogates.

Ebert, W.L.; Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.

1995-12-31

124

ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m{sup 3}. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper provides information on the output of the Detail Design and will reflect the progress of the design work.

Ziehm, Ronny; Pichurin, Sergey Grigorevich

2003-02-27

125

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary

1998-01-01

126

Relationships between process fundamentals, facility design, and production control of semiconductor manufacturing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic interrelationships among yields, processing environments, and shop-floor scheduling in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are currently under study. In this paper, we focus on a hypothetical wafer fabrication facility producing 3D CMOS devices designed and developed at Purdue. A key step of this sequence of this process is silicon selective epitaxial growth (SEG). Our emphasis is on the effects of

Shannon Chen; Rieko C. Hase; Kaine Mordaunt; Reha M. Uzsoy; Christos G. Takoudis

1995-01-01

127

Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal

Pillay; K. K. S

1994-01-01

128

THERMAL HYDRAULIC PHENOMENOLOGY FOR THE HEATING PROCESS IN A NATURAL CIRCULATION FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes thermal hydraulic phenomenology observed for the heating process in a natural circulation facility. Glass made circuit allows observations of the thermal hydraulic processes over several regions. Natural convection, natural circulation, nucleated sub-cooled, saturated boiling and some flow patterns such as, bubbly, slug and churn flow are observed and described. Facility heated and cooled parts are responsible for

Walmir M. Torres; Luiz A. Macedo; Roberto N. Mesquita; Paulo Henrique; F. Masotti; Maria P. Libardi; Delvonei A. Andrade; Thadeu N. Conti; Mauro F. S. Filho; Gabriel R. Melo

129

Analysis of Naval Facilities Engineering Command's (NAVFAC) Contracting Processes Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study assesses the process capabilities and competencies of Naval Facilities Engineering Command's (NAVFAC) Mid-Atlantic. The assessment uses a cross-sectional questionnaire covering contracting processes and selected ethical context. The purpose of ...

A. M. Moore W. S. Ludwig

2006-01-01

130

Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL's Ida...

I . Charak D. R. Pedersen R. J. Forrester R. D. Phipps

1993-01-01

131

Integrating Sustainability Programs into the Facilities Capital Planning Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With detailed information about the costs and benefits of potential green investments, educational facilities can effectively evaluate which initiatives will ultimately provide the greatest results over the short and long term. Based on its overall goals, every school, college, or university will have different values and therefore different

Buchanan, Susan

2011-01-01

132

Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land...

J. A. Michelbacher S. P. Henslee J. R. Price K. E. Rosenberg P. B. Wells

1998-01-01

133

30 CFR 939.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

134

30 CFR 921.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

135

30 CFR 937.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing plants and Support...

2013-07-01

136

30 CFR 933.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

137

30 CFR 947.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

138

30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

139

30 CFR 941.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

140

30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

141

30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities...827 Special performance standardscoal processing plants and support facilities...Permanent Program Performance StandardsCoal Processing Plants and Support...

2013-07-01

142

Evaluation of the DYMAC demonstration program. Phase III report. [LASL Plutonium Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the Los Alamos facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system, notably scrap control and quality control, have developed in addition to safeguards. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities.

Malanify, J.J.; Bearse, R.C. (comps.)

1980-12-31

143

Processing of tetraphenylborate precipitates in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has generated 77 million gallons of high level radioactive waste since the early 1950`s. By 1987, evaporation had reduced the concentration of the waste inventory to 35 million gallons. Currently, the wastes reside in large underground tanks as a soluble fraction stored, crystallized salts, and an insoluble fraction, sludge, which consists of hydrated transition metal oxides. The bulk of the radionuclides, 67 percent, are in the sludge while the crystallized salts and supernate are composed of the nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The principal radionuclide in the soluble waste is {sup 137}Cs with traces of {sup 90}Sr. The transformation of the high level wastes into a borosilicate glass suitable for permanent disposal is the goal of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To minimize the volume of glass produced, the soluble fraction of the waste is treated with sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate in the waste tanks to precipitate the radioactive cesium ion and absorb the radioactive strontium ion. The precipitate is washed in the waste tanks and is then pumped to the DWPF. The precipitate, as received, is incompatible with the vitrification process because of the high aromatic carbon content and requires further chemical treatment. Within the DWPF, the precipitate is processed in the Salt Processing Cell to remove the aromatic carbon as benzene. The precipitate hydrolysis process hydrolyzes the tetraphenylborate anion to produce borate anion and benzene. The benzene is removed by distillation, decontaminated and transferred out of the DWPF for disposal.

Eibling, R.E.

1990-12-31

144

Processing of tetraphenylborate precipitates in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has generated 77 million gallons of high level radioactive waste since the early 1950's. By 1987, evaporation had reduced the concentration of the waste inventory to 35 million gallons. Currently, the wastes reside in large underground tanks as a soluble fraction stored, crystallized salts, and an insoluble fraction, sludge, which consists of hydrated transition metal oxides. The bulk of the radionuclides, 67 percent, are in the sludge while the crystallized salts and supernate are composed of the nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The principal radionuclide in the soluble waste is {sup 137}Cs with traces of {sup 90}Sr. The transformation of the high level wastes into a borosilicate glass suitable for permanent disposal is the goal of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To minimize the volume of glass produced, the soluble fraction of the waste is treated with sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate in the waste tanks to precipitate the radioactive cesium ion and absorb the radioactive strontium ion. The precipitate is washed in the waste tanks and is then pumped to the DWPF. The precipitate, as received, is incompatible with the vitrification process because of the high aromatic carbon content and requires further chemical treatment. Within the DWPF, the precipitate is processed in the Salt Processing Cell to remove the aromatic carbon as benzene. The precipitate hydrolysis process hydrolyzes the tetraphenylborate anion to produce borate anion and benzene. The benzene is removed by distillation, decontaminated and transferred out of the DWPF for disposal.

Eibling, R.E.

1990-01-01

145

Characterization activities of the Waste Calcine Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was established in 1949 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Its mission was to reprocess nuclear fuel for the recovery of enriched uranium for defense purposes. The ICPP is a large complex encompassing 10 process buildings, 3 fuel storage facilities, 181 support facilities, and 1800 workers. The facilities being deactivated range from contaminated structures that do not meet current code requirements (seismic and electrical) to structures that have had extensive upgrades performed during the 1980s and represent multiple opportunities for reuse due to their seismic qualifications and code compliance status. The facilities declared to be excess and being deactivated at the ICPP include the fuel dissolution cell, the CPP-601/602 complex, the CPP-627 custom dissolution lab, the rare gas plant, the Rover facility, the waste calcine facility, and several small ancillary buildings.

Feldt, E.G.; Bilson, B.

1994-12-31

146

Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the

Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

2004-01-01

147

Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

148

Carbon nanotubes\\/magnetite hybrids prepared by a facile synthesis process and their magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a facile synthesis process is proposed to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotubes\\/magnetite (MWCNTs\\/Fe3O4) hybrids. The process involves two steps: (1) water-soluble CNTs are synthesized by one-pot modification using potassium persulfate (KPS) as oxidant. (2) Fe3O4 is assembled along the treated CNTs by employing a facile hydrothermal process with the presence of hydrazine hydrate as the mineralizer. The treated

Li Zhang; Qing-Qing Ni; Toshiaki Natsuki; Yaqin Fu

2009-01-01

149

FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

Fox, K.

2009-01-28

150

RECOMMENDED FRIT COMPOSITION FOR INITIAL SLUDGE BATCH 5 PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2008-06-25

151

Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

Brereton, S.J., LLNL

1998-05-27

152

New Treatment Facility for Low Level Process Effluents at the Savannah River Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new facility, the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is under construction at the Savannah River site. It will decontaminate process effluents containing low levels of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals prior to discharge to a surface stream. ...

M. A. Ebra J. P. Bibler B. S. Johnston L. L. Kilpatrick F. L. Poy

1987-01-01

153

Recent Process and Equipment Improvements to Increase High Level Waste Throughput at The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates

R. J. ODriscoll; A. B. Barnes; J. R. Coleman; T. L. Glover; R. C. Hopkins; D. C. Iverson; J. N. Leita

2008-01-01

154

40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? This...

2013-07-01

155

Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

NELSON, J.V.

1999-05-12

156

Process Monitoring Concepts for Safeguards and Demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reproc...

M. H. Ehinger

1986-01-01

157

Analysis of Camp Pendleton California Medical Treatment Facility Budget and Execution Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project evaluates the budgeting and execution process of Camp Pendleton Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) and how the proposed prospective payment system (PPS) impacts the traditional way of funding MTFs. The research analyzes the budgetary p...

J. D. Constantino

2008-01-01

158

Comparison of Methods for Sampling Bacteria at Solid Waste Processing Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an assessment of the field sampling methodologies used to measure concentrations of airborne bacteria and viruses in and around waste handling and processing facilities. The sampling methods are discussed as well as the problems encountered ...

P. G. Gorman D. E. Fiscus M. P. Schrag L. J. Shannon

1979-01-01

159

10 CFR 1016.8 - Approval for processing access permittees for security facility approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for processing access permittees for security facility approval. 1016.8 Section 1016.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.8 Approval for...

2013-01-01

160

Bioassay Testing of Simulated Effluent from the Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Static acute bioassay tests were used to investigate the effect of the proposed effluent from the Defense Waste Processing Facility on juvenile bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, and the lower food chain microorganisms present in Four Mile Creek. The ...

C. B. Fliermans

1984-01-01

161

Technical feasibility of transuranic tank waste processing in high-level waste vitrification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to determine the technical feasibility of processing transuranic tank waste in a high-level waste vitrification facility. This is achieved by performing an impact assessment of a reference case high-level waste facility modified to separately process transuranic waste. Data are presented for Hanford Site transuranic wastes and are compared against established waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program. Schedule and cost impacts are evaluated for the proposed transuranic campaign.

Crawford, T.W.; Manuel, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-26

162

A distributed process control system for the tritium emissions reduction facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) which is an automated process that continuously removes tritium from process gases before they are discharged to the atmosphere. Key control parameters include: temperature, pressure, flow, oxygen content, total combustibles, moisture concentrations and tritium concentrations. The procurement of an industrial, microprocessor-based Distributed Process Control System was justified for TERF due

T. J. Kissner; R. E. Wieneke

1992-01-01

163

A distributed process control system for the Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is an automated process that continuously removes tritium from process gases before they are discharged to the atmosphere. Key control parameters include: temperature, pressure, flow, oxygen content, total combustibles, moisture concentrations and tritium concentrations. The procurement of an industrial, microprocessor-based Distributed Process Control System was justified for TERF due to the critical nature and

T. J. Kissner; R. E. Wieneke

1991-01-01

164

Technical evaluation of the waste-to-oil process development facility at Albany, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad objective of ERDA's solar energy program at Albany, Oregon, is to develop biomass-to-synfuel technology in the Albany process development facility, which is now nearing completion. In the study reported here, the process development plant design was reevaluated, and a number of modifications and additions are recommended to facilitate and accelerate development of biomass conversion processes. Sketches of the

E. H. Houle; S. F. Ciriello; S. Ergun; D. J. Basuino

1976-01-01

165

Process and Equipment Changes for Cleaner Production in Federal Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has actively participated in the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to develop innovative technologies and processes for the reduction of environmental pollution. Tec...

L. G. Jones C. H. Darvin E. Hall

1999-01-01

166

Application of artificial intelligence to melter control: Realtime process advisor for the scale melter facility  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is currently under construction and when completed will process high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform. This facility will consist of numerous batch chemical processing steps as well as the continuous operation of a joule-heated melter and its off-gas treatment system. A realtime process advisor system based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques has been developed and is currently in use at the semiworks facility, which is operating a 2/3 scale of the DWPF joule-heated melter. The melter advisor system interfaces to the existing data collection and control system and monitors current operations of this facility. The advisor then provides advice to operators and engineers when it identifies process problems. The current system is capable of identifying process problems such as feed system pluggages and thermocouple failures and providing recommended actions. The system also provides facilities normally with distributed control systems. These include the ability to display process flowsheets, monitor alarm conditions, and check the status of process interlocks. 7 figs.

Edwards, Jr, R E

1988-01-01

167

Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing  

SciTech Connect

A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the offgas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the offgas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the offgas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing offgas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system offgas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

2004-02-01

168

Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification.

Not Available

1991-10-01

169

Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government's responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced.

Maslar, S.R.

1992-11-02

170

Grout pump selection process for the Transportable Grout Facility  

SciTech Connect

Selected low-level radioactive liquid wastes at Hanford will be disposed by grouting. Grout is formed by mixing the liquid wastes with solid materials, including Portland cement, fly ash, and clay. The mixed grouts will be pumped to disposal sites (e.g., trenches and buried structures) where the grout will be allowed to harden and, thereby, immobilize the wastes. A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) will be constructed and operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations to perform the grouting function. A critical component of the TGF is the grout pump. A preliminary review of pumping requirements identified reciprocating pumps and progressive cavity pumps as the two classes of pumps best suited for the application. The advantages and disadvantages of specific types of pumps within these two classes were subsequently investigated. As a result of this study, the single-screw, rotary positive displacement pump was identified as the best choice for the TGF application. This pump has a simple design, is easy to operate, is rugged, and is suitable for a radioactive environment. It produces a steady, uniform flow that simplifies suction and discharge piping requirements. This pump will likely require less maintenance than reciprocating pumps and can be disassembled rapidly and decontaminated easily. If the TGF should eventually require discharge pressures in excess of 500 psi, a double-acting duplex piston pump is recommended because it can operate at low speed, with only moderate flow rate fluctuations. However, the check valves, stuffing box, piston, suction, and discharge piping must be designed carefully to allow trouble-free operations.

McCarthy, D.; Treat, R.L.

1985-01-01

171

Recent Process and Equipment Improvements to Increase High Level Waste Throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)-8366.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the ra...

A. Barnes J. Coleman J. Leita R. Odriscoll T. Glover

2008-01-01

172

Technical and Project Highlights for the Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River Plant has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950's. Fuel and target elements are fabricated and irradiated to produce nuclear materials. After removal from the reactors, the fuel elements are processed to extract the p...

J. B. Mellen T. H. Burke B. G. Kitchen

1989-01-01

173

Containerless processing in reduced gravity using the TEMPUS facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containerless processing provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, very reactive materials. It is an important method which provides access to the metastable state of an undercooled melt. In the absence of container walls, the nucleation rate is greatly reduced and undercooling up to (Tm-Tn)\\/Tm approximately 0.2 can be obtained, where Tm and Tn are the melting

Jan R. Rogers; Michael B. Robinson

1996-01-01

174

Decommissioning Lines-of-Inquiry for Design Review of New Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

An independent review of the design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at Savannah River included a requirement to address the ability to decommission the facility. This paper addresses the lines of inquiry (that were developed for the review and their use in future for reviews of other projects, referred to herein as 'DDLOI'. Decommissioning activities for almost any type of facility are well within the technological state-of-the-art. The major impacts for complications resulting from insufficient consideration during design of a new facility that involves radioactive processes and/or material is the cost of: a) gaining access to high radiation areas and b) dealing with high levels of contamination. For this reason, the DDLOI were developed as a way of raising the awareness of designers and design reviewers to design features that can impede or facilitate ultimate decommissioning. The intent is that this report can be used not only for review, but also by engineers in the early stages of design development when requirements are being assembled. The focus for the DDLOI is on types of facilities that contain nuclear and/or radioactive processes and materials. The level of detail is more specific than would be found in decommissioning plans prepared for regulatory purposes. In commencing this review, the author's could find no precedent for a systematic review of design for decommissioning that included results of a review. Therefore, it was decided to create a report that would provide detailed lines of inquiry along with the rationale for each. The resulting DDLOI report included 21 topical areas for design review. The DDLOI combined the authors' experience in developing baselines for facilities to be deactivated or demolished with prior publications by the U.S. Army and the International Atomic Energy Agency. These two references were found via an Internet search and were the only ones judged to be useful at a field application level. Most others addressed principles or methods but did not have specific recommendations at a detailed design level. The DDLOI not only recommended what reviewers should look for, but also provides the reason as to why each item is important. Overall, the 21 topical areas there are presented in four main sections, which are: - Yard and Exterior Spaces addresses yard areas, underground tunnels, vaults, roofs and siding. - Structures and Interior Spaces addresses interior spaces, use of hazardous materials, placement of large or heavy equipment, and walls and floors designed for shielding. - Systems and Equipment first addresses systems for deactivation, service and utility systems isolation, pipes and ducts, tanks, and crud traps. In addition, DDLOI for laboratories, gloveboxes, and hot cells are included. - Contamination Control addresses the design of, walls, floors, ceilings, sumps, and drains with regard to contamination control. The ability to decontaminate is also included. The final section of the report is a listing of the individual DDLOI topics in a table format, which is designed as a tool that for use as a review checklist. In applying the DDLOI, two cautions are advised: - Designing for the operational mission of the facility is a higher priority than accommodating ease of decommissioning. The recommendations should be considered as preferable design practices when they can be accommodated without compromising the primary design objectives. - The DDLOI should be considered as guidance and not design requirements; noting some will become requirements because they are incorporated in modern building codes. Applying the DDLOI to the SWPF resulted in an overall conclusion that the design for the most part was compatible with the ability to decommission the facility. The most significant recommendation was to completely line the walls of a hot cell with stainless steel that was originally designed with two of its sides as the concrete wall of the building. This recommendation was subsequently incorporated in the design. Future design reviews of nuclear or radioactively contam

Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S. [Project Enhancement Corporation, 20300 Century Boulevard, Ste 175, Germantown, MD 20874 (United States)

2008-01-15

175

Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

Not Available

1994-03-01

176

Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report  

SciTech Connect

The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

1982-08-01

177

High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model  

SciTech Connect

Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

1991-12-31

178

High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model  

SciTech Connect

Design and construction of the world's largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

1991-01-01

179

Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world`s largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running experiment This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The system architecture integrates high-performance array processors, matrix switches, signal conditioning amplifiers, antialiasing filter subsystems, high-precision analog-to-digital subsystems, high-performance data disks, and support equipment The hardware and software architecture with its distributed computers and distributed real-time data base, the signal processing algorithms and architecture, and the flexible user interface for facility and measurements integration are described in this paper.

Manges, W.W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J.T.; Breeding, J.E.; Jansen, J.M. Jr.; Tate, R.M.; Bentz, R.R.

1992-12-31

180

Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world's largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running experiment This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The system architecture integrates high-performance array processors, matrix switches, signal conditioning amplifiers, antialiasing filter subsystems, high-precision analog-to-digital subsystems, high-performance data disks, and support equipment The hardware and software architecture with its distributed computers and distributed real-time data base, the signal processing algorithms and architecture, and the flexible user interface for facility and measurements integration are described in this paper.

Manges, W.W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J.T.; Breeding, J.E.; Jansen, J.M. Jr.; Tate, R.M.; Bentz, R.R.

