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Sample records for processing transportation storage

  1. PROCESSES AFFECTING SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT OF LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document focuses solely on the process affecting migration of fluids from a leaking tank and their effects on monitoring methodologies. Based upon the reviews presented, soil heterogeneities and the potential for multiphase flow will lead to high monitoring uncertainties if l...

  2. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  3. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  4. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled “Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers.” The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, “Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module,” we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary “parasitic” reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, “Development of a Rock Mechanical Module,” we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of

  5. StorAge Selection Functions: a tool for characterizing dispersion processes and catchment-scale solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Advection-dispersion equations have been extensively used to model flow and transport processes through heterogeneous media like hillslopes and groundwater systems. Therein, the spreading of solute plumes and the shape of the breakthrough curve is known to be controlled by the macrodispersion coefficient, which embeds the underlying heterogeneity of velocities and flowpaths. On a nearly parallel track, the use of travel time distributions (TTDs) has become increasingly widespread in catchment hydrology, to establish a formal linkage between input and output chemographs through suitable transfer functions. Recent theoretical advances and real-world applications have shown that the structure of travel time distributions in time variable flow systems like watersheds is strongly related to the time variability of the water storage and input/output fluxes. The dynamical structure of TTDs has been proved to be effectively parametrized through suitable StorAge Selection (SAS) functions, that express in a spatially integrated fashion how the set of ages available within a control volume are selected and removed by the output fluxes. In this contribution, we analyze the relationship between Advection-Dispersion Models and StorAge Selection Functions, with examples for one-dimensional transport in a finite domain with constant convection and dispersion coefficient. Our results show that when the dispersion is high (say, Pe < 10), the distribution of ages leaving the system through the control plane is similar to the distribution of ages available within the storage, thereby leading to uniform SAS functions (random sampling). Implications for the interpretation and the prediction of the chemical response of rivers are discussed through the application of the SAS functions to model solute circulation in highly monitored watersheds belonging to diverse regions of the world. We suggest that the use of Storage Selection functions in different fields of hydrology may bring

  6. Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation

  7. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  8. Interim UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-03-30

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a draft list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during very long term storage (VLTS). The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Stockman et al. 2010)

  9. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the

  10. Experimental investigation of fabrication process-, transportation-, storage, and handling-induced contamination of 157-nm reticles and vacuum UV cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Stepanenko, Nickolay; Vereecke, Guy; Eliat, Astrid; Kocsis, Michael K.; Kang, Young-Seog; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Conard, Thierry; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2004-05-01

    Mask fabrication process, transportation, storage, and handling contribute to contamination of 157nm reticles and modified fused silica substrates, resulting in transmission loss. A stable VUV cleaning procedure for contaminated binary, alternating, and attenuated phase shift reticles has been developed. This cleaning procedure was verified by lithographic imaging on the 157nm ASML MS-VII exposure scanner. A point-to-point steady state dose transmission uniformity range across a batch of 25 wafers (the exposure conditions of which were equivalent to that of a 300 mm wafer, 26mm×33mm fields, 50mJ/cm2) that were exposed with a modified fused silica substrate, was found to be <0.24% for a reticle that was cleaned prior to exposure using this VUV cleaning process. In-situ laser cleaning of contaminated mask substrates during exposure in the MS-VII resulted in 1% change in transmission at doses of up to 20 J/cm2, above which transmission remains stable (<0.24% variation). The cleaning procedure involves exposing the contaminated reticle in the UVO Reticle Cleaning Station for 30 minutes, using a cleaning gas mixture of N2/O2=99%/1%. Transmission loss due to contamination within the clean room is limited to 1 - 2 % and is reversible upon VUV cleaning. Flare levels of 3% were measured on contaminated reticle relative to a clean state of the same reticle. VUV cleaning is not only good for improving and maintaining stable mask transmission, but it is also good for preventing reticle contamination-induced flare. Contamination rate and contaminant type appear to be dependent on the storage environment of mask substrates and reticles. Typical contaminants included molecular acids (halogens, sulfur, sulfates), molecular bases (ammonia, amines), molecular condensables (hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, fatty acids, siloxanes, phthalate), molecular dopant (boron) and molecular metals (Ca, Mg, Al, Cu). Contamination of mask substrates appears to be through a competitive adsorption

