Science.gov

Sample records for processing plant final

  1. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  2. EFFECT OF BACTERIAL LOAD ON CHICKENS ENTERING THE PROCESSING PLANT ON FINAL CARCASS CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulatory and poultry industry efforts to control Salmonella in the United States have focus primarily on the processing plant. Industry and research studies have strongly suggested that the level of Salmonella entering the processing plant will impact the ability of in-plant interventions to redu...

  3. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  4. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  5. On-line process monitoring and electric submetering at six municipal wastewater treatment plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    An investigation was made of New York state wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to determine if process audit and electrical submetering techniques are an effective method of identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. The study at six municipal WWTPs included a range of facility sizes, locations, and treatment technologies. A combination of online process monitoring, offline sampling, electrical submetering, and specific performance efficiency testing techniques were used to obtain real-time process and electrical consumption data. The results of the study indicate that the audit approach, which consists of a systematic and rigorous methodology for obtaining accurate performance information, is an appropriate tool for identifying ECOs at existing wastewater treatment facilities. Online process data, equipment performance characteristics, and electrical submetering information provide a good basis for identifying ECOs, quantifying the achievable savings, and predicting the impact of implementation on facility performance.

  6. Process energy inventory at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Lines 1, 2, and 3A. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.W.; Hadenfeldt, G.L.; McKay, R.E.; Krajkowski, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    A process energy audit was conducted at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. Lines 1, 2, and 3A were surveyed. Energy consumption baselines were established for eight production items: the Hawk, Stinger, Chaparral, Dragon, Copperhead and Improved TOW Warheads, the M549A1 RA Projectile, and the M718/M741 AT Projectile. A number of potential energy conservation projects were defined to reduce present energy use.

  7. Process energy inventory at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. Final report, November 1975-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.H.; Ogle, E.E.; Hedrick, R.E.; Krajkowski, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    Process operations at Radford Army Ammunition Plant were audited to measure energy consumption, identify areas of inefficiency, and identify changes which would reduce process energy requirements. The audited operations included nitrocellulose manufacture, propellant drying and solvent recovery. The study identified process changes available for immediate implementation which will result in annual energy savings of 1,435,000 MBTU under mobilization production rates. Further studies were proposed with an additional annual potential savings of 1,557,000 MBTU. This totals to an equivalent saving of approximately 460,000 barrels of oil or 107,000 tons of coal per year. Recommendations include automatic control of boiling tub steam, insulation of boiling tubs, heat recovery from wastewater, demand cycle control of the activated carbon solvent recovery operation, elimination of preheating of solvent laden air, and electric power generation using waste heat from hot condensate and exhaust gases via Organic Rankine Cycle Engines.

  8. Application of Entry-Time Processes in Asset Management for Nuclear Power Plants (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Nelson

    2008-01-23

    A mathematical model of entry-time processes was developed, and a computational method for solving that model was verified. This methodology was demonstrated via application to a succession of increasingly more complex subsystems of nuclear power plants. The effort culminated in the application to main generators that constituted the PhD dissertation of Shuwen (“Eric”) Wang. Dr. Wang is now employed by ABS Consulting, in Anaheim, CA. ABS is a principal provider to the nuclear industry of technical services related to reliability and safety.

  9. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  10. Pinch technology/process optimization. Volume 1, Case studies---multiple plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using ``pinch technology. `` Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site`s local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  11. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  12. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  13. Process energy inventory at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Load Line 3. Final report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.W.; Hadenfield, G.L.; Lowry, A.P.

    1981-09-01

    A comprehensive process energy audit was conducted at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Load Line 3. The energy consumption baseline was determined for four production items: cartridges M106, M650E5, M17A1, and M337A1E1. This report includes a brief description of the production process for each item, corresponding process flow charts, and estimates of potential savings. The potential savings for production of all four items total $22,244 or 6680 M Btu of energy per year, a reduction over current consumption of 28%.

  14. Feasibility study: utilization of power plant waste heat and other resources in a proposed oil sunflower seed processing plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The feasibility study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was preliminary survey of power plant resources and an assessment of the potential to burn oil sunflower seed hulls in the boilers of a full scale generating station. Phase II, the core of study, determined the specific quantities and qualities of the available generating station resources, and address the economics of providing these resources, to the proposed oil sunflower seed processing plant. If results of research in Phase I reveal the technical feasibility was not there, then the project was to be terminated.

  15. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  16. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  17. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  18. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  19. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  20. Small CHAT plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.

    1997-11-01

    The Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT) concept applied to small capacity simple cycle gas turbines fulfills the need for a small capacity, highly efficient, cost effective, flexible, and reliable plant with near term delivery. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the development of the small CHAT plant based including performance and cost estimates, potential suppliers, and operating advantages offered by the cycle itself. The small CHAT plant based upon the use of the Allison 501 KM7 engine on the low pressure power generation shaft produces 11.1 MW at ISO conditions with a net plant efficiency of 44.1%, LHV. This design requires only minor modification to the Allison KM engine. At maximum power, the plant can produce 12.8 MW at an efficiency of 43.1%. The estimated turn key capital cost of the plant at maximum power rating is approximately $750/kW. The next generation CHAT plant which requires additional modification to the Allison shaft is expected to produce 12.2 MW at 46.4% efficiency.

  1. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  2. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  3. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  4. Start-up of an anaerobic/oxic process for phosphorus removal at the Northwest Quadrant Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This study investigated the suitability and effectiveness of a proprietary anaerobic/oxic (A/0) process to facilitate the biological removal of phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The study took place at the Northwest Quadrant Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hilton, New York, and was conducted in conjunction with the New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (the Energy Authority) and the Monroe County Department of Pure Waters. The NWQWWTP concentration limit for total effluent phosphorus is 1.0 mg/l. Influent phosphorus concentrations usually vary from 4 to 5 mg/l at the plant.

  5. Coal-liquids distillation-tower corrosion. Chloride pathways in the Wilsonville, Alabama SRC-1 pilot plant when processing a high-chloride coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.H.; Saguees, A.; Thomas, G.A.; Baumert, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Wilsonville pilot plant experienced severe corrosion (> 1,000 mils/year) in the atmospheric fractionation column when processing a high-chloride (0.25 wt. %) coal. The operators found that the addition of sodium carbonate to the coal feed greatly reduced this corrosion but designers of a commercial plant could not use this corrosion control method. Hence, it was necessary to define the chloride pathway through the process. Samples collected during a brief operation without carbonate addition permitted a tentative conclusion about the chloride pathway. To provide a more definite pathway, the plant was operated for a three week period with a high chloride coal and samples were collected daily at more than 20 crucial sample points. Analysis of these samples clearly defined that the chloride pathway to the atmospheric fractionator was in the highest boiling distillate stream from the vacuum distillation column. A processing change near the mid-point of the three week run provided a marker to trace chloride through the process and provided further support for the pathway. Amines provide a transport mechanism for the chloride and provide, in addition, through thermal dissociation and recombination in fractionation columns, a mechanism for concentrating chlorides in a narrow region in the columns.

  6. Process screening study of alternative gas treating and sulfur removal systems for IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biasca, F.E.; Korens, N.; Schulman, B.L.; Simbeck, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    One of the inherent advantages of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) over other coal-based electric generation technologies is that the sulfur in the coal is converted into a form which can be removed and recovered. Extremely low sulfur oxide emissions can result. Gas treating and sulfur recovery processes for the control of sulfur emissions are an integral part of the overall IGCC plant design. There is a wide range of commercially proven technologies which are highly efficient for sulfur control. In addition, there are many developing technologies and new concepts for applying established technologies which offer potential improvements in both technical and economic performance. SFA Pacific, Inc. has completed a screening study to compare several alternative methods of removing sulfur from the gas streams generated by the Texaco coal gasification process for use in an IGCC plant. The study considered cleaning the gas made from high and low sulfur coals to produce a low sulfur fuel gas and a severely desulfurized synthesis gas (suitable for methanol synthesis), while maintaining a range of low levels of total sulfur emissions. The general approach was to compare the technical performance of the various processes in meeting the desulfurization specifications laid out in EPRI's design basis for the study. The processing scheme being tested at the Cool Water IGCC facility incorporates the Selexol acid gas removal process which is used in combination with a Claus sulfur plant and a SCOT tailgas treating unit. The study has identified several commercial systems, as well as some unusual applications, which can provide efficient removal of sulfur from the fuel gas and also produce extremely low sulfur emissions - so as to meet very stringent sulfur emissions standards. 29 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Economic evaluation of gasification-combined-cycle power plants based on the air-blown KILnGAS process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, W.W.; McFarland, R.E.; McNamee, G.P.; Ramanathan, V.; Siddoway, S.J.; Simon, A.; Smelser, S.C.

    1981-11-01

    This study is an engineering and economic evaluation of the KILnGAS process aimed at: development of overall plant process designs based on a design philosophy consistent with other studies under EPRI RP No. 239-2; preparation of necessary flowsheets, cost estimates and economic evaluations for two gasification combined-cycle (GCC) power plant cases based on the KILnGAS coal gasification process; and continued development of a consistent set of economic evaluations of GCC systems which employ both second-generation gasifiers and power block designs based on currently available combustion turbines having a 2000/sup 0/F firing temperature. Allis-Chalmers Corporation is developing the KILnGAS process to produce low Btu gas from coal by using a rotary, refractory-lined, ported kiln as the gasification reactor. Two base cases (KAAC-C and KAAC-Q) were evaluated. The two designs differ from each other in the manner in which the raw fuel gas is cleaned and cooled. Particulate removal in Case KAAC-C is achieved by a combination of cyclones and venturi scrubbers. In Case KAAC-Q, particulate removal is achieved in a water quench in a venturi scrubber. These designs yield nearly identical clean fuel gas production rates and compositions. Operating costs do not vary much from cyclone designs to water quench design. Five different gasifier configurations (varying the size and number of operating and spare gasifiers) were selected for each cooling design. A number of potential improvements were investigated for the KILnGAS process. Substantial commercial risks are associated with these potential design improvements.

  8. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  9. Laboratory assessment of advanced oxidation processes for treatment of explosives and chlorinated solvents in groundwater from the former Nebraska ordnance plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E.C.; Zappi, M.E.; Toro, E.; Hernandez, R.; Myers, K.

    1997-06-01

    Chemical oxidation processes that result in the generation of the hydroxyl radical (OH) have been referred to as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) by the American Water Works Association. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station under the direction of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Kansas City, and in conjunction with Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Overland Park, KS, evaluated the comparative performance of four AOPs for removing trichloroethylene, RDX, HMX, trinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene from a representative sample of groundwater from the Nebraska Ordnance Plant using bench-scale reactors. During 1990, this site was placed on the National Priorities List. Candidate AOPs that were evaluated were irradiation of hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet (UV) light emitted from low-pressure mercury vapor UV lamps (LPUV-HP), irradiation with UV light emitted from a low-pressure mercury vapor UV lamp with ozone sparging (LPUV-OZ), irradiation of hydrogen peroxide with Uv light emitted from a medium-pressure mercury vapor UV lamp (MPUV-HP), and peroxone (ozone sparging with hydrogen peroxide dosing). The groundwater influent sample used in this study was a three-way composite (equal parts) of groundwater collected from three site observation wells (Wells MW-11A, MW-40B, and MW-47B). The experiments were performed using a 1-l borosilicate reactor configured to sparge ozone into the test solution.

  10. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  11. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  12. No oculomotor plant, no final common path.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel

    2003-12-01

    The assumption that there is an oculomotor plant, a fixed relationship between motoneuron firing rate and eye position, is disproved by brainstem recording studies showing that this relationship depends on which supernuclear subsystem determines firing rate. But it remains possible that there is a final common path (FCP), a fixed relationship between firing rate and muscle force. But then, brainstem recording studies predict that lateral rectus (LR) forces (and probably medial rectus (MR) forces, as well) will be higher in converged than in unconverged gaze for a given eye position. We recently measured these forces and found that they are slightly lower in convergence, disproving the FCP hypothesis. Thus, even the relationship between motoneuron firing rate and muscle force is under supernuclear control. What peripheral oculomotor articulations could vary the relationship of firing rate to muscle force?: (1) Actively movable EOM pulleys could alter oculorotary muscle force for a given oculorotory innervation by altering muscle lengths. (2) 'Outer' motoneurons may function as gamma efferents in conjunction with palisade endings and non-twitch global EOM fibers. (3) Complex nonlinear interactions likely arise among both parallel and serially connected muscle fibers. PMID:14730457

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  14. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  15. FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

  16. Mixing processes following the final stratospheric warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made of the dynamics responsible for the mixing and dissolution of the polar vortex during the final stratospheric warmings. The dynamics and transport during a Northern Hemisphere final stratospheric warming are simulated via a GCM and an associated offline N2O transport model. The results are compared with those obtained from LIMS data for the final warming of 1979, with emphasis on the potential vorticity evolution in the two datasets, the modeled N2O evolution, and the observed O3 evolution. Following each warming, the remnants of the originally intact vortex are found to gradually homogenize with the atmosphere at large. Two processes leading to this homogenization are identified following the final warmings, namely, the potential vorticity field becomes decorrelated from that of the chemical tracer, and the vortex remnants begin to tilt dramatically in a vertical direction.

  17. Pinellas Plant feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Pinellas Plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. In September 1990, the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) entered into an agreement with DOE to independently examine environmental monitoring data from the plant and health data from Pinellas County to determine if an epidemiological study is technically feasible to measure possible off-site health effects from ionizing radiation. Through normal plant operations, some radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Eighty percent of the total plant releases of 107,707 curies occurred in the early years of plant operation (1957--1960). The primary materials released were tritium gas, tritium oxide and krypton-85. Environmental monitoring for radioactive releases from the plant has been done regularly since 1975. The US Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in assisting HRS, has determined that sufficient radiological data exist by which a dose reconstruction can be done. A dose reconstruction can provide an estimate of how much radiological exposure someone living in the vicinity of the Pinellas Plant may have suffered from environmental releases.

  18. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Deoxygenation in cycling fossil plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, W.L.; Hobart, R.L.; Hook, T.A.; McNea, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    In a previous EPRI study (Phase 1 of RP1184-9) at the Port Everglades plant of Florida Power and Light, it was demonstrated that minimizing shutdown oxygen levels at a cycling plant could reduce corrosion product transport to the boilers. A continuation of the program was performed to demonstrate the use of two forms of activated carbon to catalyze the hydrazine/oxygen reaction as a method to minimize the oxygen levels of cycling fossil plants. An activated carbon impregnated fiber overlay on a powdered resin precoat was tested at TU Electric`s Tradinghouse Creek Unit 1 and a carbon bed followed by a deep bed demineralizer was tested at Duquesne`s Elrama Unit 4. The improvement in attainable oxygen control was demonstrated and the effect on corrosion product transport during cyclic operation was evaluated. The study also demonstrated the application of a data acquisition system for prompt data assessment, control of chemical additions, identification of problems, and development of responsive corrective actions.

  20. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  1. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  2. Highway operation and plant damage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leiser, A.T.; Palaniyandi, R.; Paul, J.L.; Raabe, R.

    1980-04-01

    A five year study investigated the relationship between highway operation and plant damage in the Tahoe Basin and adjacent highways. These studies include field surveys, greenhouse studies, soil salt application trials, foliar salt application trials, an Armillaria root rot inoculation study, a seasonal fluctuation of salt study, the effect of temperature on salt uptake and a bark absorption of salt study. Highway deicing salt is a cause of damage on conifers, usually limited to 30 feet from the pavement edge. Drainage patterns and salt carried by aerosols may extend damage farther from the pavement. Of the four principal conifers in the study area, Jeffrey pine and lodgepole pine appeared the most tolerant of salt and incense cedar was the most susceptible.

  3. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  4. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  5. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  6. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  7. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  8. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-04-16

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant.

  9. Modeling Production Plant Forming Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, M; Becker, R; Couch, R; Li, M

    2004-09-22

    Engineering has simulation tools and experience in modeling forming processes. Y-12 personnel have expressed interest in validating our tools and experience against their manufacturing process activities such as rolling, casting, and forging etc. We have demonstrated numerical capabilities in a collaborative DOE/OIT project with ALCOA that is nearing successful completion. The goal was to use ALE3D to model Alcoa's slab rolling process in order to demonstrate a computational tool that would allow Alcoa to define a rolling schedule that would minimize the probability of ingot fracture, thus reducing waste and energy consumption. It is intended to lead to long-term collaboration with Y-12 and perhaps involvement with other components of the weapons production complex. Using simulations to aid in design of forming processes can: decrease time to production; reduce forming trials and associated expenses; and guide development of products with greater uniformity and less scrap.

  10. TREATMENT OF AMMONIA PLANT PROCESS CONDENSATE EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of contaminant content and selected treatment techniques for process condensate from seven different ammonia plants. Field tests were performed and data collected on an in-plant steam stripping column with vapor injection into the reform...

  11. Sources of plant materials for land rehabilitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.D.; Howard, G.L.; White, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Military land managers and trainers are charged with planning and implementing land rehabilitation and maintenance to minimize environmental degradation and improve the safety and realism of the training mission. One step in the rehabilitation and maintenance process is to purchase appropriate plant materials, particularly locally endemic or adapted species. This report contains a list of plant material vendors in each state. Managers and trainers can contact these vendors for solicitation of bids.

  12. NCP oilseed processing pilot plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are very few toll processors that can perform small-scale processing of oilseeds, oils and co-products in one location and none is situated in the Midwest. In the past, our pilot-scale trials were conducted in different facilities in the U.S. and Canada. To address this limitation, the NCP p...

  13. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  14. Enzymes in bast fibrous plant processing.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Ryszard; Batog, Jolanta; Konczewicz, Wanda; Mackiewicz-Talarczyk, Maria; Muzyczek, Malgorzata; Sedelnik, Natalia; Tanska, Bogumila

    2006-05-01

    The program COST Action 847 Textile Quality and Biotechnology (2000-2005) has given an excellent chance to review the possibilities of the research, aiming at development of the industrial application of enzymes for bast fibrous plant degumming and primary processing. The recent advancements in enzymatic processing of bast fibrous plants (flax, hemp, jute, ramie and alike plants) and related textiles are given. The performance of enzymes in degumming, modification of bast fibres, roving, yarn, related fabrics as well as enzymatic bonding of lignocellulosic composites is provided. PMID:16791732

  15. Dose assurance in radiation processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Chadwick, K. H.; Nam, J. W.

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing.

  16. Process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, M.; Howard, D.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Savannah River Plant is currently analyzing processes for the removal of tritium from the heavy water used as a moderator in SRP's nuclear reactors. An accompanying paper describes the background and need for this process. A computer-aided design program was used to simulate the distillation section of the detritiation process flowsheet. Simplified calculation techniques were performed to optimize the process parameters. Results obtained are being used to evaluate proposals from various vendors.

  17. Process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, M.; Howard, D.W.

    1985-09-01

    The Savannah River Plant is currently analyzing processes for the removal of tritium from the heavy water used as a moderator in SRP's nuclear reactors. An accompanying paper describes the background and need for this process. A computer-aided design program was used to simulate the distillation section of the detritiation process flowsheet. Simplified calculation techniques were performed to optimize the process parameters. Results obtained are being used to evaluate proposals from various vendors.

  18. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  19. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  20. Optimisation of the steel plant dust recycling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Darius-Alexandru; Hepuť, Teodor; Puťan, Vasile

    2016-06-01

    The widespread use of oxygen in the EAF steel-making process led to the increase of furnace productivity and reduction of specific energy consumption. Following the increase of the metal bath temperature, the brown smoke exhaust process is intensified, which requires mandatory gas treatment. The steel plant dust resulting from the treatment of waste gases is a manufacturing waste which must be recycled in the steel plant. Due to the fineness of the waste, when conducting the researches we processed it through pelletization. The processing of this waste aims not only its granulometric composition, but also the chemical composition (mainly the zinc content). After processing the data, we choose the optimal waste recycling technology based on the resistance of pellets and final content of zinc.

  1. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  2. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  3. Due Process Hearings: An Update. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Eileen M.

    This report presents data from all 50 states on due process hearings concerning the education of students with disabilities for the years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Data were gathered from a 1996 survey conducted by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education. This survey updates due process statistics from a 1994 survey that…

  4. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle.

  5. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  6. FY-2010 Process Monitoring Technology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Casella, Amanda J.; Hines, Wes; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; henkell, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peterson, James M.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2010, work under the Spectroscopy-Based Process Monitoring task included ordering and receiving four fluid flow meters and four flow visible-near infrared spectrometer cells to be instrumented within the centrifugal contactor system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Initial demonstrations of real-time spectroscopic measurements on cold-stream simulants were conducted using plutonium (Pu)/uranium (U) (PUREX) solvent extraction process conditions. The specific test case examined the extraction of neodymium nitrate (Nd(NO3)3) from an aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) feed into a tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/ n-dodecane solvent. Demonstration testing of this system included diverting a sample from the aqueous feed meanwhile monitoring the process in every phase using the on-line spectroscopic process monitoring system. The purpose of this demonstration was to test whether spectroscopic monitoring is capable of determining the mass balance of metal nitrate species involved in a cross-current solvent extraction scheme while also diverting a sample from the system. The diversion scenario involved diverting a portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. A successful test would demonstrate the ability of the process monitoring system to detect and quantify the diversion of material from the system during a real-time continuous solvent extraction experiment. The system was designed to mimic a PUREX-type extraction process with a bank of four centrifugal contactors. The aqueous feed contained Nd(NO3)3 in HNO3, and the organic phase was composed of TBP/n-dodecane. The amount of sample observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was measured to be 3 mmol (3 x 10-3 mol) Nd3+. This value was in excellent agreement with the 2.9 mmol Nd3+ value based on the known mass of sample taken (i.e., diverted) directly from the system feed solution.