1992-01-01

181

Multi-user real-time speech processing facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research projects requiring the VAX 11/750 and related peripherals have all focused on speech analysis, perception and recognition. We compared perceptual confusions occurring for natural and synthetic speech syllables which showed that synthetic speech is not equivalent to noisy or degraded natural speech. We conducted a study that indicated that perception of synthetic speech is improved by training. Training with fluent synthetic sentences improves performance for both isolated words and sentences. Training with isolated words improves performance on isolated words but does not improve performance on fluent synthetic sentences. A large-scale series of experiments investigated the effects of noise in a talker's ears on speech production. Words produced in noise are longer, louder and higher in pitch than words produced in the quiet. The tilt of the power spectrum decreased and formant frequencies shifted in noise. nition, I/O, human factors, cognitive processes, and communication sciences.

Pisoni, D. B.

1985-03-01

182

Advances in the Fluorocarbon Process for Decontamination of Nuclear Facility off-Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A selective adsorption process using R-12 was developed for removing noble gas fission products, exp 14 C, etc., from gaseous wastes of nuclear facilities. Its reliability has been proven by 10 years, operation of a 3-column process at ORGDP. A third gene...

B. E. Kanak

1979-01-01

183

A group decision making process for facility layout in hospital clinical laboratories.  

PubMed

While quantitative and computer-based models can be used for developing alternative clinical laboratory layout plans, consideration should be given to qualitative and personal factors during the layout finalization phase. Described here is a group decision making process used for planning facility layout. The process is applied to a case study Chemistry/Hematology department. PMID:10276153

Levary, R R; Schmitt, A

1986-02-01

184

ST. LOUIS DEMONSTRATION: REFUSE PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and power plants. Data on plant material flows and oper...

185

Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL`s Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was

I Charak; D. R. Pedersen; R. J. Forrester; R. D. Phipps

1993-01-01

186

A Novel Facility for High-temperature Containerless Processing and Property Characterization of Dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel facility for the containerless processing and study of oxide dielectric materials on the ground is described. The instrument uses an aerodynamic diffuser that permits contamination-free sample heating, allowing sufficient sample charging before electrostatic levitation can be effective. The physical concepts behind this new levitator, its hardware, and the associated thermophysical property measurement methods are successively reviewed. Containerless processing

Paul-Francois Paradis; Takehiko Ishikawa; Jianding Yu; Shinichi Yoda

2002-01-01

187

Process logic flow diagram write up for the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) is planning a facility to disassemble pits and convert the plutonium in the pits into a form suitable for international inspection. The facility, called the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) Facility, must handle much of the 38.2 metric tons of plutonium declared excess to national security needs in ten years of operation. A process logic flow diagram for the ARIES Facility is presented here. This flow diagram is based on and supported by a library of fact sheets on topics that impact the design of the facility. Developing the flow diagram raised issues that significantly impact the design of the facility. These issues are discussed later in this document, and for some issues, discussed in greater detail in the appropriate fact sheets. The flow diagram is designed to show requirements that dictate the need for space and/or equipment. In physically designing the facility, the same space or equipment may be used to meet several requirements. The flow diagram merely shows the activities that need to occur to meet requirements for the facility. The flow diagram is not associated with any DOE site. The requirements shown on the flow diagram may be met by an existing facilities at a given site. The flow diagram and this write up do not contain a great deal of detail on how each step in the diagram is performed. At this stage of design, the flow diagram merely identifies the need for the activity. Examples for some of the activities are given in the appropriate fact sheet. How the steps are performed becomes more defined as the design of the facility progresses.

Zygmunt, S.J.

1997-05-01

188

Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility  

SciTech Connect

A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational time savings, and significantly improved ALARA exposure.

Dippre, M. A.

2003-02-25

189

Radon Reduction Experience at a Former Uranium Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 6,200 cubic meters of waste containing about 2.0E8 MBq of radium-226 are stored in two large silos at the Fernald Site in southwest Ohio. The material is scheduled for retrieval, packaging, off site shipment and disposal by burial. Air in the silos above the stored material contained radon-222 at a concentration of 7.4 E5 Bq/L. Short-lived daughters formed by decay in these headspaces generated dose rates at contact with the top of the silos up to 1.05 mSv/hr and there complicate the process of retrieval. A Radon Control System (RCS) employing carbon adsorption beds has been designed under contract with the Fluor Fernald to remove most of the radon in the headspaces and maintain lower concentrations during periods when work on or above the domes is needed. Removing the radon also removes the short-lived daughters and reduces the dose rate near the domes to 20 to 30 {mu}Sv/hr. Failing to remove the radon would be costly, in the exposure of personnel needed to work extended periods at these moderate dose rates, or in dollars for the application of remote retrieval techniques. In addition, the RCS minimizes the potential for environmental releases. This paper describes the RCS, its mode of operation, and early experiences. The results of the test described herein and the experience gained from operation of the RCS during its first phase of continuous operation, will be used to determine the best air flow, and air flow distribution, the most desirable number and sequence number and sequence of adsorption beds to be used and the optimum application of air recycle within the RCS.

Eger, K. J.; Rutherford, L.; Rickett, K.; Fellman, R.; Hungate, S.

2004-02-29

190

Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

2000-04-25

191

Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

Wike, L.D.

1995-12-31

192

Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan  

SciTech Connect

To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1994-02-01

193

Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design  

SciTech Connect

FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designers attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

2012-11-09

194

Integrating real-time digital signal processing capability into a large research and development facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Instrumentation and Controls Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently developed and installed a large scale, real-time measurement system for the world's largest pressurized water tunnel. This water tunnel, the Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) provides a research and development facility for the study of acoustic phenomena to aid in model testing of new naval ship and submarine designs. The LCC design required the development of a near-field beamformer in addition to extending the range of real-time processing capability to frequencies unavailable at other facilities. The beamformer acquires and processes time-domain acoustic data at 9.5 MB/s from up to 45 hydrophones while performing 200 million floating-point operations per second, producing a time-integrated, spatially filtered, frequency-domain data set with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The acoustic processing software provides for the real-time analysis of acoustic data. Up to 128 facility sensors are sampled, time stamped, and stored at 600 kB/s. The system generates information for acoustic phenomena and facility measurements in real-time so that the operator can make facility adjustments to control the running equipment. This real-time control of facility conditions requires that the measurement system integrate facility and acoustic data for simultaneous display to the operator in engineering units via high-end workstations. A dual-host minicomputer configuration with high-end workstations connected via an Ethernet networking cluster controls and integrates measurement and display subsystems. The hardware and software architecture is described in this paper.

Manges, W. W.; Mallinak-Glassell, J. T.; Breeding, J. E.; Jansen, J. M., Jr.; Tate, R. M.; Bentz, R. R.

195

How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.  

PubMed

The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes. PMID:19851238

Baumgart, Andr; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

196

The Impacts of Uranium and Thorium on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) vitrifies high level liquid waste (HLLW) into borosilicate glass for stabilization and permanent disposal. The viscosity of the borosilicate glass melt as a function of temperature is the single most important variable affecting the melt rate and pour ability of the glass. The viscosity determines the rate of

2005-01-01

197

Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repositor...

C. M. Jantzen

1992-01-01

198

Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present

Jantzen

1992-01-01

199

INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve

M. Smith; D. Iverson

2010-01-01

200

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste

C. M. Jantzen; N. E. Bibler; D. C. Beam

1992-01-01

201

Effect of melter residence time and temperature on Defense Waste Processing Facility glass durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently scheduled to vitrify more than 130 million liters of High Level Waste (HLW). The glass product that will be produced must meet certain specifications, as defined in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), in order for the DWPF canistered waste forms

Cicero

1994-01-01

202

Digital Processing Equipment for the Space Radio Systems Facility and Its Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of the digital processing equipment used for the Space Radio Systems Facility at Aerospace Corporation. This equipment has been programmed to position the millimeter wave antenna to an overall pointing accuracy of 20 sec of arc. The...

R. N. Geddes

1964-01-01

203

Simulation application for resource allocation in facility management processes in hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The increasing percentage of aging population (longer life expectancy) and the changing financial policies in the healthcare systems put governments under pressure to optimize its healthcare expenditures without compromising quality. One way to cut down the costs is through improving and optimizing the facility management processes. This paper aims to focus on the issues surrounding this. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Vishal Sharma; Jochen Abel; Mohamed Al-Hussein; Kunibert Lennerts; Uwe Pfrnder

2007-01-01

204

Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

Starkey, J.G.

1993-05-01

205

A SURVEY OF COMMON PRACTICES IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PROCESSING FACILITIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON WATER USE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of turkey processing facilities across the U.S. was conducted to determine the relationship between common industry practices and water use. Data from the surveys were categorized and the relationship between the categories was analyzed for significance using Chi-square. Approximately 85%...

206

DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials

R. K. Farnsworth; J. Mishima

1988-01-01

207

Regulatory Requirements for Pollution Prevention for the Salt Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy facility for production of nuclear materials located near Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Waste sludges and salts generated from the processing of nuclear materials have been stored in underground storage tanks since operations began in the 1950s. These sludges and salts contain high levels

Malik

1999-01-01

208

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF MALTING FACILITIES. PART II: PROCESS ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malting and barley processing facilities represent an important segment of our food production system, because they manufacture a multitude of components used in various downstream products, such as beers and spirits, as well as various food ingredients and confectionary products. Agri-industrial f...

209

Investigation of control and simulation of solar process heat plants using a flexible test facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced control system for the operation of solar process heat plants and a simulation program for the design were developed. A flexible test facility was installed in order to qualify the control system and the simulation model. It consists of different small collector fields, two storage tanks, an auxiliary electric heater and an adjustable heat sink for simulating any

R. Koehne; K. Oertel; S. Zunft

1996-01-01

210

QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required

M. G. CANTALOUB; C. E. WILLS

2000-01-01

211

Effect of Personal Hygiene on Blood Lead Levels of Workers at a Lead Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between personal hygiene and blood lead levels was tested at a lead processing facility. During the workers semiannual respirator fit test, when they were confident their hands were clean, the amount of lead on their right hands was measured. Samples were obtained by cleaning one entire hand with a wiping towel treated with a proprietary mixture of alcohol,

Daniel P. Askin; Mark Volkmann

1997-01-01

212

Test facilities for investigation of combustion processes built at the Technical University of Lodz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of fundamental research projects devoted to combustion processes have been carried out during the last years in the Department of Heat Technology and Refrigeration of the Technical University of Lodz, Poland. The investigations under various conditions of combustion have been conducted with the following research facilities and equipment: (1) a drop tower with 1.2 sec of microgravity conditions

Grzegorz Kowalewski

2001-01-01

213

Spatio-temporal distribution of stored-product inects around food processing and storage facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the ou...

214

Renovation of CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) for Development of Advanced Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle System  

Microsoft Academic Search

CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) was constructed at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) in 1980 as a basic research field where spent fuel pins from fast reactor (FR) and high level liquid waste can be dealt with. The renovation consists of remodeling of the CA-3 cell and the laboratory A, installation of globe boxes, hoods

Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

2008-01-01

215

Implementing comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Implementation of the comprehensive de-licensing process for the West Jefferson North (WJN) facility was documented through the Final Certification of Completion. The Final Certification of Completion summarizes the performance and results of the final status surveys of the affected and unaffected areas of the West Jefferson North (WJN) site as

2007-01-01

216

COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING BACTERIA AT SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is an assessment of the field sampling methodologies used to measure concentrations of airborne bacteria and viruses in and around waste handling and processing facilities. The sampling methods are discussed as well as the problems encountered and subsequent changes ma...

217

Low-level wastewater treatment facility process control operational test report  

SciTech Connect

This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of a new TK 102 level controller and total outflow integrator added to the NHCON software that controls the Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility (LLWTF). The test was performed with WHC-SD-CP-OTP 154, PFP Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility Process Control Operational Test. A complete test copy is included in appendix A. The new TK 102 level controller provides a signal, hereafter referred to its cascade mode, to the treatment train flow controller which enables the water treatment process to run for long periods without continuous operator monitoring. The test successfully demonstrated the functionality of the new controller under standard and abnormal conditions expected from the LLWTF operation. In addition, a flow totalizer is now displayed on the LLWTF outlet MICON screen which tallies the process output in gallons. This feature substantially improves the ability to retrieve daily process volumes for maintaining accurate material balances.

Bergquist, G.G.

1996-04-08

218

Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

Rosnick, C.K.

1996-04-19

219

Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

Brann, E.C. II

1994-09-09

220

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD), incorporating Systems Engineering (SE) principles for these two projects.

Scherer, Carolynn P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Jon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-28

221

Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)  

SciTech Connect

The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge, while for proprietary efforts, the user pays the entire project costs based on DOE guidelines for ORNL costs.

Angelini, P

2004-04-27

222

Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001  

SciTech Connect

The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while for proprietary efforts, the user pays the entire project costs based on DOE guidelines for ORNL costs.

Angelini, P

2004-04-27

223

A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS E-540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yusong, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

224

In-Process Pollution Abatement. Upgrading Existing Poultry-Processing Facilities to Reduce Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Poultry processing water management--(Poultry processing, water management and wastewater control, summary of recommendations, future efforts); The Gold Kist Case study; Water supply in official poultry plants.

1973-01-01

225

Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

Sullivan, N.

1995-05-02

226

Do high rates of OSCAR deficiencies prompt improved nursing facility processes and outcomes?  

PubMed

Recently, some researchers have argued that high state rates of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) nursing facility deficiencies indicate stringent enforcement, leaving the impression of better-quality care soon to follow; others maintain that the rank ordering of states' quality of nursing facility care remains fairly constant, resting on deep-seated state characteristics that change slowly, so that short-term improvement in poor-quality care is unlikely. The authors examine change in the process and outcome quality of states' Medicare nursing facility long-term care programs across 1999 to 2005, using linear and two-stage least squares regression. They find that (1) nationally, process quality generally falls across this period while outcome quality generally increases; (2) neither a prominent enforcement stringency index nor state culture, a relatively stable state characteristic, exerts much influence on state process and outcome quality scores over time, but (3) the relative costs and benefits for CMS compliance appear to contribute to explaining change in states' quality of resident outcomes over time; and (4) states' process quality is much less stable than outcome quality, and outcome indices distinct from OSCAR deficiency data provide more reliable and possibly more valid measures of care quality. PMID:21985066

Klopfenstein, Kristin; Lockhart, Charles; Giles-Sims, Jean

2011-10-01

227

Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

Casella, V

2006-04-24

228

Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

1997-11-30

229

Design and verification of shielding for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility.  

PubMed

An Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF) has recently been constructed by a modification of previously unused cells. ACPF is a hot cell with two rooms located in the basement of the Irradiated Materials Experiment Facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This is for demonstrating the advanced spent fuel conditioning process being proposed in Korea, which is an electrolytic reduction process of spent oxide fuels into a metallic form. The ACPF was designed with a more than 90 cm thick high density concrete shield wall to handle 1.38 PBq (37,430 Ci) of radioactive materials with dose rates lower than 10 muSv h in the operational areas (7,000 zone) and 150 muSv h in the service areas (8,000 zone). In Monte Carlo calculations with a design basis source inventory, the results for the bounding wall showed a maximum of 3 muSv h dose rate at an exterior surface of the ACPF for gamma radiation and 0.76 muSv h for neutrons. All the bounding structures of the ACPF were investigated to check on the shielding performance of the facility to ensure the radiation safety of the facility. A test was performed with a 2.96 TBq (80 Ci) 60Co source unit and the test results were compared with the calculation results. A few failure points were discovered and carefully fixed to meet the design criteria. After fixing the problems, the failure points were rechecked and the safety of the shielding structures was confirmed. In conclusion, it was confirmed that all the investigated parts of the ACPF passed the shielding safety limits by using this program and the ACPF is ready to fulfill its tasks for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process. PMID:18403959

Cho, I J; Kook, D H; Kwon, K C; Lee, E P; Choung, W M; You, G S

2008-05-01

230

Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which primarily affects the lungs, occurs in sensitized beryllium-exposed individuals. At a copper-beryllium alloy strip and wire finishing facility we performed a cross-sectional survey to examine prevalences of beryllium sensitization and CBD, and relationships between sensitization and CBD and work areas\\/processes. Methods Current employees (185) were offered beryllium lymphocyte proliferation testing (BeLPT) for sensitization, clinical

Christine R. Schuler; Michael S. Kent; David C. Deubner; Michael T. Berakis; Michael McCawley; Paul K. Henneberger; Milton D. Rossman; Kathleen Kreiss

2005-01-01

231

Improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations using computerized education facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The list and characteristics of computerized systems used for carrying out basic training of the operating personnel of chemical departments are presented. The results from contests of professional skills carried out among comprehensive teams of thermal power stations with participation of the operating personnel of chemical departments are analyzed. The result obtained from using software facilities for improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations is discussed.

Kopylov, A. S.; Orlov, K. A.; Kondakova, G. Yu.

2011-07-01

232

A facile enzymatic process for the preparation of (s)-Naproxen ester prodrug in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile enzymatic synthesis process has been developed to directly prepare the 4-morpholinoethyl ester prodrug of (s)-Naproxen from racemic Naproxen using lipases as the biocatalysts in the organic solvent. With the careful selection of lipase (Lipase MY) and reaction medium (cylohexane), a high enantiomeric ratio of 136 for the enzyme was obtained. A Ping-Pong Bi Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition

Chun-Sheng Chang; Shau-Wei Tsai

1997-01-01

233

Impact of a delay in the completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an analysis and evaluation of a delay in completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP). The report describes the precipitate hydrolysis problem, which is causing fouling on the hydrolysis reactor coils, and lists several solutions SRP personnel are researching. Estimates on the cost and timeline implications range from several hundred thousand dollars and a few months to a hundred million dollars and several years.

Not Available

1989-01-30

234

International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production  

SciTech Connect

The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE`s waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

Kitchen, B.G.

1989-08-23

235

International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production  

SciTech Connect

The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

Kitchen, B.G.

1989-08-23

236

Startup of Savannah River`s Defense Waste Processing Facility to produce radioactive glass  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) began production of radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) in 1996 following an extensive test program discussed earlier. Currently DWPF is operating in a `sludge only` mode to produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge and glass frit. Future operations will produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of processing activities to date, operational problems encountered since entering radioactive operations, and the programs underway to solve them.

Bennett, W.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-08-06

237

Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning.

Shanahan, K.L.

1992-02-01

238

A knowledge acquisition process to analyse operational problems in solid waste management facilities.  

PubMed

The available expertise on managing and operating solid waste management (SWM) facilities varies among countries and among types of facilities. Few experts are willing to record their experience, while few researchers systematically investigate the chains of events that could trigger operational failures in a facility; expertise acquisition and dissemination, in SWM, is neither popular nor easy, despite the great need for it. This paper presents a knowledge acquisition process aimed at capturing, codifying and expanding reliable expertise and propagating it to non-experts. The knowledge engineer (KE), the person performing the acquisition, must identify the events (or causes) that could trigger a failure, determine whether a specific event could trigger more than one failure, and establish how various events are related among themselves and how they are linked to specific operational problems. The proposed process, which utilizes logic diagrams (fault trees) widely used in system safety and reliability analyses, was used for the analysis of 24 common landfill operational problems. The acquired knowledge led to the development of a web-based expert system (Landfill Operation Management Advisor, http://loma.civil.duth.gr), which estimates the occurrence possibility of operational problems, provides advice and suggests solutions. PMID:16941992

Dokas, Ioannis M; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios C

2006-08-01

239

DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)  

SciTech Connect

This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

Jasen, W.G.