  11. Thermal energy storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  12. Reactive Transport Modelling of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers to Elucidate Fundamental Processes, Trapping Mechanisms, and Sequestration Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Knauss, K G

    2004-07-26

    The ultimate fate of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers for environmental isolation is governed by three interdependent yet conceptually distinct processes: CO{sub 2} migration as a buoyant immiscible fluid phase, direct chemical interaction of this rising plume with ambient saline waters, and its indirect chemical interaction with aquifer and cap-rock minerals through the aqueous wetting phase. Each process is directly linked to a corresponding trapping mechanism: immiscible plume migration to hydrodynamic trapping, plume-water interaction to solubility trapping, and plume-mineral interaction to mineral trapping. In this study, reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage in a shale-capped sandstone aquifer at Sleipner has elucidated and established key parametric dependencies of these fundamental processes, the associated trapping mechanisms, and sequestration partitioning among them during consecutive 10-year prograde (active-injection) and retrograde (post-injection) regimes. Intra-aquifer permeability structure controls the path of immiscible CO{sub 2} migration, thereby establishing the spatial framework of plume-aquifer interaction and the potential effectiveness of solubility and mineral trapping. Inter-bedded thin shales--which occur at Sleipner--retard vertical and promote lateral plume migration, thereby significantly expanding this framework and enhancing this potential. Actual efficacy of these trapping mechanisms is determined by compositional characteristics of the aquifer and cap rock: the degree of solubility trapping decreases with increasing formation-water salinity, while that of mineral trapping is proportional to the bulk concentration of carbonate-forming elements--principally Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, and Al. In the near-field environment of Sleipner-like settings, 80-85% by mass of injected CO{sub 2} remains and migrates as an immiscible fluid phase, 15-20% dissolves into formation waters, and less than 1% precipitates as carbonate minerals

  13. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  14. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, G.; Hendricks, C.

    1996-10-01

    This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and W.J. Schafer Associates (WJSA). The authors plan to experimentally verify the performance characteristics of engineered glass microspheres that are relevant to the storage and transport of hydrogen for energy applications. They will identify the specific advantages of hydrogen transport by microspheres, analyze the infrastructure implications and requirements, and experimentally measure their performance characteristics in realistic, bulk storage situations.

  15. Fusible pellet transport and storage of heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new concept for both transport and storage of heat at high temperatures and heat fluxes is introduced and the first steps in analysis of its feasibility is taken. The concept utilizes the high energy storage capability of materials undergoing change of phase. The phase change material, for example a salt, is encapsulated in corrosion resistant sealed pellets and transported in a carrier fluid to heat source and storage. Calculations for heat transport from a typical solar collector indicate that the pellet mass flow rates are relatively small and that the required pumping power is only a small fraction of the energy transport capability of the system. Salts and eutectic salt mixtures as candidate phase change materials are examined and discussed. Finally, the time periods for melting or solidification of sodium chloride pellets is investigated and reported.

  16. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250....3250 Specimen transport and storage container. (a) Identification. A specimen transport and storage..., or body exudate during storage and transport in order that the matter contained therein can...

  17. RNA transport and long-term memory storage

    PubMed Central

    Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that synthesis of new proteins at the synapse is a prerequisite for the storage of long-term memories. Relatively little is known about the availability of distinct mRNA populations for translation at specific synapses, the process that determines mRNA localization, and the temporal designations of localized mRNA translation during memory storage. Techniques such as synaptosome preparation and microdissection of distal neuronal processes of cultured neurons and dendritic layers in brain slices are general approaches used to identify localized RNAs. Exploration of the association of RNA-binding proteins to the axonal transport machinery has led to the development of a strategy to identify RNAs that are transported from the cell body to synapses by molecular motor kinesin. In this article, RNA localization at the synapse, as well as its mechanisms and significance in understanding long-term memory storage, are discussed. PMID:24356491

  18. Transport processes in tumours.

    PubMed

    Quastel, J H

    1965-12-01

    The characteristic features of transport systems controlling influx into tumour cells of nutrients and other chemicals are briefly described. Two notable features of transport of amino acids into tumour cells have been observed: extensive accumulation against a concentration gradient and equal accumulations, whether conditions are aerobic or anaerobic, provided glucose is present. This combination of features has not been observed in the majority of normal mammalian tissues so far examined. Important for considerations of chemotherapy is the ability of tumour transport carriers to transfer substances related in structure to amino acids and other nutrients. Amino acid analogues, for example, can either block transport of natural amino acids or can be transported into the cell where they may interfere with various aspects of amino acid metabolism. The study of transport carriers is essential for an understanding of tumour-host relationships and for considerations of chemotherapy. PMID:5842595

  19. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (c... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35... REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  20. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (c... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35... REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  1. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (c... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35... REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  2. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (c... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35... REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  3. 76 FR 47577 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 29, 2011, the applicants...