  7. Calibration of radiation monitors at nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, L.; Miller, A.D.; Naughton, M.D.

    1994-03-01

    This work was performed to provide guidance to the utilities in the primary and secondary calibration of the radiation monitoring systems (RMS) installed in nuclear power plants. These systems are installed in nuclear power plants to monitor ongoing processes, identify changing radiation fields, predict and limit personnel radiation exposures and measure and control discharge of radioactive materials to the environment. RMS are checked and calibrated on a continuing basis to ensure their precision and accuracy. This report discusses various approaches towards primary and secondary calibrations of the RMS equipment in light of accepted practices at typical power plants and recent interpretations of regulatory guidance. Detailed calibration techniques and overall system responses, trends, and practices are discussed. Industry, utility, and regulatory sources were contacted to create an overall consensus of the most reasonable approaches to optimizing the performance of this equipment.

  8. 10 CFR 710.29 - Final appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final appeal process. 710.29 Section 710.29 Energy... Classified Matter or Special Nuclear Material Administrative Review § 710.29 Final appeal process. (a) The Appeal Panel shall be convened by the Deputy Chief for Operations, Office of Health, Safety and...

  9. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  10. Development of superplastic steel processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.

    1995-04-01

    Objective was to provide basis for producing, processing, and forming UHCS (ultrahigh carbon steel) on a commercial scale. Business plans were developed for potential commercialization. Effort was directed at improving the combination of flow stress and forming rates in UHCS alloys in order to make near net shape superplastic forming competitive; the result was the development of a series of UHCS alloys and processing, the selection of which depends on the specific requirements of the commercial application. Useful ancillary properties of these materials include: improved mechanical properties, wear resistance, and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.

  11. Urethane foam process improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    A study was completed to evaluate the foam molding process for environmental and technical improvements. The investigation led to a replacement for chlorinated solvent usage, a potential permanent mold release coating, improved tooling design, and shrinkage characterization of foams filled with varying levels of aluminum oxide.

  12. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  13. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  14. RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

  15. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  18. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  19. Air separation by the Moltox process. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1981-04-01

    Results are described of a development program on a new and energy-saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

  20. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    plant parameters and the pump electrical signatures. Additionally, the reactor simulation is being used to generate normal operation data and data with instrumentation faults and process anomalies. A frequency controller was interfaced with the motor power supply in order to vary the electrical supply frequency. The experimental flow control loop was used to generate operational data under varying motor performance characteristics. Coolant leakage events were simulated by varying the bypass loop flow rate. The accuracy of motor power calculation was improved by incorporating the power factor, computed from motor current and voltage in each phase of the induction motor.- A variety of experimental runs were made for steady-state and transient pump operating conditions. Process, vibration, and electrical signatures were measured using a submersible pump with variable supply frequency. High correlation was seen between motor current and pump discharge pressure signal; similar high correlation was exhibited between pump motor power and flow rate. Wide-band analysis indicated high coherence (in the frequency domain) between motor current and vibration signals. - Wide-band operational data from a PWR were acquired from AMS Corporation and used to develop time-series models, and to estimate signal spectrum and sensor time constant. All the data were from different pressure transmitters in the system, including primary and secondary loops. These signals were pre-processed using the wavelet transform for filtering both low-frequency and high-frequency bands. This technique of signal pre-processing provides minimum distortion of the data, and results in a more optimal estimation of time constants of plant sensors using time-series modeling techniques.

  1. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  2. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  3. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  4. Utica Corporation Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Report Final Summary (Entrance to Utica Corporation's Whitesboro Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Utica Corporation conducted a plant-wide energy assessment of the manufacturing processes and utilities at its facility in Whiteboro, NY. As a result of the assessment, the company is now implementing six energy conservation projects that will result in significant cost savings and efficiency improvements.

  5. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  6. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a process for recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide. The process consists the steps of: introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water and which is divided into a recycle portion and a tailgas portion; converting substantially all sulfur species in the recycle portion of the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide to thereby form condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; removing water from the recycle portion of the condenser; and moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried recycle condenser, as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace.

  7. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, the process comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising (1) the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and (2) an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; (b) combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (c) introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; (d) subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (e) introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water; (f) converting substantially all sulfur species in the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide, to thereby form a condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; (g) removing water from the condenser effluent from step (f); and (h) moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried condenser effluent from step (g), as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace in step (a) above.

  8. Users guide: simulation model for ammunition plants; prediction of wastewater characteristics and impact of reuse/recycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S.; Messenger, M.; Webster, R.D.; Bandy, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the algorithm and details the operating instructions required for an ammunition plant process model developed for DARCOM environmental personnel. The model was created to define the impact of increased ammunition production on the quantity and quality of the effluents discharged from the plants. It also allows assessment of the impact of recycle/reuse of wastewaters on final effluent quality. This model may be accessed through the Environmental Technical Information System.

  9. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  10. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the design and and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe PFBC power plants for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) The steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  11. Digital-Computer Processing of Graphical Data. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Herbert

    The final report of a two-year study concerned with the digital-computer processing of graphical data. Five separate investigations carried out under this study are described briefly, and a detailed bibliography, complete with abstracts, is included in which are listed the technical papers and reports published during the period of this program.…

  12. Retrofit FGD cost-estimating guidelines. Final report. [6 processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shattuck, D.M.; Ireland, P.A.; Keeth, R.J.; Mora, R.R.; Scheck, R.W.; Archambeault, J.A.; Rathbun, G.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents a method to estimate specific plant FGD retrofit costs. The basis of the estimate is a new plant's FGD system cost, as provided in EPRI's Economic Evaluation of FGD Systems CS-3342, or any other generalized cost estimate. The methodology adjusts the capital cost for the sulfur content of the coal, sulfur removal required, unit size, geographic location variables, and retrofit considerations. The methodology also allows the user to calculate first year operating and maintenance (O and M) costs based on site-specific variables. Finally, the report provides a means to adjust for remaining unit life in determining the levelized busbar cost. Levelized cost is presented in mills/kWh and $/t SO/sub 2/ removed.

  13. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  14. Process control graphics for petrochemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lieber, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    Describes many specialized features of a computer control system, schematic/graphics in particular, which are vital to effectively run today's complex refineries and chemical plants. Illustrates such control systems as a full-graphic control house panel of the 60s, a European refinery control house of the early 70s, and the Ingolstadt refinery control house. Presents diagram showing a shape library. Implementation of state-of-the-art control theory, distributed control, dual hi-way digital instrument systems, and many other person-machine interface developments have been prime factors in process control. Further developments in person-machine interfaces are in progress including voice input/output, touch screen, and other entry devices. Color usage, angle of projection, control house lighting, and pattern recognition are all being studied by vendors, users, and academics. These studies involve psychologists concerned with ''quality of life'' factors, employee relations personnel concerned with labor contracts or restrictions, as well as operations personnel concerned with just getting the plant to run better.

  15. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  16. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  17. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

  18. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  19. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-04-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  20. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  1. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, A.A.; Hilton, M.F.; Li, T.C.; Tsao, T.R.

    1980-02-14

    The objective of this program was to recommend the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal methane separation systems for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell Hydrogasification process currently undergoing development supported by DOE. The program was comprised of the following tasks. Screening to define the most promising integration scheme for each gasification process; development of a process flowsheet, heat and material balance, P and ID, equipment specification, utility summary, and plot plan for the process combination selected; and preparation of detailed economic and final report. The results of the study are documented in this report. The evaluations were performed using data supplied by the prime coal gasification contractors and the vendors of proprietary acid gas removal processes. This information, combined with Air Products' in-house capabilities in acid gas and cryogenic separation processses, was used to develop process designs and cost estimates for each integrated system. The design based and economic criteria employed in the study are described.

  2. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  3. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  5. Plant parameters for plant functional groups of western rangelands to enable process-based simulation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional environmental assessments with process-based models require realistic estimates of plant parameters for the primary plant functional groups in the region. “Functional group” in this context is an operational term, based on similarities in plant type and in plant parameter values. Likewise...

  6. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  7. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  8. Population Processes and Plant Virus Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of studies detailing levels of sequence diversity within plant virus populations are growing at a rapid pace. At the same time, recent work has provided empirical estimates of parameters important in the life cycle of plant viruses, which in turn can help in understanding observed pattern...

  9. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  10. Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.

    1985-03-01

    Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

  11. Defined media for plant tissue culture: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Good, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    This grant was for the purpose of developing improved plant tissue culture media. The rationale was to introduce the use of low pKa hydrogen ion buffers to stabilize pH and to introduce the use of slow release forms of the plant hormones, auxin and cytokinin, to provide the tissues with a constant supply of these essential factors. The zwittionic buffer, MES, proved useful for pH stabilization, while a wide range of indoleacetylamino acids provided a wide range of levels of available amino acids with consequent different levels of development of shoots, roots or callus. In general, some free indoleacetic acid in addition to the conjugate seemed necessary for organogenesis, but this phenomenon depended very much on the level of cytokinin. Time did not permit us to make any significant progress in the development of slow-release forms of cytokinins. 2 figs.

  12. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  13. Improved conventional testing of power plant cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anadakumaran, K.; Braun, J.M.; DiPaul, J.A. |

    1995-09-01

    The objective of the project is to develop improved condition monitoring techniques to assess the condition of power plant cables, particularly the unshielded cables found in older thermal plants. The cables of interest were insulated with PVC, butyl rubber, SBR (styrene butadiene rubber), EPR (ethylene propylene rubber), PE and XLPE (crosslinked polyethylene) as either single conductor, twisted pair, shielded and unshielded. The cables were thermally aged to embrittlement and characterized by physical, chemical and electrical tests. Physical characterization included, in addition to reference tensile elongation, tests performed on microscopic samples for quasi-nondestructive examination. Different tests proved particularly suited to different types of insulation. The dielectric characterization underlined the value of performing tests at other than power frequency and/or dc. Electric field calculations were carried out to develop a field testing strategy for unshielded cables and notably to investigate the feasibility of providing a suitable ground plane by testing conductor to grounded conductors(s). Two major electrical diagnostic test techniques were investigated in detail, low frequency insulation analysis to probe the bulk condition of insulations and partial discharge (PD) testing to detect cracks and defects. PD testing is well established but more challenging to perform with unshielded cables. Because of the attenuation properties of typical plant cables, a dual ended detector configuration is necessary. Two novel techniques were developed to provide dual ended detection without need for a second cable as the return path from the far end detector.

  14. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  16. Laboratory testing of RESOX/sup TM/ Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, P.; Gutterman, C.

    1980-11-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation addressed the task of further broadening the application of the RESOX process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The major effort, to date, had been concentrated on treating the off-gas from one specific front-end SO'' concentrator process - the Bergbau-Forschung dry adsorption system. By selecting two other concentrator processes, which furnish differing inlet compositions, and coupling these to coals with differing characteristics, the scope and flexibility of the RESOX process was evaluated. The front-end concentrator processes which were chosen are the Wellman-Lord (WL) and Chemico-Basic (CB); both are regenerative and employ wet scrubbing. WL is based on the chemistry of the sodium sulfite/bisulfite system, which can absorb and free SO/sub 2/. CB accomplishes the same function with the magnesium oxide/sulfite system. WL can concentrate the SO/sub 2/ to 85 to vol % while CB currently utilizes a direct fired calciner, which limits the SO/sub 2/ concentration to approximately 13%. Each front-end process was studied and adapted to the RESOX process. Each was then coupled to three different coals, selected as reductants through a preliminary screening procedure, for a series of tests at FWDC's 1200 aft/sup 3//h pilot plant. The coals chosen had ASTM rankings of Anthracite, High-Volatile C Bituminous, and Subbituminous A. The maximum sulfur yield realized within a series varied from 68.1 to 85.2%. The program demonstrated the ability of the RESOX process to handle a broader range of reducing agents and front-end gas compositions than heretofore tested. For each front-end process, a sulfur yield of approximately 80 wt % of the quantity available from its gas composition was realized with at least one of the reductants tested.

  17. [Develop Hydrodyne process for tenderizing meat]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-06-17

    The equipment to tenderize meat by immersing the meat in water in which a small amount of high explosive is detonated has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The plant in which it will be installed will be completed in July, and the installed equipment will be available for further testing in August. Tender Wave Inc. is constructing the plant. The equipment will be loaned to Tender Wave who will be responsible for its installation and operation. Hydrodyne will have use of the plant for the purpose of doing a complete evaluation of the operating equipment, and for further experiments to determine the effects of the Hydrodyne Process on various meats, and to determine the times and materials required to produce an acceptable product with Hydrodyne Process. The design of the equipment was changed from our first concept because of the failure of hydraulic shock resulting from the explosion. The new changed design meets the design criteria, and is superior to the previous design in that it completely contains the water plume resulting from the explosion. The explosive test of the assembled equipment was a complete success. It appears that less explosive will be required for the desired result than previously estimated. The cost of the new design was considerably more than estimated for the original design. Work has commenced on the building in which the equipment is to be installed near Roanoke, Virginia. The end of July is the projected completion date. The equipment will be shipped the end of June from Alameda, CA to Roanoke VA.

  18. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  20. Tips and traps for reapplying used process plants

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, M.W.

    1999-07-01

    Many gas processing projects are based on reapplying used gas processing plants and equipment. There has been little information or advice in the literature which provides practical advice for this type of project. GPA's Technical Section A Committee has been developing a monograph on experiences in reapplying used plants and equipment. This paper includes excerpts from that monograph and presents advice illustrated by recent experiences with used plants.

  1. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  2. 3. VIEW OF THE PROCESSING PLANT TO THE WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF THE PROCESSING PLANT TO THE WEST. THE PROCESSING PLANT IS LEFT CENTER. THE BLACKSMITH/MINE CAR REPAIR SHOP AND PARTS/SUPPLIES BUILDINGS ARE RIGHT CENTER. - Smith Mine, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  3. Management of plant health risks associated with processing of plant-based wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Elphinstone, J G; Sansford, C E; Budge, G E; Henry, C M

    2009-07-01

    The rise in international trade of plants and plant products has increased the risk of introduction and spread of plant pathogens and pests. In addition, new risks are arising from the implementation of more environmentally friendly methods of biodegradable waste disposal, such as composting and anaerobic digestion. As these disposal methods do not involve sterilisation, there is good evidence that certain plant pathogens and pests can survive these processes. The temperature/time profile of the disposal process is the most significant and easily defined factor in controlling plant pathogens and pests. In this review, the current evidence for temperature/time effects on plant pathogens and pests is summarised. The advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect process validation for the verification of composting processes, to determine their efficacy in destroying plant pathogens and pests in biowaste, are discussed. The availability of detection technology and its appropriateness for assessing the survival of quarantine organisms is also reviewed. PMID:19329302

  4. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  5. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  6. Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzcharles, III, H M

    1983-01-01

    The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

  7. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Keneshea, F.J.; Hobart, S.A.; Kelly, M.T.; Pohl, C.S.; Riley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin.

  8. Leach testing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant final waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of pellets and highly durable glasses prepared from nonradioactive-simulated high-level wasste calcines have been leach tested. The leach tests are patterned on the IAEA standard test and the proposed Materials Characterization Center tests. Most tests are made with static distilled water at 25, 70, 95, 250, and 350/sup 0/C and in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at 95/sup 0/C. Leach rates are determined by analyzing the leachate by instrumental activation analysis or spectrochemical analysis and from weight loss. Leaches are run on glass using cast and core drilled cylinders, broken pieces and coarse ground material. Sample form has a considerable effect on leach rates; solid pieces gave higher leach rates than ground glass when expressed in g/cm/sup 2//day. Cesium, molybdenum and weight loss leach rates of cast glass cylinders in distilled water varied from <10/sup -7/ g/cm/sup 7//day at 25/sup 0/C to approx. 10/sup -3/ g/cm/sup 2//day at 250/sup 0/C. The leach rates in static distilled water at 95/sup 0/C were considerably lower than those in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at the same temperature. Even at 25/sup 0/C, sodium, cesium, and molybdenum readily leached from the porous pellets, but the pellets showed no visible attack, even at 250/sup 0/C.

  9. Environmental assessment of advanced thin film manufacturing process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.W.; Mopas, E.; Skinner, D.; McGuire, L.; Strehlow, M.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes work performed by BP Solar, Inc., to provide an extensive preproduction analysis of waste-stream abatement at its plant in Fairfield, California. During the study, numerous technologies were thoroughly evaluated, which allowed BP Solar to select systems that outperformed the stringent federal and state regulations. The main issues were originally perceived to be controlling cadmium compound releases to both air and wastewater to acceptable levels and adopting technologies for air and water waste streams in an efficient, cost-effective manner. BP Solar proposed high-efficiency, reliable control equipment that would reduce air-contaminant emission levels below levels of concern. Cadmium telluride dust is successfully controlled with high-efficiency (>99.9%) bag-in/bag-out filters. For air abatement, carbon canisters provide efficient VOC reduction, and wastewater pretreatment is required per federal pretreatment standards. BP Solar installed a cadmium-scavenging ion exchange system and electrowinning system capable of removing cadmium to <10 ppb (local publicly-owned-treatment-works limits for cadmium is 30 ppb). BP Solar plans to maximize potential reuse of rinse waters by phasing in additional wastewater treatment technologies. Finally, the work to date has identified the areas that need to be revisited as production scales up to ensure that all health, safety, and environmental goals are met.

  10. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Selection of plants for sampling program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    This report is one of a series of reports in the EPRI Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) program. This study was performed to provide the selection basis for plants to be included in the BRC sampling program. This final report describes the evaluations performed using 10CFR61 data and current fuel performance data to identify those plants with larger quantities of tramp or exposed fuel and correspondingly higher transuranic levels in the plant waste streams. Plants were ranked from the highest level to the lowest level of exposed or tramp fuel in the core. 10 tabs.

  11. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  12. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  13. On-farm US irrigation pumping plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Over 473,000 on-farm pumping plants are being used to pump and deliver irrigation water in the United States. The distribution of these units by geographic regions and potential wind power zones was determined. Over 60 percent of the pumping units in the US are smaller than 37.3 kW (50 horsepower) in size and only 9.4 percent of the units are larger than 74.6 kW in size (100 horsepower). Over 49 percent of these pumps (231,440) are located in the six Great Plains States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. This area also has the largest potential wind power in the US during the primary irrigation season. Over 51 percent of the pumping units are located in wind zones having a potential average wind power greater than 250 W/m/sup 2/ at an elevation of 50 meters. However, only 6.5 percent of the units are located in the largest potential average wind power zone (> 400 W/m/sup 2/ at 50 meters). In general, those areas which have greater potential wind power, have larger sized pumping units.

  14. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  15. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161

  16. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  17. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  18. River Self-Restoration: Interactions between Plants and Fluvial Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnell, Angela

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents evidence from European rivers of the nature and consequences of plant-fluvial process interactions. While the examples are representative of different climates, riparian and aquatic plant species, and river geomorphological types, they are linked by a general conceptual model of plant-fluvial process interactions that can be adapted to local conditions. Riparian and aquatic plants both affect and respond to fluvial processes. Their above ground biomass modifies the flow field and retains sediment, whereas their below-ground biomass affects the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the substrate and consequently the moisture regime and erodibility of the land surface. At the same time plants are disturbed, removed and buried by fluvial processes. Thus the margins of river systems provide a critical zone where plants and fluvial processes interact to produce a diverse mosaic of dynamic landforms that are characteristic of naturally-functioning river ecosystems. It is important to understand these interactions between aquatic and riparian plants and fluvial processes, and to recognize how they contribute to trajectories of natural river channel recovery from human interventions. The interactions have a significant influence on river systems across space scales from individual plants to entire river corridors. Plant-scale phenomena structure patch-scale geomorphological forms and processes. Interactions between patches contribute to larger-scale and longer-term river geomorphological phenomena. Furthermore, the influence of plants varies through time as above and below ground biomass alter within the annual growth cycle, over longer-term growth trajectories, and in response to drivers of change such as climatic and hydrological fluctuations and extremes. If river management and restoration works with these natural interactions and recovery processes, outcomes have the best chance of being cost-effective and sustainable.

  19. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  20. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

  1. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP. PMID:25465650

  2. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but also the entire metabolome. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are constrained by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from three closely related Pinus species with distant coevolutionary histories with the caterpillar of the processionary moth respond similarly to its attack. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of terpenes were in the attacked trees supporting the hypothesis that herbivores avoid plant individuals with higher concentrations. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution. PMID:27386082

  3. Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-31

    ;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

  4. A method of processing biodegradable organic materials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-06

    Leprino Food's cheese plant (Waverly, NY) produces wastes, and a pilot plant was constructed for producing fuel gas from this. The pilot plant studies were terminated on December 23, 1987, after 14 months of operation. Numerous problems were identified. Solutions to most of the problems have been found. The effects of carbon dioxide were studied.