1998-01-07

240

Cancer incidence in municipalities near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania.  

PubMed

Because nuclear facilities can release radionuclides into the surrounding environment accidentally or during normal operations, there has been public concern over the possibility of adverse health effects. Two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Armstrong County Pennsylvania have been the focus of such public concern for over 20 y. The Apollo and Parks facilities processed uranium and plutonium fuels for use in nuclear applications. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer rates in the communities near the Apollo-Parks nuclear processing materials plants, cancer incidence rates were assessed for the years 1993-1997, or nearly 40 y after the plants had begun operation in 1957 and 1960, respectively. The rates of cancer were evaluated among the approximately 17,000 persons living in 1 of 8 municipalities encompassing or near these nuclear sites. Numbers of cancers and mailing addresses (n = 935) were obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Because mailing addresses in small rural areas do not always reflect actual residences within a municipality, each of 935 addresses was validated (and corrections made when indicated) by contacting area postmasters and using Census Bureau geocoding information, street maps, and aerial photographs. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study area compared to the expected number derived from general population rates of Pennsylvania. Forty percent of the mailing addresses were found not to be within the boundaries of the study municipalities. After excluding these persons who did not reside in one of the eight municipalities near the Apollo-Parks facilities, 581 cancers remained in contrast to 574.0 expected (SIR 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.93-1.10). Based upon knowledge of the tissues where uranium or plutonium likely would be deposited after intake, cancers of the lung (SIR 0.88), kidney (SIR 1.05), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 1.10), liver (SIR 0.61), and bone (2 observed vs. 1.19 expected) were carefully evaluated, but no significant excesses were noted at these sites. Cancers of the female breast and thyroid and leukemia also were not significantly increased, as expected since these tissues are not sites where uranium or plutonium would concentrate. Overall, no increase in cancer risk could be attributed to living near the two former nuclear materials processing facilities. However, misleading elevations in cancer risks would have been suggested if mailing addresses had not been corrected to exclude addresses that were not within the boundaries of the municipalities for which population data were available. The study had sufficient power to exclude increased cancer risks of 10% or greater. PMID:14626319

Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

2003-12-01

241

Study of the processes resulting from the use of alkaline seed in natural gas-fired MHD facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical changes of the seed and the heat and mass transfer processes resulting from seed application are investigated using the U-02 experimental MHD facility and laboratory test facilities. Engineering methods

M. A. Styrikovich; I. L. Mostinskii

1977-01-01

242

Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)  

SciTech Connect

Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

1997-11-14

243

Environmetrics of synfuels. I. Processing the automated PDP-11 data components for the UMD gasifier facility  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the techniques and procedures used to handle automated data collected at the University of Minnesota-Duluth (UMD) campus coal gasification facility. This facility, which is partially funded by the Department of Energy, is being evaluated by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for its potential health and environmental effects. Automatic data collections and manually collected and sample results data are used for this assessment. A data management project at ORNL handles these and other UMD data for the Gasifiers in Industry Program (GIIP). Specifically, this report documents the procedures developed within the data management project for handling two categories of automated data: (1) process and (2) environmental. The examples included use actual data from the first one and a half years of gasifier operation.

Strand, R.H.; Farrell, M.P.; Gudmundson, C.W.; Birchfield, T.K.; Casada, S.S.; Vansuch, M.E.

1981-01-01

244

Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings  

SciTech Connect

Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

HUMPHRYS, K.L.

1999-11-03

245

Modeling of batch operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A computer model is in development to provide a dynamic simulation of batch operations within the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The DWPF will chemically treat high level waste materials from the site tank farm and vitrify the resulting slurry into a borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The DWPF consists of three major processing areas: Salt Processing Cell (SPC), Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and the Melt Cell. Separate models have been developed for each of these process units using the SPEEDUP{trademark} software from Aspen Technology. Except for glass production in the Melt Cell, all of the chemical operations within DWPF are batch processes. Since the SPEEDUP software is designed for dynamic modeling of continuous processes, considerable effort was required to devise batch process algorithms. This effort was successful and the models are able to simulate batch operations and the dynamic behavior of the process. In this paper, we will describe the SPC model in some detail and present preliminary results from a few simulation studies.

Smith, F.G.

1995-02-01

246

UNAVCO Facility GPS Support Capability and Contributions to Studies of Earth Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Positioning System (GPS) support facility was established by the NSF Earth sciences research community in the mid-1980's to ensure optimal use by researchers of the then very scarce GPS receiver pool. Early use of those few receivers led to pioneering breakthroughs in studies of plate motions, plate boundary zones, earthquake processes, intra-plate deformation, and volcanic processes. Additional scientific spin-offs have included study of glacier dynamics, sea level change, hydrology, Polar sciences, and atmospheric studies. The ability to make mm-level measurements, with what have become inexpensive GPS receivers, over increasingly shorter timeframes has revolutionized several fields of study in the solid Earth sciences. The presence of a major GPS support facility for the last decade and a half has been critical to this success by ensuring: broad availability of GPS equipment; technical support for global campaign-style measurements; installation, operation and maintenance of permanently installed, continuously operating GPS networks; development and testing of new hardware and software tools to capture increasingly higher quality data; and, archiving of precise GPS data for over 6000 discrete points over the globe. The existence of a unified community under the UNAVCO banner has led to increased resources for the community to conduct GPS-based research, and the existence of a multi-agency funded GPS facility in Boulder, Colorado has ensured continued technical evolution to support a growing list of multi-disciplinary Earth sciences applications. The foresight, wisdom and support shown by the NSF Division of Earth Sciences, Instrumentation and Facilities Program over a decade-and-a-half have been richly rewarded with an abundance of scientific revelations and an opportunity in the future to greatly expand our understanding of plate boundary dynamics through the EarthScope/Plate Boundary Observatory project.

Shiver, W. S.; Jackson, M. E.; Johns, B.; Meertens, C. M.

2002-12-01

247

Development of a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Building Maintenance Operation Processes in the Context of Facility Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building maintenance operation processes are not noticeable and not attractive. With the development of facility management, there are impacts on the building maintenance operation processes in terms of cost, quality and process. Top management at the strategic level always challenges operation process efficiency from the planning stage to implementation. On the other hand, maintenance personnel at the operational level must

D Scott

248

Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume I. Conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial-scale facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design and an economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility based on United States Steel Corporation's Clean Coke process are presented. Volume I includes the conceptual design and cost estimate of a commercial facility for producing clean char, oil, and pipeline gas fuels having a heating value comparable to 100,000 bbl of fuel oil per day. Volume II of

J. M. Holmes; D. A. Dyslin; M. S. Edwards; D. S. Joy; G. R. Peterson; C. B. Smith; P. M. Lantz

1977-01-01

249

Membrane treatment is versatile A single treatment facility producing boiler feed, food processing water, and drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane treatment is gaining a reputation for consistent and stable performance, which might lead some to the impression that treatment systems utilizing membranes are not versatile. On the contrary, there is a recently completed facility operating in the agricultural area of Southeast Florida which provides boiler feed water, food processing water, and drinking water from a single facility. The versatility

Mark D. Miller; John E. Potts

1995-01-01

250

Microsoft Project-Based Planning, Tracking, and Management Tool for the National Transonic Facility's Model Changeover Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The removal and installation of sting-mounted wind tunnel models in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is a multi-task process having a large impact on the annual throughput of the facility. Approximately ten model removal and installation cycles occur...

D. M. Vairo

1998-01-01

251

Work plan, health and safety plan, and site characterization for the Waste Coolant Processing Facility (T-038)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this work plan has been developed for theWaste Coolant Processing Facility (T-038). The work plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at Oak

D. E. Bohrman; M. S. Uziel; D. C. Landguth; S. W. Hawthorne

1990-01-01

252

High level waste vitrification at the SRP (Savannah River Plant) (DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) summary)  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Plant has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950's. Fuel and target elements are fabricated and irradiated to produce nuclear materials. After removal from the reactors, the fuel elements are processed to extract the products, and waste is stored. During the thirty years of operation including evaporation, about 30 million gallons of high level radioactive waste has accumulated. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) under construction at Savannah River will process this waste into a borosilicate glass for long-term geologic disposal. The construction of the DWPF is about 70% complete; this paper will describe the status of the project, including design demonstrations, with an emphasis on the melter system. 9 figs.

Weisman, A F; Knight, J R; McIntosh, D L; Papouchado, L M

1988-01-01

253

An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

254

Data acquisition and processing system at the NOVETTE laser-fusion facility  

SciTech Connect

The computer hardware and software used for acquisition and processing of data from experiments at the NOVETTE laser fusion facility are described. Nearly two hundred sensors are used to measure the performance of millimeter extent targets irradiated by multi-kilojoule laser pulses. Sensor output is recorded on CAMAC based digitizers, CCD arrays, and film. CAMAC instrument outputs are acquired and collected by a network of LSI-11 microprocessors centrally controlled by a VAX 11/780. The user controls the system through menus presented on color video displays equipped with touch panels. The control VAX collects data from all microprocessors and CCD arrays and stores them in a file for transport to a second VAX 11/780 which is used for processing and final analysis. Transfer is done through a high speed fiber-optic link. Relational data bases are used extensively in the processing and archiving of data.

Auerbach, J.M.; Severyn, J.R.; Kroepfl, D.J.

1982-01-01

255

First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path.  

PubMed

The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the ^{132}Sn double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations. PMID:23971550

Van Schelt, J; Lascar, D; Savard, G; Clark, J A; Bertone, P F; Caldwell, S; Chaudhuri, A; Levand, A F; Li, G; Morgan, G E; Orford, R; Segel, R E; Sharma, K S; Sternberg, M G

2013-08-05

256

Fabrication of remote steam atomized scrubbers for DDWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) off-gas system  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being constructed for the purpose of processing high-level waste from liquid sludge to a vitrified borosilicate glass. In the operation of continuous slurry-fed melters, off-gas aerosols are created by entrainment of feed slurried and the vaporization of volatile species from the molten glass mixture. It is necessary to decontaminate these aerosols in order to minimize discharge of airborne radionuclide particulates. A Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) has been developed for DWPF which utilizes a patented Hydro-Sonic System gas scrubbing method. The Hydro-Sonic System utilizes a steam aspirating-type venturi scrubber that requires very precise fabrication tolerances in order to obtain acceptable decontamination factors. In addition to the process-related tolerances, precision mounting and nozzle tolerances are required for remote service at DWPF.

Nielsen, M.G.; Lafferty, J.D.

1988-01-01

257

Seismic margins assessment of the plutonium processing facility Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Results of the recently completed seismic evaluation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site indicate a need to consider seismic loads greater than design basis for many structures systems and components (SSCs). DOE Order 5480.28 requires that existing SSCs be evaluated to determine their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes when changes in the understanding of this hazard results in greater loads. In preparation for the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28 and to support the update of the facility Safety Analysis Report, a seismic margin assessment of SSCs necessary for a monitored passive safe shutdown of the Plutonium Processing Facility (PF-4) was performed. The seismic margin methodology is given in EPRI NP-6041-SL, ``A Methodology for Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Seismic Margin (Revision 1)``. In this methodology, high confidence of low probability of failure (HCLPF) capacities for SSCs are estimated in a deterministic manner. For comparison to the performance goals given in DOE Order 5480.28, the results of the seismic margins assessment were used to estimate the annual probability of failure for the evaluated SSCs. In general, the results show that the capacity for the SSCs comprising PF-4 is high. This is to be expected for a newer facility as PF-4 was designed in the early 1970`s. The methodology and results of this study are presented in this paper.

Goen, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Salmon, M.W. [EQE International, Irwine, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

258

An ecological perspective of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in food processing facilities.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, it is important to recognize that not all L. monocytogenes strains appear to be equally distributed; the distribution of the organism seems to be related to certain habitats. Currently, no direct evidence exists that L. monocytogenes-associated biofilms have played a role in food contamination or foodborne outbreaks, likely because biofilm isolation and identification are not part of an outbreak investigation, or the definition of biofilm is unclear. Because L. monocytogenes is known to colonize surfaces, we suggest that contamination patterns may be studied in the context of how biofilm formation is influenced by the environment within food processing facilities. In this review, direct and indirect epidemiological and phenotypic evidence of lineage-related biofilm formation capacity to specific ecological niches will be discussed. A critical view on the development of the biofilm concept, focused on the practical implications, strengths, and weaknesses of the current definitions also is discussed. The idea that biofilm formation may be an alternative surrogate for microbial fitness is proposed. Furthermore, current research on the influence of environmental factors on biofilm formation is discussed. PMID:23768144

Valderrama, Wladir B; Cutter, Catherine N

2013-01-01

259

INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

2010-12-08

260

Carbon nanotubes/magnetite hybrids prepared by a facile synthesis process and their magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a facile synthesis process is proposed to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotubes/magnetite (MWCNTs/Fe 3O 4) hybrids. The process involves two steps: (1) water-soluble CNTs are synthesized by one-pot modification using potassium persulfate (KPS) as oxidant. (2) Fe 3O 4 is assembled along the treated CNTs by employing a facile hydrothermal process with the presence of hydrazine hydrate as the mineralizer. The treated CNTs can be easily dispersed in aqueous solvent. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that several functional groups such as potassium carboxylate (-COOK), carbonyl (-C dbnd O) and hydroxyl (-C-OH) groups are formed on the nanotube surfaces. The MWCNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids are characterized with respect to crystal structure, morphology, element composition and magnetic property by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XPS and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD and TEM results show that the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 20-60 nm were firmly assembled on the nanotube surface. The magnetic property investigation indicated that the CNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior and possess a saturation magnetization of 32.2 emu/g. Further investigation indicates that the size of assembled Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles can be turned by varying experiment factors. Moreover, a probable growth mechanism for the preparation of CNTs/Fe 3O 4 hybrids was discussed.

Zhang, Li; Ni, Qing-Qing; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu, Yaqin

2009-07-01

261

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

SciTech Connect

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

262

Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed experimental work, additional data analysis, and future modeling programs. These proposals have led to recent investigations into the mercury issue and the effect of co-precipitating noble metals which will be documented in two separate reports. SRS hydrogen generation work since 2002 will also be collected and summarized in a future report on the effect of noble metal-sludge matrix interactions on hydrogen generation. Other potential factors for experimental investigation include sludge composition variations related to both the washing process and to the insoluble species with particular attention given to the role of silver and to improving the understanding of the interaction of nitrite ion with the noble metals.

Koopman, D. C.

2004-12-31

263

Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation`s plutonium-bearing residues.

McKibben, J.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Land, B. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Perez, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

264

A facile water-based process for preparation of stabilized Bi nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Stabilized bismuth nanoparticles have been prepared by reducing bismuth chloride with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of sodium oleate under a facile water-based process. The obtained samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG). The present results indicate that the bismuth nanoparticles are spherical, small diameter and in a high purity. In addition, measurement of water contact angle indicates that Bi samples are hydrophobic, which gives defense to samples from further oxidation, samples are steady in 6 months without obvious oxidation.

Wang Yi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Department of Chemistry, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000 (China); Zhao Jingzhe [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: zhaojz@mail.jlu.edu.cn; Zhao Xu; Tang Lanqin; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2009-01-08

265

A general and facile one-pot process of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions  

PubMed Central

Summary A general and facile one-pot protocol for the preparation of a broad range of alkyl and aryl isothiocyanates has been developed from their corresponding primary amines under aqueous conditions. This synthetic process involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt from the amine substrate by reacting with CS2 followed by elimination to form the isothiocyanate product with cyanuric acid as the desulfurylation reagent. The choice of solvent is of decisive importance for the successful formation of the dithiocarbamate salt particularly for highly electron-deficient substrates. This novel and economical method is suitable for scale-up activities.

Sun, Nan; Li, Bin; Shao, Jianping; Hu, Baoxiang; Shen, Zhenlu

2012-01-01

266

Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

Husler, R.O. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Weir, T.J. (Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

1991-01-01

267

Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.  

PubMed

Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:22912478

Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

2012-09-01

268

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

Schwing, Carl M.

269

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

270

Step-by-step process analysis for hospital facility management : An insight into the OPIK research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Healthcare systems are very costly and the inpatient treatment in hospitals is a major part of these costs. The question is, how can greater efficiency be effected without influencing the core business of a hospital the cure of patients. Through improving the process flow of facility management (FM) processes, savings within these processes and less disturbance of

Kunibert Lennerts; Jochen Abel; Uwe Pfrnder; Vishal Sharma

2005-01-01

271

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

272

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,

Schwing, Carl M.

273

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility hot test report  

SciTech Connect

Prior to initial operation with radioactive feed or ``hot`` operation, the Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal (LET&D) Facility underwent extensive testing. This report provides a detailed description and analysis of this testing. Testing has determined that LET&D is capable of processing radioactive solutions between the design flowrates of 275 gph to 550 gph. Modifications made to prevent condensation on the off-gas HEPA filters, to the process vacuum control, bottoms cooler rupture disks, and feed control system operation were successful. Unfortunately, two mixers failed prior to ``hot`` testing due to manufacturer`s error which limited operation of the PEW Evaporator System and sampling was not able to prove that design removal efficiencies for Mercury, Cadmium, Plutonium, and Non-Volatile Radionuclides.

Hastings, R.L.

1993-09-01

274

Health care facilities' "war on terrorism": a deliberate process for recommending personal protective equipment.  

PubMed

The protection of health care facility (HCF) staff from the effects of weapons of mass destruction has gained heightened attention since the 9-11 terrorist attacks. One critical component of protection is personal protective equipment (PPE). No universal standard exists for an "essential" level of PPE for HCF staff. The absence of such a standard raises the need for development of national policy for PPE levels, particularly in HCFs. We describe a process used by the Veterans Health Administration for recommending policy for "essential" PPE levels. Although the recommendations are specific for Veterans Health Administration, the process, findings, and applications may be useful to other institutions as they attempt to resolve this critical issue. This descriptive account will serve to generate practical scientific debate in the academic community and lead to definitive public policy recommendations for the Nation's HCFs in executing their roles in the event of a terrorist attack. PMID:17276809

Koenig, Kristi L; Boatright, Connie J; Hancock, John A; Denny, Frank J; Teeter, David S; Kahn, Christopher A; Schultz, Carl H

2007-02-01

275

Obliterative bronchiolitis in workers in a coffee-processing facility - Texas, 2008-2012.  

PubMed

Obliterative bronchiolitis, a rare, irreversible form of fixed obstructive lung disease, has been identified in workers exposed to flavoring chemicals while working in the microwave-popcorn and flavoring-manufacturing industries; the occupational risk to workers outside these industries is largely unknown. This report describes two cases of obliterative bronchiolitis identified in workers employed in a small coffee-processing facility. Both patients' illness was misdiagnosed before they received a diagnosis of work-related obliterative bronchiolitis, which had not been identified previously in the coffee-processing industry. These cases reinforce the need for exposure evaluation in all industries in which workers are exposed to flavoring chemicals. Additionally, a high index of suspicion is required when these potentially exposed workers have progressive shortness of breath. If obliterative bronchiolitis is suspected, immediate protection from further exposure is crucial to prevent further deterioration of lung function. PMID:23615673

2013-04-26

276

Cancer incidence in municipalities near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania--an update.  