  4. Radiation-shielding transport and storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Baatz, H.; Ritsscher, D.; Wriegt, J.

    1985-07-09

    A container for the storage and transportation of radioactive material comprises an elongated vessel adapted to receive the material and has a wall thickness and composition attenuating radioactive transmission therefrom. The vessel has an open end formed with an annular thickened portion defining a mouth communicating with the interior of the vessel; a radiation-shielding cover received in the mouth and having a plug-forming portion juxtaposed with a complimentary seat-forming portion of the vessel at the mouth, and a flange extending outwardly from the plug-forming portion, the vessel is provided with a wall bore communicating at one end with the interior of the vessel and terminating at its opposite end within the outline of the radiation-shielding cover, the radiation-shielding cover is provided with a connecting bore registering with the wall bore; an obturating element received in the connecting bore and adapted to block the wall bore; and a further cover secured directly to the vessel outwardly of the radiation-shielding cover and overlying the wall bore and the radiation-shielding cover.

  5. Pathways for protein transport to seed storage vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, N A; Craddock, C P; Frigerio, L

    2005-11-01

    Plant vacuoles have multiple functions: they can act both as digestive organelles and as receptacles for storage proteins. Different types of vacuoles can coexist in the same cell, which adds complexity to the process of targeting to these compartments. A fuller understanding of this process is of evident value when endeavouring to exploit the plant secretory pathway for heterologous protein production. Positive sorting signals are required in order to sort proteins to vacuoles, and these have been split into three groups: ctVSS [C-terminal VSS (vacuolar sorting signals)], ssVSS (sequence-specific VSS) and physical structure VSS. The current working model posits that soluble proteins are delivered from the Golgi apparatus to the lytic vacuoles in clathrin-coated vesicles by virtue of their ssVSS, or to the storage vacuole [PSV (protein-storage vacuole)] in dense vesicles in a manner dependent on ctVSS or physical structure VSS. Although targeting to LV appears to be receptor-mediated, no such receptor has been identified for the recruitment of proteins to the PSV. We have studied the vacuolar targeting of two castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) storage proteins, proricin and pro 2 S albumin, in their native endosperm and in the heterologous system of tobacco protoplasts. We have found that both these proteins contain bona fide ssVSS and bind to sorting receptors in vitro in a similarly sequence-specific manner. The apparent similarities to lytic VSS and possible implications with respect to the working model for transport to storage vacuoles are discussed. PMID:16246035

  6. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  7. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  8. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  9. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  10. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples. PMID:24907580

  11. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  12. Transport and storage conditions for cultural recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, M; Dalhoff, K

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is characterized by rapidly decreasing viability outside the host cell, and efficient preservation of its infectivity is a prerequisite for subsequent cell culture recovery. Extracellular survival of three C. pneumoniae stock strains and three wild-type strains subjected to simulated conditions of transport was therefore examined in order to establish recommendations for transport and storage of clinical specimens. The presence of fetal calf serum in transport media as well as refrigeration distinctly improved chlamydial retrieval during prolonged transport. Loss of infectivity was kept to a minimum in Eagle's minimal essential medium or sucrose-phosphate-glutamine medium. Storage at 22 degrees C permitted a stock strain recovery of 81% after 12 h. When refrigeration to 4 degrees C was provided, recovery rates of 74% could be achieved after 48 h. Though the strains were from different geographic regions, requirements for good survival were comparable and should therefore apply worldwide. The results indicate that the laboratory strains are not extremely labile. However, comparative examination of the wild-type strains showed less stability: primary isolates were not satisfactorily retrievable beyond 4 h at 22 degrees C or beyond 24 h at 4 degrees C. Further extension of storage times resulted in rapidly decreasing recovery, indicating a requirement to freeze samples at -75 degrees C to preserve viability. Adherence to the shorter storage periods suggested by the data obtained with primary isolates is recommended to ensure successful transport until more extensive testing with clinical materials is available. PMID:7665648

  13. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A.; Laible, Philip D.