  5. South plants, site 1-10, task 2, draft final source report. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-01

    This draft final report documents the Phase I contamination survey of site 1-10, a storage tank farm constructed in 1942. 30 samples from 13 borings were analyzed for volatile and semivolatile organics and metals with separate analyses for Hg, As, and DBCP. C6H6, DCPD, Dieldrin, Ch2Cl2, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were detected in the samples. A Phase II program consisting of 15 additional sampling points is recommended. A soil gas program is also proposed for the site. The volume of potentially contaminated soil present is estimated at 88,142 cubic feet. Appendices contain Phase I analytical parameters and a summary of chemical data.

  6. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  7. Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

  8. Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidziński, S.

    2012-07-01

    The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

  9. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F

    2006-11-17

    Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stresses, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed into a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to asses the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

  10. Improvements to the wash oil final cooler process at Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect

    Zendzian, T.N.

    1996-12-31

    Bethlehem Steel`s Burns Harbor coke plant consists of two 82 oven batteries with associated coal handling, coal chemical, and coke handling facilities. Each battery is currently operating at a coking time of 18 hours with a maximum of 109 ovens pushed per battery per day. Each day approximately 7200 tons of coal are charged into the batteries which produces 83 million cubic feet of gas. The coal chemical plant consists of primary coolers, exhausters, electrostatic tar precipitators, ammonia absorbers, and wash oil final coolers. No light oil removal from the coke oven gas is done at Burns Harbor. Several improvements have been made to the wash oil final cooler process to comply with the benzene NESHAP regulations, eliminate the disposal of hazardous wastes, and to reduce oil consumption. Process changes include a continuous versus batchwise removal of contaminants, an additional decanter, and the use of a demulsifier. These changes resulted in compliance with all NESHAP regulations, reduced operating expenses due to less oil consumption, and the recycling rather than disposal of waste oil. Oil consumption has been reduced by over 65% in the past five years.

  11. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. SAFETY EVALUATION OF RENOVATED WASTEWATER FROM A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-phase evaluation of reclaimed process wastewater for reuse was undertaken at the Sterling Processing Corporation plant in Oakland, Maryland. The main objective was to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry exposed during processing to an average 50 percent m...

  14. U.S. gas conditioning and processing plant survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Tannehill, C.; Echterhoff, L.; Trimble, K.

    1995-11-01

    A database of information on 1,427 natural gas conditioning and processing plants in the lower 48 states has been compiled with the assistance of over 50 operating companies and several engineering and construction firms. The database was updated in 1994 with NGL recovery plants now numbering 724. Acid gas (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) is removed by 617 plants. Sulfur is recovered at over 100 plants. Nitrogen is rejected at 12 plants, and helium is recovered at eight plants. The plants are categorized into 12 regions with the number of plants and combined inlet capacity for each region categorized as follows: Built before 1970; Built in each year between 1970 and 1994; Removing H{sub 2}S and/or CO{sub 2}; Using direct conversion H{sub 2}S removal processes (iron sponge, ARI LO-CAT{reg_sign}, SulFerox); Using chemical solvents for acid gas removal (MEA, DEA, MDEA, DGA, Benfield, Other); Using physical solvents for acid gas removal (Sulfinol, Selexol, other); Recovering sulfur (Claus, Selectox, other); Tail gas clean-up (SCOT, CBA, MCRC, other); NGL recovery (refrigeration, cryogenic expander, refrigerated lean oil, adsorption, other); Nitrogen rejection; Helium recovery; and Shutdown plants.

  15. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  16. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  17. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This final report describes the coal-fired plant design capable of producing electric power in an environmentally clean manner. The report presents the predicted performance using high sulfur bituminous coal and summarizes the construction activities and changes through completion on November 30, 1983. The construction activities involved: (1) the site excavation and pouring foundations for the PFB process equipment structural tower, control building, dolomite silo, boost compressor, and various equipment footings; (2) the fabrication and erection of the support steel work for the process equipment tower, control building, rail car thaw shed, and particulate scrubber and exhaust stack; (3) the fabrication and erection of the process equipment including the PFB combustor vessel, windbox, in-bed heat exchanger and process piping, the ash recycle system, the gas clean-up system, the ash removal, cooling and storage system, the coal handling, preparation and injection systems, the dolomite receiving, handling, storage and injection systems, the boost air compressor, dryer and receiver systems, the purge instrument and service air systems, the control, instrument and electrical systems, the tower elevator, the cardox, Halon and water fire protection system, etc. In addition, modifications and refurbishment were completed on the existing equipment at the site which was incorporated into the Pilot Plant system. Finally, plans were prepared describing the operating procedures, maintenance requirements, spare parts list, training program and manpower requirements for the proposed Phase IV test evaluation program. 37 figures, 11 tables.

  18. The First Step in the Final Shutdown of UP1 Plant: Rinsing with Chemical Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, J.-P.; Hubert, N.; Huot, M.; Chany, P.; Oriol, C.; Vignau, B.

    2002-02-25

    The COGEMA UP1 reprocessing plant commissioned at Marcoule, France in 1958 handled roughly 20,000 metric tons of fuel from gas-cooled and research reactors. The commercial reprocessing activities of the UP1 plant ended in December 1997. CODEM , a joint venture created by the former users of the UP1 plant, including the utility Electricite de France (EDF), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and COGEMA, was established to fund and supervise decommissioning of the plant. COGEMA was selected as the industrial operator of the decommissioning project, which is scheduled to span a period of about 40 years. COGEMA, with its CODEM partners, had made the decision to proceed to a ''Final Shutdown'' of the plant within a few years after the end of commercial operation. Final shutdown is intended to remove remaining fissile matter and highly radioactive materials, as well as some equipment, from the plant to ease the plant monitoring requirements compared with those applied when the plant was in operation. A two-step approach has been devised, including first the rinsing of the equipment with selected reagents in order to decrease the radiation exposure rate and contamination risk enough to allow further mechanical decontamination operations, such as high-pressure water scrubbing and equipment cutting. The reagents to be used and the methods employed to optimize their use in terms of quantities and sequence of use were selected by leveraging available experience, and by setting up a large-scale R&D program to test reagents both for general decontamination and for hot spots. This program also included treatment of the decontamination waste to demonstrate that this waste could be made compatible with solidification facilities of the UP1 plant, i. e., vitrification in the AVM facility and bituminization. The R&D results are described, as well as the initial results of plant decontamination.

  19. PREPARATION OF U-PLANT FOR FINAL DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL - 12109E

    SciTech Connect

    FARABEE OA; HERZOG B; CAMERON C

    2012-02-16

    The U-Plant is one of the five major nuclear materials processing facilities at Hanford and was chosen as a pilot project to develop the modalities for closure of the other four facilities at Hanford and the rest of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The remedy for this facility was determined by a Record of Decision (ROD) pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). That remedy was to 'Close in Place - Partially Demolished Structure'. The U-Plant facility is identified as the 221-U Building and is a large, concrete structure nominally 247m (810 ft) long, 20 M (66 ft) wide and 24 m (77 ft) high with approximately 9 m (30 ft) being below grade level. It is a robust facility with walls ranging from 0.9 m to 2.7 m (3 ft to 9 ft) thick. One large room extends the entire length of the building that provides access to 40 sub-grade processing cells containing tanks, piping and other components. The work breakdown was divided into three major deliverables: (1) Tank D-10 Removal: removal of Tank D-10, which contained TRU waste; (2) Equipment Disposition: placement of contaminated equipment in the sub-grade cells; and (3) Canyon Grouting: grouting canyon void spaces to the maximum extent practical. A large number of pieces of contaminated equipment (pumps, piping, centrifuges, tanks, etc) from other facilities that had been stored on the canyon operating floor were placed inside of the sub-grade cells as final disposition, grouted and the cell shield plug reinstalled. This action precluded a large volume of waste being transported to another burial site. Finally, {approx}19,000 m3 ({approx}25,000 yd3) of grout was placed inside of the cells (in and around the contaminated equipment), in the major galleries. the ventilation tunnel, the external ventilation duct, and the hot pipe trench to minimize the potential for void spaces and to reduce the mobility, solubility, and/or toxicity of the grouted waste. The

  20. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  1. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  2. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  3. Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Phase I. Process evaluation report, conceptual commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    This Process Evaluation Report (PER) contains the results and recommendations of comprehensive analyses and studies which were made to optimize the ICGG Commercial Plant Baseline Process Concept for producing synthetic pipeline gas (SPG) from coal. Design studies to optimize the thermal efficiency and economic attractiveness of the COGAS Process Areas of the plant were conducted along with design studies and trade-off studies of available process subsystems to complement the COGAS Process Areas. The results, recommendations and description of the work accomplished in developing the PER are contained in six separately bound sections. Section 4 describes those trade-off studies which were made to select processes which would best complement the COGAS Process Areas and provide the most efficient and economical Commercial Plant Concept.

  4. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  5. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  6. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  7. The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

    2005-01-01

    BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

  8. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  9. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, M. J.; Sousa, M. B.; Sapata, M. M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M. L.; Veloso, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L .), mint ( Mentha spicata L.), parsley ( Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress ( Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (⩾2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  10. Effect of Thermal and Nonthermal Processing on Textural Quality of Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kumar; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Shanmugam, Nadanasabapathi

    2016-12-01

    In the current fast revolving world, the consumption of processed food is increasing drastically. The population who depend on these processed foods are also cautious about the quality and safety of what they consume. This being the case, in order to satisfy the consumer it is the responsibility of the researcher and the manufacturer to check what happens to food on processing. Plant-derived foods such as fruits and vegetables are sensitive producers which are to be handled cautiously through each steps involved in processing, starting from harvest to storage, processing to package, transportation to distribution, till it reaches the consumer. During processing, the plant materials, which are made up of complex structural components such as lignin, cellulose, pectin, etc. undergo changes which has its effect on the quality attributes of the final product. Texture is an important quality parameter of all the sensory properties. The relation between the structure of the plant tissue and the texture of the final product is reviewed in this paper comprehensively. PMID:26046712

  11. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  12. Workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, B.L.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on the workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function relating to DOE grant DE-FG06-93ER20128 which took place at Oregon State University in February 1994. The resulting book is organized into four sections and a synthesis: roles of stem architecture in plant performance, roles of stems in transport and storage of water, roles of live stem cells in plant performance, and the roles of stems in preventing or reacting to response to plant injury. The synthesis stemmed from debated and discussion by the authors and a few dozen other workshop participants. The authors cover many stem functions, although the list is not exhaustive, and the focus is on terrestrial woody tree stems, primarily of temperate and boreal zones. More research on trunks, branches and twigs is important for a baseline understanding of plant biology. In the face of anticipated human-caused changes to most environments, we need not only have a baseline understanding of whole-plant biology, but also predictive capabilities for how plants will react to perturbations.

  13. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  14. Flexibility can boost profits in cryogenic gas-processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.E.

    1980-07-14

    Many factors influence the selection and design of a cryogenic gas processing plant, including the expected product values. For a minimal increase in investment, operating flexibility can be designed into the plant to allow for a wide range of product recovery levels. This minimal increase in capital expenditure may significantly enhance future profits. At a reduced price for ethane, producers were concerned with the recovery of the propane-plus fraction. Ethane was rejected to the residue gas. As the value of ethane increases, a plant with adequate operating flexibility will be able to recover ethane and realize increased profits. During the 1970s, the price of ethane reached a level high enough to stimulate the development of economic and cryogenic expander gas processing units. Designs are now relatively simple. Operating experience shows that onstream reliability is quite good. Control schemes also are simple, and some plants are completely automated. These factors combine to allow plants to operate with a wide range of process flow conditions, with minimal operator attention. Some key considerations typically enhance the selection of the expander process.

  15. B Plant, TK-21-1, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, L.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-09

    This document is the final laboratory report for B Plant Tk-21-1. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sample was taken from Tk-21 -1 September 26, 1996. This sample was received at 222-S Analytical Laboratory on September 27, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the accompanying Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Letter of Instruction B PLANT RCRA SAMPLES TO 222S LABORATORY, LETTER OF INSTRUCTION (LOI) 2B-96-LOI-012-01 (LOI) (Westra, 1996). LOI was issued subsequent to RSA and replaces Letter of Instruction 2C-96-LOI-004-01 referenced in RSA.

  16. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  17. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-12-31

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  18. Process Control System of the Mutnovskaya Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Idzon, O. M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Nikol'skii, A. I.

    2004-01-15

    The experience of creating software and algorithms for automatic process control at the Mutnovskaya geothermal power plant (GTPP) on the basis of the Teleperm ME automation system is presented. The heat cycle and special features of the heat flow diagram of the power plant are briefly described. The engineering solutions used, the structure of the system, and the principles of process control at the Mutnovskaya GTPP are considered. Special attention is devoted to the turbine regulator that consists of several regulating units because of the great number of problems solved by control valves; each regulating unit solves control problems depending on the mode of operation of the power generating set.

  19. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  20. High-autonomy control of space resource processing plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, Larry C.; Zeigler, Bernard P.; Cellier, Francois E.; Wang, Fei-Yue

    1993-01-01

    A highly autonomous intelligent command/control architecture has been developed for planetary surface base industrial process plants and Space Station Freedom experimental facilities. The architecture makes use of a high-level task-oriented mode with supervisory control from one or several remote sites, and integrates advanced network communications concepts and state-of-the-art man/machine interfaces with the most advanced autonomous intelligent control. Attention is given to the full-dynamics model of a Martian oxygen-production plant, event-based/fuzzy-logic process control, and fault management practices.

  1. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  2. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE LIMESTONE DUAL ALKALI PROTOTYPE SYSTEM AT PLANT SCHOLZ: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 2-month test (February/March 1981) of the limestone dual alkali process at an existing 20 MW prototype facility at Gulf Power Company's Scholz Steam Plant. The project was intended to evaluate the technical feasibility of the process at a prototype s...

  4. Maturation processes and structures of small secreted peptides in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Ryo; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, small secreted peptides have proven to be essential for various aspects of plant growth and development, including the maintenance of certain stem cell populations. Most small secreted peptides identified in plants to date are recognized by membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor proteins in the plant genome. This peptide-receptor interaction is essential for initiating intracellular signaling cascades. Small secreted peptides often undergo post-translational modifications and proteolytic processing to generate the mature peptides. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the situation in mammals, the proteolytic processing of plant peptides involves a number of complex steps. Furthermore, NMR-based structural analysis demonstrated that post-translational modifications induce the conformational changes needed for full activity. In this mini review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how small secreted peptides are modified and processed into biologically active peptides and describe the mature structures of small secreted peptides in plants. PMID:25071794

  5. Native and exotic plants of fragments of sagebrush steppe produced by geomorphic processes versus land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntly, N.; Bangert, R.; Hanser, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasion by exotic species are regarded as major threats to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. We surveyed the plant communities of two types of remnant sagebrush-steppe fragments from nearby areas on the Snake River Plain of southeastern Idaho, USA. One type resulted from land use (conversion to dryland agriculture; hereafter AG Islands) and the other from geomorphic processes (Holocene volcanism; hereafter kipukas). We assessed two predictions for the variation in native plant species richness of these fragments, using structural equation models (SEM). First, we predicted that the species richness of native plants would follow the MacArthur-Wilson (M-W) hypothesis of island biogeography, as often is expected for the communities of habitat fragments. Second, we predicted a negative relationship between native and exotic plants, as would be expected if exotic plants are decreasing the diversity of native plants. Finally, we assessed whether exotic species were more strongly associated with the fragments embedded in the agricultural landscape, as would be expected if agriculture had facilitated the introduction and naturalization of non-native species, and whether the communities of the two types of fragments were distinct. Species richness of native plants was not strongly correlated with M-W characteristics for either the AG Islands or the **kipukas. The AG Islands had more species and higher cover of exotics than the kipukas, and exotic plants were good predictors of native plant species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that proximity to agriculture can increase the diversity and abundance of exotic plants in native habitat. In combination with other information, the results also suggest that agriculture and exotic species have caused loss of native diversity and reorganization of the sagebrush-steppe plant community. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    PubMed

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  7. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tintner, J.; Smidt, E.; Boehm, K.; Binner, E.

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  8. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  9. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  10. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  11. Linear programming model of a meat processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.A.; Okos, M.R.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    A multi-period and multi-product production-planning model of an operational meat processing plant is presented. The model input is the time-varying customer demand and the output is the optimum product mix. The model results are interpreted and compared with actual data. Various production strategies are evaluated.

  12. [Characteristics of industrial noise at the Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2011-01-01

    The level and nature of air pollution were studied in various objects of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. The necessity of introducing technical-hygienic, organizational, and medical measures to reduce the adverse effect of the noise on workers is warranted. PMID:21899100

  13. 52. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK, WITH SHELL OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 50. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK OVER SOUTHCENTER RAILROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK OVER SOUTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 45. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH PROCESS PIPING OVERHEAD RACK. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. A Competency-Based Instructional Program for Plant Process Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Joy; Mills, Steven

    This program guide provides materials to prepare learners for employment as Process Plant Operators through classroom instruction and practical shop experience. Contents include instructional goal and subgoals, an instructional analysis that describes development of the materials and instructional equipment and supplies and facilities…

  18. Invasive plant ecology and management: Linking processes to practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book brings together 10 chapters from renowned researchers that study how ecosystems operate and how to adopt the principles of ecology to manage invasive plants. This book taps this expertise by seeking to bridge the inherent disconnect between processes operating within ecosystems and the pr...

  19. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate.

  20. Indicator system for a process plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  1. Magnetic fluids effect upon growth processes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1999-07-01

    The metabolic processes of plants growth and development take place according to some organic rules which are specific to their genetic potential. These processes may exhibit modifications of intensity, rhythm, sense, under the influence of the environmental conditions of agricultural systems, through certain factors and bioregulators artificially introduced by man. The results of some investigations regarding effects of biocompatible magnetic fluids (LMW 100 G) on the vegetal organism's (growth, development, fructifying, the level and quality of the yield precocity) are presented.

  2. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  3. How Teachers Teach the Writing Process. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra; And Others

    Presented in this report are the results of a three-year case study designed (1) to document what happened in the classrooms of 10 teachers who were trained in a process approach to the teaching of writing, and (2) to provide those teachers with occasions to deepen their understanding of the process approach, by collaborating with them in the…

  4. Covert Response Patterns in Processing Language Stimuli. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, F. Joseph

    The purpose of this research project is to specify critical events within a person during linguistic processing. The experiments reported here cover such topics as the effects of increased reading rate on covert processes, covert behavior as a direct electro-myographic measure of mediating responses, enhancement of speech perception by…

  5. FINAL REPORT. AQUEOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS IN ACTINIDE RESIDUE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plutonium and uranium residues (e.g., incinerator ash, combustibles, and sand/slag/crucibles) resulting from the purification and processing of nuclear materials constitute an enormous volume of lean processing waste and represent a significant fraction of the U. S. Department of...

  6. Integrated manufacturing and processing predoctoral fellowships. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Rozzell, Thomas

    1999-10-01

    The first and fourth cohorts of U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing and Processing Predoctoral Fellows were supported under this grant for up to three years of study leading to a PhD degree in a field related to integrated manufacturing and processing.

  7. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, John A.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  8. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  9. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  10. North Sea gas plants get process, scheduling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, A.

    1998-11-16

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. has installed an operator guidance tool at its SAGE gas-processing plant at St. Fergus, Scotland (SAGE: Scottish Area Gas Evacuation). The system, supplied by MDC Technology, Teesside, U.K., will aid process decision making at the plant under MDC Technology`s RTO+ software. In addition, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) has installed a pipeline-scheduling system, also supplied by MDC Technology, at its Aberdeen control center. The system aids gas-movement scheduling through Shell Expro`s St. Fergus gas plant. The Northern Systems and Plant Scheduling (NSPS) system integrates MDC Technology`s RTO+ package with Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel. Mobil`s SAGE gas terminal at St. Fergus has two identical process trains (NGL recovery and acid-gas treatment), each with a capacity of 16.25 million std. cu m/day. The paper describes the guidance tool, the scheduling aid, and the installation of the NSPS.

  11. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  12. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  14. Plant uprooting by flow as a fatigue mechanical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perona, Paolo; Edmaier, Katharina; Crouzy, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    In river corridors, plant uprooting by flow mostly occurs as a delayed process where flow erosion first causes root exposure until residual anchoring balances hydrodynamic forces on the part of the plant that is exposed to the stream. Because a given plant exposure time to the action of the stream is needed before uprooting occurs (time-to-uprooting), this uprooting mechanism has been denominated Type II, in contrast to Type I, which mostly affect early stage seedlings and is rather instantaneous. In this work, we propose a stochastic framework that describes a (deterministic) mechanical fatigue process perturbed by a (stochastic) process noise, where collapse occurs after a given exposure time. We test the model using the experimental data of Edmaier (2014) and Edmaier et al. (submitted), who investigated vegetation uprooting by flow in the limit of low plant stem-to-sediment size ratio by inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume. We first identify the proper timescale and lengthscale for rescaling the model. Then, we show that it describes well all the empirical cumulative distribution functions (cdf) of time-to-uprooting obtained under constant riverbed erosion rate and assuming additive gaussian process noise. By this mean, we explore the level of determinism and stochasticity affecting the time-to-uprooting for Avena sativa in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We eventually ascribe the overall dynamics of the Type II uprooting mechanism to the memory of the plant-soil system that is stored by root anchoring, and discuss related implications thereof. References Edmaier, K., Uprooting mechansims of juvenile vegetation by flow erosion, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, 2014. Edmaier, K., Crouzy, B. and P. Perona. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow. J. of Geophys. Res. - Biogeosci., submitted

  15. Characteristics of final particles in multiple Compton backscattering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potylitsyn, A.; Kol‘chuzhkin, A.