PubMed

Previous studies of cancer incidence among persons living in municipalities within one mile of two nuclear materials processing and fabrication plants in Pennsylvania were extended for the years 1998-2004. It had been shown that mailing addresses for residents of rural areas often did not reflect the actual municipality of residence and, if not corrected, would bias study results. The previous studies had corrected for this bias. Accordingly for the extended study, we obtained mailing addresses from the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PDH) for 866 persons with cancer who presumably lived in one of eight minor civil divisions (MCDs) near or encompassing the former nuclear facilities, designated as Area 1 in previous studies conducted by the PDH. Street addresses were geocoded and local postmasters were asked to place rural delivery addresses, post office boxes and street addresses that could not be geocoded into the correct MCD of actual residence. Over 15% of the mailing addresses were found not to be within the boundaries of the Area 1 municipalities. After the mailing addresses of individuals with cancer were placed in their proper MCD of residence, the number of persons diagnosed with cancer (n = 708) and confirmed to have lived in Area 1 was as expected (728.4) based on cancer incidence rates in the general population of Pennsylvania (SIR 0.97; 95% CI 0.90-1.05). To further evaluate the patterns of cancer rates near these nuclear facilities and the influence of improved reporting and geocoding of addresses over time, analyses were conducted of publicly available cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2004. Based on mailing addresses, a steady decrease in the number of cancers reported in the Area 1 proximal MCDs was seen, in contrast to a steady rise in the number of cancers reported in seven adjacent but more distant MCDs from the nuclear facilities, designated as Area 2. These patterns were attributed to improvements over time in the geocoding of residential mailing addresses coupled with the gradual elimination and replacement of rural delivery addresses with street addresses. The incorrect placement of mailing addresses in residential Area 1 municipalities prior to about 2002 overestimated the number of cancers occurring among residents living in close proximity to the nuclear facilities and, correspondingly, underestimated the number among Area 2 residents. Summing Area 1 and Area 2 data showed that there was no change in cancer rates over time. These results are consistent with previous studies indicating that living in municipalities near the former Apollo-Parks nuclear facilities was not associated with an increase in cancer occurrence. PMID:19131733

Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Heath, Clark W; Blot, William J

2009-02-01

277

Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.  

PubMed

There has been concern that living near nuclear installations might increase the risk of cancer, including childhood leukemia, in surrounding communities. Such concern has been voiced by residents in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties in Western Pennsylvania in conjunction with the operation of two former nuclear materials processing facilities located in the Apollo borough and the Parks township, just three miles apart. These facilities began operating in 1957 and 1960 and processed uranium and plutonium for commercial and naval applications. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer rates in communities around the Apollo-Parks nuclear facilities, a cancer incidence and a cancer mortality survey were conducted. The county mortality findings are reported here. Nearly 40,000 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties from 1950 through 1995. Each of these two study counties was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region on the basis of age, race, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors available from the 1990 U.S. Census. There were over 77,000 cancer deaths in the 6 control counties during the 45 y studied. Following similar methods used by the National Cancer Institute, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates of the United States. Relative risks (RR) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. There were no significant increases in the study counties for any cancer when comparisons were made with either the U.S. population or the control counties. In particular, deaths due to cancers of the lung, bone, liver, and kidney were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. These are the cancers of a priori interest given that uranium and/or plutonium might be expected to concentrate in these tissues. Deaths from all cancers combined also were not increased in the study counties, and the RRs of cancer mortality before the facilities operated (1950-1964), during plant operations (1965-1980) and after plant closure (1980-1995) were similar: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.98, respectively. For childhood leukemia mortality, the relative risk comparing the study counties with their controls before plant start-up was 1.02, while during operations (RR 0.81) and after closure (RR 0.57) the relative risks were lower. The study is limited by the correlational approach and the relatively large size of the geographic areas of the counties studied. PMID:14626320

Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

2003-12-01

278

Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed.

NONE

1997-09-01

279

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material  

SciTech Connect

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

280

Improvement of the Computing - Related Procurement Process at a Government Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project was to develop, implement, and market value-added services through the Computing Resource Center in an effort to streamline computing-related procurement processes across the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The power of the project was in focusing attention on and value of centralizing the delivery of computer related products and services to the institution. The project required a plan and marketing strategy that would drive attention to the facility's value-added offerings and services. A significant outcome of the project has been the change in the CRC internal organization. The realignment of internal policies and practices, together with additions to its product and service offerings has brought an increased focus to the facility. This movement from a small, fractious organization into one that is still small yet well organized and focused on its mission and goals has been a significant transition. Indicative of this turnaround was the sharing of information. One-on-one and small group meetings, together with statistics showing work activity was invaluable in gaining support for more equitable workload distribution, and the removal of blame and finger pointing. Sharing monthly reports on sales and operating costs also had a positive impact.

Gittins, C.

2000-04-03

281

USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

WESTCOTT, J.L.

2006-11-15

282

USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

2007-01-02

283

Letter Report. Defense Waste Processing Facility Pour Spout Heaters - Conceptual Designs and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) identified a major task to address performance limitations and deficiencies of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now in its sixth year of operation. Design, installation, testing, monitoring, operability, and a number of other characteristics were studied by research personnel collaboratively at a number of facilities: Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Because the potential limiting feature to the DWPF was identified as the pour spout/riser heater, researches on alternative design concepts originally proposed in the past were revisited. In the original works, finite element modeling was performed to evaluate temperature distribution and stress of the design currently used at the DWPF. Studies were also made to define the requirements of the design and to consider the approaches for remote removal/replacement. Their heater type/location, their remotely replaceable thermocouples, and their capabilities for remote handling characterized the five alternative designs proposed. Review comments on the alternative designs indicated a relatively wide range of advantages and disadvantages of the designs. The present report provides an overview of the design criteria, modeling results, and alternative designs. Based on a review of the past design optimization activities and an assessment of recent experience, recommendations are proposed for future consideration and improvement.

SK Sundaram; JM Perez, Jr.

2000-09-06

284

A facile approach for syntheses of nearly monodisperse nanocrystals: sol-solvothermal process.  

PubMed

A novel facile approach, sol-solvothermal process, is reported here for syntheses of nearly monodisperse inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), such as elementary metals, simple metal oxides, composite oxides, and selenides by using inexpensive metal salts and environmental friendly solvents as reactants without a further size-selection treatment. The results revealed that mean diameter of the synthetic NCs measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was consistent with the observed size by Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images, demonstrating the agglomeration-free feature of the nanosized crystals. Moreover, the particle size and morphology of the synthetic NCs could be effectively controlled under various appropriate sets of experimental conditions. PMID:19437994

Yao, Shengyong; Lu, Xuchen; Li, Xiaohui; Ou, Tengjiao

2009-04-01

285

Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) manages approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. Not all of this material is chemically stable or is packaging acceptable for storage. Thus, it constitutes a potential hazard to employees and to the public. This paper describes a relatively simple concept for stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rock Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters with high-level glass.

Becker, G.W. Jr.; McKibben, J.M.

1996-06-01

286

QA Objectives for Nondestructive Assay at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization. The Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, DOEMPP-069 (WIPP-WAC) delineates the quality assurance objectives which have been established for NDA measurement systems. Sites must demonstrate that the quality assurance objectives can be achieved for each radioassay system over the applicable ranges of measurement. This report summarizes the validation of the WRAP NDA systems against the radioassay quality assurance objectives or QAOs. A brief description of the each test and significant conclusions are included. Variables that may have affected test outcomes and system response are also addressed.

CANTALOUB, M.G.; WILLS, C.E.

2000-03-24

287

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected glass compositions  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level radioactive waste is scheduled to begin in late 1995. The vitrification operation will take place at the SRS Defense waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The US Department of Energy has instituted specifications which provide technical criteria which must be met by the DWPF to ensure that the waste glass will be suitable for permanent disposal in a federal geologic repository. Included in these criteria is a specification requiring DWPF to determine whether its high level, radioactive waste glass should also be classified as characteristically hazardous waste. A study was performed, using the anticipated range of glass compositions which will be produced over the lifetime of the DWPF, which definitively proved that DWPF waste glass should not be classified as characteristic hazardous waste.

Applewhite-Ramsey, A.

1994-06-01

288

Experience of Hot Cell Renovation Work in CPF (Chemical Processing Facility)  

SciTech Connect

Renovation work for operation room A of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was carried out. Cell renovation work involved disassembly, removal and installation of new equipment for the CA-3 cell of operation room A and the crane renovation work involved the repair of the in-cell crane for the CA-5 cell of operation room A. There were not many examples of renovation work performed on cells under high radiation environment and alpha contamination in Japan. Lessons learnt: With respect to the cell renovation work and crane repair work, a method that gave full consideration to safety was employed and the work was performed without accidents or disaster. Moreover, through improvement of the method, reduction of radioactive exposure of the workers was achieved and a melt reduction device was designed to deal with the radioactive waste material that was generated in the renovation work to achieve significant melt reduction of waste material.

Toyonobu Nabemoto; Fujio Katahira; Tadatsugu Sakaya [IHI Corporation: Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa pref, 235-8501 (Japan); Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

289

Analysis of airborne and waterborne particles around a taconite ore processing facility.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1970s, samples of airborne and waterborne fibrous particulates have been collected in the area of the Northshore Taconite Ore Processing Facility by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (PCA), and the University of Minnesota. Indirect sample preparation has consistently been used although other aspects of the sampling methods and sites have varied and analytical procedures were altered over time as more accurate and precise microscopy methods were developed (i.e., phase contrast optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy). In the mid-1970s, levels of airborne fibrous particulate in the Silver Bay area averaged from 0.00030 to 0.03 f/ml. This level was significantly greater than levels of similar particulates in the St. Paul, MN area, although two of the Silver Bay sampling sites, considered individually, did not indicate levels of fibrous particulate markedly different than that seen in St. Paul. More recent sampling data (i.e., 1990-2001) indicate mean concentration of airborne fibrous particulates (amphibole-like fibrous particulates) of 0.0020 f/ml with a range of values from 0.0001 to 0.0140 f/ml. Such levels are not significantly different from those seen in other non-urban environments in the US and Europe. Concentrations of fibrous particulates in water samples were higher in the mid-1970 when iron ore tailings were being deposited in Lake Superior, but since the tailings have been deposited on land waterborne levels of fibrous particulate in the Beaver River have remained relatively constant averaging in the range of 7.5 MFL. This level is only slightly in excess of the current EPA drinking water standard for fibrous particulates. Review and consideration of this data is important in determining the potential health risks associated with airborne and waterborne fibrous particulates in the areas of the Northshore Taconite Ore Processing Facility. PMID:18221826

Axten, Charles W; Foster, David

2007-12-07

290

Using Statistical Process Control to Monitor Radioactive Waste Characterization at a Radioactive Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins ...

J. L. Westcott R. M. Jochen S. S. Prevette

2007-01-01

291

Using Statistical Process Control to Monitor Radioactive Waste Characterization at a Radioactive Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins ...

J. L. Westcott R. M. Jochen S. S. Prevette

2006-01-01

292

SWEAP, Solid Waste Environmental Assessment Plan: Component 3, technology evaluation: Discussion paper No. 3. 5 A,B,C, addendum to documents: Extension of process to identify candidate sites (step 2) and the development of comparative evaluation process for step 3 of the site selection process for a materials recovery facility, compost facility and energy from waste facility  

SciTech Connect

The facility design assumptions for a materials recovery facility, a compost facility and an energy from waste facility were intended to result in a facility with minimal impact on the natural environment. The criteria described in discussion paper 3.5A were based on this assumption. This addendum describes the additional criteria identified for use in Step 2 of the site selection process, the revised criteria to be used in Step 3 and the method that will be used to apply the revised Step 3 criterial. Step 2 addresses the type of technology used to minimize adverse effects on the natural environment. Step 3 addresses the selection of short-listed sites from a longer list and the methods used.

Not Available

1991-01-01

293

Work plan, health and safety plan, and site characterization for the Waste Coolant Processing Facility (T-038)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this work plan has been developed for theWaste Coolant Processing Facility (T-038). The work plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at Oak

D. E. Bohrman; M. S. Uziel; D. C. Landguth; S. W. Hawthorne

1990-01-01

294

Erosion/corrosion concerns in feed preparation systems at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950`s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the high level radioactive waste resulting from these processes as a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF, after having undergone extensive testing, has been approved for operations and is currently immobilizing radioactive waste. To ensure reliability of the DWPF remote canyon processing equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed prior to radioactive operations to determine to what extent erosion/corrosion would impact design life of equipment. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections on critical equipment and follow-up inspections after completion of DWPF cold chemical demonstration runs. Non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques were used to assess erosion/corrosion as well as evaluation of corrosion coupon racks. These results were used to arrive at predicted equipment life for selected feed preparation equipment. It was concluded with the exception of the coil and agitator for the slurry mix evaporator (SME), which are exposed to erosive glass frit particles, all of the equipment should meet its design life.

Gee, J.T.; Chandler, C.T.; Daugherty, W.L.; Imrich, K.J.; Jenkins, C.F.

1997-12-31

295

A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,

Schwing, Carl M.

296

Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.  

PubMed

Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:19762864

Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

2009-10-01

297

Qualification of a Radioactive High Aluminum Glass for Processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately eleven years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). Each sludge batch is nominally two million liters of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters 0.6 meters in diameter and 3 meters tall filled with the borosilicate glass. In SB4 and earlier sludge batches, the Al concentration has always been rather low, (less than 9.5 weight percent based on total dried solids). It is expected that in the future the Al concentrations will increase due to the changing composition of the HLW. Higher Al concentrations could introduce problems because of its known effect on the viscosity of glass melts and increase the possibility of the precipitation of nepheline in the final glass and decrease its durability. In 2006 Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used DWPF processes to immobilize a radioactive HLW slurry containing 14 weight percent Al to ensure that this waste is viable for future DWPF processing. This paper presents results of the characterization of the high Al glass prepared in that demonstration. At SRNL, a sample of the processed high Al HLW slurry was mixed with an appropriate glass frit as performed in the DWPF to make a waste glass containing nominally 30% waste oxides. The glass was prepared by melting the frit and waste remotely at 1150 deg. C. The glass was then characterized by - determining the chemical composition of the glass including the concentrations of several actinide and U-235 fission products, - calculating the oxide waste loading of the glass based on the chemical composition and comparing it to that of the target - determining if the glass composition met the DWPF processing constraints such as glass melt viscosity and liquidus temperature along with a waste form affecting constraint that prevents the precipitation of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) crystals in the glass melt - measuring the durability of the glass using the ASTM Standard Product Consistency Test (PCT) leach test to determine if the durability of the glass based on B, Li, and Na releases met the requirements for acceptance in a US geologic repository - measuring the leachability of several radionuclides using the ASTM Standard PCT leach test and comparing them to the B, Li, and Na releases - examining the glass by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine if any crystals had formed in the glass melt. Results indicate that the high Al glass met all the requirements for processing and product quality in the DWPF. (authors)

Bibler, N.E.; Pareizs, J.M.; Edwards, T.B.; Coleman, C.J.; Crawford, C.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01

298

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

1989-01-01

299

ANION ANALYSES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ALTERNATE REDUCTANT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) at the Savannah River National Laboratory was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to develop and demonstrate an Ion Chromatography (IC) method for the analysis of glycolate, in addition to eight other anions (fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate and phosphate) in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. The method will be used to analyze anions for samples generated from the Alternate Reductant Demonstrations to be performed for the DWPF at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL). The method is specific to the characterization of anions in the simulant flowsheet work. Additional work will be needed for the analyses of anions in radiological samples by Analytical Development (AD) and DWPF. The documentation of the development and demonstration of the method fulfills the third requirement in the TTQAP, SRNL-RP-2010-00105, 'Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Glycolic-Formic Acid Flowsheet Development, Definition and Demonstrations Tasks 1-3'.

Best, D.

2010-08-04

300

Potential waste-clearance strategy for U.S. Department of Energy waste processed at treatment, storage, and disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

Past practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities may have resulted in the presence of minute amounts of radioactive contamination in some hazardous wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping potentially mixed waste from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. A potential waste-clearance strategy was developed to address the DOE mixed-waste moratorium issues, which had resulted from a lack of existing regulations regarding volume contamination. A radiological assessment model was developed on the basis of the detailed radiological assessment performed for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model incorporates waste- and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The described waste-clearance strategy would provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing potential human exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides. This strategy also has important potential applications for establishing site clearance limits to ensure that worker and public risks would remain well below regulatory limits. The clearance strategy issues pertaining to current free-release practice, dose limits, data requirements, and conservatism are discussed.

Stevens, L. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Chen, S.Y.; Pfingston, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

301

The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Sanders, M.E.

1996-02-01

302

Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL prepared a task technical and quality assurance (TT&QA) plan that outlined the activities that are necessary and sufficient to meet the objectives of the TTR. In addition, TT&QA plan also included a test plan that provided guidance to the DWPF Lab in collecting the data needed to qualify the new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems.

Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

2011-07-05

303

CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

2007-01-25

304

The Role of Educators in Educational Facilities Planning: A Case Study of the Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study explores the role of educators in educational facilities planning and construction and discusses the different agendas and perspectives people bring to the development of educational facility specifications. It describes how cooperation and input among stakeholders resulted in a Massachusetts community college was built in 18

Neylon, Terrance Bernard

305

Evaluation of employee exposure to organic tin compounds used as stabilizers at PVC processing facilities.  

PubMed

Organic tin compounds are primary substances used as heat stabilizers by the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. The use of these compounds in the PVC industry is generally well controlled, usually by automated processes. This study was conducted to provide an overview of worker exposure to organic tin compounds at PVC processing facilities and to verify that these exposures are below the threshold limit value (TLV((R))) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists for organic tin. The basis of the TLV indicates the principal concern is to minimize adverse effects on immune function and the central nervous system from airborne exposure to organic tin. The TLV has a skin designation based on the potential for percutaneous absorption; the TLVs for inhalation exposures are based on the presumption that there is no concurrent exposure via the skin and oral ingestion routes. Personal exposure monitoring was conducted following the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5504 sampling method and a modified version of the NIOSH analytical method. The results were reported as"total tin."The data indicated no average exposure levels for individual tasks exceeded the organic tin TLV, and 96%of results the samples were less than 20%of the TLV. Only 1 sample of 102 exceeded the TLV, and the individual was wearing appropriate respiratory protection. Subsequent investigation indicated the highest exposures occurred while the operators were conducting tasks that included manual handling of the organic tin compounds. These data suggest manual operations may have a greater potential for organic tin exposure. PMID:15764527

Boraiko, Carol; Batt, John

2005-02-01

306

QUALIFICATION OF A RADIOACTIVE HIGH ALUMINUM GLASS FOR PROCESSINGIN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately eleven years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). Each sludge batch is nominally two million liters of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters

N. E. Bibler; J John Pareizs; T Tommy Edwards; C. L. Crawford; C Charles Crawford

2008-01-01

307

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste

C. M. Jantzen; N. E. Bibler; D. C. Beam

1992-01-01

308

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste

C. M. Jantzen; N. E. Bibler; D. C. Beam; C. L. Crawford; M. A. Pickett

1993-01-01

309

Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE\\/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE\\/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap.