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  14. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  15. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  16. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71....

  17. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  19. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  20. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  1. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  2. SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages

    SciTech Connect

    Russel, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.

  3. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-09-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  4. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  5. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  6. Transport processes in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth`s magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth`s magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth`s magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior.

  7. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) to transportation system interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Row, T.H.; Croff, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    In March 1987, the US Department of Energy presented to Congress the proposal to construct and operate a facility for the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portions of Oak Ridge. In discussing the MRS to Transportation System Interfaces, the authors provide a blending of the technical and institutional issues, for they do not believe the solutions to success of this enterprise lie wholly in one area. The authors cover: early chronology of the MRS; comparison of total-system life cycle cost estimates of the authorized system and improved-performance system (i.e., the system that includes a facility for MRS); transportation costs resulting from shipping, security and cask; assumptions for dedicated rail transport from MRS to repository; and significant results from the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis of the improved performance system. (AT)

  8. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  9. Guidelines for carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a set of preliminary guidelines and recommendations for the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in the United States. The CCS Guidelines are written for those who may be involved in decisions on a proposed project: the developers, regulators, financiers, insurers, project operators, and policymakers. Contents are: Part 1: introduction; Part 2: capture; Part 3: transport; Part 4; storage; Part. 5 supplementary information. Within these parts, eight recommended guidelines are given for: CO{sub 2} capture; ancillary environmental impacts from CO{sub 2}; pipeline design and operation; pipeline safety and integrity; siting CO{sub 2} pipelines; pipeline access and tariff regulation; guidelines for (MMV); risk assessment; financial responsibility; property rights and ownership; site selection and characterisation; injection operations; site closure; and post-closure. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 4 apps.

  10. NUHOWS - Storage and Transportation of Irradiated Reactor Components in Large Packages - 13439

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Glen A.

    2013-07-01

    Most irradiated reactor components (hardware such as Control Rod Blades, Fuel Channels, Poison Curtains, etc.) generated at reactors previously required significant processing for size reduction due to the available transportation casks not being physically capable of containing unprocessed material. As of July 1, 2008, disposal for this typical waste class (B and C) became inaccessible (for the major part of the nation) due to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility being closed to all but its three compact states (CT, NJ and SC). Currently in the United States, most facilities are storing their irradiated hardware on-site in the spent fuel pools. Until recently with the opening of the Waste Control Specialists' Texas disposal facility, utilities faced the challenges of spent fuel pool space and capacity management. However, even with WCS's disposal availability, the site currently has annual Curie limitations for disposal, which will continue to promote interim on-site storage until such time as disposal is available. In response, Transnuclear Inc., (TN) an AREVA company, proceeded with designing a new large Radioactive Waste Container (RWC) that can be used to package irradiated hardware without the need for significant processing. The design features of the RWC allows for intermittent loadings of the hardware for better packaging efficiency, higher packaging density, space savings and reduced cost. This RWC is also compatible with TN's on-site modular vault storage system. Once completely loaded, the RWC can be transported to an on-site storage facility, an off-site storage facility and/or an available disposal facility. To accommodate the transportation, TN has designed a large transportation cask, the MP197HB. As the original design was for transporting fuel, it contains the necessary shielding to allow for the transport of unprocessed irradiated reactor components, while significantly reducing the amount of irradiated hardware shipments required with the use of

  11. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  12. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. 20 figs.

  13. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  14. 78 FR 40199 - Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests public comment on Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim... Integrity for Continued Storage of High Burnup Fuel Beyond 20 Years.'' The draft SFST-ISG provides...