    2013-08-01

    An electron passing through a counter propagating intense laser beam can interact with a few laser photons with emission of a hard photon in each collision event. In contrast with the well-known nonlinear Compton backscattering process the above mentioned process may be named as multiple Compton backscattering process (MCBS). In this paper we have investigated the evolution of the electron energy distribution during MCBS process using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulation. The main characteristics of such a distribution as mean energy and variance obtained by M-C technique were compared with analytical solutions of kinetic equations. We found the kinematic region where the analytical solutions are applicable with a good accuracy. A photon spectrum, even for the case when each electron emits one photon (in average) differs significantly from that described by the Klein-Nishina formula.

  16. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  17. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings. PMID:26398584

  18. Coal conversion processes. Final report, September 13-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental work on the following four projects related to coal conversion processes is reported: (1) thermal behavior of slurry reactors used for indirect coal liquefaction; (2) acid gas removal by absorption in organic solvents; (3) cobalt-catalyzed synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO/H/sub 2/, studied with transient kinetics; and (4) extraction and conversion of coal using supercritical fluids. Each section has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Trial application of guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.; Oliver, R.; O`Connor, W.

    1993-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. These guidelines are published in EPRI report NP-6695, ``Guidelines for Nuclear Plant Response to an Earthquake,`` dated December 1989. This report includes two sets of nuclear plant procedures which were prepared to implement the guidelines of EPRI report NP-6695. The first set were developed by the Toledo Edison Company Davis-Besse plant. Davis-Besse is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and contains relatively standard seismic monitoring instrumentation typical of many domestic nuclear plants. The second set of procedures were prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company for the Vermont Yankee facility. This plant is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with state-of-the-art seismic monitoring and PC-based data processing equipment, software developed specifically to implement the OBE Exceedance Criterion presented in EPRI report NP-5930, ``A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the operating Basis Earthquake.`` The two sets of procedures are intended to demonstrate how two different nuclear utilities have interpreted and applied the EPRI guidance given in report NP-6695.

  20. Educational software for illustrating gas-exchange processes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Hanson, P.J. ); Sage, R.F. )

    1991-05-01

    Simulation models are increasingly being used to describe physiological processes in the plant sciences. These models, while useful for research purposes, also offer tremendous potential for demonstrating a wide array of scientific topics to students. The authors have developed an educational software package, based on currently accepted principles, that illustrates the environmental and biochemical control of plant gas-exchange. Graphic and tabular presentations, coupled with on-screen requests for student input, serve to effectively convey the basic fundamentals of photosynthesis and transpiration, as well as the diurnal patterns of plant gas-exchange in response to fluctuating environmental conditions. More advanced topics focus on the biochemical limitations to photosynthesis imposed by Rubisco activity, electron transport capacity, and the regeneration of inorganic phosphorus. Also included is an exercise that challenges students to call upon the lessons learned in order to optimize carbon assimilation, while minimizing water losses, over a 72-h simulation period.

  1. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing.

    PubMed

    Revedin, Anna; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Becattini, Roberto; Longo, Laura; Marconi, Emanuele; Lippi, Marta Mariotti; Skakun, Natalia; Sinitsyn, Andrey; Spiridonova, Elena; Svoboda, Jirí

    2010-11-01

    European Paleolithic subsistence is assumed to have been largely based on animal protein and fat, whereas evidence for plant consumption is rare. We present evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II (Italy), Kostenki 16-Uglyanka (Russia), and Pavlov VI (Czech Republic). The samples originate from a variety of geographical and environmental contexts, ranging from northeastern Europe to the central Mediterranean, and dated to the Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian and Gorodtsovian). The three sites suggest that vegetal food processing, and possibly the production of flour, was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago. It is likely that high energy content plant foods were available and were used as components of the food economy of these mobile hunter-gatherers. PMID:20956317

  2. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing

    PubMed Central

    Revedin, Anna; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Becattini, Roberto; Longo, Laura; Marconi, Emanuele; Lippi, Marta Mariotti; Skakun, Natalia; Sinitsyn, Andrey; Spiridonova, Elena; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    European Paleolithic subsistence is assumed to have been largely based on animal protein and fat, whereas evidence for plant consumption is rare. We present evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II (Italy), Kostenki 16–Uglyanka (Russia), and Pavlov VI (Czech Republic). The samples originate from a variety of geographical and environmental contexts, ranging from northeastern Europe to the central Mediterranean, and dated to the Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian and Gorodtsovian). The three sites suggest that vegetal food processing, and possibly the production of flour, was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago. It is likely that high energy content plant foods were available and were used as components of the food economy of these mobile hunter–gatherers. PMID:20956317

  3. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  4. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  5. Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bedenbaugh, R.

    1984-06-01

    The overall accomplishments of this work were: commercialization of foam processing in textiles, especially foam finishing, was accelerated by about five years. Since 1979, about 3 billion yards of fabric have been finished by the U.M.M. or subsequently developed foam systems with a savings of about 1.5 to 2 trillion Btu. In 1984 about 15% of all domestic textile finishing was by a foam process. Foam processing of textiles is being practiced throughout the domestic and international textile industry. Foam dyeing is commercial in specialized areas of the textile industry such as carpet dyeing and the pigment dyeing of lightweight filament fabrics. Foam printing will increase with the development of rotary printing machines designed especially for foamed print colors. The use of foamed chemical systems for desizing, scouring and bleaching of fabrics, especially fabrics containing dyed yarns, is increasing. The development of equipment and chemical systems for foam sizing of fabrics was accelerated in 1983, and commercial equipment is expected to be available in 1984. The public disclosure of foam processing technology has led to the development of competitive foam systems as well as alternate low wet pick-up systems. An independent audit of outside (non-U.M. and M.) demonstration sites has unequivocally established the energy savings and economic advantages of foam processing.

  6. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  7. Process induced stresses in laminated polymer composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Crystallization behavior and internal stresses in thermoplastic composites were studied in this work. The crystallization behavior of PP/GF (polypropylene/glass fiber), PET/CF (polyethylene terephthalate/carbon fiber) and TPI (thermoplastic polyimide) was characterized under isothermal and dynamic conditions. The effect of annealing and exposure to high temperatures on the crystallizability and glass transition of model TPI systems was also investigated. The loss of crystallizability was observed after exposure to high temperature. The Process Simulated Laminate (PSL) technique was used to evaluate crystallinity gradients and residual stresses. Crystallinity gradients were obtained in PEKK/LDF{trademark} while in PET/CF overall reduction in crystallinity was observed when PSLs were processed at high cooling rates. The magnitude of residual stresses generated in PET/CF was smaller as compared to PEKK/LDF{trademark}. Reduction of residual stresses with aging at different times was shown for PET/CF. The results show that the PSL technique can be used to quantify the level of residual stresses in polymeric composites and can serve as an analytical tool to compare processing characteristics of different materials. Effects of orientation and process cooling rates on the strain response in PP/GF samples were studied. In addition, thermoset matrix composite technologies were explored for electric power industry. Therefore, internal stress measurement in thick composites, PSL method, and the resin film infusion process (RFIP) were investigated. The internal stresses were successfully measured on a vast array of composites which are currently used in aircraft applications. The thermoplastic composites-based measurement technique was found to be expandable to the thermoset composites. Resin film infusion process was utilized with a variety of reinforcements and matrix systems, followed by investigation of void content.

  8. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  9. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  10. 10 CFR 950.37 - Final agreement or final decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final agreement or final decision. 950.37 Section 950.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.37 Final agreement or final decision. (a) If the parties reach a Final Agreement on a...

  11. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  12. Explosive Potential Analysis of AB Process-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, J.S.; Giles, G.E. jr.; Wendel, M.W.; Sulfredge, C.D.

    2001-10-12

    A need arose to define the hazards associated with the operation of a process. The process involved the evolution of a hydrogen gas stream from thermal decomposition of uranium hydride at approximately 400 C into the interior of a purged argon-filled glove box. Specific hazards of interest included the potential reaction severity of the evolved hydrogen with atmospheric oxygen, either downstream in the vent system or inside the box in the event of serious air inleakage. Another hazard might be the energetic reaction of inleaked air with the hot uranium and uranium hydride powder bed, possibly resulting in the dispersion of powders into an air atmosphere and the rapid combustion of the powders. This was approached as a problem in calculational simulation. Given the parameters associated with the process and the properties of the glove box system, certain scenarios were defined and the potential for flammable or detonation reactions estimated. Calculation tools included a comprehensive fluid dynamics code, a spreadsheet, a curve-fitting program, an equation solver, and a thermochemistry software package. Results are reported which suggest that the process can be operated without significant hazard to operators or significant damage to equipment, assuming that operators take account of potential upset scenarios.

  13. Construction of the NASA Thesaurus: Computer Processing Support. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, William

    Details are given on the necessary computer processing services required to produce a NASA thesaurus. These services included (1) keypunching the terminology to specifications from approximately 19,000 Term Review Forms furnished by NASA; (2) modifying a set of programs to satisfy NASA specifications, principally to accommodate 42 character terms…

  14. Role-Making Processes and University Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graen, George

    A role-making model of the leadership process is tested and refined within a major university setting. The model assumes that administrative leaders attempt to reduce their costs and increase their benefits by differentiating among unit members in the accomplishments of unit tasks. As a consequence of this differentiation throughout departments,…

  15. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  16. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  17. FINAL REPORT. FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND THERMODYNAMICS OF HYDROTHERMAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to address issues of fundamental chemistry and thermodynamic properties that currently limit the applicability of hydrothermal oxidation processes to the treatment of hazardous and radioactive DOE wastes. The primary issues are related to corrosion, i...

  18. FINAL REPORT. CAVITATIONAL HYDROTHERMAL OXIDATION: A NEW REMEDIATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of ...

  19. Electroslag processing: State-of-the-art assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.C.

    1987-10-01

    Electroslag processing is the remelting of an electrode in which the molten material falls in droplets through a molten slag pool. The melting is by direct electric current and the mold can be round or rectangular for ingots (electroslag remelting, ESR) or shaped for finished components (electroslag casting, ESC). Advantages of ESR and ESC are improved cleanliness and homogeneity over air melting and a lower cost than vacuum melting. ESC offers the additional advantage of bypassing investment in forging. Electroslag remelting is widely used in this country for the production of tool steels and some high-quality carbon and alloy steels. Electroslag casting has had only very limited use in the United States, mainly for the production of rolling mill rolls. In this report, the development and use of electroslag processes on a worldwide basis are presented along with their possible impact on Western market economies. Information about the status of US producers is also presented along with how the electroslag process relates to their business. Also discussed is the development of the process in the US; and how it relates to competitive methods.

  20. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  1. Saltstone processing startup at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.; Langton, C.A.; Sturm, H.F.; Hooker, R.L.; Occhipinti, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    High-level nuclear wastes are stored in large underground tanks at the Savannah River Plant. Processing of this waste in preparation for ultimate disposal will begin in 1988. The waste will be processed to separate the high-level radioactive fraction from the low-level radioactive fraction. The separation will be made in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for permanent disposal in a federal repository. The low-level fraction (decontaminated salt solution) will be mixed with a cementitious slag-flyash blend. The resulting wasteform, ''saltstone,'' will be disposed of onsite by emplacement in an engineered facility. Waste properties, disposal facility details, and wasteform characteristics are discussed. In particular, details of saltstone processing, focusing on experience obtained from facility startup, are presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process. PMID:20171880

  3. A continuous biological process to decolorize bleach plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T W; Chang, H; Campbell, A G; Gerrard, E D; Kirk, T K

    1984-01-01

    Although almost every U.S. pulp mill has a biological wastewater treatment system, these systems based on bacteria, are largely ineffective in the removal of color. For this reason, we have attempted to utilize Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a fungus known to degrade lignin, as the primary organism in a novel waste treatment scheme named the MyCoR Process. Color from bleached Kraft mills originates principally from the first extraction stage of the bleach plant. It is this waste stream which is sent to the MyCoR Process reactor, a rotating biological contactor, for decolorization. We have found that under optimal conditions up to 2,000 color units/L/day can be removed from the waste stream. There is also a concomitant removal of COD and BOD. In addition, chlorolignins originating from the bleaching process were found to be dechlorinated; this is of interest to those concerned with the impact of bleach plant effluents on the environment. The process uses conventional wastewater treatment equipment. However, the use of a pure culture of fungus in a secondary metabolic state has not been attempted previously in a waste treatment scheme. Minor equipment modification and close operator attention may therefore be required. A preliminary economic analysis shows that the MyCoR Process, in its present state, would cost about US$30/metric ton of bleached Kraft pulp produced. This cost will decrease as improved or new strains of fungi are developed for the process. PMID:14545700

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  5. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  6. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  7. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-07-05

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions.

  8. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  9. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  10. Power utilization in flat processing of steel: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of the current electrical requirements in the flat-processing operations of the domestic steel industry and how these might be influenced by technological developments occurring within them. Electrical power is consumed mainly by the hot rolling of strip (about 120 kWh/ton), cold reduction (about 125 kWh/ton) and finishing operations (about 125 kWh/ton). No significant changes in total energy consumption are likely to result from the current revamping of facilities or changes in operating practices. The hot rolling of thinly cast strip to cold-rolled sheet gages under scale-free conditions could obviate the processing steps of pickling, cold-reduction, cleaning and annealing. The successful development of such technology would not only eliminate the conversion costs of these four operations but would probably reduce electrical power utilization by 50 to 100 kWh/ton. It is therefore suggested that EPRI may wish to further explore the technical and economic feasibility of such hot-rolling practices, as well as investigate the use of (1) magnetostrictive devices for automatic gage control, (2) intense magnetic fields for control of the crystallographic texture during annealing and the thermal conduction within the strip during heating and cooling, (3) linear motors for strip propulsion on various processing lines, and (4) a-c motors for mill-stand and roller-table drives. 198 refs., 70 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  12. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels, City of Geneva wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an event distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  13. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels: City of Geneva Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an even distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  14. Characteristics of biological aerosols in dairy processing plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y J; Frank, J F

    1990-03-01

    The viable aerosol in dairy processing plant environments was characterized by using an Andersen six-stage sieve sampler and a Reuter centrifugal sampler. Artificially introduced Serratia marcescens were detected in the air during drain flooding and after rinsing the floor with a pressured water hose, thus illustrating the ability of a specific microorganism to be disseminated from drains and wet surfaces via physical disruption activities often observed in food plants. Once a high concentration of wet viable aerosol was generated, it took 40 or more min to return to the background level in the absence of forced ventilation or other activity. The greatest reduction in viable particles occurred during the first 10 min. Estimated mean aerosol particle sizes were decreased from approximately 4.6 to 3.2 mu with time lapse. The estimated mean aerosol particle sizes from actual dairy processing plant environments ranged from approximately 4.3 to 5.3 mu. In addition, a more heavily contaminated dairy processing environment contained larger aerosol particles. These results indicate that the RCS sampler will often overestimate the true aerosol concentration in highly contaminated air, because mean particle sizes are over 4 mu in diameter. PMID:2187913

  15. Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.

    1998-10-01

    From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.

  16. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  17. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis. PMID:3680447

  18. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report, August 1995--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1997-06-17

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focused on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The research focused on the isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  20. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1993-12-01

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which may be exploited through simple mineral supplementation to support the growth of denitrifying microorganisms. The growth and metabolic products from the presence of these microorganisms will aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix and improve crude oil quality and oil field operations. These studies have been successful in defining new microorganisms and processes for MEOR. The data show that development of a mixed denitrifying microbial population in an oil reservoir environment will competitively reduce SRB populations resulting in the removal and prevention of H{sub 2}S. At the same time the products resulting from the growth of this replacement population will cause an increase in oil mobilization and oil release by mechanisms involving gas, surfactant and polymer production, and in the case of Thiobacillus growth, could cause dissolution of carbonates in the rock matrix. The establishment of this denitrifying population requires only the addition of simple inorganic chemicals without the need for organic nutrients. This new MEOR technology offers industry the potential for a simple, low cost, and effective oil recovery process, while at the same time provides a solution to the microbially generated sulfide problem.

  1. Final report on process modeling of cupola furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the first phase of the AFS/DOE program on mathematical modeling of cupola behavior, covering the period May 19, 1989 to July 19, 1990. The objective of the program is to develop a comprehensive mathematical model of the cupola furnace for on-line and off-line process control and optimization. The work is being carried out by five organizations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology with responsibility for heat transfer and fluid flow modeling, and incorporation of the chemical models being developed by the University of Michigan team. Modern Equipment Company has the responsibility of compiling information on needed sensors for monitoring operation and providing materials data to be used for cupola input. General Motors, Central Foundry Division, is investigating the potential to augment the mathematical models with artificial intelligence programs. Lastly, General Motors Research laboratories are charged with providing accurate cupola operational data to test the models being developed. To date, a one-dimensional steady state model has been developed which considers heat transfer, fluid flow and important chemical processes: combustion, iron composition development, limestone calcination and iron oxidation. The model is based on established physico-chemical principles and data available in the literature. Model predictions compare favorably with data obtained in a production sale cupola, operating under carefully controlled, but realistic, conditions. At the present time, the chemical sub-models are being incorporated into the master program, and a complete working cupola model is expected by September 1990. 43 refs.

  2. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  4. Processing and characterization of functionally gradient ceramic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, M.E.; Sengupta, L.C.; Ngo, E.; Stowell, S.; Lancto, R.

    1994-02-01

    Tape casting of ceramic materials offers the flexibility of gradually altering the electronic or structural properties of two dissimilar systems in order to improve their compatibility. This research outlines the processing and fabrication of two systems-of functionally gradient materials. The systems are both electronic ceramic composites consisting Ba(1-x)Sr(x)TiO3 (BSTO) and alumina or a second oxide additive. These composites would be used in phased array antenna systems, therefore, the electronic properties of the material have specific requirements in the microwave frequency regions. The composition of the tapes are varied to provide a graded dielectric constant, which gradually increases from that of air (dielectric constant = 1) to that of the ceramic (dielectric constant = 1500). This allows maximum penetration of incident microwave radiation as well as minimum energy dissipation and insertion loss into the entire phase shifting device.

  5. Process evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP Program). [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, and WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents the findings of a process evaluation and WRAP customer survey conducted by the Technical Development Corporation (TDC). TDC`s work is one part of a multi-part evaluation project being conducted under the management of ICF Resources, Inc.

  6. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  7. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  8. 78 FR 34639 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restart of Healy Power Plant Unit #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Plant Unit 2 AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Supplemental... Healy Power Plant's Unit 2 in Healy, Alaska. The (SFEIS) supplements a Final Environmental Impact... human environment from DOE's proposal to partially fund construction of Unit 2 of the Healy Power...

  9. 78 FR 21938 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol-Capitol Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol--Capitol Power Plant AGENCY... notice that on January 23, 2013, EPA issued a final air permit to the Architect of the Capitol for...

  10. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method. PMID:17434170

  11. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  12. Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, D.D.

    1980-08-01

    The principal contributions of the research are in the area of gas-solid reactions, ranging from models and data interpretation for fundamental kinetics and mixing of solids to simulations of engineering scale reactors. Models were derived for simulating the heat and mass transfer processes inside the reactor and tested by experiments. The effects of surface renewal of solids on the mass transfer phenomena were studied and related to the solid mixing. Catalysis by selected additives were studied experimentally. The separate results were combined in a simulation study of industrial-scale rotary reactor performance. A study was made of the controlled decompositions of a series of inorganic sulfates and their common hydrates, carried out in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). Various sample sizes, heating rates, and ambient atmospheres were used to demonstrate their influence on the results. The purposes of this study were to: (i) reveal intermediate compounds, (ii) determine the stable temperature range of each compound, and (iii) measure reaction kinetics. In addition, several solid additives: carbon, metal oxides, and sodium chloride, were demonstrated to have catalytic effects to varying degrees for the different salts.

  13. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  15. Laboratory plant study on the melting process of asbestos waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shinichi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    The melting process was studied as a method of changing asbestos into non-hazardous waste and recovering it as a reusable resource. In an initial effort, the thermal behaviors of asbestos waste in terms of physical and chemical structure have been studied. Then, 10 kg/h-scale laboratory plant experiments were carried out. By X-ray diffraction analysis, the thermal behaviors of sprayed-on asbestos waste revealed that chrysotile asbestos waste change in crystal structure at around 800 C, and becomes melted slag, mainly composed of magnesium silicate, at around 1,500 C. Laboratory plant experiments on the melting process of sprayed-on asbestos have shown that melted slag can be obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis of the melted slag revealed crystal structure change, and SEM analysis showed the slag to have a non-fibrous form. And more, TEM analysis proved the very high treatment efficiency of the process, that is, reduction of the asbestos content to 1/10{sup 6} as a weight basis. These analytical results indicate the effectiveness of the melting process for asbestos waste treatment.