J. E. Mack; L. C. Williams

1982-01-01

310

Sacramento Regional Wastewater Management Program. A Scientific and Technical Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Facilities Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Wastewater Treatment Facilities Grants Planning Process as funded under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500). The project is a part of an interagency c...

R. A. Kennedy W. A. Anderson

1975-01-01

311

The Canadian government's treatment of scientific process and evidence: Inside the evaluation of North America's first supervised injecting facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the recommendations of scientific review bodies have traditionally been free of political interference in Canada, there have recently been growing concerns raised about Canada's new federal government's treatment of scientific processes and evidence. This concern is relevant to the scientific evaluation of Canada's first medically supervised safer injecting facility (SIF), which opened in Vancouver in 2003, where illicit injection

Evan Wood; Thomas Kerr; Mark W. Tyndall; Julio S. G. Montaner

2007-01-01

312

Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

Husler, R.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Weir, T.J. [Pentek, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

1991-12-31

313

Development of a portable hyperspectral imaging system for monitoring the efficacy of sanitation procedures in food processing facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cleaning and sanitation in food processing facilities is a critical step in reducing the risk of transfer of pathogenic organisms to food consumed by the public. Current methods to check the effectiveness of sanitation procedures rely on visual observation and sub-sampling tests such as ATP biolumin...

314

Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

NONE

1995-08-01

315

Mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype facility for processing NaK using a chlorine reaction method  

SciTech Connect

A prototype facility has been built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to dispose of 180 gal(0.68 m{sup 3}) of radioactively contaminated NaK (sodium-potassium) that have been stored on site for 35 years. The NaK was used as primary coolant for the Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) at the INEL and was contaminated during a meltdown of the Mark II core in November 1955. The NaK then was transferred to four containers for temporary storage. The facility process will react the NaK with elemental chlorine using a batch process to produce chemically stable sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts. The first use of the facility will be on a prototype level to verify the method. If results are favorable, the facility will be modified to eventually dispose of the EBR-I NaK. The design and intended operation of the prototype facility are described. 2 figs.

Dafoe, R.; Keller, D.; Stoll, F.

1990-01-01

316

Automatic methods of the processing of data from track detectors on the basis of the PAVICOM facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New automatic methods essentially simplify and increase the rate of the processing of data from track detectors. This provides a possibility of processing large data arrays and considerably improves their statistical significance. This fact predetermines the development of new experiments which plan to use large-volume targets, large-area emulsion, and solid-state track detectors [1]. In this regard, the problem of training qualified physicists who are capable of operating modern automatic equipment is very important. Annually, about ten Moscow students master the new methods, working at the Lebedev Physical Institute at the PAVICOM facility [2 4]. Most students specializing in high-energy physics are only given an idea of archaic manual methods of the processing of data from track detectors. In 2005, on the basis of the PAVICOM facility and the physicstraining course of Moscow State University, a new training work was prepared. This work is devoted to the determination of the energy of neutrons passing through a nuclear emulsion. It provides the possibility of acquiring basic practical skills of the processing of data from track detectors using automatic equipment and can be included in the educational process of students of any physical faculty. Those who have mastered the methods of automatic data processing in a simple and pictorial example of track detectors will be able to apply their knowledge in various fields of science and technique. Formulation of training works for pregraduate and graduate students is a new additional aspect of application of the PAVICOM facility described earlier in [4].

Aleksandrov, A. B.; Goncharova, L. A.; Davydov, D. A.; Publichenko, P. A.; Roganova, T. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Feinberg, E. L.

2007-02-01

317

The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem architectures using PxFS and QFS were found to be incompatible with our software architecture, so sharing of data between systems is accomplished via traditional NFS. Linux was found to be limited in terms of deployment flexibility and consistency between versions. Despite the experimentation with various technologies, our current virtualized architecture is stable to the point of an average daily real time data return rate of 92.34% over the entire lifetime of the project to date.

Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.

2009-12-01

318

Lot No. 2 of Frit 202 for DWPF cold runs. [Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

In the DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility), glass forming chemicals will be added to the waste in the form of premelted glass frit. On an oxide weight basis, DWPF glass will consist of approximately 64 wt% glass frit, 8 wt% precipitate hydrolysis aqueous product, and 28 wt% sludge. The glass frit and the precipitate hydrolysis aqueous product together make up what is called the glass-former composition. Current plants are to control the composition of the frit through the procurement specifications and chemical analyses of representative lot samples. The following report was prepared at the end of 1992 and summarizes the evaluation of the second lot sample of DWPF Frit 202 from Cataphote Inc. The frit was received and evaluated for moisture, particle size distribution, organic-inorganic carbon and chemical composition. The moisture content was within specification. The particle size determination indicates that there was a fraction of a percent more coarse frit (+80 mesh) than the specified amount. The fine end of the distribution was within specification. A representative sample was submitted to Corning Engineering Laboratory Services for chemical analyses. The sample was split and two dissolutions prepared. Each dissolution was analyzed on two separate days. The results indicate that there is a high probability (>95%) that the silica content of this frit was below the specification limit of 77.0 [plus minus] 1.0 wt%. The average of the four analyzed values was 75.3 wt% with a standard deviation of 0.21 wt%. All other oxides were within the elliptical limits established for this product. The vendor was notified that the material was not acceptable for DWPF cold runs.

Schumacher, R.F.

1993-04-05

319

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

1993-02-01

320

Safeguards Material Control and Accounting at Licensed Processing Facilities. Quarterly Report, July--September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objective was to develop the methodology and software needed for assessing Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) systems at fixed site nuclear fuel facilities. The assessment of an MC and A system requires five steps: target identification, event set...

I. J. Sacks

1978-01-01

321

Description of Defense Waste Processing Facility reference waste form and canister. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and is scheduled for construction authorization during FY-1984. The reference waste form is borosilicate glass containing approx. 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its high resistance to leaching by water, its relatively high solubility for nuclides found in the sludge, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains about 58% SiO/sub 2/ and 15% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Leachabilities of SRP waste glasses are expected to approach 10/sup -8/ g/m/sup 2/-day based upon 1000-day tests using glasses containing SRP radioactive waste. Tests were performed under a wide variety of conditions simulating repository environments. The canister is filled with 3260 lb of glass which occupies about 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approx. 470 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and 15-year-old supernate from the sludge and supernate processes. The radionuclide content of the canister is about 177,000 ci, with a radiation level of 5500 rem/h at canister surface contact. The reference canister is fabricated of standard 24-in.-OD, Schedule 20, 304L stainless steel pipe with a dished bottom, domed head, and a combined lifting and welding flange on the head neck. The overall canister length is 9 ft 10 in. with a 3/8-in. wall thickness. The 3-m canister length was selected to reduce equipment cell height in the DWPF to a practical size. The canister diameter was selected as an optimum size from glass quality considerations, a logical size for repository handling and to ensure that a filled canister with its double containment shipping cask could be accommodated on a legal-weight truck. The overall dimensions and weight appear to be compatible with preliminary assessments of repository requirements. 10 references.

Baxter, R.G.

1983-08-01

322

STATUS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-TANK/AT-TANK SEPARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PROCESSING FOR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development, the Office of Waste Processing manages a research and development program related to the treatment and disposition of radioactive waste. At the Savannah River (South Carolina) and Hanford (Washington) Sites, approximately 90 million gallons of waste are distributed among 226 storage tanks (grouped or collocated in 'tank farms'). This waste may be considered to contain mixed and stratified high activity and low activity constituent waste liquids, salts and sludges that are collectively managed as high level waste (HLW). A large majority of these wastes and associated facilities are unique to the DOE, meaning many of the programs to treat these materials are 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. As a result, the technologies required to disposition these wastes must be developed from basic principles, or require significant re-engineering to adapt to DOE's specific applications. Of particular interest recently, the development of In-tank or At-Tank separation processes have the potential to treat waste with high returns on financial investment. The primary objective associated with In-Tank or At-Tank separation processes is to accelerate waste processing. Insertion of the technologies will (1) maximize available tank space to efficiently support permanent waste disposition including vitrification; (2) treat problematic waste prior to transfer to the primary processing facilities at either site (i.e., Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) or Savannah River's Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)); and (3) create a parallel treatment process to shorten the overall treatment duration. This paper will review the status of several of the R&D projects being developed by the U.S. DOE including insertion of the ion exchange (IX) technologies, such as Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at Savannah River. This has the potential to align the salt and sludge processing life cycle, thereby reducing the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) mission by 7 years. Additionally at the Hanford site, problematic waste streams, such as high boehmite and phosphate wastes, could be treated prior to receipt by WTP and thus dramatically improve the capacity of the facility to process HLW. Treatment of boehmite by continuous sludge leaching (CSL) before receipt by WTP will dramatically reduce the process cycle time for the WTP pretreatment facility, while treatment of phosphate will significantly reduce the number of HLW borosilicate glass canisters produced at the WTP. These and other promising technologies will be discussed.

Aaron, G.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-09-19

323

QUALIFICATION OF THE SECOND ICS-3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPH FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification testing was a head to head comparison of the second ICS-3000 with the initial ICS-3000 system that was installed in 221-S M-13. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has recently replaced the Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems that had been used since 1998 by the first of two new ICS-3000 systems. The replacement effort was necessary due to the vendor of the DX-500 systems no longer supporting service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000 instruments also allow the DWPF to maintain current service contracts, which support routine preventive maintenance and emergency support for larger problems such as component failure. One of the three new systems was set up in the DWPF Lab trailers in January of 2007 to be used for the development of methods and procedures. This system will continue to be used for training, new method development and potential improvements to current methods. The qualification of the other two ICS-3000 instruments was a phased effort. This effort was supported by the Applied Computational Engineering and Statistical (ACES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as authorized by the Technical Task Request (TTR) [1] and as directed by the corresponding Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [2]. The installation of the first 'rad' system into the M-13 Lab module required modifications to both the Lab module and to the radiohood. The installation was completed in July 2008. The testing of this system was conducted as directed by the TT&QA plan [2], and the instrument was qualified for use at the DWPF Lab as documented in [3]. As part of that evaluation, a recommendation was made that the second ICS-3000 be installed in the M-14 module and that qualification testing of that system be conducted. The purpose of this technical report is to provide a review of the data generated by these tests that will lead to the recommendation for the qualification of the M-14 ICS-3000 instrument.

Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

2009-12-03

324

Qualification of the First ICS-3000 ION Chromatograph for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-13 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a head to head comparison of the ICS-3000 with the currently used DX-500 IC system. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. Based upon the successful qualification of the ICS-3000 in M-13, it is recommended that this task proceed in developing the data to qualify, by a head to head comparison of the two ICS-3000 instruments, a second ICS-3000 to be installed in M-14. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, organic acid constituents, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has been using Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems since 1998. The vendor informed DWPF in 2006 that the instruments would no longer be supported by service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000 instruments also allow the DWPF to maintain current service contracts, which support routine preventive maintenance and emergency support for larger problems such as component failure. One of the three new systems was set up in the DWPF Lab trailers in January of 2007 to be used for the development of methods and procedures. This system will continue to be used for training, new method development and potential improvements to current methods. The qualification of the other two ICS-3000 instruments is to be a phased effort. This effort is to be supported by the Applied Computational Engineering and Statistical (ACES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as authorized by the Technical Task Request (TTR) and as directed by the corresponding Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan. The installation of the first 'rad' system into the M-13 Lab module required modifications to both the Lab module and to the radiohood. The installation was completed in July 2008. The testing of this system was conducted as directed by the TT&QA plan. The purpose of this technical report is to provide a review of the data generated by these tests that will lead to the recommendation for the qualification of the M-13 ICS-3000 instrument. With the successful qualification of this first ICS-3000, plans will be developed for the installation of the second 'rad' system in the M-14 Lab module later in fiscal year 2009. When the second 'rad' ICS-3000 system is installed, the DX-500 systems will be removed and retired from service.

Edwards, T; Mahannah, R.

2011-07-05

325

Renovation of CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) for Development of Advanced Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle System  

SciTech Connect

CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) was constructed at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) in 1980 as a basic research field where spent fuel pins from fast reactor (FR) and high level liquid waste can be dealt with. The renovation consists of remodeling of the CA-3 cell and the laboratory A, installation of globe boxes, hoods and analytical equipments to the laboratory C and the analytical laboratory. Also maintenance equipments in the CA-5 cell which had been out of order were repaired. The CA-3 cell is the main cell in which important equipments such as a dissolver, a clarifier and extractors are installed for carrying out the hot test using the irradiated FR fuel. Since the CPF had specialized originally in the research function for the Purex process, it was desired to execute the research and development of such new, various reprocessing processes. Formerly, equipments were arranged in wide space and connected with not only each other but also with utility supply system mainly by fixed stainless steel pipes. It caused shortage of operation space in flexibility for basic experimental study. Old equipments in the CA-3 cell including vessels and pipes were removed after successful decontamination, and new equipments were installed conformably to the new design. For the purpose of easy installation and rearranging the experimental equipments, equipments are basically connected by flexible pipes. Since dissolver is able to be easily replaced, various dissolution experiments is conducted. Insoluble residue generated by dissolution of spent fuel is clarified by centrifugal. This small apparatus is effective to space-saving. Mini mixer settlers or centrifugal contactors are put on to the prescribed limited space in front of the backside wall. Fresh reagents such as solvent, scrubbing and stripping solution are continuously fed from the laboratory A to the extractor by the reagent supply system with semi-automatic observation system. The in-cell crane in CA-5 was renovated to increase driving efficiency. At the renovation for the in-cell crane, full scale mockup test and 3D simulation test had been executed in advance. After the renovation, hot tests in the CPF had been resumed from JFY 2002. New equipments such as dissolver, extractor, electrolytic device, etc. were installed in CA-3 conformably to the new design laid out in order to ensure the function and space. Glove boxes in the analysis laboratory were renewed in order to let it have flexibility from the viewpoint of conducting basic experiments (ex. U crystallization). Glove boxes and hoods were newly installed in the laboratory A for basic research and analysis, especially on MA chemistries. One laboratory (the laboratory C) was established to research about dry reprocessing. The renovation of the CPF has been executed in order to contribute to the development on the advanced fast reactor fuel cycle system, which will give us many sort of technical subject and experimental theme to be solved in the 2. Generation of the CPF.

Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency:4-33, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki pref, 319-1194 (Japan)

2008-01-15

326

SHORT CIRCUIT COORDINATION STUDY & ARC FLASH EVALUATION FOR LIQUID PROCESSING & CAPSULE STORAGE 310 FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to provide a design basis document for the electrical distribution system for the 310 Facility in the 300 Area. The study must assure that electrical equipment is rated to withstand the available fault current under abnormal (short circuit) conditions. Under-rated equipment would result in property damage, prolonged facility outages, and possible personal injury. Also to be considered, is the coordination of protective devices. This assures that the protection device nearest a fault will open and isolate the problem area from the remainder of facility systems. The study must specify what settings are required on adjustable protective devices to achieve optimum coordination. Lastly, the study must calculate Arc Blast energies at all parts of the system so that proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) can be specified for energized work.

TOWNE, C.M.

2003-12-26

327

Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional field. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2.

Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

2009-11-01

328

Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste  

SciTech Connect

The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

Jantzen, C.M.

1992-06-30

329

Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study  

SciTech Connect

This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

Wogsland, J.

2001-06-18

330

Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA-2007-0284 and 2007-0317-3155, March 2012. Evaluation of Eye and Respiratory Symptoms at a Poultry Processing Facility - Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 2007, NIOSH received employer requests from a poultry processing facility and a government agency for an HHE in Oklahoma. These requests concerned eye and respiratory symptoms reported by poultry processing employees and government food inspectors...

C. Mueller J. Eisenberg L. Chen S. Durgam

2012-01-01

331

Ground facility for information reception, processing, dissemination and scientific instruments management setup in the CORONAS-PHOTON space project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.

Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.

2011-06-01

332

Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF) (Book)  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth look at how the U.S. DOE and NREL used a performance-based design-build contract to build the Research Support Facility (RSF); one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world.

Not Available

2012-06-01

333

Addendum, automatic data processing (ADP) security plan, Revision 1. ADP facility number: PNL-63  

SciTech Connect

This document is an addendum to the ADP security plan for the 3760 Building, Revision 01, and provides specific information regarding location, equipment, use, and responsible individuals. Procedures for protecting the classified ADP facility, equipment, software, and data will be consistent with the Generic ADP Security Plan for the 3760 Building, Rev. 1, unless otherwise noted in this document.

Johnston, B.L.

1989-06-30

334

Improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations using computerized education facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The list and characteristics of computerized systems used for carrying out basic training of the operating personnel of chemical departments are presented. The results from contests of professional skills carried out among comprehensive teams of thermal power stations with participation of the operating personnel of chemical departments are analyzed. The result obtained from using software facilities for improving the operation

A. S. Kopylov; K. A. Orlov; G. Yu. Kondakova

2011-01-01

335

Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear

Carolynn P Scherer; Jon D Long

2010-01-01

336

INVITED EDITORIAL: Health effects of radiation exposure at uranium processing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial public and scientific interest in the health consequences of exposures to ionising radiation in nuclear installations, in particular at nuclear fuels enrichment and production facilities. In this issue of Journal of Radiological Protection, McGeoghegan and Binks report on the follow-up of a cohort of over 19 000 uranium fuel and uranium hexafluoride production workers employed at the

Elisabeth Cardis; David Richardson

2000-01-01

337

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF ETHANOL MANUFACTURING FACILITIES. PART II: PROCESS ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethanol manufacturing facilities represent an important segment of our agricultural production system. The ethanol industry is currently experiencing a rapid expansion throughout the country, and is poised to substantially contribute to our countrys growing need for energy, especially as non-renew...

338

Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were

Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

2010-01-01

339

Preliminary evaluation of SF/sub 6/ conversion to SO/sub 2/ using existing chemical processing facilities  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of SF/sub 6/ to SO/sub 2/ has been demonstrated using equipment compatible with existing pilot plant facilities. However, while reduction of SF/sub 6/ to iron sulfide has been demonstrated as an efficient, economic, and scalable process operation, oxidation of the sulfide to SO/sub 2/ causes serious compatibility problems in existing (and commonly used) reactor materials. Further characterization of the sulfide oxidation is necessary to determine the usefulness of this conversion process. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

Reiner, R.H.; VanLaethem, L.M.; Partin, H.B.

1984-06-01

340

75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valuation of Processed Natural Gas AGENCY: Bureau...gas, condensate, natural gas liquids, or any other products recovered from Federal...and all gas plant products resulting from processing...lessees who process natural gas extracted...