  15. Nanoionics: ion transport and electrochemical storage in confined systems.

    PubMed

    Maier, J

    2005-11-01

    The past two decades have shown that the exploration of properties on the nanoscale can lead to substantially new insights regarding fundamental issues, but also to novel technological perspectives. Simultaneously it became so fashionable to decorate activities with the prefix 'nano' that it has become devalued through overuse. Regardless of fashion and prejudice, this article shows that the crystallizing field of 'nanoionics' bears the conceptual and technological potential that justifies comparison with the well-acknowledged area of nanoelectronics. Demonstrating this potential implies both emphasizing the indispensability of electrochemical devices that rely on ion transport and complement the world of electronics, and working out the drastic impact of interfaces and size effects on mass transfer, transport and storage. The benefits for technology are expected to lie essentially in the field of room-temperature devices, and in particular in artificial self-sustaining structures to which both nanoelectronics and nanoionics might contribute synergistically. PMID:16379070

  16. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. Environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this fuel. The objective of the project is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. Work this quarter entailed: obtaining all of the test coals including 10 lbs of Illinois No. 6 cleaned by the LICADO process. Installation of the test system for the Residential Storage Tank including piping and the components required to recycle the ultrafine coal. Completion of the design of the scale model test of the Industrial/Commercial Storage System. Piping and supports for the porous fluidization plates in the floor of the tanks have been completed. Preliminary results with the Illinois No. 6 coal cleaned by the Bechtel heptane/asphalt process indicate that this material is cohesive and difficult to fluidize. Studies of dune formation have been made with the Illinois No. 6 coal. These data provide information on the minimum velocity which will transport the particles. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  17. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  18. Identification of plant vacuolar transporters mediating phosphate storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Teng-Kuei; Yang, Shu-Yi; Hong, Yu-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Su-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Plant vacuoles serve as the primary intracellular compartments for inorganic phosphate (Pi) storage. Passage of Pi across vacuolar membranes plays a critical role in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi level against fluctuations of external Pi and metabolic activities. Here we demonstrate that the SPX-MFS proteins, designated as PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 5 family (PHT5), also named Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter (VPT), function as vacuolar Pi transporters. Based on (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Arabidopsis pht5;1 loss-of-function mutants accumulate less Pi and exhibit a lower vacuolar-to-cytoplasmic Pi ratio than controls. Conversely, overexpression of PHT5 leads to massive Pi sequestration into vacuoles and altered regulation of Pi starvation-responsive genes. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression of the rice homologue OsSPX-MFS1 mediates Pi influx to yeast vacuoles. Our findings show that a group of Pi transporters in vacuolar membranes regulate cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis and are required for fitness and plant growth. PMID:27029856

  19. Identification of plant vacuolar transporters mediating phosphate storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Teng-Kuei; Yang, Shu-Yi; Hong, Yu-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Su-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Plant vacuoles serve as the primary intracellular compartments for inorganic phosphate (Pi) storage. Passage of Pi across vacuolar membranes plays a critical role in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi level against fluctuations of external Pi and metabolic activities. Here we demonstrate that the SPX-MFS proteins, designated as PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 5 family (PHT5), also named Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter (VPT), function as vacuolar Pi transporters. Based on 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Arabidopsis pht5;1 loss-of-function mutants accumulate less Pi and exhibit a lower vacuolar-to-cytoplasmic Pi ratio than controls. Conversely, overexpression of PHT5 leads to massive Pi sequestration into vacuoles and altered regulation of Pi starvation-responsive genes. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression of the rice homologue OsSPX-MFS1 mediates Pi influx to yeast vacuoles. Our findings show that a group of Pi transporters in vacuolar membranes regulate cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis and are required for fitness and plant growth. PMID:27029856

  20. Evaluation of storage/transportation options to support criteria development for the Phase I MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Brown, N.N.; Bennett, P.C. ); Lake, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) plans to develop an interim storage facility to enable acceptance of spent fuel in 1998. It is estimated that this interim storage facility would be needed for about two years. A Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility is anticipated in 2000 and a repository in 2010. Acceptance and transport of spent fuel by DOE/OCRWM in 1998 will require an operating transportation system. Because this interim storage facility is not yet defined, development of an optimally compatible transportation system is not a certainty. In order to assure a transport capability for 1998 acceptance of spent fuel, it was decided that the OCRWM transportation program had to identify likely options for an interim storage facility, including identification of the components needed for compatibility between likely interim storage facility options and transportation. Primary attention was given to existing hardware, although conceptual designs were also considered. A systems-based probabilistic decision model was suggested by Sandia National Laboratories and accepted by DOE/OCRWM's transportation program. Performance of the evaluation task involved several elements of the transportation program. This paper describes the decision model developed to accomplish this task, along with some of the results and conclusions. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  1. Specific transport and storage solutions : waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Choho, T.; Blachet, L.; Deniau, H.; Gagner, L.; Gendreau, F.; Presta, A.