  16. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09

    production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a β-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the

  17. Assessment of groundwater usage at Chalk Point power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    In order to quantify the usage of ground water in an operating electric power plant, a study was initiated in 1978 aimed at determining where in the energy conversion process ground water is used and to suggest, if possible, alternate means for providing this water and/or methods to reduce consumption. The Chalk Point Plant was selected for this study because of its difference in fuel source (coal and oil), and because of its high consumption of ground water (approximately 800,000 to 1,200,000 gallons per day). Located at the confluence of the Patuxent River and Swanson Creek in the southeast corner of Prince George's County, Maryland, it consists of three operating units, with a fourth unit under construction during the survey time. (unit 4 has recently become operational). With the cooperation of the Potomac Electric Power Company, the plant was selected for study and was instrumented with several flow meters. Over a two-year period, this plant has been monitored to provide the information needed to make an assessment of the rates, nature, and methods of water usage in an operating power plant.

  18. Boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants: A literature review: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, G.; Calderone, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    This study provides a review of the literature on boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants, particularly trees. It addresses those aspects of the soil chemistry of boron that are most relevant to uptake by trees, then discusses the plant biochemistry of boron, its uptake and accumulation in plant tissue, and its phytotoxicity symptoms in plant species. The literature reviewed suggests that boron uptake is accomplished by a passive, massflow mechanism, as opposed to a metabolic process, with the most likely chemical form taken up being the neutral complex, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The biochemical role of boron is not well understood, but evidence exists for its involvement with carbohydrate transformations and the control of growth-regulating compounds. Because of the mass-flow uptake mechanism, the distribution of boron in trees is connected intimately with the patterns of transpiration, which are species-dependent. Precise data on the effect of plant genotype on boron uptake, however, were not found in the published literature. The phytotoxicity symptoms of boron in trees also are species-dependent, although a consensus does exist as to the general nature of external symptoms and the basis of boron tolerance.

  19. Fundamental studies of catalytic processing of synthetic liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.R.

    1994-06-15

    Liquids derived from coal contain relatively high amounts of oxygenated organic compounds, mainly in the form of phenols and furans that are deleterious to the stability and quality of these liquids as fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using Mo/W sulfide catalysts is a promising method to accomplish this removal, but our understanding of the reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during HDO is very limited. Rather than attempting to examine the complexities of real liquids and catalysts we have adopted an approach here using model systems amenable to surface-sensitive techniques that enable us to probe in detail the fundamental processes occurring during HDO at the surfaces of well-defined model catalysts. The results of this work may lead to the development of more efficient, selective and stable catalysts. Above a S/Mo ratio of about 0.5 ML, furan does not adsorb on sulfided Mo surfaces; as the sulfur coverage is lowered increasing amounts of furan can be adsorbed. Temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) reveals that C-H, C-C and C-O bond scission occurs on these surfaces. Auger spectra show characteristic changes in the nature and amount of surface carbon. Comparisons with experiments carried out with CO, H{sub 2} and alkenes show that reaction pathways include -- direct abstraction of CO at low temperatures; cracking and release of hydrogen below its normal desorption temperature; dehydrogenatin of adsorbed hydrocarbon fragments; recombination of C and O atoms and dissolution of carbon into the bulk at high temperatures. Performing the adsorption or thermal reaction in 10{sup {minus}5} torr of hydrogen does not change the mode of reaction significantly.

  20. Plant and soil reactions to nickel ore processed tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, P.J.; Volk, V.V.; Gardner, E.H.

    1982-07-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect that tailings, produced during the processing of nickeliferous laterite ores by a proposed U.S. Bureau of Mines Process, would have on plant growth and soil properties. The tailings contained soluble salts (7.6 mmhos/cm), NH/sub 4/-N (877 ..mu..g/g), Ni (0.28%), Mn (82 ..mu..g/g DTPA-extractable), Cr (0.44%), P (2 and 6 ..mu..g/g acid F- and NaHCO/sub 3/-extractable, respectively), and Ca and Mg (1.0 and 20.7 meq/100 g NH/sub 4/Ac-extractable, respectively). Water leaching decreased the NH/sub 4/-N concentration to 53 ..mu..g/g and the EC to 0.4 mmhos/cm by removal of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MgSO/sub 4/ salts. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was grown on Eightlar clay soil (skeletal, serpentinitic, mesic Typic Xerochrept) amended with 0, 223, 446, and 669 g tailings/kg soil and pure, unleached tailings for 32 weeks in the greenhouse. Seedling establishment of plants grown on soil amended at the highest tailings rate and the pure tailings was initially slow, but plants grown on soil amended at lower rates established readily and grew well. Plant P was <0.24%, while plant Ca concentrations were <0.45% throughout the growth period even though Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and gypsum had been added. Ammonium acetate-extractable Ca at the end of the growth period was <5.0 meq/100 g on all amended soils.The Mn, Ni, and Cr concentrations of plants grown on treated soils were within normal ranges, although soil-analysis values were higher than commonly found. It is recommended that the tailings be washed to reduce NH/sub 4/-N and soluble salts prior to revegetation, and that native soil be added to the surface to reduce crusting.

  1. 14 CFR 11.31 - How does FAA process direct final rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does FAA process direct final rules? 11.31 Section 11.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... the change in the direct final rule at issue. We consider the comment adverse, however, if...

  2. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  3. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  5. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M. Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling. PMID:27505308

  6. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Smith, Brennan T; Cones, Marvin; March, Patrick; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  7. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    PubMed

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats. PMID:27243208

  8. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  9. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  10. Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubis, W.

    1982-03-01

    This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.

  11. Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bruening, G.

    1992-12-31

    The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

  12. Downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins produced in plants

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes Felix; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    All biological platforms for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins produce an initially turbid extract that must be clarified to avoid fouling sensitive media such as chromatography resins. Clarification is more challenging if the feed stream contains large amounts of dispersed particles, because these rapidly clog the filter media typically used to remove suspended solids. Charged polymers (flocculants) can increase the apparent size of the dispersed particles by aggregation, facilitating the separation of solids and liquids, and thus reducing process costs. However, many different factors can affect the behavior of flocculants, including the pH and conductivity of the medium, the size and charge distribution of the particulates, and the charge density and molecular mass of the polymer. Importantly, these properties can also affect the recovery of the target protein and the overall safety profile of the process. We therefore used a design of experiments approach to establish reliable predictive models that characterize the impact of flocculants during the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We highlight strategies for the selection of flocculants during process optimization. These strategies will contribute to the quality by design aspects of process development and facilitate the development of safe and efficient downstream processes for plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:24637706

  13. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  14. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber plant. Final report, Phase IIA

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Phase IIA of the DOE sponsored study titled, Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Application and Evaluation. The scope of this phase of the study was to finalize the process design of the heat pump scheme, develop a process and instrumentation diagram, and a detailed cost estimate for the project. This information is essential for the site management to evaluate the economic viability and operability of the proposed heat pump design, prior to the next phase of installation and testing.

  15. Feasibility of applications of microwave technology for nuclear power plant radioactive wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.R.; Woodle, A.S.

    1982-04-01

    A study into the feasibility of using microwave energy for drying of radioactive wastes is presented. A review of process techniques now in use and proposed is also included and the basics of microwave heating is discussed. A review of tests performed includes: 1. scoping testing; and 2. laboratory testing in batch and continuous feed modes. Finally, a preliminary design is presented for both a batch system and continuous feed system for processing a minimum of 5000 cu. ft. of ion exchange resin beads per year.

  16. Feasibility study for a forest-residue-fueled electric-generating plant. Final report, May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of locating and building a forest-residue-fueled electric generating plant in the heavily-forested, Western Cascades region of the upper Willamette Valley in Oregon. The quantity of forest residues that could be recovered, without competing with currently marketable forest products of greater value, was determined. Methods for removing, transporting, and processing the diseased boles, larger limbs, tops of trees, and broken chunks were investigated. The best means of storing and logging cull logs, chunks, and limbs over 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet long were investigated. The economics of various handling and processing methods were compared. A size and type of wood-fuel-fired boiler plant was selected that would operate in the full-condensing or cogeneration mode. A 50% extraction turbine-generator was used as the basis for economics calculations. The best combinations of components for this application were obtained from trade-off studies. The plant investment, total capital requirement, operating/maintenance costs and net busbar power costs were determined. A 24-MW power plant located in the vicinity of Oakridge, Oregon, would cost about $29,620,000 in January 1980 dollars. Due largely to high procurement and processing costs for forest residues, fuel costs were quite high (about $15.50/ton or $1.67/10/sup 6/ Btu as fired). For the Oakridge site, the net busbar power cost is 106 mills/kWh in the full-condensing mode of operation and 104 mills/kWh in the 50% extraction operating mode (at .67 capacity factor and steam sales price of $3/1000 pounds of steam). Busbar power costs levelized for a 10% discount rate and 6% inflation.

  17. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients. Final report, April 15, 1992--April 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.

    1995-05-15

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the second year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (A.N.N) fault diagnostic system for the real-time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety-parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the second of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the second year`s results as well as descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  18. Two-reactor, high-recovery sulfur plant and process

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.; Palm, J.W.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur wherein an acid gas feedstream comprising hydrogen sulfide is processed for the recovery of sulfur in a Claus process sulfur recovery plant. The process consists of: (a) passing the acid gas feedstream successively through the thermal reaction zone, the first position Claus catalytic reaction zone, and the second position Claus catalytic reaction zone for the recovery of sulfur; (b) preconditioning the first position Claus catalytic reaction zone by introducing thereinto a cold stream having an inlet temperature effective for condensing sulfur on at least a portion of the catalyst and passing the resulting stream through a remaining substantial portion of the catalyst, the cold stream thus used for preconditioning being produced by cooling acid gas feedstream effluent from the thermal reaction zone to the first position catalytic reaction zone to the temperature; and (c) switching the thus preconditioned Claus catalytic reaction zone in the first position into the second position and continuing cooling the thus preconditioned freshly regenerated reactor in the second position concurrently with forming and depositing sulfur on catalyst therein, and switching the Claus catalytic reaction zone in the second position into the first position and continuing the process according to (a), (b), and (c).

  19. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  20. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  1. Measuring, managing and maximizing performance of mineral processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of continuous quality improvement is the confluence of Total Quality Management, People Empowerment, Performance Indicators and Information Engineering. The supporting information technologies allow a mineral processor to narrow the gap between management business objectives and the process control level. One of the most important contributors is the user friendliness and flexibility of the personal computer in a client/server environment. This synergistic combination when used for real time performance monitoring translates into production cost savings, improved communications and enhanced decision support. Other savings come from reduced time to collect data and perform tedious calculations, act quickly with fresh new data, generate and validate data to be used by others. This paper presents an integrated view of plant management. The selection of the proper tools for continuous quality improvement are described. The process of selecting critical performance monitoring indices for improved plant performance are discussed. The importance of a well balanced technological improvement, personnel empowerment, total quality management and organizational assets are stressed.

  2. Energy conservation study on Agripac Processing Plant, Salem, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-15

    An energy study on electrical energy using systems was performed at Agripac plant No. 1 in Salem, Oregon, in the late summer and fall of 1984. The plant processes mainly green beans, corn and squash. The respective products are inspected, prepared and graded, after which they are either canned or frozen in freeze tunnels or cold storage cells. The canned products are sent through pressure cookers. In the case of green beans and corn, some of the product is frozen in freeze tunnels and dumped into tote bins for the repack operation, while some is packaged in cartons and quick frozen in blast freeze cells. For squash, all the product processed is put into cartons and frozen in the cells. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a simple payback analysis. Conservation measures have been evaluated interactively to avoid overestimating savings, assuming that measures that are cost effective will be implemented as a package. In some cases, mutually exclusive conservation measures have been considered for a single application. These have been presented as an either/or measure. Details of the options are included in the text and the calculation sheets.

  3. Optimization of a biological wastewater treatment process at a petrochemical plant using process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Dold, P.L.; Baker, A.J.; Briggs, T.

    1996-12-31

    A research study was conducted on the activated sludge process treating the wastewater from a petrochemical manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the study was to improve the level of understanding of the process and to evaluate the use of model-based simulation tools as an aid in the optimization of the wastewater treatment facility. Models such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) have previously been developed and applied to assist in designing new systems and to assist in the optimization of existing systems for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, However, due to significant differences between the characteristics of the petrochemical plant wastewater and municipal wastewaters, this study required the development of a mechanistic model specifically to describe the behavior of the activated sludge treatment of the petrochemical wastewater. This paper outlines the development of the mechanistic model and gives examples of how plant performance issues were investigated through process simulation.

  4. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  5. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  6. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  9. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  10. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  11. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  12. Silicon production-process evaluations. Final report, May 18, 1981-July 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-30

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary processss design of a plant (1000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished for two cases of the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation process. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major proces equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process. Using detailed data from the process design package, cost analyses for a 1000 metric tons/year silicon plant were accomplished for the processes under consideration. Primary results issuing from the cost analyses included plant capital investment and product cost. The product cost represents all cost associated with producing silicon including direct manufacturing cost, indirect manufacturing cost, plant overhead and general expenses. The sales price includes a profit for the company measured in terms of DCF (discounted cash flow) rate of return after taxes on the capital investment that the company spent in going into the business. These cost and profitability results for both cases of the HSC process indicate that this new technology shows promise for producing silicon at appreciable lower cost and comprises an alternate process capable of providing a less costly silicon material for solar cells.

  13. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel

  14. A discomfort survey in a poultry-processing plant.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Buttle, C

    1994-02-01

    The relationship of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort due to awkward work postures, forces, static loading and over-use is widely accepted as an indicator of poor job design. A discomfort survey was conducted in a poultry-processing plant to help to prioritize areas for ergonomics intervention and to determine whether regions of discomfort relate to types of task performed. The survey form was basic, to accommodate illiteracy, and was administered to 699 employees. Demographic data and job information were recorded. The employee rated job satisfaction and overall discomfort, shaded areas of discomfort on a body diagram and rated the intensity of the discomfort for each area. The jobs were coded into four mutually exclusive categories: hand tool, hand manipulation, material handling and mixed task. A discomfort index (DI) combined the number of shaded areas with intensity. Of the 65% who reported discomfort, the back had the highest mean maximum intensity followed by the arm, contrary to prevalence ranking of body regions. In the light of the findings, the benefit of rotation in a plant requiring major redesign is questioned. Results unexpectedly highlighted women who reported arm discomfort with more than one job, and who performed manual material-handling tasks, to have a significant discomfort problem, which indicates the breadth of ergonomics intervention required in the poultry environment. Surprisingly, no other effects of task were found. The survey provided useful indications of ergonomics issues in areas not identified by medical records. PMID:15676948

  15. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  16. Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtenberger, F.J.; Biski, W.K.; Guagno, J.A.

    1994-02-01

    The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled between high and low speed. It is expected that energy consumption will be reduced by using automatic controllers that change the speed of the aerators in response to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aeration basins. The project had three objectives; to test several manufacturers` dissolved oxygen analyzers at various locations within the aeration basins at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant for accuracy, reliability, response time, and maintenance requirements; to install one manufacturer`s equipment in the aeration basins and operate the aerators either automatically or manually in response to dissolved oxygen readings; and to record plant operating and energy use data to determine whether the dissolved oxygen analyzers and controls were cost-effective and saved energy.

  17. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  18. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  19. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  20. A study of poultry processing plant noise control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyvill, J. C.; Morrison, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A number of techniques can be used to reduce noise in poultry processing plants. In general, covering the ceiling with a noise-absorbing medium is a practical first step. Once the reflected noise levels are abated, treatment of specific identifiable noise courses can take place. The development, flammability, and mechanical properties of acoustic panels to be vertically suspended from the ceiling are discussed as well as the covers need to comply with USDA cleanability requirements. The isolation of drive motors and pumps from large expansive areas, the muffling of pneumatic devices, and the insulation of ice chutes are methods of source quieting. Proper maintenance of machinery and vibration monitoring are also needed to reduce hearing damage risk and to improve worker productivity and employee/supervisor relations.

  1. Use of Brassica Plants in the Phytoremediation and Biofumigation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Piekarska, Anna; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, serious contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported. It is therefore a matter of urgency to develop a new and efficient technology for removing contaminants from soil. Another aspect to this problem is that environmental pollution decreases the biological quality of soil, which is why pesticides and fertilizers are being used in ever-larger quantities. The environmentally friendly solutions to these problems are phytoremediation, which is a technology that cleanses the soil of heavy metals, and biofumigation, a process that helps to protect crops using natural plant compounds. So far, these methods have only been used separately; however, research on a technology that combines them both using white cabbage has been carried out. PMID:22174630

  2. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San

    1994-05-01

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment.

  3. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  4. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.; Okun, A.; Ruder, A.; Fingerhut, M.; Steenland, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December 31, 1969. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1988. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in the total cohort was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.42); significant SMRs for lung cancer were observed for two of the oldest plants located in Lorain, Ohio (SMR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.28-2.19) and Reading, Pennsylvania (SMR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48). For the overall cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were found for all deaths (SMR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08), ischemic heart disease (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.14), pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (SMR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.21-1.80), and chronic and unspecified nephritis, renal failure, and other renal sclerosis (SMR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Lung cancer SMRs did not increase with longer duration of employment, but did increase with longer latency (time since first exposure). Lung cancer was particularly elevated (SMR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.66-5.95) among workers at the Lorain plant with a history of (primarily) acute beryllium disease, which is associated with very high beryllium exposure. The lung cancer excess was not restricted to plants operating in the 1940s, when beryllium exposures were known to be extraordinarily high. Elevated lung cancer SMRs were also observed for four of the five plants operating in the 1950s for workers hired during that decade. Neither smoking nor geographic location fully explains the increased lung cancer risk. Occupational exposure to beryllium compounds is the most plausible explanation for the increased risk of lung cancer observed in this study.

  5. Bayer process plant scale: transformation of sodalite to cancrinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerson, Andrea R.; Zheng, Kali

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the deposition and in situ transformation of scale found in a Bayer process plant has been carried out using X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR studies. Scale samples were analysed as a function of their position in the Bayer process circuit. Scale precipitated during bauxite digestion at approximately 255°C was found to be mostly cafetite but also contained haematite. At 120°C boehmite has been identified as the main scale phase formed from "spent" liquor (i.e. liquors from which Al(OH) 3 crystallisation has previously occurred). Three sodium aluminosilicate phases were found to form between 150 and 255°C, sodalite 1, sodalite 2 and cancrinite although thermonatrite (Na 2CO 3 · H 2O) and calcite (CaCO 3) were also observed periodically. The ratios of cancrinite to sodalite 1 and sodalite 2 to sodalite 1 were observed to increase with the temperature of formation, The scale phases found in a cross section of plant scale formed at 150°C show a similar trend on increasing the in situ age of the scale. Comparison with precipitation from synthetic solutions has indicated that the aging mechanism of the sodium aluminosilicate deposits is the same in both cases: sodalite 1 (cubic, a ≈ 8.98 Å)) → sodalite 2 (cubic, a ≈ 8.89 Å) → cancrinite (hexagonal, a ≈ 12.70 Å, c ≈ 5.18 Å). The transformation from sodalite 2 to cancrinite has been shown to be the rate determining step in cancrinite formation.

  6. The Integration of Word Processing with Data Processing in an Educational Environment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lorna; Schlender, Jim

    A project examined the Office of the Future and determined trends regarding an integration of word processing and data processing. It then sought to translate those trends into an educational package to develop the potential information specialist. A survey instrument completed by 33 office managers and word processing and data processing…

  7. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  8. Integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant at Sears Island, Maine: feasibility study. Final report. Volume I. [Sears Island, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-30

    This report presents the results of a feasibility study to evaluate the use of medium Btu synthesis gas, produced from high-sulfur coal, in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, as an alternative to a conventional pulverized coal plant with flue gas scrubbers presently planned for the Sears Island, Maine site of Central Maine Power Company. The process configuration is based on the oxygen-blown Texaco Coal Gasification Process and a General Electric Combined Cycle power plant. The plant design includes a 5000 ton per day oxygen plant, four 1200 tons per day gasification trains plus one spare to reduce risk, four gas turbine-generators with heat recovery steam generators, and a reheat steam turbine generator. Plant output at ISO (59/sup 0/F) conditions is 524 MW net. The report includes preliminary design and arrangement drawings, a detailed plant description, detailed cost information, performance data, schedules, and an extensive evaluation of technical, economic, and environmental results. The results of the study indicate that the IGCC power plant is still a rapidly evolving technology. Before Central Maine Power Company can commit to construction of such a plant, several issues raised in the study need to be addressed. These issues deal with refinements in cycle performance, demonstration of various major components, and construction schedule, among others. The IGCC Plant does have less environmental impact than a comparably sized conventional coal plant, while using a high sulfur, high ash, less expensive coal. The life-of-plant levelized busbar cost for the IGCC Plant is estimated to be 5% lower than for the conventional coal-fired plant, although the initial capital cost is approximately 60% higher. Other cycle designs were identified which have the potential for improving plant economics.

  9. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  10. Calcium Signals: The Lead Currency of Plant Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, Jörg; Batistič, Oliver; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are core transducers and regulators in many adaptation and developmental processes of plants. Ca2+ signals are represented by stimulus-specific signatures that result from the concerted action of channels, pumps, and carriers that shape temporally and spatially defined Ca2+ elevations. Cellular Ca2+ signals are decoded and transmitted by a toolkit of Ca2+ binding proteins that relay this information into downstream responses. Major transduction routes of Ca2+ signaling involve Ca2+-regulated kinases mediating phosphorylation events that orchestrate downstream responses or comprise regulation of gene expression via Ca2+-regulated transcription factors and Ca2+-responsive promoter elements. Here, we review some of the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years, especially in identifying critical components functioning in Ca2+ signal transduction, both at the single-cell and multicellular level. Despite impressive progress in our understanding of the processing of Ca2+ signals during the past years, the elucidation of the exact mechanistic principles that underlie the specific recognition and conversion of the cellular Ca2+ currency into defined changes in protein–protein interaction, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression and thereby establish the specificity in stimulus response coupling remain to be explored. PMID:20354197

  11. ENZYMATIC PROCESSES USED BY PLANTS TO DEGRADE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of recent plant enzyme systems that have been studied in uptake and transformation of organic contaminants. General procedures of plant preparation and enzyme isolation are covered. Six plant enzyme systems have been investigated for activity with selected pollut...