2010-11-24

341

Preparation for Containerless Processing on ISS: Parabolic Flights with the TEMPUS Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of electro-magnetic levitation as a means for measuring material parameters of liquid metals over a wide temperature range under microgravity conditions has been successfully applied in the Spacelab facility TEMPUS. This German payload was flown on the international missions IML- 2, MSL-1 and MSL-1R as well as on six parabolic flight campaigns yielding new results on thermo- physical properties and solidification behavior of undercooled metals and alloys. It is planned to further enhance the established electro-magnetic levitation technique and to develop a new ISS facility, the Electromagnetic Levitator (EML), which shall be a contribution to the ESA payload Materials Sciences Laboratory (MSL). The EML features a highly modular facility concept, with respect to subsystem components and diagnostics features. The sample positioning and heating shall be achieved by use of one single RF coil where the positioning and heating currents are superpositioned. A milestone in this development line has been the performance of a parabolic flight campaign performed with the Airbus A300 as part of the 3rd DLR campaign with an advanced (1) TEMPUS breadboard. During two flight days, a thorough facility test program proved that the newly implemented superpositioning principle concept in combination with two new coil designs stably positions and heats a variety of test samples. The third flight day was dedicated to scientific experiments. For viscosity measurements, sample surface oscillations were induced by applying short heater pulses during sample cooling. During undercooling experiments, the recalescence events were captured with an acquisition rate of 100kHz. In parallel to the envisaged hardware development of the MSL-EML facility, further parabolic flight campaigns both for facility testing and scientific research are planned, with the next campaign planned for November 2002. The paper will provide a brief overview of the MSL-EML features (2) , focus on the results obtained during the parabolic flight campaign performed in November 2001 and give an outlook on the envisaged further MSL-EML development steps. (2)

Diefenbach, A.; Dreier, W.; Lohfer, G.; Piller, J.

2002-01-01

342

Prototype interface facility for intelligent handling and processing of medical image and data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces an interface facility (IF) developed within the overall framework of RACE research project. Due to the nature of the project which it has been focused in the Remote Medical Expert Consultation, the involvement of distances, the versatile user advocation and familiarity with newly introduced methods of medical diagnosis, considerable deficiencies can arise. The aim was to intelligently assist the user/physician by providing an ergonomic environment which would contain operational and functional deficiencies to the lowest possible levels. IF, energizes and activates system and application level commands and procedures along with the necessary exemplified and instructional help facilities, in order to concisely allow the user to interact with the system safely and easily at all levels.

Lymberopoulos, Dimitris C.; Garantziotis, Giannis; Spiropoulos, Kostas V.; Kotsopoulos, Stavros A.; Goutis, Costas E.

1993-06-01

343

Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.090.1?Svh?1) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3?Svh?1 was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural

M. S. Al-Masri; R. Shwiekani

2008-01-01

344

Improving the operation of chemical process systems at thermal power stations using computerized education facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The list and characteristics of computerized systems used for carrying out basic training of the operating personnel of chemical\\u000a departments are presented. The results from contests of professional skills carried out among comprehensive teams of thermal\\u000a power stations with participation of the operating personnel of chemical departments are analyzed. The result obtained from\\u000a using software facilities for improving the operation

A. S. Kopylov; K. A. Orlov; G. Yu. Kondakova

2011-01-01

345

Preparation for Containerless Processing on ISS: Parabolic Flights with the TEMPUS Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of electro-magnetic levitation as a means for measuring material parameters of liquid metals over a wide temperature range under microgravity conditions has been successfully applied in the Spacelab facility TEMPUS. This German payload was flown on the international missions IML- 2, MSL-1 and MSL-1R as well as on six parabolic flight campaigns yielding new results on thermo- physical

A. Diefenbach; W. Dreier; G. Lohfer; J. Piller

2002-01-01

346

Hydrocarbon management -- Surface processing facilities in the Prudhoe Bay field of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Facility debottlenecking and corrosion/erosion repairs are costly penalties being paid today for previous design decisions. These decisions were made without correctly anticipating long-term changes in the field production profile. This manuscript addresses specific problems at the F-Pad production facility, located in the western operating area of the Prudhoe Bay field on the north slope of Alaska. These problems resulted from a lack of long-term planning on prior well-pad-expansion projects. This manuscript addresses present problems and impacts, current fixes and lessons learned, proposed solutions and benefits, and forward-looking designs. A post-mortem of the completed debottlenecking Phase One project will be provided, including descriptions of the problem, solution, scope of work, expected cost and benefits, and measured benefits. The lessons learned will be presented in the form of the proposed debottlenecking Phase Two plans and the best design options for future new well expansion of well pads in the Prudhoe Bay field. Information provided in this manuscript can lead directly to better long-term planning for production-well-facility-expansion projects. Longer-term thinking can prevent building-in limitations that cannot handle changing production trends, that can reduce facility life because of corrosion/erosion conditions, and that may prevent value-added future expansion projects. There are 44 producing wells on the pad and the total production rates of F-Pad today average 45,000 STB of oil, 35,000 STB of water, and 350 million scf of gas per day.

Chambers, M.J.; Eager, K.D. [BP Exploration Alaska Inc. (United States); Mattison, S.A. [Arco Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-05-01

347

RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

MINETTE, M.J.

2007-05-30

348

FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 8118  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment

A Barnes; D Dan Iverson; B Brannen Adkins

2007-01-01

349

FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment

A Barnes; D Dan Iverson; B Brannen Adkins

2008-01-01

350

Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment

A. B. Barnes; D. C. Iverson; B. J. Adkins; E. Tchemitcheff

2008-01-01

351

The Impacts of Uranium and Thorium on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) vitrifies high level liquid waste (HLLW) into borosilicate glass for stabilization and permanent disposal. The viscosity of the borosilicate glass melt as a function of temperature is the single most important variable affecting the melt rate and pour ability of the glass. The viscosity determines the rate of melting of the raw feed, the rate of glass bubble release (foaming and fining), the rate of homogenization, the adequacy of heat transfer, the devitrification rate, and thus, the quality (in terms of glass homogeneity) of the final glass product. If the viscosity is too low, excessive convection currents can occur during melting, increasing corrosion/erosion of the melter materials of construction (refractory and electrodes) and making control of the melter more difficult. The lowest glass viscosities allowed in the DWPF melter have, therefore, been determined to be approximately 20 poise. DWPF glasses must pour continuously into a large steel canister for ultimate storage in a geologic repository, but glasses with a viscosity greater than or equal to 500 poise do not readily pour. Moreover, too high a viscosity can reduce product quality by causing voids in the final glass. A conservative range of 20-110 poise at a melt temperature, Tmelt or Tm, of 1150 degrees C was, therefore, established for DWPF production. In summary, a uranium term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model as long as the U3O8 concentrations of the glasses being melted are less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent, the maximum value examined in this study. The fact that a U-plus-6 term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model is consistent with the fact that U-plus-6 has four bridging and two non-bridging oxygen bonds. Therefore, the impact of the number of bridging and non-bridging oxygens is approximately equal at U3O8 concentrations of less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent. Uranium may not have an impact at higher U3O8 concentrations but this would have to be demonstrated since the effects of the 0.66:0.33 BO to NBO ratio may become more significant as the U3O8 content increases. While U-plus-6 appears to have little to no impact on glass viscosity, this may or may not be true for U-plus-4 and U-plus-5 in glass since these species were not examined in this study. This is of especial note since the DWPF is currently operating at a REDOX target of 0.2 where 45 percent of the uranium is U-plus-6, 45 percent is U-plus-5, and 10 percent is U-plus-4. An additional 26 glasses for which 98 viscosity-temperature measurements were available indicate disparate roles for ThO2 depending on the U3O8 concentration and the Al2O3 concentration of the glasses measured. For the data generated on three DWPF glasses at SRNL where the ThO2 content and U3O8 content were each in the 2.5-3.0 wt percent range, the presence of ThO2 made the melts more fluid. This is consistent with what is known from the literature about the coordination chemistry of Th-plus-4 in glass, e.g. that it may act as a weak network modifier. However, twenty two West Valley mixed uranium-thorium glasses with U3O8 approximately 0.6-0.7 wt percent and ThO2 of 3.5-3.6 wt percent, demonstrate a trend toward more polymerized melts (higher viscosities). The West Valley glasses are much higher in Al2O3 than the glasses measured at SRNL although they are in the range of the DWPF viscosity model. This indicates that there may be a synergistic interaction between ThO2, U3O8, and Al2O3 that needs further investigation.

CAROL, JANTZEN

2005-02-28

352

Comparative risk assessments for the production and interim storage of glass and ceramic waste forms: Defense waste processing facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing nuclear high level waste (HLW) is scheduled to be built. High level waste is produced when reactor components are subjected to chemical separation operations. Two candidates for immobilizing this HLW are borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, either being contained in weld sealed stainless steel canisters. A number of technical analyses are being conducted to support a selection between these two waste forms. The risks associated with the manufacture and interim storage of these two forms in the DWPF are compared. Process information used in the risk analysis was taken primarily from a DWPF processibility analysis. The DWPF environmental analysis provided much of the necessary environmental information.

Huang, J. C.; Wright, W. V.

1982-04-01

353

The application of Sunna dosimeter film for process control at industrial gamma- and electron beam irradiation facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sunna dosimeter was introduced for dose determination in the dose range of 50-300kGy by measuring optically stimulated luminescence. The usefulness of the dosimeter film has already been shown in food irradiation for routine process control. The aim of the present study was to check the performance of the Sunna dosimeter film for process control in radiation sterilization under industrial processing conditions, i.e. at high activity gamma irradiators and at high energy electron beam facilities. To ensure similar irradiation conditions during calibration and routine irradiation ``in-plant calibration'' was performed by irradiating the Sunna dosimeters together with ethanol-monochlorobenzene transfer standard and alanine reference standard dosimeters. The Sunna dosimeters were then irradiated together with the routine dosimeter of the actual plant during regular production runs and the absorbed doses measured by the different dosimeters agreed within +/-2%(1?).

Kovcs, A.; Baranyai, M.; Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Miller, S.; Murphy, M.; O'Doherty, J.

2004-09-01

354

Dispersion calculations for non-radiological hazardous chemical emissions from the Defense Waste Processing Facility and related activities  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Industrial Source Complex -- Short Term (ISCST) air dispersion model was used to examine potential atmospheric impacts of routine benzene and mercury emissions from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facilities, and the Saltstone Facility. The highest model estimated 8-hour average ground-level benzene concentrations were found to occur in the immediate vicinity of the ITP filter/stripper building (241-96H). Subsequent model calculations were used to determine minimum stack release heights that would be necessary to achieve compliance with this workplace exposure standard for currently anticipated emission levels. The highest 24-hour average site boundary concentrations of benzene and mercury generally occurred to the north of S and H areas. Concentrations were well below the ambient concentration standards that have been identified for these substances in an air toxics policy proposed by the State of South Carolina. Estimates of annual average benzene concentrations for offsite locations were used to estimate the excess lifetime cancer risk. Assuming continuous 70-year exposure to the estimated annual benzene concentrations, the excess cancer risk to the maximum exposed individual was estimated to be 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}. Similar lifetime exposure summed over the surrounding population resulted in an estimated average of 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} excess cancers per year. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Hunter, C.H.

1990-10-22

355

Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site: Results of Technology Down-Selection and Research and Development to Support New Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of HLW for disposal. The Salt Processing Project (SPP) is the salt waste (water-soluble) treatment portion of this effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction, and operation of technologies to prepare the salt-waste feed material for immobilization at the site's Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility [DWPF]). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to DWPF include cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and actinides. In April 2000, the DOE Deputy Secretary for Project Completion (EM-40) established the SRS Salt Processing Project Technical Working Group (TWG) to manage technology development of treatment alternatives for SRS high-level salt wastes. The separation alternatives investigated included three candidate Cs-removal processes selected, as well as actinide and Sr removal that are also required as a part of each process. The candidate Cs-removal processes are: crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange (CST); caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX); and small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). The Tanks Focus Area was asked to assist DOE by managing the SPP research and development (R&D), revising roadmaps, and developing down-selection criteria. The down-selection decision process focused its analysis on three levels: (a) identification of goals that the selected technology should achieve, (b) selection criteria that are a measure of performance of the goal, and (c) criteria scoring and weighting for each technology alternative. After identifying the goals and criteria, the TWG analyzed R&D results and engineering data and scored the technology alternatives versus the criteria. Based their analysis and scoring, the TWG recommended CSSX as the preferred alternative. This recommendation was formalized in July 2001 when DOE published the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Alternatives Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and was finalized in the DOE Record of Decision issued in October 2001.

Lang, K.; Gerdes, K.; Picha, K.; Spader, W.; McCullough, J.; Reynolds, J.; Morin, J. P.; Harmon, H. D.

2002-02-26

356

HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System  

SciTech Connect

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

K. Winterholler

2007-01-31

357

Processes to Open the Container and the Sample Catcher of the Hayabusa Returned Capsule in the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of JAXA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes in the curation facility of the container and the sample catcher in the reentry capsule of Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, which returned from near-Earth asteroid Itokawa to the Earth in June 13st, 2010, is presented here.

A. Fujimura; M. Abe; T. Yada; T. Nakamura; T. Noguchi; R. Okazaki; Y. Ishibashi; K. Shirai; T. Okada; H. Yano; M. E. Zolensky; S. Sandford; M. Ueno; T. Mukai; M. Yoshikawa; J. Kawaguchi

2011-01-01

358

Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox() and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity. PMID:21600691

Roldn-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Corts, G; Zapata-Peasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olgun-Lora, P

2011-05-19

359

Facile and flexible fabrication of gapless microlens arrays using a femtosecond laser microfabrication and replication process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a facile and flexible method to fabricate close-packed microlens arrays (MLAs). Glass molding templates with concave structures are produced by a femtosecond (fs)-laser point-by-point exposures followed by a chemical treatment, and convex MLAs are subsequently replicated on Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] using a hot embossing system. As an example, a microlens array (MLA) with 60-?m rectangular-shaped spherical microlenses is fabricated. Optical performances of the MLAs, such as focusing and imaging properties are tested, and the results demonstrate the uniformity and smooth surfaces of the MLA. We also demonstrated that the shape and alignment of the arrays could be controlled by different parameters.

Liu, Hewei; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Hu, Yang; Shan, Chao; He, Shengguan; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

2012-02-01

360

Financial scenario generation for stochastic multi-stage decision processes as facility location problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of multi-stage stochastic optimization models as they appear in asset liability management, energy planning, transportation, supply chain management, and other applications depends heavily on the quality of the underlying scenario model, describing the uncertain processes influencing the profit\\/cost function, such as asset prices and liabilities, the energy demand process, demand for transportation, and the like. A common approach

Ronald Hochreiter; Georg Ch. Pflug

2007-01-01

361

Understanding and Improving Cultural Receptiveness to PSLM in the Risk Optimization of Process Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process Safety Management is an established approach to application of technical solutions and crisply focused management principles and systems to prevent process- related loss. Efforts to parachute it into an existing culture often meet frustration. Visionary leadership is required to foster a culture of risk optimization as a way of life for the organization. Leaders must understand differences in how

R. Thomas Boughner

362

MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter.

J. Zamecnik; A. Choi

2010-01-01

363

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

LANCE HAYS

2007-02-27

364

Minimizing work-in-process and material handling in the facilities layout problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the plant layout problem for a job shop environment. This problem is generally treated as the quadratic assignment problem with the objective of minimizing material handling costs. Here we investigate the relationship between material handling costs and average work-in-process. Under restrictive assumptions, an open queueing network model can be used to show that the problem of minimizing work-in-process

MICHAEL C. FU; BHARAT K. KAKU

1997-01-01

365

Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government`s responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced.

Maslar, S.R.

1992-11-02

366

Extrinsic and intrinsic complexities of the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the data obtained in one year of plutonium accounting at Los Alamos reveals significant complexity. Much of this complexity arises from the complexity of the processes themselves. Additional complexity is induced by errors in the data entry process. It is important to note that there is no evidence that this complexity is adversely affecting the accounting in the plant. We have been analyzing transaction data from fiscal year 1983 processing. This study involved 62,595 transactions. The data have been analyzed using the relational database program INGRES on a VAX 11/780 computer. This software allows easy manipulation of the original data and subsets drawn from it. We have been attempting for several years to understand the global features of the TA-55 accounting data. This project has underscored several of the system's complexities. Examples that will be reported here include audit trails, lot-name multiplicity, etc.

Bearse, R.C.; Longmire, V.L.; Roberts, N.J.

1985-01-01

367

Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

Not Available

1991-09-01

368

APPLICATIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ASSEMBLY PROCESSES TO THE FACILE SYNTHESES OF DIVERSELY FUNCTIONALIZED NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES  

PubMed Central

Several multicomponent assembly processes have been developed for the synthesis of intermediates that may be elaborated by a variety of cyclizations to generate a diverse array of highly functionalized heterocycles from readily-available starting materials. The overall approach enables the efficient preparation of libraries of small molecules derived from fused, privileged scaffolds.

Donald, James R.; Granger, Brett A.; Hardy, Simon; Sahn, James J.; Martin, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

369

Chemical and petroleum and gas processing plant selection of certain parameters for designing sublimation facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work an attempt is made to establish the relation between the product dispersion and the processing conditions, and to construct on this basis a method of designing sublimation plant with direct introduction of the solution into a vacuum. The study will be made for single component aqueous salt solutions having concentrations less than eutectic. The dispersion, or material

S. M. Brazhnikov; L. A. Serova; A. Vo Karabanov

1987-01-01

370

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF GRAIN ELEVATOR FACILITIES. PART II. PROCESS ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain elevators play a key role in U.S. agriculture, and fulfill three main functions: post-harvest handling and storing of cereal grains and oilseeds, conditioning and preserving of grain, and facilitating the delivery of grain to domestic feeding and processing, as well as overseas, end-use desti...

371

Meat Packing and Processing Facilities in the Non-Metropolitan Midwest: Blessing or Curse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in the meat packing and processing industry in the Midwestern United States has generated a significant amount of debate regarding the costs and benefits of this type of economic development. This research employs 1990-2000 proprietary data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Longitudinal Database (LDB) to investigate the effects of this industry on social and economic outcomes in non-metropolitan

Georgeanne M. Artza; Peter F. Orazemab; Daniel M. Otto

2005-01-01

372

Asset Management System for Educational Facilities Considering the Heterogeneity in Deterioration Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In asset management of infrastructures, predicting deterioration of structures is one of an essential technique to make a decision on the optimal maintenance policy. However, as for large-scaled infrastructures that consist of a huge number of structural components, in order to estimate their deterioration process with high accuracy, the heterogeneity of individual components has to be considered because each component

Kengo OBAMA; Kiyoyuki KAITO; Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI

373

Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Energy Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct, and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids.

Henry C. Foust; Langdon K. Holton; Laurence E. Demick

2005-01-01

374

ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. ne out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing fac...