    2007-07-01

    With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge : protection of people and of the environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, TN International has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear waste producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the TN International technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfil both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (TN International, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LMC) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. (authors)

  2. NEW OBSERVATIONS ON OVIDUCTAL SPERM STORAGE, TRANSPORT AND SELECTION IN TURKEYS: RELEVANCE TO ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased fundamental knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating oviductal sperm transport, selection and storage will provide logical, science-based approaches (versus an exclusively empirical approach) toward the development of novel semen diluent formulation and semen storage t...

  3. Review: Role of chemistry, mechanics, and transport on well integrity in CO2 storage environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carroll, Susan; Carey, J. William; Dzombak, David; Huerta, Nicholas J.; Li, Li; Richard, Tom; Um, Wooyong; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Zhang, Liwei

    2016-03-22

    Among the various risks associated with CO2 storage in deep geologic formations, wells are important potential pathways for fluid leaks and groundwater contamination. Injection of CO2 will perturb the storage reservoir and any wells that penetrate the CO2 or pressure footprints are potential pathways for leakage of CO2 and/or reservoir brine. Well leakage is of particular concern for regions with a long history of oil and gas exploration because they are top candidates for geologic CO2 storage sites. This review explores in detail the ability of wells to retain their integrity against leakage with careful examination of the coupled physicalmore » and chemical processes involved. Furthermore, understanding time-dependent leakage is complicated by the changes in fluid flow, solute transport, chemical reactions, and mechanical stresses over decade or longer time frames for site operations and monitoring.« less

  4. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage incident to transportation-general requirements. 173.447 Section 173.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...

  5. Transport Processes in Dendritic Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Free dentritic growth refers to the unconstrained development of crystals within a supercooled melt, which is the classical dendrite problem. The development of theoretical understanding of dendritic growth and its experimental status is sketched showing that transport theory and interfacial thermodynamics (capillarity theory) are insufficient ingredients to develop a truly predictive model of dendrite formation. The convenient, but incorrect, notion of maximum velocity was used for many years to estimate the behavior of dendritic transformations until supplanted by modern dynamic stability theory. The proper combinations of transport theory and morphological stability seem to be able to predict the salient aspects of dendritic growth, especially in the neighborhood of the tip.

  6. Best Practices for Finite Element Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Transfer, Storage, and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Fort, James A.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2010-08-11

    Storage casks and transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are designed to confine SNF in sealed canisters or casks, provide structural integrity during accidents, and remove decay through a storage or transportation overpack. The transfer, storage, and transportation of SNF in dry storage casks and transport packages is regulated under 10 CFR Part 72 and 10 CFR Part 71, respectively. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used with increasing frequency in Safety Analysis Reports and other regulatory technical evaluations related to SNF casks and packages and their associated systems. Advances in computing power have made increasingly sophisticated FEA models more feasible, and as a result, the need for careful review of such models has also increased. This paper identifies best practice recommendations that stem from recent NRC review experience. The scope covers issues common to all commercially available FEA software, and the recommendations are applicable to any FEA software package. Three specific topics are addressed: general FEA practices, issues specific to thermal analyses, and issues specific to structural analyses. General FEA practices covers appropriate documentation of the model and results, which is important for an efficient review process. The thermal analysis best practices are related to cask analysis for steady state conditions and transient scenarios. The structural analysis best practices are related to the analysis of casks and associated payload during standard handling and drop scenarios. The best practices described in this paper are intended to identify FEA modeling issues and provide insights that can help minimize associated uncertainties and errors, in order to facilitate the NRC licensing review process.