  12. ST. LOUIS DEMONSTRATION: REFUSE PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT, FACILITIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and power plants. Data on plant material flows and oper...

  13. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  14. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... three nuclear plants, 11 coal-fired plants, 12 gas-fired plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, and a pumped... load generation to balance resources with the projected load requirements. Neither coal- fired nor... Unit 1 also would provide TVA more flexibility to idle existing coal plants. These conclusions...

  15. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  16. 78 FR 71676 - NUREG-1482, Revision 2, “Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Final Report”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... comments on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52355) and is available in ADAMS under Accession No. ML112231412. This... of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) incorporates by reference (76 FR 36232-36279), dated July... COMMISSION NUREG-1482, Revision 2, ``Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Final...

  17. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  18. Ice fog abatement and pollution reduction at a subarctic coal-fired heating plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, L.E.; Seifert, R.; Zarling, J.; Johnson, R.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment advanced the work began by Porteous and Wallis (1965) to a stage of field evaluation for a less than full scale system. Flue gas was diverted from the existing power plant stack through the experimental system for test purposes. A cold water spray was directed into the muzzle of the experimental stack counter-current to the direction of flue gas flow to cool the gas, condense combustion-produced water vapor and scrub the gas stream of potential pollutants before they were released to the atmosphere. Because of several factors, the system at this stage of development proved ineffective for its main function of ice fog reduction. Some of the problems could be prevented by changes in the design of the system and some remain inconclusive and not well understood. Results show that the scrubbing function was more successful. Environmental considerations such as process water treatment and disposal presented no major obstacles, however, the potential to recover waste from the system does not appear favorable.

  19. Fuel cell balance of plant cost analysis. Final report, June 1994-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.; Senetar, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    M-C Power Corporation currently plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. However, the balance of plant (BOP) facilities, such as fuel processing, waste heat recovery, inverter, and air supply system, have not received equal attention even though their combined cost may surpass the stack cost by a ratio of 2 to 1. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit to ensure M-C Power`s current development program will lead to a competitive product.

  20. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  1. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  2. Molecular methods to assess Listeria monocytogenes route of contamination in a dairy processing plant.

    PubMed

    Alessandria, Valentina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2010-07-31

    In this study we investigated the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in a dairy processing plant during two sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Samples represented by semifinished and finished cheeses, swabs from the equipment and brines from the salting step, were subjected to analysis by using traditional and molecular methods, represented mainly by quantitative PCR. Comparing the results obtained by the application of the two approaches used, it became evident how traditional microbiological analysis underestimated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the dairy plant. Especially samples of the brines and the equipment swabs were positive only with qPCR. For some equipment swabs it was possible to detect a load of 10(4)-10(5) cfu/cm(2), while the modified ISO method employed gave negative results both before and after the enrichment step. The evidences collected during the first sampling year, highlighting a heavy contamination of the brines and of the equipment, lead to the implementation of specific actions that decreased the contamination in these samples during the 2008 campaign. However, no reduction in the number of L. monocytogenes positive final products was observed, suggesting that a more strict control is necessary to avoid the presence of the pathogen. All the isolates of L. monocytogenes were able to attach to abiotic surfaces, and, interestingly, considering the results obtained from their molecular characterization it became evident how strains present in the brines, were genetically connected with isolates from the equipment and from the final product, suggesting a clear route of contamination of the pathogen in the dairy plant. This study underlines the necessity to use appropriate analytical tools, such as molecular methods, to fully understand the spread and persistence of L. monocytogenes in food producing companies. PMID:20193970

  3. In-line process instrumentation for geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, D.W.; Robertus, R.J.; Sullivan, R.G.; Kindle, C.H.; Pierce, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The economics of geothermal power depend on satisfactory plant reliability of continuous operation. Plant problems and extended downtime due to corrosion failures, scale buildup, or injection well plugging have affected many past geothermal projects. If in-line instrumentation can be developed to alert plant operators to correctable problems, then the cost and reliability of geothermal power will be improved. PNL has completed a problem of development of in-line corrosion and chemical instrumentation for binary cycle plants, and this technology has been used to set up a monitoring program at the Heber Binary Demonstration Power Plant. The current emphasis has shifted to development of particle meters for use on injection lines and CO/sub 2/ and pH probes for use in control of calcite scaling. Plans have been outlined to develop and demonstrate flash plant instrumentation for corrosion monitoring, scaling, steam purity, and injection line particle counting. 2 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Interactions of Science and Technology in the Innovative Process: Some Case Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Columbus Labs.

    This is the final report of the latest effort in a series sponsored by the National Science Foundation on the innovation process. It adds to the store of retrospective case studies by documenting historically the significant events in several technological innovations of high social impact. These cases, drawn together by the Battelle Columbus…

  5. A Process of Students and Their Instructor Developing a Final Closed-Book Mathematics Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapke, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study, from a Canadian technical institute's upgrading mathematics course, where students played a role in developing the final closed-book exam that they sat. The study involved a process where students developed practice exams and solutions keys, students sat each other's practice exams, students evaluated classmates'…

  6. 14 CFR 11.31 - How does FAA process direct final rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does FAA process direct final rules? 11.31 Section 11.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.31 How does FAA...

  7. An Exploration of Metamemory Processes in Mildly and Moderately Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyde, Donna R.; Altman, Reuben

    The document provides the final report of a study on metamemory processes (involving the individual's knowledge of his own memory functions) in 120 mildly and moderately retarded children (5-16 years old). Covered in Chapter I is literature on research needs, project phases, general memory development, metamemory development, and strategic…

  8. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  9. Seasonal uncoupling of demographic processes in a marine clonal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaró, O.; Romero, J.; Pérez, M.

    2014-04-01

    In temperate regions, climatic factors impose a general seasonal pattern on seagrass growth that can be observed in leaf growth rates and, in small species, also in shoot density. Large variations in shoot density suggest a strong temporal uncoupling between shoot recruitment and shoot mortality, and the dependence of each of these processes on different drivers. Here we examine seasonal patterns of recruitment and mortality in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, one of the species most sensitive to seasonal forcing in the Mediterranean. We sampled two local populations submitted to different nutrient availability in Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) and determined recruitment and mortality rates, as well as other plant traits, on a monthly basis. Our results confirm the hypothesized uncoupling, with maximum mortality 2 months after maximum recruitment. Whereas timing of recruitment was associated with light availability, and was supported by carbohydrate remobilisation, mortality was related to high water temperatures and probably also to light limitation in late summer due to self-shading. In the high-nutrient population, algal overgrowth caused further light deprivation, with mortality rates higher than in the low-nutrient population. It is emphasised that the demographic balance of the studied populations was negative for most of the year, with the exception of August and September. Therefore, caution is necessary when overall population trends are inferred from single annual sampling events.

  10. Quaternary diversification in European alpine plants: pattern and process.

    PubMed Central

    Kadereit, Joachim W; Griebeler, Eva Maria; Comes, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Molecular clock approaches applied previously to European alpine plants suggest that Primula sect. Auricula, Gentiana sect. Ciminalis and Soldanella diversified at the beginning of the Quaternary or well within this period, whereas Globularia had already started diversifying in the (Late-)Tertiary. In the first part of this paper we present evidence that, in contrast to Globularia and Soldanella, the branching patterns of the molecular internal transcribed spacer phylogenies of both Primula and Gentiana are incompatible with a constant-rates birth-death model. In both of these last two taxa, speciation probably decreased through Quaternary times, perhaps because of some niche-filling process and/or a decrease in specific range size. In the second part, we apply nonlinear regression analyses to the lineage-through-time plots of P. sect. Auricula to test a range of capacity-dependent models of diversification, and the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations on diversification and extinction. At least for one major clade of sect. Auricula there is firm evidence that both diversification and extinction are a function of temperature. Intriguingly, temperature appears to be correlated positively with extinction, but negatively with diversification. This suggests that diversification did not take place, as previously assumed, in geographical isolation in high-altitude interglacial refugia, but rather at low altitudes in geographically isolated glacial refugia. PMID:15101582

  11. Plant resource history effects on contemporary microbial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Background/Questions/Methods Soil microbial communities play a pivotal role in providing ecosystem services, given that they are key drivers of biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling. As species-rich communities, made-up of populations with short generation times, it is commonly assumed that there is a high degree of functional redundancy within soil communities with respect to broad-physiological processes, such as organic carbon decomposition. This assumption underlies the majority of terrestrial ecosystem models, where relationships between processes and controlling factors are parameterized using statistical relationships generated from measurements across space. However, microbial communities display biogeographic patterns, even at fine scales and it is possible that these patterns extend to influence their function. I first present experiments that combine common garden and reciprocal transplant approaches to test whether microbial communities sourced from distinct habitats across the contiguous United States exhibit functional similarity (i.e. redundancy) or dissimilarity in common environments. The environments are experimental microcosms composed of leaf litters differing markedly in recalcitrance. Following inoculation with the microbial communities, decomposition rates are followed across 300 days. Next, using a similar experimental microcosm design, I present experiments that test whether a common resource history might cause communities, which are initially dissimilar, to converge functionally. Distinct microbial communities are introduced into a fresh litter environment every 100 days for 300 days total. Finally, I present an experiment to test whether functional convergence (either partial or complete) is associated with a reduction in function in alternate environments (essentially a functional ‘trade-off'). In this last experiment decomposition rates are measured for 100 days in alternate environments following 300 days of

  12. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. Filter media candidates were evaluated for dewatering the ultrafine ash (UFA) product. Media candidates were selected based on manufacturer recommendations and evaluated using standard batch filtration techniques. A final media was selected; 901F, a multifilament polypropylene. While this media would provide adequate solids capture and cake moisture, the use of flocculants would be necessary to enable adequate filter throughput. Several flocculant chemistries were also evaluated and it was determined that polyethylene oxide (PEO) at a dosage of 5 ppm (slurry basis) would be the most suitable in terms of both settling rate and clarity. PEO was evaluated on a continuous vacuum filter using 901F media. The optimum cycle time was found to be 1.25 minutes which provided a 305% moisture cake, 85% solids capture with a throughput of 115 lbs dry solids per hour and a dry cake rate of 25 lb/ft2/hr. Increasing cycle time not did not reduce cake moisture or increase throughput. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities.

  13. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  14. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  15. Analysis of the presence of improper materials in the composting process performed in ten MBT plants.

    PubMed

    Montejo, C; Ramos, P; Costa, C; Márquez, M C

    2010-11-01

    Composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) reduces the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. However, the final product or compost used as organic soil amendment shows a large presence of improper materials and alarming concentrations of heavy metals. In this work, 30 samples of OFMSW before and after composting have been characterized to determine qualitatively and quantitatively this contamination and its origin. In addition, technical features of the equipment installed in 10 waste treatment plants have been assessed because of their influence on the streams involved in the composting process. Results show 78.2% of the samples stabilized by composting to be organic matter and the rest corresponds to improper materials, mainly paper, plastic and glass. Origin is due to the composting feedstocks, the OFMSW obtained by size separation in trommels which, due to non-source separation and poor selectivity, contains one third of impurities. In seven of the 30 samples household batteries were found. PMID:20594823

  16. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  17. Differences in how rice plants processes arsenic in their cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As), a carcinogenic heavy metal, is a problem in some drinking water and staple food supplies around the world. Rice plants readily uptake arsenic and transport a portion of it into the grain. Arsenic is also toxic to plants; therefore mechanisms that reduce toxicity or accumulation have ev...

  18. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K.; Mode, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k = 1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.38). When less dispersed with k = 2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. PMID:22079419

  19. TRW/ORE-IDA potato-processing project: construction phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, J; Logan, J

    1981-07-23

    A solar process heat system has been installed at an existing potato processing plant in Oregon. After a brief description of the location, commercial hardware, predicted performance and contracting procedures, the system is described subsystem-by-subsystem, including the parabolic trough collector field, steam generator, freeze prevention, computerized control system, data acquisition system, and various ancillary equipment. The operating modes are discussed, including normal operation, freeze prevention, control, and data acquisition operation. The construction process and problems encountered during construction and start-up are discussed. A paper on the control scheme and the data acquisition system functional specification are appended. A set of 23 record drawings illustrates the system. (LEW)

  20. 75 FR 77528 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Federal Register: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background A final rule to... Federal Register on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30714) (the final ESA 4(d) Rule). The final ESA 4(d) Rule, other... Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon; Permit and Reporting Requirements AGENCY:...

  1. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters. PMID:23589270

  2. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  3. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  4. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  5. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  6. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Aaron J.; Donze, Teresa; Palmer, Nathan A.; Bradshaw, Jeff; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Twigg, Paul; Tobias, Christian M.; Lagrimini, Mark; Sarath, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses, such as the partially annotated genome for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and some related diploid species. In its current version, the switchgrass genome contains 65,878 gene models arising from the A and B genomes of this tetraploid grass. The availability of these gene sequences provides a framework to exploit transcriptomic data obtained from next-generation sequencing platforms to address questions of biological importance. One such question pertains to discovery of genes and proteins important for biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these components might affect biomass quality and stress response in plants engineered for a specific end purpose. It can be expected that production of switchgrass on marginal lands will expose plants to diverse stresses, including herbivory by insects. Class III plant peroxidases have been implicated in many developmental responses such as lignification and in the adaptive responses of plants to insect feeding. Here, we have analyzed the class III peroxidases encoded by the switchgrass genome, and have mined available transcriptomic datasets to develop a first understanding of the expression profiles of the class III peroxidases in different plant tissues. Lastly, we have identified switchgrass peroxidases that appear to be orthologs of enzymes shown to play key roles in lignification and plant defense responses to hemipterans. PMID:23802005

  7. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  9. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from <0.8 to 4.4 log CFU/g and from 4.9 to 8.3 log CFU/g, respectively. LAB levels on equipment surfaces ranged from <1.3 to 4.8 log CFU/100 cm(2). Leuconostoc was detected in 35% of the samples, and 88 Leuconostoc spp. strains were isolated and genotyped. The main Leuconostoc spp. isolated were L. mesenteroides (37 genotypes), L. fallax (29 genotypes), and L. lactis (6 genotypes). Some strains of Leuconostoc isolated from equipment surfaces and sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces. PMID:26613911

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  11. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  12. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  13. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  14. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  15. Direct-flash-steam geothermal-power-plant assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. The analysis was to include consideration of system and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  16. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  17. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

    2007-11-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

  18. Coal-fired power plant ash utilization in the TVA region. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.L.; Weeter, D.W.; Davis, W.T.

    1980-10-01

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported methods of coal ash use, emphasizing potential markets in the TVA system; and (3) to recommend potential R and D for coal ash use in the TVA system. Uses discussed include: concrete mixtures, mineral and magnetite recovery, lightweight aggregate, wastewater treatment, sanitary landfill liners, cenosphere reuse, agriculture, mineral wool insulation, and bituminous paving mixtures. The TVA region's predominant historical use of fly ash has been as a concrete additive; however, extensive pilot scale development is underway to advance ash use in the TVA region in such areas as mineral and magnetite recovery, and mineral wool insulaton. Recommended studies include: (1) the feasibility of converting existing wet fly ash collection systems to dry collection and storage; (2) mechanical properties of ash to learn how to separate nonfloating cenospheres from ash; (3) other mineral recovery process choices (in addition to the one with Mineral Gas Co.); and (4) the potential uses, markets, generation points, transportation, and feasibility of extensive coal ash utilization in the TVA area.

  19. Bibliography of the Maryland Power Plant Research Program, sixteenth edition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.

    1995-02-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Report Availability; General Power Plant Related Research; Air Monitoring and Air Quality Studies; Acid Deposition Studies; Power Plant Studies in the Upper Chesapeake Bay and Lower Susquehanna River; Potomac River Fisheries Program; Combustion By-Product Studies; Site-Specific Monitoring Programs; Radiological Monitoring and Nuclear Evaluations; Site Evaluation Studies; Regional Siting Studies; Transmission Lines; Economic Studies and Alternate Energy Sources; Cumulative Environmental Impact Reports; and Record of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Act.

  20. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  1. B Plant canyon sample TK-21-1 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1998-04-10

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for the TK-21-1 sample collected from the B Plant Canyon on February 18, 1998. The sample was analyzed in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for B Plant Solutions (SAP) (Simmons, 1997) in support of the B Plant decommissioning project. Samples were analyzed to provide data both to describe the material which would remain in the tanks after the B Plant transition is complete and to determine Tank Farm compatibility. The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1).

  2. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current Power System,'' Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML102510119 for DC/ COL-ISG-021 and ADAMS Accession No. ML102510164 for Attachment 1 to......

  3. Medicaid Program; Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems (90/10). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    This final rule will extend enhanced funding for Medicaid eligibility systems as part of a state's mechanized claims processing system, and will update conditions and standards for such systems, including adding to and updating current Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) conditions and standards. These changes will allow states to improve customer service and support the dynamic nature of Medicaid eligibility, enrollment, and delivery systems. PMID:26638224

  4. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  5. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the results of combustion testing work, and analysis of heat recovery and use at the Monroe County Frank E. Van Lare wastwater treatment plant (WWTP). The three multiple-hearth furnaces at the plant process an average of 65 dry tons of dewatered sludge per day. The furnaces use about 12.5 million Btus of natural gas per dry ton of sludge incinerated, or about 300 billion Btus per year. Center shaft and rabble arm cooling air is recirculated to the furnaces as pre-heated combustion air. No other heat from the combustion process is recovered for use in the plant. The project had four objectives: to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; to ascertain instrumentation and control needs; to calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and to determine the feasibility of full waste-heat recovery and utilization, at the Frank E. Van Lare wastewater treatment plant.

  6. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  7. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Final progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    This research focused on unusual post-translational modifications occuring in a arginine decarboxylase cDNA clone in oats. A novel regulatory mechanism for polyamines was explored and an attempt was made to characterize it. A plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA was identified in Arabidopsis. Further work remains on the mechanisms of polyamine regulation and function in plants.

  8. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  9. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  10. High-strength wastewater treatment in a pure oxygen thermophilic process: 11-year operation and monitoring of different plant configurations.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, M C; Bertanza, G; Sordi, M; Pedrazzani, R

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out on a full-scale pure oxygen thermophilic plant, operated and monitored throughout a period of 11 years. The plant treats 60,000 t y⁻¹ (year 2013) of high-strength industrial wastewaters deriving mainly from pharmaceuticals and detergents production and landfill leachate. Three different plant configurations were consecutively adopted: (1) biological reactor + final clarifier and sludge recirculation (2002-2005); (2) biological reactor + ultrafiltration: membrane biological reactor (MBR) (2006); and (3) MBR + nanofiltration (since 2007). Progressive plant upgrading yielded a performance improvement chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was enhanced by 17% and 12% after the first and second plant modification, respectively. Moreover, COD abatement efficiency exhibited a greater stability, notwithstanding high variability of the influent load. In addition, the following relevant outcomes appeared from the plant monitoring (present configuration): up to 96% removal of nitrate and nitrite, due to denitrification; low-specific biomass production (0.092 kgVSS kgCODremoved⁻¹), and biological treatability of residual COD under mesophilic conditions (BOD5/COD ratio = 0.25-0.50), thus showing the complementarity of the two biological processes. PMID:25746652

  11. Nitrogen cycling and water pulses in semiarid grasslands: Are microbial and plant processes temporarily asynchronous?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation pulses in arid ecosystems can lead to temporal asynchrony in microbial and plant processing of nitrogen (N) during drying/wetting cycles causing increased N loss. In contrast, more consistent availability of soil moisture in mesic ecosystems can synchronize microbial and plant processe...

  12. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  13. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

  14. Thermoeconomic optimizarion of OC-OTEC electricity and water production plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Girgis, M.A.; Huggins, J.C.; McCluney, R.; Rotundo, L.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Hutchings, B.J.; Stacy, W.D.; Sam, R.G.; Patel, B.R.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of this yearlong project were to: (1) assess the economic and technical viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion of (OC-OTEC) for the production of electricity and/or fresh water based on the current state of the art; (2) develop conceptual designs of optimized OC-OTEC plants that produce electricity and/or fresh water for plant sizes that are economically attractive; and (3) identify the research issues that must be resolved before a commercial plant can be built. Oceanographic data for six potential sites were evaluated and generic site characteristics were developed. The generic site has a 20/sup 0/C temperature differential between the ocean surface and a depth of 1000 m. This temperature differential occurs at a distance of 5 km from shore. Current and projected prices and requirements for electricity and water at potential sites were obtained. The state of the art of components comprising the OC-OTEC plant was reviewed. Design options for each component were identified. The highest performing, least costly, and least technically uncertain design for each component was selected. Component cost and performance models were then developed and integrated into thermoeconomic system models for single- and double-stage OC-OTEC plants that produced electricity and/or fresh water. A computerized optimization procedure was developed to obtain optimal (minimum cost) plant configurations for the production of electricity and/or fresh water. All plant types - floating, moored, shelf-mounted, shallow-water and land-based plants - were evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art and typical characteristics of potential sites, the primary thrust of the program was directed towards shallow-water and land-based plants. The shallow-water/land-based plant configurations selected had a 5-km long cold-water supply pipe and a 1-km long discharge pipe for the evaporator and condenser.