375

ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

376

CHALLENGES OF PRESERVING HISTORIC RESOURCES DURING THE D & D OF HIGHLY CONTAMINATED HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT PLUTONIUM PROCESS FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that ere included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE'S Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Sitewide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They must also ensure the safety of workers and the full decontamination of buildings or artifacts if they are to be preserved. This paper discusses the real time challenges of working safely, decontaminating process equipment, preserving historical structures and artifacts and documenting their history at PFP.

HOPKINS, A.M.

2006-03-17

377

The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They must also ensure the safety of workers and the full decontamination of buildings or artifacts if they are to be preserved. This paper discusses the real time challenges of working safely, decontaminating process equipment, preserving historical structures and artifacts and documenting their history at PFP. (authors)

Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M. [Fluor Hanford, Inc., PO Box 1000 Richland WA 99352 (United States); Charboneau, S. [US Department of Energy PO Box 550, Richland WA 99352 (United States); Bond, F. [Washington State Department of Ecology, WDOE 3100 Port of Benton Blvd., Richland WA, 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01

378

Facile synthesis of boron carbide elongated nanostructures via a simple in situ thermal evaporation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron carbide elongated nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets have been synthesized via a low-cost and simple in situ thermal evaporation process using commercially available B4C powders as the main precursor. Heat treatments were done in the temperature range of 14001600C in the presence of Co nanoparticles (and NiCl2 in some experiments) as the catalyst material. The growth mechanism

Mohammad Jazirehpour; Hamid-Reza Bahahrvandi; Ali Alizadeh; Naser Ehsani

2011-01-01

379

Risk-Based Decision Process for Accelerated Closure of a Nuclear Weapons Facility  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 40 years of nuclear weapons production at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Site) resulted in contamination of soil and underground systems and structures with hazardous substances, including plutonium, uranium and hazardous waste constituents. The Site was placed on the National Priority List in 1989. There are more than 370 Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSSs) at RFETS. Accelerated cleanup and closure of RFETS is being achieved through implementation and refinement of a regulatory framework that fosters programmatic and technical innovations: (1) extensive use of ''accelerated actions'' to remediate IHSSs, (2) development of a risk-based screening process that triggers and helps define the scope of accelerated actions consistent with the final remedial action objectives for the Site, (3) use of field instrumentation for real time data collection, (4) a data management system that renders near real time field data assessment, and (5) a regulatory agency consultative process to facilitate timely decisions. This paper presents the process and interim results for these aspects of the accelerated closure program applied to Environmental Restoration activities at the Site.

Butler, L.; Norland, R. L.; DiSalvo, R.; Anderson, M.

2003-02-25

380

Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

1992-09-30

381

High temperature electrostatic sample levitator as a future containerless materials processing facility in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of deeply undercooled melts will open up the possibilities of studying basic phenomena of thermodynamics, nucleation and solidification processes. Such research work is particularly important to understand the processes of metastable solids which are formed from the non-equilibrium state of undercooled melt. There are a wide variety of metastable states, ranging from metastable crystalline phases (supersaturated and grain-refined alloys) to amorphous metals. A detailed understanding of the thermodynamics, the nucleation and crystal growth conditions can lead to comprehensive understanding of the criteria for the formation of such metastable states. However, at the present time, only limited information is available about the thermophysical parameters as a function of undercooling. The demands for accurate thermophysical property values have also been strong in the electronics industry which constantly demands high quality semiconductor materials for high density integrated circuit devices. In order to simulate the crystal growth for optimization of the growth process, the accurate thermophysical properties of molten semiconductors are essential input parameters. Thermophysical properties of high temperature molten materials are difficult to determine accurately because of the experimental problems associated with taking measurements at high temperatures in the presence of gravity. In the presence of gravity, convective flows are generated if there exist density gradients in a melt. In the high temperature materials processing, for reasons of maintaining purity of sample materials and attaining deeply undercooled states of melts, the sample has to be isolated from the container walls using some kind of levitators. However, the levitation of a high density melt against the gravity requires strong levitation forces which in turn induce undesirable flows in the melt. Such flows in melts would make measurements of certain thermophysical properties either impossible or at best erroneous. In microgravity environment of space, these disturbing effects are greatly reduced, therefore, more accurate measurement results are expected. Different kinds of sample positioning (levitating) devices have been investigated in the past, some of which have even gained a few space experiences. However, the only serious sample positioner which was designed for high temperature materials processing experiments in space is the TEMPUS, the German electromagnetic sample positioner. In this presentation I would like to introduce a new sample positioning device and discuss about its capabilities of measuring various thermophysical properties and studying non-equilibrium solidification process. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, we have developed a high temperature electrostatic levitation system for the ground based applications (Rhim et al. 1993, and Rhim 1997). The system is operated in a high vacuum level (~10-8 torr) and can heat up a sample of 2000 K. A typical sample diameter is 2~3 mm. Advantages of the electrostatic levitation technique over other levitation techniques, especially the electromagnetic levitation is decoupling of levitation and heating elements and a wide selection of samples to be levitated. The sample can be levitated at any temperature between room and maximum temperatures. Both conductive and non-conductive (including semiconductive) materials can be levitated. For any thermophysical property measurements, diagnostic devices must be incorporated with the levitation technique. The devices must be based on non-invasive techniques and at the same time compatible with the levitation mechanism. We have developed the diagnostic techniques such as a high speed pyrometer, static as well as oscillating sample imaging and analysis. These techniques allow us to measure the thermophysical properties which include the true temperature, the emissivities, the density (specific volume) (Chung et al. 1996, and Ohsaka et al. 1997), total hemispherical emissivity (Rulison et al. 1995, and Rhim et al. 1997), specific heat (Rulison et a

Rhim, Won-Kyu

1998-01-01

382

Facile synthesis of monodispersed barium sulphate particles via an in situ templated process.  

PubMed

Monodispersed BaSO4 micrometer and submicrometer sized particles were produced by a simple precipitation reaction in the presence of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) at the ambient temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED) were used to characterize the obtained BaSO4 particles, and polycrystalline nature of the BaSO4 products was revealed. A "polymer-M in situ template" model was proposed to elucidate the formation process of such polycrystalline BaSO4 particles. PMID:17376470

Zhao, Xiufeng; Yu, Jiaguo; Tang, Hua; Lin, Jun

2007-03-02

383

Soft x-ray scattering facility at the Advanced Light Source with real-time data processing and analysis.  

PubMed

We present the development and characterization of a dedicated resonant soft x-ray scattering facility. Capable of operation over a wide energy range, the beamline and endstation are primarily used for scattering from soft matter systems around the carbon K-edge (?285 eV). We describe the specialized design of the instrument and characteristics of the beamline. Operational characteristics of immediate interest to users such as polarization control, degree of higher harmonic spectral contamination, and detector noise are delineated. Of special interest is the development of a higher harmonic rejection system that improves the spectral purity of the x-ray beam. Special software and a user-friendly interface have been implemented to allow real-time data processing and preliminary data analysis simultaneous with data acquisition. PMID:22559579

Gann, E; Young, A T; Collins, B A; Yan, H; Nasiatka, J; Padmore, H A; Ade, H; Hexemer, A; Wang, C

2012-04-01

384

A facile processing way of silica needle arrays with tunable orientation by tube arrays fabrication and etching method  

SciTech Connect

A simple method to fabricate silica micro/nano-needle arrays (SNAs) is presented based on tube-etching mechanism. Using silica fibers as templates, highly aligned and free-standing needle arrays are created over large area by simple processes of polymer infiltration, cutting, chemical etching and polymer removal. Their sizes and orientations can be arbitrarily and precisely tuned by simply selecting fiber sizes and the cutting directions, respectively. This technique enables the needle arrays with special morphology to be fabricated in a greatly facile way, thereby offers them the potentials in various applications, such as optic, energy harvesting, sensors, etc. As a demonstration, the super hydrophobic property of PDMS treated SNAs is examined. - Graphical abstract: Silica needle arrays are fabricated by tube arrays fabrication and etching method. They show super hydrophobic property after being treated with PDMS.

Zhu Mingwei; Gao Haigen; Li Hongwei; Xu Jiao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Yanfeng, E-mail: yfchen@nju.edu.c [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-03-15

385

A facile processing way of silica needle arrays with tunable orientation by tube arrays fabrication and etching method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method to fabricate silica micro/nano-needle arrays (SNAs) is presented based on tube-etching mechanism. Using silica fibers as templates, highly aligned and free-standing needle arrays are created over large area by simple processes of polymer infiltration, cutting, chemical etching and polymer removal. Their sizes and orientations can be arbitrarily and precisely tuned by simply selecting fiber sizes and the cutting directions, respectively. This technique enables the needle arrays with special morphology to be fabricated in a greatly facile way, thereby offers them the potentials in various applications, such as optic, energy harvesting, sensors, etc. As a demonstration, the super hydrophobic property of PDMS treated SNAs is examined.

Zhu, Mingwei; Gao, Haigen; Li, Hongwei; Xu, Jiao; Chen, Yanfeng

2010-03-01

386

Final deactivation report on the Radioactive Gas Processing Facility, Building 3033, and the Actinide Fabrication Facility, Building 3033A, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Buildings 3033 and 3033A, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of Buildings 3033 and 3033A prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed. Buildings 3033 and 3033A will require access to facilitate required S and M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Buildings 3033 and 3033A were stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S and M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S and M activities the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S and M. All materials have been removed from the building, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated.

NONE

1997-09-01

387

Microbial quality of condensation in fresh and ready-to-eat processing facilities.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the microbial risks associated with condensation in harvest, fabrication, and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat processing environments. A total of 2281 samples were collected before and during operation from areas of visible condensation, overhead pipes, and dripping pans in three plants each season during a one-year period. Significant interactions between season and plant type were observed for nearly all microorganisms, resulting in counts that were generally higher in the summer compared to other seasons. Aerobic plate counts ranged from non-detectable to 3.7log cfu100mL(-1) of condensation. Overall counts were so low that data had to be converted to results100mL(-1). Coliforms and Enterococci were not detectable in most condensation samples. Yeast and mold averaged less than 3.0log cfu100mL(-1) in all samples. Listeria spp. or Salmonella were each detected in only two samples. Condensation, present in harvest, fabrication, and RTE meat processing areas does not appear to contain microbial loads that will contaminate the product. PMID:22122989

Brashears, M M; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Harris, D; Loneragan, G; Echeverry, A; Jackson, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Miller, M F

2011-11-09

388

DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY08.

Krementz, D

2007-11-27

389

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of applications...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for...

2009-04-01

390

18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of applications...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Applications for...

2010-04-01

391

Pretreatment Engineering Platform--Reducing Technical Risks for the Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility through Scaled Process Testing  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will separate and vitrify (immobilize in glass) millions of gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of the waste by caustic and oxidative leaching processes will minimize the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to be vitrified, and cross-flow ultrafiltration will be used to remove liquids from the HLW solid slurry. An extensive and critical review of the WTP technical bases and design identified the need to demonstrate of the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes at greater than bench scale. To respond to this need, the WTP prime contractor, Bechtel National, Inc., and their principle subcontractor Washington Group International concluded a 1/4.5 scale facility to treat non-radioactive waste simulants was needed to demonstrate the process. This paper describes the technical bases and design of the scaled Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and the strategy to develop waste simulants to be used in the PEP

Musick, Chris A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Huckaby, James L.; Josephson, Gary B.; Gilbert, Robert A.

2008-02-01

392

An engineering and economic evaluation of quick germ-quick fiber process for dry-grind ethanol facilities: analysis.  

PubMed

An engineering economic model, which is mass balanced and compositionally driven, was developed to compare the conventional corn dry-grind process and the pre-fractionation process called quick germ-quick fiber (QQ). In this model, documented in a companion article, the distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) price was linked with its protein and fiber content as well as with the long-term average relationship with the corn price. The detailed economic analysis showed that the QQ plant retrofitted from conventional dry-grind ethanol plant reduces the manufacturing cost of ethanol by 13.5 cent/gallon and has net present value of nearly $4 million greater than the conventional dry-grind plant at an interest rate of 4% in 15years. Ethanol and feedstock price sensitivity analysis showed that the QQ plant gains more profits when ethanol price increases than conventional dry-grind ethanol plant. An optimistic analysis of the QQ process suggests that the greater value of the modified DDGS would provide greater resistance to fluctuations in corn price for QQ facilities. This model can be used to provide decision support for ethanol producers. PMID:20207536

Rodrguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Khanna, Madhu; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Lin, Tao; Eckhoff, Steven R

2010-03-06

393

In-situ wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation at a sugar beet processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater monitoring data collected at the Western Sugar Company sugar beet processing plant, in Billings, Montana identified groundwater mounding and groundwater nitrogen concentration increases associated with lime slurry discharge to an on-site storage pile. The nitrogen impacts (primarily ammonia) likely originated through decomposition of organic matter in the slurry. Initially, Western Sugar considered constructing an expensive anaerobic and nitrification-denitrification wastewater treatment system. However, further investigation of the lime pile revealed that it was already serving as an efficient filter and anaerobic reactor. Comparisons of slurry application with other land application systems suggested that groundwater nitrogen impacts could be minimized through groundwater capture, re-application, and improved slurry management. The resultant system required little capitol and maintenance cost. The immediate effect was to substantially decrease the groundwater mound. Subsequent monitoring has demonstrated a gradual decline in nitrogen concentrations under the lime pile and a considerable concentration decrease downgradient of the groundwater recovery system.

Olson, J.L. [MAXIM Technologies, Inc., Billings, MT (United States); Fuller-Pratt, P.R.; Mielke, R.A. [Western Sugar Company, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

394

EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or

C. Jantzen; J. Laurinat

2011-01-01

395

Evaluation of the Impact of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory Germanium Oxide Use on Recycle Transfers to the H-Tank Farm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are...

C. M. Jantzen J. E. Laurinat

2011-01-01

396

Analyses by the Defense Waste Processing Facility Laboratory of Thorium Glasses from the Sludge Batch 6 Variability Study  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with Frit 418. At times during the processing of this glass system, thorium is expected to be at concentrations in the final wasteform that make it a reportable element for the first time since startup of radioactive operations at the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) supported the qualification of the processing of this glass system at the DWPF. A recommendation from the SRNL studies was the need for the DWPF Laboratory to establish a method to measure thorium by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES). This recommendation led to the set of thorium-bearing glasses from the SB6 Variability Study (VS) being submitted to the DWPF Laboratory for chemical composition measurement. The measurements were conducted by the DWPF Laboratory using the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method routinely employed for analysis of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). These measurements are presented and reviewed in this report. The review indicates that the measurements provided by the DWPF Laboratory are comparable to those provided by Analytical Development's laboratory at SRNL for these same glasses. As a result, the authors of this report recommend that the DWPF Laboratory begin using its routine peroxide fusion dissolution method for the measurement of thorium in SME samples of SB6. The purpose of this technical report is to present the measurements generated by the DWPF Laboratory for the SB6 VS glasses and to compare the measurements to the targeted compositions for these VS glasses as well as to SRNL's measurements (both sets, targeted and measured, of compositional values were reported by SRNL in [2]). The goal of these comparisons is to provide information that will lead to the qualification of peroxide fusion dissolution as a method for the measurement by the DWPF Laboratory of thorium in SME glass samples.

Edwards, T.; Click, D.; Feller, M.

2011-02-28

397

PFGE characterisation and adhesion ability of Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained from bovine carcasses and beef processing facilities.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen capable of adhering to many surfaces and forming biofilms, which may explain its persistence in food processing environments. This study aimed to genetically characterise L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from bovine carcasses and beef processing facilities and to evaluate their adhesion abilities. DNA from 29 L. monocytogenes isolates was subjected to enzymatic restriction digestion (AscI and ApaI), and two clusters were identified for serotypes 4b and 1/2a, with similarities of 48% and 68%, respectively. The adhesion ability of the isolates was tested considering: inoculum concentration, culture media, carbohydrate source, NaCl concentration, incubation temperature, and pH. Each isolate was tested at 10? CFU mL? and classified according to its adhesion ability as weak (8 isolates), moderate (17) or strong (4). The isolates showed higher adhesion capability in non-diluted culture media, media at pH 7.0, incubation at 25C and 37 C, and media with NaCl at 5% and 7%. No relevant differences were observed for adhesion ability with respect to the carbohydrate source. The results indicated a wide diversity of PFGE profiles of persistent L. monocytogenes isolates, without relation to their adhesion characteristics. Also, it was observed that stressing conditions did not enhance the adhesion profile of the isolates. PMID:22748307

Galvo, Newton Nascentes; Chiarini, Eb; Destro, Maria Teresa; de Aguiar Ferreira, Mrcia; Nero, Lus Augusto

2012-06-17

398

Persistent Listeria monocytogenes subtypes isolated from a smoked fish processing facility included both phage susceptible and resistant isolates.  

PubMed

Contamination of Ready-To-Eat foods with Listeria monocytogenes can typically be traced back to post-processing contamination from environmental sources; contamination is often linked to subtypes that persist in food associated environments. Although phage-based biocontrol strategies have been proposed for controlling this pathogen, information on the efficacy of phage treatment against diverse L.monocytogenes subtypes from food associated environments is still limited. We identified subtypes that were repeatedly found ("persistent") in a smoked fish processing facility by using EcoRI ribotyping data for isolates obtained in 1998-2009. PFGE analysis of 141 isolates (9 ribotypes) supported persistence for up to 11 years. Characterization of selected isolates, representing persistent subtypes, against a panel of 28 listeriaphages showed a wide range of likelihood of phage susceptibility, ranging from 4.6% (for 7 ribotype DUP-1043A isolates) to 95.4% (for 7 ribotype DUP-1044A isolates). In challenge studies with 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/ml L.monocytogenes, using phage cocktails and a commercial phage product at different phage-host ratios, one isolate (ribotype DUP-1043A) was not affected by any treatment. A reduction in L.monocytogenes counts of up to 4 log units was observed, after 8h of treatment, in isolates of two ribotypes, but subsequent re-growth occurred. Survivor isolates obtained after 24h of treatment showed decreased susceptibility to individual phages included in the phage cocktail, suggesting rapid emergence of resistant subtypes. PMID:23628613

Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Roof, Sherry; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-03-06

399

QUALIFICATION OF A RADIOACTIVE HIGH ALUMINUM GLASS FOR PROCESSINGIN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately eleven years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). Each sludge batch is nominally two million liters of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters 0.6 meters in diameter and 3 meters tall filled with the borosilicate glass. In SB4 and earlier sludge batches, the Al concentration has always been rather low, (less than 9.5 weight percent based on total dried solids). It is expected that in the future the Al concentrations will increase due to the changing composition of the HLW. Higher Al concentrations could introduce problems because of its known effect on the viscosity of glass melts and increase the possibility of the precipitation of nepheline in the final glass and decrease its durability. In 2006 Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used DWPF processes to immobilize a radioactive HLW slurry containing 14 weight percent Al to ensure that this waste is viable for future DWPF processing. This paper presents results of the characterization of the high Al glass prepared in that demonstration. At SRNL, a sample of the processed high Al HLW slurry was mixed with an appropriate glass frit as performed in the DWPF to make a waste glass containing nominally 30% waste oxides. The glass was prepared by melting the frit and waste remotely at 1150 C. The glass was then characterized by: (1) determining the chemical composition of the glass including the concentrations of several actinide and U-235 fission products; (2) calculating the oxide waste loading of the glass based on the chemical composition and comparing it to that of the target; (3) determining if the glass composition met the DWPF processing constraints such as glass melt viscosity and liquidus temperature along with a waste form affecting constraint that prevents the precipitation of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) crystals in the glass melt; (4) measuring the durability of the glass using the ASTM Standard Product Consistency Test (PCT) leach test to determine if the durability of the glass based on B, Li, and Na releases met the requirements for acceptance in a US geologic repository; (5) measuring the leachability of several radionuclides using the ASTM Standard PCT leach test and comparing them to the B, Li, and Na releases; and (6) examining the glass by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine if any crystals had formed in the glass melt. Results indicate that the high Al glass met all the requirements for processing and product quality in the DWPF.