  7. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Victoria C.; Loughlin, Patrick C.; Day, David A.; Smith, Penelope M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiosome membrane (SM) is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume:rhizobia symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate, and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologs of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides, and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome. PMID:25566274

  8. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  9. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  10. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  11. Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus

    PubMed Central

    Matzanke, Berthold F.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for all living organisms due to its ubiquitous role in redox and other enzymes, especially in the context of respiration and photosynthesis. The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood, with two basic strategies for iron uptake being distinguished: strategy I plants use a mechanism involving induction of Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) and Fe(II) transporter proteins, while strategy II plants utilize high-affinity, iron-specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, little is known about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages, particularly those of multicellular algae (seaweeds). Herein the first study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported. Genomic data suggest that Ectocarpus may use a strategy I approach. Short-term radio-iron uptake studies verified that iron is taken up by Ectocarpus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Upon long-term exposure to 57Fe, two metabolites have been identified using a combination of Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These include an iron–sulphur cluster accounting for ~26% of the total intracellular iron pool and a second component with spectra typical of a polymeric (Fe3+O6) system with parameters similar to the amorphous phosphorus-rich mineral core of bacterial and plant ferritins. This iron metabolite accounts for ~74% of the cellular iron pool and suggests that Ectocarpus contains a non-ferritin but mineral-based iron storage pool. PMID:22945940

  12. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    SciTech Connect

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  13. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  14. Energetics of active transport processes.

    PubMed

    Essig, A; Caplan, S R

    1968-12-01

    Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows. PMID:5713453

  15. 77 FR 36527 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C. filed to revise...

  16. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.

  17. Utilization of the organ care system as ex-vivo lung perfusion after cold storage transportation.

    PubMed

    Mohite, P N; Maunz, O; Popov, A-F; Zych, B; Patil, N P; Simon, A R

    2015-11-01

    The Organ Care System (OCS) allows perfusion and ventilation of the donor lungs under physiological conditions. Ongoing trials to compare preservation with OCS Lung with standard cold storage do not include donor lungs with suboptimal gas exchange and donor lungs treated with OCS following cold storage transportation. We present a case of a 48-yr-old man who received such lungs after cold storage transportation treated with ex-vivo lung perfusion utilizing OCS. PMID:25662732

  18. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much_lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Physical Controls of Solute Transport and Storage in Indian Creek, an Urban Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. J.; Boufadel, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    Conservative solute tracer experiments are commonly used to estimate transient storage characteristics of relatively pristine streams. However, when combined with field-based data on stream morphology and sediment characteristics, one can reasonably determine not just the transport and storage characteristics, but also which processes control transport and storage in a given stream. This additional information is useful in urban streams undergoing relatively fast geomorphic and hydrologic changes. We conducted a conservative solute tracer experiment in Indian Creek, a small urban stream located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As part of the experiment, we first surveyed the stream topography at a 1m resolution. During the tracer experiment, in addition to monitoring the surface water, we sampled bankside wells and small diameter wells installed in the wetted channel and in a large gravel bar. Post-experiment, we measured in situ streambed hydraulic conductivity using a portable permeameter. From our results we were able to determine that the hyporheic zone extends vertically more than 7.5 cm below the streambed and laterally as much as 8 m from the wetted channel. In addition, we found that our data from the in-channel wells yielded a strong linear relationship between the surface-subsurface tracer flux (mgL-1min-1) and hydraulic conductivity (cms-1). Finally, the observed tracer concentration in the bankside wells appeared to be related to stream curvature with higher concentrations found along the outside and lower concentrations found along the inside of stream bends. Based on our data, we conclude that 1) hyporheic exchange was a significant component of solute transport and storage in the urbanized Indian Creek and 2) hyporheic exchange was controlled by a combination of hydraulic conductivity and stream morphology.

  2. Earth storage structural energy system and process for constructing a thermal storage well

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, J.J.

    1983-07-12

    A geothermal space conditioning and water heating system for a building structure comprises a battery of serially coupled thermal storage wells. Each well includes a dual concentric thermal conduction tube having an external circumference and an integrated earth interface and substantially moisture impervious clay platelet transition surrounding and at least double the tube circumference. The thermal storage battery has a cold port and a hot port maintained at a temperature greater than the cold port. A space conditioning arrangement is provided in which thermal transport fluid passes through a fan-driven radiator. A reversible heat pump has a radiator conditioned air coupled first heat exchanger and a downstream radiator fluid coupled second heat exchanger. A second heat pump has a first heat exchanger in thermal communication with a hot port coupled hot water heater and a cold port coupled second heat exchanger. A transient storage tank provides a time averaged uniform transport fluid temperature. Valving allows reversal of fluid from the hot and cold ports to and from the transient storage tank and the space conditioning arrangement as determined by multiple temperature sensors determining output states of a controller. The geothermal storage wells are established by circulating a mud in a well to stabilize the hole, running a conduit in the well and thereafter reverse-circulating a sand/gravel slurry through the conduit thereby packing the region between the conducting tube and the earth interface.