  15. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1995-03-31

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

  16. Biological activated carbon process for treatment of potato processing wastewater for in-plant reuse. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Y.T.; Priebe, B.D.

    1981-10-01

    Like many other food processing industries, potato processing could create a serious pollution problem. An average-sized processing plant, producing french fries and dehydrated potatoes, can generate a waste load equivalent to a city of 200,000 people. Any discharge of wastes into these waters would immediately result in detrimental effects to the environment. In a plant processing 15,000 tons of potatoes per year, 60 million gallons of water are required. With proper treatment, a large percentage of the wastewater could be reclaimed and reused in the potato processing plant. The scope of the study includes the operation of completely mixed activated sludge (CMAS) reactors as secondary treatment, and anaerobic upflow continuous biological activated carbon (BAC) and biological sand columns as tertiary treatment for potato processing wastewaters.

  17. Prioritizing and scheduling Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant safeguards upgrades. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, T.; Saleh, R.; Zevanove, S.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the Site Safeguards and Security Plan (SSSP), facilities are required to develop a Resource Plan (RP). The Resource Plan provides documentation and justification for the facility`s planned upgrades, including the schedule, priority, and cost estimates for the safeguards and security upgrades. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) management has identified and obtained funding approval for a number of safeguards and security upgrades, including line-item construction projects. These upgrade projects were selected to address a variety of concerns identified in the PORTS vulnerability assessments and other reviews performed in support of the SSSP process. However, budgeting and scheduling constraints do not make it possible to simultaneously begin implementation of all of the upgrade projects. A formal methodology and analysis are needed to explicitly address the trade-offs between competing safeguards objectives, and to prioritize and schedule the upgrade projects to ensure that the maximum benefit can be realized in the shortest possible time frame. The purpose of this report is to describe the methodology developed to support these upgrade project scheduling decisions. The report also presents the results obtained from applying the methodology to a set of the upgrade projects selected by PORTS S&S management. Data for the analysis are based on discussions with personnel familiar with the PORTS safeguards and security needs, the requirements for implementing these upgrades, and upgrade funding limitations. The analysis results presented here assume continued highly enriched uranium (HEU) operations at PORTS. However, the methodology developed is readily adaptable for the evaluation of other operational scenarios and other resource allocation issues relevant to PORTS.

  18. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  19. PROCESSABILITY OF FLAX PLANT STALKS INTO FUNCTIONAL BAST FIBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an agricultural crop that is being considered as cost effective alternative to glass in composites. Flax is nature's composite with strong bast fibers held together in bundles adn located in the outer regions of the plant stem between the outermost cuticle-epidermis ...

  20. [Protein carbonylation and its role in physiological processes in plants].

    PubMed

    Debska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) continuously as a byproducts of oxygen metabolism and reaction to various environmental stresses. ROS are considered as chemicals inducing damage of cellular components (DNA, lipids and proteins), but also might act as signaling agents. Protein oxidation is one of covalent modification of protein induced by ROS or other products of oxidative stress. Carbonylation of particular amino acid residues (arginine, lysine, treonine or proline) is one of the most commonly occurring oxidative modification of proteins. This modification might lead to alteration in protein activity, its proteolytic breakdown or, in the opposite, aggregate formation. Carbonylated proteins have been identified in many plant species at different stage of growth and development. The analysis of subcellular localization of carbonylated proteins arised the hypothesis on their signaling function. We summarize the current knowledge on the detection of carbonylation protein in plants taking to the account the conditions which may influence their production or removal. We present also their putative role in plant physiology and discuss interaction between ROS and RNS in regulation of protein carbonylation. PMID:23214127

  1. Design and acquisition process for the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bowman, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    In August 1984, the USAF entered into a joint agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider nuclear energy as an alternative to meet secure power requirements. With USAF approval, the DOE began development of the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant (MTPP), a nuclear reactor power plant capable of providing safe, sustained, secure, reliable, and economic power to key mission facilities. The MTPP would provide base-load electricity and/or thermal energy as well as energy to key mission facilities. The plant would operate for extended time periods (months or years) without refueling and be independent of off-site support. The MTPP is to be designed to the most modern standards and is to meet USAF and DOE design requirements. Except for a few unique features that assure the plant is capable of supporting military missions, the design would meet licensing criteria. A few of the major design criteria are described. Procurement, and design efforts are also discussed.

  2. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses and related di...

  3. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  4. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1997-07-01

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  5. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/ on plant communities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzaz, F.A.

    1984-10-01

    We have studied the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on communities of colonizing annual plants, crop plants, and deciduous forest trees. We observe differential effects on different species with regard to growth, biomass, phenology, resource allocation, photosynthesis, water-use efficiency, flowering, and fruiting. We conclude that competitive relations among plants are likely to change as global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases, and that therefore there will be longterm changes in the composition of natural communities. More research will be necessary before any but the very broadest conclusions can be made about what direction these community changes are likely to take. 10 references, 9 figures.

  6. Application of ultrasound in textile wet processing, Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.

    1992-11-01

    The US textile industry urgently needs new technologies to keep the industry competitive. This study was designed to develop a pilot plant-scale ultrasonic continuous yarn-dyeing system and to establish a foundation for continuing research in the use of ultrasonic energy in textile processes. On the basis of their findings in the literature on ultrasound-enhanced textile wet processing, researchers designed laboratory- and pilot-scale equipment and conducted studies using various dye and fiber combinations. In laboratory studies they used small vessels of approximately 1-liter capacity and ultrasound probes of 400--1200 W output. Pilot studies were conducted in a 40-gallon dye tank using ultrasound power of approximately 5 kW. Investigations on dye diffusion showed that ultrasound increased diffusion coefficients by typically 30% and permeability coefficients by more than 300%, thereby enhancing dye penetration. The apparent activation energy of diffusion was decreased by approximately 24%. The decrease in activation energy shows a potential for reducing dyeing temperatures. Ultrasound also increased the reactivity of fiber-reactive dyes. Researchers obtained the most promising pilot plant results in the dyeing of nylon with acid dyes. Ultrasonic techniques may also benefit polyester dyed with disperse dyes. One hundred percent polyester dyed in the laboratory had approximately 150 percent increased depth. This knowledge of ultrasonic effects on fundamental processes leads to a better design for the dyeing process in pilot plant and commercial scale-up applications. The study shows that the use of ultrasound for dyeing will replace expensive thermal energy and chemicals, which have to be treated in waste water, with electricity. It also improves the quality of dyed fiber, thereby potentially enhancing the competitiveness of the US textile industry.

  7. Energy conservation study on Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, Hermiston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-21

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant in Hermiston, Oregon. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specifc modificiations to process equipment. The Hermiston plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products, including french fries, breakfast products, and a dinner product. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product but does not have on-site, long-term cold storage. The Hermiston plant purchases electricity from the Umatilla Rural Electrical Association (REA) on two main services: a 12.7 KV, three phase service for the electric boiler, and a three phase, 480 volt service that provides electricity for all other functions in the main plant (the wheelturning load).

  8. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  9. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  10. 30 CFR 1206.363 - When is an ONRR audit, review, reconciliation, monitoring, or other like process considered final?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., monitoring, or other like process considered final? 1206.363 Section 1206.363 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT... other like process considered final? Notwithstanding any provision in these regulations to the...

  11. Development study: Boiler plant and cogeneration. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-29

    This study, conducted by Sebesta Blomberg and Associates, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of PICOP Resources, Inc. The report assesses the feasibility of modernizing the power plant serving the Plywood, Paper, and Wood Products plant located in Bislig, Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to document the general condition of the power plant and the steam and electric infrastructure at the facility, identify cost reduction measures, identify methods to eliminate use of pulp and board quality wood as fuel resources, and to identify a structure of owning and operating the power plant which would reduce the capital required by PICOP. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Letter of Introduction; (2) Table of Contents; (3) Introduction; (4) Scope of Study; (5) Executive Summary; (6) Description of Existing Conditions; (7) Base Economic Model; (8) Description of Alternatives; (9) Conclusion and Recommendations; (10) Appendix.

  12. Rangeland - plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2}. Final report, October 1988--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Research is described on plant (tallgrass) response to elevated carbon dioxide. Variables addressed include biomass production, as well as water use efficiency, photosynthetic capacity, decomposition, nutrient cycling, and forage quality.

  13. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  14. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  15. [The airborne 1,3-butadiene concentrations in rubber and plastic processing plants].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki; Tainaka, Hidetsugu; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Goto, Sumio

    2002-03-01

    Environment pollution by 1,3-butadiene had considerably increased in Japan. The main cause of the pollution is the automotive exhaust gas, and leaks from factories, smoking, and burning of rubber and plastic products are considered to be minor sources. The object of this study was to determine the contamination levels of airborne 1,3-butadiene in factories processing rubber and plastics containing 1,3-butadiene. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene were measured in 21 plants (10 rubber processing plants and 11 plastics processing plants) in Osaka. 1,3-Butadiene in air was collected for 10 minutes with a charcoal tube and a portable small pump adjusted to a 250 ml/min flow rate. In each plant, indoor air samples at five points and an outdoor air sample at one point outside the plant were collected. The samples were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after thermal desorption from the charcoal. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene in the rubber processing plants and the plastics processing plants were 0.14-2.20 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.48 microgram/m3) and 0.23-4.51 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.80 microgram/m3), respectively. In all plants examined, indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were higher than the outdoor concentrations around the plants. Therefore, 1,3-butadiene was considered to arise from the processing of rubber or plastics, but the indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were much lower than the PEL-TWA (1 ppm = 2.21 mg/m3) of OSHA and the TLV-TWA (2 ppm) of ACGIH. The concentrations in the plants with closed room conditions without ventilation were higher than the concentrations in the other plants. It was suggested that ventilation affected the 1,3-butadiene concentration in the plants. PMID:11993233

  16. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  17. Design and cost study of critical OC-OTEC plant components: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, J.A.; Jasinski, T.; Stacey, W.D.; Patel, B.R.; Dolan, F.Y.

    1988-06-01

    During the FY 1983-84, system analysis studies were performed by the Florida Solar Energy Center and Creare Inc. to assess the economic and technological viability of the OC-OTEC concept for producing both electricity and fresh water on a small scale. A major conclusion of the study was that land-based OC-OTEC plants as small as 10 MWe may be economically feasible in island communities if cost credits are taken for the fresh water produced. The present study builds upon and extends the results of that work. Assess the effect of the seasonal variation in the ocean surface water temperature on the performance of OC-OTEC plants; evaluate the technical feasibility of building small scale OC-OTEC plants using existing low pressure steam turbine rotor designs; refine the plant structure model developed during the Phase I study; and develop background information and analyses to evaluate the various alternative strategies for handling noncondensible gases in OC-OTEC plants. Refinements in OC-OTEC plant performance and cost models performed during the present study have reduced the estimated cost of a 10 MW baseline plant from 99 to 72M$. Further cost reduction of 5 to 10M$ is anticipated from the revised structure cost model and the implementation of barometric leg deaeration and hydraulic compression. Therefore, the results from this study reinforce the earlier conclusion that small-scale OC-OTEC plants are competitive at present for the production of electricity and fresh water in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. OC-OTEC represents a technology with significant potential. We recommend that it be aggressively pursued. 33 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  19. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  20. MAINTAINING SOIL PROCESSES FOR PLANT PRODUCTIVITY AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rangeland soil biota affect soil properties and processes that control the availability of water and nutrients that are essential for the maintenance of productivity and vegetation composition. oil processes mediated by soil biota include decomposition, nutrient immobilization an...

  1. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  2. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  3. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  4. Site-specific earthquake response analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Davis, J.J.

    1993-08-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated under contract by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., is located southwest of Paducah, Kentucky. An aerial photograph and an oblique sketch of the plant are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The fenced portion of the plant consists of 748 acres. This plant was constructed in the 1950`s and is one of only two gaseous diffusion plants in operation in the United States; the other is located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The facilities at PGDP are currently being evaluated for safety in response to natural seismic hazards. Design and evaluation guidelines to evaluate the effects of earthquakes and other natural hazards on DOE facilities follow probabilistic hazard models that have been outlined by Kennedy et al. (1990). Criteria also established by Kennedy et al. (1990) classify diffusion plants as ``moderate hazard`` facilities. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was tasked to calculate the site response using site-specific design earthquake records developed by others and the results of previous geotechnical investigations. In all, six earthquake records at three hazard levels and four individual and one average soil columns were used.

  5. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  6. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  7. The Theory of High Energy Collision Processes - Final Report DOE/ER/40158-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai, T.

    2011-09-15

    In 1984, DOE awarded Harvard University a new Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 to continue their support of Tai Tsun Wu as Principal Investigator of research on the theory of high energy collision processes. This Grant was renewed and remained active continuously from June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Topics of interest during the 23-year duration of this Grant include: the theory and phenomenology of collision and production processes at ever higher energies; helicity methods of QED and QCD; neutrino oscillations and masses; Yang-Mills gauge theory; Beamstrahlung; Fermi pseudopotentials; magnetic monopoles and dyons; cosmology; classical confinement; mass relations; Bose-Einstein condensation; and large-momentum-transfer scattering processes. This Final Report describes the research carried out on Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 for the period June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Two books resulted from this project and a total of 125 publications.

  8. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  9. Pollination and seed dispersal are the most threatened processes of plant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Mueller, Thomas; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Plant regeneration is essential for maintaining forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are globally threatened by human disturbance. Here we present the first integrative meta-analysis on how forest disturbance affects multiple ecological processes of plant regeneration including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, recruitment and herbivory. We analysed 408 pairwise comparisons of these processes between near-natural and disturbed forests. Human impacts overall reduced plant regeneration. Importantly, only processes early in the regeneration cycle that often depend on plant-animal interactions, i.e. pollination and seed dispersal, were negatively affected. Later processes, i.e. seed predation, recruitment and herbivory, showed overall no significant response to human disturbance. Conserving pollination and seed dispersal, including the animals that provide these services to plants, should become a priority in forest conservation efforts globally. PMID:27435026

  10. Pollination and seed dispersal are the most threatened processes of plant regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Mueller, Thomas; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Plant regeneration is essential for maintaining forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are globally threatened by human disturbance. Here we present the first integrative meta-analysis on how forest disturbance affects multiple ecological processes of plant regeneration including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, recruitment and herbivory. We analysed 408 pairwise comparisons of these processes between near-natural and disturbed forests. Human impacts overall reduced plant regeneration. Importantly, only processes early in the regeneration cycle that often depend on plant-animal interactions, i.e. pollination and seed dispersal, were negatively affected. Later processes, i.e. seed predation, recruitment and herbivory, showed overall no significant response to human disturbance. Conserving pollination and seed dispersal, including the animals that provide these services to plants, should become a priority in forest conservation efforts globally. PMID:27435026

  11. Assessment of four biodiesel production processes using HYSYS.Plant.

    PubMed

    West, Alex H; Posarac, Dusko; Ellis, Naoko

    2008-09-01

    Four continuous biodiesel processes were designed and simulated in HYSYS. The first two employed traditional homogeneous alkali and acid catalysts. The third and fourth processes used a heterogeneous acid catalyst and a supercritical method to convert a waste vegetable oil feedstock into biodiesel. While all four processes were capable of producing biodiesel at high purity, the heterogeneous and supercritical processes were the least complex and had the smallest number of unit operations. Material and energy flows, as well as sized unit operation blocks, were used to conduct an economic assessment of each process. Total capital investment, total manufacturing cost and after tax rate-of-return were calculated for each process. The heterogeneous acid catalyst process had the lowest total capital investment and manufacturing costs, and had the only positive after tax rate-of-return. PMID:18234493

  12. When do plants modify fluvial processes? Plant-hydraulic interactions under variable flow and sediment supply rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manners, Rebecca B.; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Kui, Li; Lightbody, Anne F.; Stella, John C.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2015-02-01

    Flow and sediment regimes shape alluvial river channels; yet the influence of these abiotic drivers can be strongly mediated by biotic factors such as the size and density of riparian vegetation. We present results from an experiment designed to identify when plants control fluvial processes and to investigate the sensitivity of fluvial processes to changes in plant characteristics versus changes in flow rate or sediment supply. Live seedlings of two species with distinct morphologies, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii), were placed in different configurations in a mobile sand-bed flume. We measured the hydraulic and sediment flux responses of the channel at different flow rates and sediment supply conditions representing equilibrium (sediment supply = transport rate) and deficit (sediment supply < transport rate). We found that the hydraulic and sediment flux responses during sediment equilibrium represented a balance between abiotic and biotic factors and was sensitive to increasing flow rates and plant species and configuration. Species-specific traits controlled the hydraulic response: compared to cottonwood, which has a more tree-like morphology, the shrubby morphology of tamarisk resulted in less pronation and greater reductions in near-bed velocities, Reynolds stress, and sediment flux rates. Under sediment-deficit conditions, on the other hand, abiotic factors dampened the effect of variations in plant characteristics on the hydraulic response. We identified scenarios for which the highest stem-density patch, independent of abiotic factors, dominated the fluvial response. These results provide insight into how and when plants influence fluvial processes in natural systems.

  13. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg; Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F.; Gary J. Toman; Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  14. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  15. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  16. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.

    1991-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University`s static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

  18. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, J.

    1994-02-01

    Ecosystem productivity in the Arctic is strongly controlled by N availability to plants. Thus, disturbances to the Arctic system are likely to have their greatest impacts by altering the supply of nutrients to plants. Thus, to understand the dynamics of Arctic tundra, a complete understanding of the controls on N cycling in tundra soils is necessary. This project focused on understanding nutrient dynamics in arctic tussock tundra, specifically evaluating the role of microbial uptake and competition for nutrients as a control on plant N-uptake. The project consisted of several major components: Short- and long-term partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in tussock tundra (1990--1991); Measurement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake rates by Eriophorum vaginatum and by soil microbes; Determination of microbial NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{minus} uptake kinetics; and Determination of the partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and amino acids between E. vaginatum and soil microbes.

  19. Effects of acid rain on plant microbial associations in California. Research report (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.; Paul, E.A.

    1984-04-13

    The effects of simulated acid rain of pH 5.6 to 3.0, with ionic composition similar to that found in California, on Trifolium repens, Lupinus densiflorus and L. benthamii grown in two soils were tested. The interactions of treatment intensity, soil type, phosphorus uptake and mycorrhizal influences on growth, carbon fixation and allocation and nitrogen fixation were determined. Acidic treatments generally decreased plant growth, nodulation and nitrogenase activity. The exposure of plants to a large number of simulated rainfall conditions of shorter duration did not result in the negative growth effects. Plants adequately supplied with P, either as fertilizer or by mycorrhizal fungi, were much more resistant to conditions caused by acidic precipitation and in some cases growth increases were found.

  20. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  1. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  2. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  3. Reliability and availability assessments of selected domestic combined-cycle power-generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.W.; Gardner, N.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents the results of reliability and availability assessments performed with the cooperation of seven utilities operating combined-cycle power plants in service since 1974 to evaluate: combined-cycle unit equivalent availability and equivalent forced outage rates; system and component mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean downtime (MDT); and gas turbine reliability correlations with service hours, starting frequency, fuel type, and service factor. A data base was developed for 45 plant components or systems for the period 1978 through 1980; this led to recommendations for improving outage data collection for the purpose of reliability analysis. In addition reliability, availability, and maintainability prediction models for several commercial combined-cycle plant designs were developed and validated.

  4. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  9. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  10. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  11. Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

  12. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4.

  13. Plant training grant: DE-FG02-94ER20162. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Anthony R.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this training grant was to educate students of Plant Science in the disciplines of Biochemistry and Chemistry, in addition to the more traditional courses in Plant Biology. Annual retreats were held which involved a day-long meeting and included lectures from Penn faculty as well as famous national and international scientists. Programs for two of these retreats are included. In addition to lecture courses, students performed research within the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry and Biophysics; a publications list is given.

  14. Combined-cycle power plant experience in Pakistan and Egypt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The paper examines combined cycle power plants installed by A.I.D. in Pakistan and Egypt. Results show that, compared to coal-fired steam plants, the combined-cycle technology has a number of advantages, including: lower capital costs per megawatt, shorter construction schedules, similar availability, higher efficiency, and reduced environmental impact. The report cautions that operations in a power shortage situation induce stresses that may affect long-term reliability or equipment life. Recommendations are offered for electric utilities in developing countries and international donors.