Bibler, N; John Pareizs, J; Tommy Edwards,T; Charles02 Coleman, C; Charles Crawford, C

2008-01-29

400

Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared

Nickels

1991-01-01

401

Image processing methods for characterizing cryogenic target quality during ice layer formation at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging aspect of preparing cryogenic targets for National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition experiments is growing a single crystal layer (~ 70 ?m thick) of solid frozen deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel on the inner surface of a spherical hollow plastic capsule 2 mm in diameter. For the most critical fusion experiments, the layer must be smooth, having uniform thickness, and largely free of isolated defects (e.g. grooves). A single target layer typically takes up to 18 hours to form. X-ray images on 3 orthogonal axes are used to monitor the growth of the crystal and evaluate the quality of the layer. While these methods provide a good indicator of target layer condition, new metrics are currently being developed to take advantage of other properties in the x-ray image, which may give earlier indications of target quality. These properties include symmetry of texture, seed formation, and eigenimage analysis. We describe the approach and associated image processing to evaluate and classify these metrics, whose goal is to improve overall layer production and better quantify the quality of the layer during its growth.

Leach, Richard R.; Field, John E.; Mascio-Kegelmeyer, Laura; Kozioziemski, Bernie; Lee, Tanza; Mapoles, Evan; Roberts, Randy; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Suratwala, Tayyab

2013-02-01

402

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

NONE

1994-11-01

403

Use of the USQ process with an operating SAR for the shutdown/terminal cleanout of the PUREX facility  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility at the Hanford Site is a remote canyon facility that began operations in 1956 to support the Atomic Energy Commission and later the Department of Energy in the recovery of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium from spent reactor fuel. This report follows the transition of the PUREX facility from standby mode in 1990 to shutdown/terminal cleanout. Preparation of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), evaluation of OSR requirements, and the use of the USQ to successfully complete the deactivation of the facility in a timely and cost effective manner are discussed. The major activities, both administrative and procedural, performed as part of the PUREX facility deactivation are described.

Dodd, E.N.

1993-06-01

404

Facility risk review as a means to addressing existing risks during the life cycle of a process unit, operation or facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's process industry environment, it is becoming more and more important for companies to manage the risks associated with their plants. Amongst others, some reasons for this are that 1) Process Safety is featuring high on the agenda of Trade Unions; 2) that Management is coming under increased pressure to provide a safe workplace; 3) that Companies are trying

W. P. G. Schlechter

1996-01-01

405

The New Alvin and the Scheduling\\/Planning Processes for the National Deep Submergence Facility Jon C. Alberts, Barrie B. Walden, Richard F. Pittinger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Deep Submergence Facility is in the process of obtaining support for construction of a new manned submersible as a replacement for DSV Alvin. A new 6000+ meter manned submersible will provide U.S. scientists with access to an additional 35 per cent of the ocean floor including some currently unreachable portions of the U.S. EEZ. Researchers will have

J. Alberts; B. Walden

2003-01-01

406

Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

Glover, T.

1999-11-23

407

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant. FY 1983-84 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the ecological studies, conducted during Fiscal Years FY- 1983 and 1984 by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), that relate to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. SREL has been contracted to carry out these studies for the Department of Energy (DOE) in order

J. H. K. Pechmann; R. D. Semlitsch; R. M. Lew; D. T. Mayack

1984-01-01

408

Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

NONE

1995-08-01

409

Technology Education Facilities Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for planning technology education facilities. Chapter 1 defines technology education in terms of a vision, educational outcomes, and curriculum and facilities. Chapter 2 focuses on creating technology education facilities and describes the planning process, design, construction, installation of furnishings and

Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

410

Study of the Processes Resulting from the Use of Alkaline Seed in Natural Gas-Fired MHD Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical change...

M. A. Styrikovich I. L. Mostinskii

1977-01-01

411

Working Distance Comparison of Inductive and Electromagnetic Couplings for Wireless and Passive Underwater Monitoring System of Rinsing Process in Semiconductor Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a side-by-side comparison of two wireless and passive sensing systems: inductive and electromag- netic (EM) couplings for an application of in-situ and real-time monitoring of wafer cleanliness in the rinsing process at semicon- ductor\\/microelectromechanical system (MEMS) manufacturing facilities. A MEMS sensor is designed to measure the resistivity of water, corresponding to the ionic concentration, to evaluate the

Xu Zhang; Junseok Chae

2011-01-01

412

Characterization of Radioactive Macro-batch Four Glass being Produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high-level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately nine years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Macro-batch 4 (MB4). Each macro-batch is nominally five hundred thousand gallons of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters two feet

N. E. Bibler; C. J. Bannochie; J. W. Ray

2006-01-01

413

Facile synthesis of fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole-based organic semiconductors and their use in solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells.  

PubMed

A facile new protocol for the synthesis of iodinated derivatives of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles is demonstrated for the production of p-type semiconducting materials. The newly synthesized small-molecule compounds bis[TPA-diTh]-MonoF-BT and bis[TPA-diTh]-DiF-BT exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.95% and a high open-circuit voltage of 0.85 V in solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells. PMID:22829549

Cho, Nara; Song, Kihyung; Lee, Jae Kwan; Ko, Jaejung

2012-07-24

414

Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172  

SciTech Connect

An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

Brooks, R.D.

1981-06-01

415

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved attitude toward food safety. Employees from four food processing facilities (n

Ginger D. Fenton; Luke F. LaBorde; Rama B. Radhakrishna; J. Lynne Brown; Catherine N. Cutter

2006-01-01

416

Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

Later, D.W.

1985-01-01

417

Proof of concept simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near-real-time safeguards monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel addition to a safeguards system for reprocessing facilities. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing 2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2011-02-01

418

THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones, milestones completed to date, and the vision of bringing PFP to slab-on-grade. Innovative approaches in planning and regulatory strategies, as well new technologies from within the United States and from other countries and field decontamination techniques developed by workforce personnel, such as the ''turkey roaster'' and the ''lazy Susan'' are covered in detail in the paper. Critical information on issues and opportunities during the performance of the work such as concerns regarding the handling and storage of special nuclear material, concerns regarding criticality safety and the impact of SNM de-inventory at PFP are also provided. The continued success of the PFP D&D effort is due to the detailed, yet flexible, approach to planning that applied innovative techniques and tools, involved a team of experienced independent reviewers, and incorporated previous lessons learned at the Hanford site, Rocky Flats, and commercial nuclear D&D projects. Multi-disciplined worker involvement in the planning and the execution of the work has produced a committed workforce that has developed innovative techniques, resulting in safer and more efficient work evolutions.

CHARBONEAU, S.L.

2006-02-01

419

Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste management and disposal at DOE facilities: Requirements, review process, and lessons learned  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, located at sites across the nation, generate large quantities and a wide variety of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from nuclear defense production and research and development activities. All DOE-generated LLRW is disposed of at DOE disposal sites. Most DOE waste generating sites do not have disposal facilities on site and so must ship their LLRW to one of six currently active DOE disposal locations. Four disposal sites are located in generally arid regions: the Hanford Reservation (HANF) in the state of Washington, the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. The other two disposal sites are located in the humid southeast: The Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee.

Neuder, S.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wilhite, E.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-04-01

420

Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

1981-03-01

421

An engineering and economic evaluation of wet and dry pre-fractionation processes for dry-grind ethanol facilities.  

PubMed

An engineering-economic model was developed to compare the profitability of the wet fractionation process, a generic dry fractionation process, and the conventional dry grind process. Under market conditions as of January 2011, only fractionation processes generated a positive cash flow. Reduced unit manufacturing costs and increased ethanol production capacity were two major contributions. Corn and ethanol price sensitivity analysis showed that the wet fractionation process always outperformed a generic dry fractionation process at any scenario considered in this research. A generic dry fractionation process would provide better economic performance than the conventional dry grind process if corn price was low and ethanol price was high. All three processes would perform more resiliently if the DDGS price was determined by its composition. PMID:21778050

Lin, Tao; Rodrguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Eckhoff, Steven R

2011-06-16

422

Solar production of industrial process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Company, Incorporated. Solar Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors with a total aperture area of 8960 sq ft. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 200 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 180 F to a rotoclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotoclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The system was operational 92.5% of the days during which the data acquisition system was functional. Sufficient solar heating was available to deliver hot water to the heat exchanger on 448 days, or 81.8% of the days on which reliable data was recorded. Total fuel saved during the three year period was 10,284 gallons. Thus, this program successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

1981-10-01

423

Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

1997-12-01

424

Reconfigured, close-coupled reconfigured, and Wyodak coal integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville facility: Chemical and toxicological evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results of the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of process materials sampled during the operation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, AL) in the reconfigured, integrated (RITSL run No. 247), the close-coupled, reconfigured, integrated (CCRITSL run No. 249), and the Wyodak coal integrated (ITSL run No. 246) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Chemical methods of analysis included proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, adsorption column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. Toxicological evaluation of the process materials included a histidine reversion assay for microbial mutagenicity, an initiation/promotion assay for tumorigenicity in mouse skin, and an aquatic toxicity assay using Daphnia magna. The results of these analyses and tests are compared to the previously reported results derived from the Illinois No. 6 coal ITSL and nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process materials from the Wilsonville facility. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

Wright, C.W.

1987-03-01

425

Consent processes in cluster-randomised trials in residential facilities for older adults: a systematic review of reporting practices and proposed guidelines  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the quality of reported consent processes of cluster-randomised trials conducted in residential facilities for older people and to explore whether the focus on improving the general conduct and reporting of cluster-randomised trials influenced the quality of conduct and reporting of ethical processes in these trials. Design Systematic review of cluster-randomised trials reports, published up to the end of 2010. Data sources National Library of Medicine (Medline) via PubMed, hand-searches of BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, BMC Health Services Research, Age and Ageing and Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, reference search in Web of Knowledge and consultation with experts. Eligibility for selecting studies Published cluster-randomised trials where the unit of randomisation is a part or the whole of a residential facility for older people, without language or year of publication restrictions. Results We included 73 trials. Authors reported ethical approval in 59, obtaining individual consent in 51, and using proxies for this consent in 37, but the process to assess residents capacity to consent was clearly reported in only eight. We rated only six trials high for the quality of consent processes. We considered that individual informed consent could have been waived legitimately in 14 of 22 trials not reporting obtaining consent. The proportions reporting ethical approval and quality of consent processes were higher in recent trials. Conclusions Recently published international recommendations regarding ethical conduct in cluster-randomised trials are much needed. In relation to consent processes when cognitively impaired individuals are included in these trials, we provide a six-point checklist and recommend the minimum information to be reported. Those who lack capacity in trials with complex designs should be afforded the same care in relation to consent as competent adults in trials with simpler designs.

DiazOrdaz, Karla; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Potter, Rachel; Eldridge, Sandra

2013-01-01

426

Linkage Between Post-Closure Safety Case Review and the Authorization Process for Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Environment Agency (the Agency) has responsibilities under the Radioactive Substances Act of 1993 for regulating the disposal and storage of radioactive wastes in England and Wales, including regulation of the disposal site for UK solid low-level waste (LLW) at Drigg in Cumbria, NW England. To help inform the next review of the Drigg disposal authorization, the Agency has required the operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc to submit a Post-Closure Safety Case which will assess the potential long-term impacts from the site. With the aim of using best practice to determine authorization conditions, the Agency contracted Galson Sciences, Ltd to undertake an international survey of authorization procedures for comparable facilities in other countries. This paper provides an overview of the findings from the international survey.

Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.; Bennett, D. G.

2003-02-27

427

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R&D facilities: Implementing the SNL/NM Process Waste Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Process Waste Assessment (PWA) program began formally on November 2, 1992. This program represents the first laboratory-wide attempt to explicitly identify and characterize SNL/NM`s waste generating processes for waste minimization purposes. This paper describes the major elements of the SNL/NM PWA program, the underlying philosophy for designing a PWA program at a highly diverse laboratory setting such as SNL/NM, and the experiences and insights gained from five months of implementing this living program. Specifically, the SNL/NM PWA program consists of four major, interrelated phases: (1) Process Definition, (2) Process Characterization, (3) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, and (4) Project Evaluation, Selection, Implementation, and Tracking. This phased approach was developed to Provide a flexible, yet appropriate, level of detail to the multitude of different ``processes`` at SNL/NM. Using a staff infrastructure of approximately 60 Waste Minimization Network Representatives (MinNet Reps) and consulting support, the SNL/NM PWA program has become the linchpin of even more progressive and proactive environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) initiatives such as: (1) cradle-to-grove material/waste tracking, (2) centralized ES&H reporting, and (3) detailed baselining and tracking for measuring multi-media waste reduction goals. Specific examples from the SNL/NM PWA program are provided, including the results from Process Definition, Process Characterization, and Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments performed for a typical SNL/NM process.

Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Stermer, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saloio, J.H. Jr.; Lorton, G.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1993-05-01

428

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R D facilities: Implementing the SNL/NM Process Waste Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Process Waste Assessment (PWA) program began formally on November 2, 1992. This program represents the first laboratory-wide attempt to explicitly identify and characterize SNL/NM's waste generating processes for waste minimization purposes. This paper describes the major elements of the SNL/NM PWA program, the underlying philosophy for designing a PWA program at a highly diverse laboratory setting such as SNL/NM, and the experiences and insights gained from five months of implementing this living program. Specifically, the SNL/NM PWA program consists of four major, interrelated phases: (1) Process Definition, (2) Process Characterization, (3) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, and (4) Project Evaluation, Selection, Implementation, and Tracking. This phased approach was developed to Provide a flexible, yet appropriate, level of detail to the multitude of different processes'' at SNL/NM. Using a staff infrastructure of approximately 60 Waste Minimization Network Representatives (MinNet Reps) and consulting support, the SNL/NM PWA program has become the linchpin of even more progressive and proactive environmental, safety, and health (ES H) initiatives such as: (1) cradle-to-grove material/waste tracking, (2) centralized ES H reporting, and (3) detailed baselining and tracking for measuring multi-media waste reduction goals. Specific examples from the SNL/NM PWA program are provided, including the results from Process Definition, Process Characterization, and Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments performed for a typical SNL/NM process.

Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Stermer, D.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saloio, J.H. Jr.; Lorton, G.A. (Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

429

Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

2011-02-01

430

Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2012-04-01

431

Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

2012-04-21

432

Rendezvous facilities  

SciTech Connect

The concurrent programming facilities in both Concurrent C and the Ada language are based on the rendezvous concept. Although these facilities are similar, there are substantial differences. Facilities in Concurrent C were designed keeping in perspective the concurrent programming facilities in the Ada language and their limitations. Concurrent C facilities have also been modified as a result of experience with its initial implementations. In this paper, the authors compare the concurrent programming facilities in Concurrent C and Ada, and show that it is easier to write a variety of concurrent programs in Concurrent C than in Ada.

Gehani, N.H.; Roome, W.D.

1988-11-01

433

County mortality and cancer incidence in relation to living near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania--an update.  

PubMed

A previous county mortality study of populations living near two nuclear materials processing and fabrication facilities in Westmoreland and Armstrong counties in Pennsylvania (1950-1995) was extended through 2004. Noncancer mortality (1996-2004) and cancer incidence (1990-2004) were also evaluated. Among the Westmoreland and Armstrong populations, 10,547 cancer deaths occurred during the period 1996 through 2004 and the relative risk (RR) based on comparisons with six demographically similar counties in western Pennsylvania was 0.97, that is, almost exactly as expected, and no different from our previously published analyses covering the years 1950-1995. The results based on cancer incidence data were very similar to those based on cancer mortality data. Over the years 1990 though 2004, 39,350 incident cancers were reported among residents of Armstrong and Westmoreland counties and the RR based on the six demographically similar counties was 0.99, that is, almost exactly as expected. The number of deaths from nonmalignant conditions was 36,565 and very close to the number expected (RR 1.01). Overall, no increases in cancer or nonmalignant diseases could be attributed to living in counties with nuclear materials processing and fabrication facilities. PMID:19131734

Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Tarone, Robert E; Blot, William J

2009-02-01

434

Final Rule on Registration of Food Facilities  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... (ii) Foreign facility. (3) Farm: (i) [Farm] Facilities that pack or hold food; (ii) [Farm] Facilities that manufacture/process food. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

435

Measuring the Impact of Meat Packing and Processing Facilities in the Nonmetropolitan Midwest: A Difference-In-Differences Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure how local growth in meatpacking and processing affects growth in local economies, government expenditures, and crime rates from 1990-2000 in nonmetropolitan counties of 12 Midwestern States. Propensity score matching is used as a check on possible non-random placement of meatpacking and processing plants. Results suggest that as the meat packing industryメs share of a countyメs total employment and

Georgeanne M. Artz; Peter Orazem; Daniel Otto

2005-01-01

436

AFGL Balloon Telemetry Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the recently modernized permanent and mobile facilities for recovering and processing PCM and FM telemetry data from balloon-borne scientific experiments and engineering tests at Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Detachment 1, Holloman...

A. A. Giannetti J. C. Erickson

1980-01-01

437

Homogeneous surface oxidation of organosilicates by controlled combustion of adsorbed fuels: a facile method for low-temperature processing.  

PubMed

We have developed a method for the oxidation of organosilicate materials at temperatures considerably lower than those typically required for uncatalyzed oxidation. The process utilizes a combustible fuel delivered to the surface in an oxidizing environment to locally oxidize materials with carbon-silicon bonds. It also provides a level of control that cannot be achieved through standard high-energy top-to-bottom oxidative procedures such as UV-ozone and O2 plasmas. While the latter processes attack the outer interface, local oxidation can be achieved using our process by manipulating the distribution of the combustible fuel. We use this technique to generate oxidized porous organosilicate films with either a sharp oxidation front or uniform oxidation where the relative carbon content can be controlled through the film thickness depending on processing conditions. Further, we show that this process can also be used to seal bulk interconnected microporosity in films (<1 nm) without substantially changing the refractive index of the material. For both the nominally dense and porous films, the surface oxidation is accompanied by an increase in the Young's modulus and the oxidized films can be readily functionalized using standard silane chemistry to provide a variety of chemical functionalities. PMID:24040934

Feller, Bob E; Deline, Vaughn R; Bass, John; Knoesen, Andr; Miller, Robert D

2013-09-16