  15. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  16. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Christopher R.; Nawrath, Christiane; Poirier, Yves

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  17. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  18. Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and central cells (female gametes) within an ovule (Fig. 1). The precise mechanism of sperm cell movement after the pollen tube bursts remains unknown. Ultimately, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and the other one fuses with the central cell, producing an embryo and an endosperm, respectively. Fertilization in which 2 sets of gamete fusion events occur, called double fertilization, has been known for over 100 y. The fact that each morphologically identical sperm cell precisely recognizes its fusion partner strongly suggests that an accurate gamete interaction system(s) exists in flowering plants. PMID:25517689

  19. Introduction. Speciation in plants and animals: pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard J; Ritchie, Michael G; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2008-09-27

    Although approximately 150 years have passed since the publication of On the origin of species by means of natural selection, the definition of what species are and the ways in which species originate remain contentious issues in evolutionary biology. The biological species concept, which defines species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups, continues to draw support. However, there is a growing realization that many animal and plant species can hybridize with their close relatives and exchange genes without losing their identity. On occasion, such hybridization can lead to the origin of new species. A key to understanding what species are and the ways in which they originate rests to a large extent on a detailed knowledge of the nature and genetics of factors that limit gene flow between species and the conditions under which such isolation originates. The collection of papers in this issue addresses these topics and deals as well with some specific issues of hybrid speciation and the causes of species radiations. The papers included arise from a 1-day symposium on speciation held during the Sixth Biennial Meeting of the Systematics Association at Edinburgh in August 2007. In this introduction, we provide some background to these papers and highlight some key points made. The papers make clear that highly significant advances to our understanding of animal and plant speciation are currently being made across the range of this topic. PMID:18583278

  20. Solar production of industrial process steam at the Home Cleaning and Laundry Co. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the results of the operation and performance evaluation period at the Home Laundry Solar Industrial Process Heat Project at Pasadena, California. The installation comprises 6496 ft/sup 2/ (603.5 m/sup 2/) of linear parabolic trough concentrating collectors supplying solar thermal energy for use in laundry and dry cleaning processes. The design phase began in September 1977, and an acceptance test was conducted during the week of April 12, 1982. The plant has been in operation since May 1982, with the 12-month Phase III (operational) period starting in October 1982. The objective of the operational evaluation experiment was to maximize energy delivery to the industrial participant while characterizing system performance. Data were acquired for monthly documentation of system performance, maintenance requirements, and operating costs.

  1. Industrial process models of electricity demand. Volume 4. The aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.L.; Coward, H.; Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.A.

    1984-05-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a process model of the US aluminum industry. The model consists of the major process steps in the manufacture of milled and cast aluminum products and is designed to select modes of operation and energy consumption characteristics that minimize the cost of meeting projected demands for the industry's products. Domestic refineries and primary smelters are represented individually in the model. Industry structure in terms of plant ownership and allowed transfers of aluminum-bearing materials is explicitly modeled. With a growth in product demand of 4.2% per year, model results show a decline in electricity intensity of primary production.

  2. Recycling process for aircraft plastics and composites. Final report, May-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, R.E.; Salas, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    A novel low-temperature catalytic recycling process has been investigated for use in reclaiming plastics and composite materials. The plastics and composites were selected to be representative of those used in Air Force aircraft and munitions. Results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products with this novel catalytic conversion process. Conversion times are rapid and the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting. Additional tests on used plastic blast media, a hazardous waste stream, and composite materials demonstrate the utility of the low-temperature catalytic conversion process. Catalytic conversion of used plastic blast media removed the organic components and reduced the volume of hazardous material by a factor of 5. In that form, the remaining heavy metal oxides can be resmelted, eliminating the hazardous waste stream. Epoxy, polyester, imide, and engineering thermoplastic composite matrices are converted into low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving valuable fibers behind that can be reused to fabricate additional composite materials. Economic projections show that a recycling plant based on this process will pay for itself in one to two years. A related technology has been demonstrated on a large scale (100 tons/day) for recycling used tires, which shows that there is a high probability for success with large-scale tertiary recycling of plastics and composites.

  3. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  4. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  5. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  6. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  7. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  8. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  9. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  10. Final Report: Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon, July 20, 1994 - July 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Emanuel

    2000-01-21

    The object of the research of the project was to demonstrate that Si-replete plants prefer Si-deprived ones that the latter are defined to an extent ''experimental artifacts.'' The research was to ''concentrate on describing mechanical and biochemical features.

  11. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Densified biomass as an alternative Army heating and power plant fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, S.A.; Magrino, T.; Lin, J.S.; Duster, K.; Mahon, D.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the technical and economic potential of using densified biomass (principally wood pellets) as a coal substitute in Army heating and power plants. The report reviews Department of Defense (DOD) experience with and tests of wood pellets; production of wood pellets (excluding silvicultural aspects); handling, storing, and feeding; combustion; major environental considerations; and economics of use.

  13. An assessment of radiolytic gas generation: Impacts from Rocky Flats Plant residue elimination alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    This report evaluates the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque analytical model that is used to support present wattage limit decisions for various matrix forms from the Residue Elimination Project for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste acceptability. This study includes (1) a comparison of the SNL-A model to Rocky Flats Plant models for consistency of assumptions and the phenomena considered in the models, and (2) an evaluation of the appropriateness of the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque model to Rocky Flats Plant residues, considering that the original intent was to model wastes rather than residues. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) only real-time gas generation testing of specific waste streams may provide a sound basis for an increase in the transportation wattage limit of specific waste streams, and (2) the radiolytic gas generation rate from Residue Elimination Project waste emplaced at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under worst-case conditions, is not a significant factor in comparison to the total gas generation rate due to radiolysis, microbial degradation, and corrosion.

  14. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  15. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  16. Study of coal-fired power plants in Japan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, A.L.; Falkenberg, R.C.

    1985-06-01

    This is a study of the Japanese utility industry by a team of senior US utility representatives. The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare Japanese coal-fired power plant design, construction, procurement, operation, and maintenance practices with those of the United States; to assess related Japanese technological innovations; and to verify the reported costs, performance, and reliability of Japan's coal-fired power plants. In addition, Japanese plans for developing and adding new coal-fired generating capacity were to be confirmed. The principal source of information was a detailed set of responses from the Japanese utilities to six comprehensive questionnaires developed by the US study team. This information was supplemented with data gathered by the study team during a two-week visit to representative Japanese power plants and manufacturing facilities, and with material developed in meetings with both private and government groups in Japan. The study presents efficiency and availability data indicating excellent performance of the modern Japanese coal-fired power plants. Differences in institutional and cultural factors, along with government and utility priorities, are among the items identified as contributing to these results. A detailed comparison is made of the utility industries of Japan and the United States.

  17. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    .... These groups preferred the No Action Alternative due to their perception of the high cost and safety... and operation of a nuclear plant. The in-depth analysis of the impacts on low-income or minority... related to the construction workforce and the need for mitigation. TVA has undertaken an in-depth...

  18. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  19. Role of HSP100 proteins in plant stress tolerance. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierling, E.

    1998-08-01

    This research focused on the following areas: characterization of HSP100 genes and their expression during stress and development; requirement of HSP101 for thermotolerance; thermotolerance of plants over-expressing HSP100; and identifying interacting proteins that functionally interact with HSP104.

  20. 77 FR 27210 - Publication of the Final National Wetland Plant List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... National Wetland Plant List. Administrative Requirements Plain Language In compliance with the principles in the President's Memorandum of June 1, 1998, (63 FR 31855) regarding plain language, this preamble is written using plain language. The use of ``we'' in this notice refers to the Corps. We have...

  1. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  2. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination Routes in Cold-Smoked Salmon Processing Plants Detected by DNA-Based Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, Bente; Ahrens, Peter; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    The contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants were investigated by analyzing 3,585 samples from products (produced in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999) and processing environments (samples obtained in 1998 and 1999) of two Danish smokehouses. The level of product contamination in plant I varied from 31 to 85%, and no L. monocytogenes was found on raw fish (30 fish were sampled). In plant II, the levels of both raw fish and product contamination varied from 0 to 25% (16 of 185 raw fish samples and 59 of 1,000 product samples were positive for L. monocytogenes). A total of 429 strains of L. monocytogenes were subsequently compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling, and 55 different RAPD types were found. The RAPD types detected on the products were identical to types found on the processing equipment and in the processing environment, suggesting that contamination of the final product (cold-smoked salmon) in both plants (but primarily in plant I) was due to contamination during processing rather than to contamination from raw fish. However, the possibility that raw fish was an important source of contamination of the processing equipment and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic procedures. In plant II, where the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was much lower, no RAPD type persisted over long periods of time, and several different L. monocytogenes RAPD types were isolated. This indicates that persistent strains may be avoided by rigorous cleaning and sanitation; however, due to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, sporadic contamination occurred. A subset of strains was also typed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length

  3. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods.

    PubMed

    Fonnesbech Vogel, B; Huss, H H; Ojeniyi, B; Ahrens, P; Gram, L

    2001-06-01

    The contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants were investigated by analyzing 3,585 samples from products (produced in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999) and processing environments (samples obtained in 1998 and 1999) of two Danish smokehouses. The level of product contamination in plant I varied from 31 to 85%, and no L. monocytogenes was found on raw fish (30 fish were sampled). In plant II, the levels of both raw fish and product contamination varied from 0 to 25% (16 of 185 raw fish samples and 59 of 1,000 product samples were positive for L. monocytogenes). A total of 429 strains of L. monocytogenes were subsequently compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling, and 55 different RAPD types were found. The RAPD types detected on the products were identical to types found on the processing equipment and in the processing environment, suggesting that contamination of the final product (cold-smoked salmon) in both plants (but primarily in plant I) was due to contamination during processing rather than to contamination from raw fish. However, the possibility that raw fish was an important source of contamination of the processing equipment and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic procedures. In plant II, where the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was much lower, no RAPD type persisted over long periods of time, and several different L. monocytogenes RAPD types were isolated. This indicates that persistent strains may be avoided by rigorous cleaning and sanitation; however, due to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, sporadic contamination occurred. A subset of strains was also typed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length

  4. Evaluation of alternative steam generator designs for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion plants: Final report. [AFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, W.

    1987-07-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion development program at the 20 MW pilot plant at TVA's Shawnee Station is addressing several design issues related to the scale-up requirements for utility application. These include use of overbed vs. underbed feed systems for coal, limestone, and recycled solids, load following and control design for reliable operation, and economies of scale. After initial screening of several alternate configurations, conceptual designs of AFBC mechanical overbed and underbed feed power plants in 1 x 200 MW and 2 x 500 MW sizes were prepared. These designs were assessed for efficiency, performance, resource requirements, capital cost and levelized busbar costs and compared to conventional pulverized coal units of similar size. The findings are that relative to the AFBC underbed feed plants, the AFBC overbed feed plant is about $70/kW less expensive at the 200 MW size, and $20/kW more expensive at the 2 x 500 MW size. Also, the capital costs of AFBC units range from $20/kW to $130/kW less than conventional PCF units and the potential exists for further reductions in AFBC capital costs as AFBC technology improves. Levelized busbar costs are essentially the same for both types and sizes of the AFBC units and for the conventional PCF units. Only one coal, Illinois number6 - a high sulfur bituminous coal - was initially evaluated. Subsequently, five additional coals - bituminous, subbituminous and lignite - and plant locations were evaluated. Current testing of less expensive coals is expected to confirm the fuel flexibility of the AFBC units which may result in corresponding reductions in levelized busbar costs. Utility industry confidence in AFBC has recently been expressed by the planned design and construction of fluidized bed units in 100 MW to 160 MW sizes for Colorado Ute Electric Association, Northern States Power Co. and TVA. 5 refs., 38 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. 75 FR 30714 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... portion of its range and listed the species as threatened under the ESA on April 7, 2006 (71 FR 17757). At... be found in the final rule (71 FR 17757; April 7, 2006). No substantive additional comments, beyond... activity on the Southern DPS fish is provided in previous Federal Register notices (70 FR 17386, April...

  6. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., refer to the final listing rule published in the Federal Register on July 2, 2002 (67 FR 44372), the proposed critical habitat designation published in the Federal Register on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 44238... Register on May 18, 2010 (75 FR 27690). New Information on Species' Description, Life History,...

  7. 75 FR 21394 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Hine's Emerald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Register on July 26, 2006 (71 FR 42442); the final listing determination, published on January 26, 1995 (60 FR 5267); or the Hine's Emerald Dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana, Williamson) Recovery Plan (Service... dragonfly, see our proposed critical habitat rule for the species (71 FR 42442). On March 20, 2007,...

  8. Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

  9. Managing your gas processing plant: Fundamentalist, fashionable, farsighted or fantastic!

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    The challenges facing the gas processing industry have motivated managers to consider a variety of interesting new initiatives in managing a gas processing business. Using direct industry experience and a brief survey of participating companies, the author reviews the state of five popular programs that have become common cornerstones of many optimization and reengineering efforts in the gas processing business. Several lesser initiatives are also briefly discussed. The five major programs are: Maintenance Management, Field Information Handling, Work Process Optimization, Compensation Design, and Procurement Optimization. The success of these programs and initiatives depends greatly on the company culture in which they are implemented. Critical success factors and pitfalls are discussed for each program. Particular attention is paid to practical considerations that undermine idealistic theory. The conclusion is that the future belongs to the Farsighted, who will be able to mix equal parts of vision, intelligence, common sense, understanding of both human nature and the processing business, execution and determination into a formidable formula for success in the new world of gathering and processing.

  10. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Life Cycle Management/License Renewal Program: System, structure, and component screening. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Tilden, B.M.; Hostetler, D.R.; Klein, D.J.; Negin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Central to the Life Cycle Management (LCM) Program for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant is its Integrated Plant Assessment (IPA) process; a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of age-related degradation management for the plant`s important systems, structures, and components. The first step in this process is the screening of functionally important systems, structures that warrant further evaluation of aging issues. A detailed method and procedures for conducting this screening have been developed and thoroughly tested. The development and application of these procedures at Calvert Cliffs should permit other utilities to avoid implementation problems and avoid substantial front-end development costs. The IPA process is initiated by a screening step that identifies important systems, structures, and components for further evaluation. This report contains the screening methodology, provides procedures for System Level Screening and Component Level Screening, and summarizes results for five systems that represent a wide range of use. These are the Reactor Coolant System, Compressed Air System, Saltwater Cooling System, Electrical 4 Kv Transformers and Buses, and the Reactor Protective System. Examples of component screening are included for the Reactor Coolant System. These screening results show how to determine which equipment`s maintenance programs should be checked for degradation management effectiveness.

  11. Use of hot formaldehyde fixative in processing plant-parasitic nematodes for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeikus, J A; Aldrich, H C

    1975-07-01

    A preparative technique is formulated for processing plant-parasitic nematodes of the order Tylenchida for electron microscopy. A population of Dolichodorus heterocephalus is used as test objects. One and a half grams of paraformaldehyde are dissolved in 25 ml of water at 60 C. Five drops of 1 N sodium hydroxide are added to clear the solution, which is then cooled to room temperature. Two and a half milliliters of 25% glutaraldehyde are added with 23 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, and 0.2 M with respect to sucrose. The final solution contains 3% formaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde and is pH 7.2. It is heated to 70 C, poured over specimens, and allowed to cool to 4 C in 2 hr. The nematodes are then incised in a fixative containing 2% glutaraldehyde and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide at 4 C for 16-24 hr. Five milliliters of 25% glutaraldehyde and 2.5 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide are combined in 17.5 ml of water. Twenty-five milliliters of phosphate buffer (supplemented as above) are added. The final pH is 7.2. The glutaraldehyde, aided by dimethyl sulfoxide, uniformly and permanently fixes the nematode tissues. The specimens are embedded in agar. Following a 30-min buffer wash (4 C) they are postfixed in buffered 2% osmium tetroxide for 2 hr at room temperature, washed, and dehydrated through an ethanol series and two acetone baths. Dehydration includes a 2-hr stop in 75% ethanol containing 2% uranyl acetate. After embedding in Spurr's epoxy resin, specimens are sectioned and poststained in 0.5% aqueous acetate for 6 min and saturated aqueous lead citrate 3--4 min. This technique reduces killing time to less than 2 sec, straightens specimens for easier orientation, and eliminates the typically high internal pressure of nematodes which causes displacement of internal structures observed with other fixation techniques. PMID:1103371

  12. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  13. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F.S. III

    1995-01-01

    We successfully developed a series of models to explore the importance of species differences in phenologies of growth and nitrogen uptake to competitive interactions in upland tussock tundra. We developed growth models for 4 major tussock tundra species, based on observed growth rates and phenologies. We found that differences in phenology and nutrient use strategy could permit coexistence of some, but not all of the tundra plants modeled. The plant that was the best competitor, because of its rapid growth rate and superior ability to retranslocate nitrogen, may be naturally limited in its competitive ability by its tussock growth form. The mechanisms behind this limitation, and the contributions of patterns of mortality to observed production, will be explored in future modeling and experimental studies. In addition, our models point out that our understanding of the dynamics of nitrogen supply is still inadequate.

  14. Validation of the CORMIX model using thermal plume data from four Maryland power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiner, S.P.; Krebs, T.A.; Strebel, D.E.; Brindley, A.; McCall, C.G.

    1999-04-19

    The purpose of this investigation was to test (validate in computer modeling terminology) the mixing zone model CORMIX (CORnell MIXing Zone Expert System) using measured thermal plume data from the four Maryland power plants (Calvert Cliffs, Chalk Point, Dickerson, and Wagner). These facilities were chosen to represent a range of discharge environments used by power plants in the state, including a large freshwater river (Potomac), a narrow tidal estuary (Baltimore Harbor). The availability of extensive historical thermal plume data provided an excellent source for validating the model and demonstrating its utility and limitations in a variety of circumstances. CORMIX also idealizes the physical configuration of the receiving water. This study concludes that users of CORMIX expert system need to be aware of these limitations in applying the model in complex situations, especially where validation data are not available to check model results.

  15. Handbook of human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, A D; Guttmann, H E

    1983-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Handbook is to present methods, models, and estimated human error probabilities (HEPs) to enable qualified analysts to make quantitative or qualitative assessments of occurrences of human errors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) that affect the availability or operational reliability of engineered safety features and components. The Handbook is intended to provide much of the modeling and information necessary for the performance of human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of NPPs. Although not a design guide, a second purpose of the Handbook is to enable the user to recognize error-likely equipment design, plant policies and practices, written procedures, and other human factors problems so that improvements can be considered. The Handbook provides the methodology to identify and quantify the potential for human error in NPP tasks.

  16. Energy engineering analysis study report, Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee: Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-09-01

    This report is a summary of the Energy Engineering Analysis for the Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) in Milan, Tennessee. It includes the recommendations for the development of a Basewide Energy Plan consisting of energy conservation projects and other recommendations for reduction of the installation`s 1985 source energy consumption. Milan Army Ammunition Plant, containing 22,541 acres, is situated in both Gibson and Carroll Counties, Tennessee, and is approximately equally divided longitudinally into the two counties. The Milan area experiences typically short mild winters and long warm summers. With the exception of a few modernized facilities, the overwhelming majority of buildings at MAAP were constructed for World War II ammunition production.

  17. Improving planting stock quality: The humboldt experience. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.L.; Nelson, J.A.; Huddleston, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A seedling testing program was developed to improve the survival and growth potential of planting stock produced in the USDA Forest Service Humboldt Nursery, situated on the Pacific Coast in northern California. Coastal and inland seed sources of Douglas-fir and eight other conifers in the Pacific Slope forests of western Oregon and northern California were assessed in both nursery and field studies. Seedling top and root growth capacities were evaluated just after lifting and after cold storage, and stored seedlings were tested for suvival and growth on cleared planting sites in the seed zones of origin. Safe lifting and cold storage schedules were defined, and seedling cultural regimes were formulated to produce successful 1-0, 1-1, and 2-0 stock types. Testing deomonstrated the critical elements of reforestation and proved that rapid establishment is attainable on diverse sites. Accomplishments of the Humboldt program recommended similar programs for other forest nurseries and their service regions.

  18. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  19. Response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    In recognition of the important role of vegetation in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide Research Program of the US Department of Energy established the research program: Direct Effects of increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a general ecosystem model to investigate, via hypothesis testing, the potential responses of different terrestrial ecosystems to changes in the global environment over the next century. The approach involves the parallel development of models at several hierarchical levels, from the leaf to the ecosystem. At the plant level, mechanism and the direct effects of CO{sub 2} in the development of a general plant growth model, GEPSI - GEneral Plant SImulator has been stressed. At the ecosystem level, we have stressed the translation Of CO{sub 2} effects and other aspects of climate change throughout the ecosystem, including feedbacks and constraints to system response, in the development of a mechanistic, general ecosystem model SERECO - Simulation of Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO{sub 2} and Climate Change has been stressed.

  20. Evaluation of chiller plant energy conservation opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cler, G.L.; Chalifoux, A.T.; Parson, K.; Higgs, B.

    1997-06-01

    Chiller plant owning and operating costs represent substantial investments at Fort Hood, Texas. Primary objectives of this work are to evaluate the performance of major plants and associated distribution systems, and to identify relevant energy conservation opportunities (ECOs). Significant effort was expended to gather information and document the performance of plant cooling equipment. Data were obtained from site surveys, discussions with vendors and manufacturers, and reviews of previous studies. Performance was documented with field measurements. Subsequent analyses of ECOs were performed with simplified bin methods consistent with first-order conclusions and recommendations required from this work. Results for all ECOs were heavily influenced by the utility rate structure. At Fort Hood, 75 percent of annual chiller energy cost is determined by demand charges. Alternatives for chiller ECOs were also limited by the effects of recent regulations that govern the use of refrigerants. Therefore, realistic improvements that reduce chiller energy consumption necessarily involve replacement or major upgrade of most chillers. Other potential ECOs targeted reductions in chiller and pump energy by modulating speed in relation to cooling load. A select group of chillers will benefit from this technology. The higher capital costs combined with the unusually low energy charge preclude speed modulation for all other motors.