  3. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.

    2005-05-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the ``main flow zone''). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  4. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.

    2005-05-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the "main flow zone"). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  5. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints. PMID:23903398

  6. Only Adding Stationary Storage to Vaccine Supply Chains May Create and Worsen Transport Bottlenecks

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G.; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints. PMID:23903398

  7. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The

  8. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1990-03-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes leads to nonlinear governing equations for direct and coupled mass transport processes. Analytical solutions of linearized versions of these equations can be used to verify numerical solutions of the nonlinear equations under conditions such that nonlinear terms are relatively small. This report presents derivations of the analytical solutions for one-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries. 7 refs.

  9. Integrated technical and economic assessments of transport and storage of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D. |; Smith, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    Transportation will be a major market for hydrogen because of its great size and the value of energy at the wheels of a vehicle in comparison to its heating value. Hydrogen also offers important potential efficiency gains over hydrocarbon fuels. However, hydrogen end-use technologies will not develop without a reliable hydrogen supply infrastructure. By the same token, reliable infrastructures will not develop without end-use demand. Our task is to analyze the costs of various infrastructure options for providing hydrogen, as the number of vehicles serviced increased from very small numbers initially, to moderate numbers in the mid-term and to determine if a smooth transition may be possible. We will determine viable market sizes for transport and storage options by examining the technologies and the capital and operating costs of these systems, as well as related issues such as safety, construction time, etc. The product of our work will be data based scenarios of the likely transitions to hydrogen fuel, beginning with small and progressing to larger numbers of vehicles. We are working closely with the suppliers of relevant technologies to (1) determine realistic component costs, and (2) to assure availability of our analyses to business. Preliminary analyses indicate that the cost of transport and storage is as important as production cost in determining the cost of hydrogen fuel to the consumer, and that home electrolysis and centrally processed liquid hydrogen may provide hydrogen in the initial stages.

  10. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, William G (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  11. The Effect of Porous Medium Storage on Unstable Density-Driven Solute Transport.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yueqing; Graf, Thomas; Simmons, Craig T; Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2015-01-01

    Unstable density-driven groundwater flow and solute transport (i.e., free convection) leads to spatiotemporal variations in pressure. Specific storage (So ) indicates the capability of a confined aquifer to release or store groundwater associated with a pressure change. Although So is known to dampen pressure propagation, So has been implicitly assumed to have a negligible impact on the unstable free convective process in prior studies. This work explores the effect of So on both the classic onset criterion and the fingering process using numerical models. Results show that the classic onset criterion is applicable when So is smaller than 10(-1) m(-1) . Results also demonstrate that So does not play a significant role in the free convective fingering process unless it is greater than 10(-3) m(-1) . For most practical purposes in hydrogeology (large Rayleigh number and small So ), the implicit assumption of small or zero So is appropriate. PMID:25393965

  12. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [3H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [3H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [3H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca2+/Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [3H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, α-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [3H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [3H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca2+-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  13. Lagrangian coherent structures and plasma transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falessi, M. V.; Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    > A dynamical system framework is used to describe transport processes in plasmas embedded in a magnetic field. For periodic systems with one degree of freedom, the Poincaré map provides a splitting of the phase space into regions where particles have different kinds of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The boundaries of these regions are transport barriers, i.e. a trajectory cannot cross such boundaries throughout the evolution of the system. Lagrangian coherent structures generalize this method to systems with the most general time dependence, splitting the phase space into regions with different qualitative behaviours. This leads to the definition of finite-time transport barriers, i.e. trajectories cannot cross the barrier for a finite amount of time. This methodology can be used to identify fast recirculating regions in the dynamical system and to characterize the transport between them.

  14. 2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and shipping container, ballistic missile (SSCBM) containing minuteman II missile on right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Missile Roll Transfer Building, 920 Kennedy Road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1990-04-01

    A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the effects of coupled processes on heat and mass transport in semipermeable media. The governing equations on which the simulator is based were derived using the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The equations are nonlinear and have been solved numerically using the n-dimensional Newton's method. As an example of an application, the numerical simulator has been used to investigate heat and solute transport in the vicinity of a heat source buried in a saturated clay-like medium, in part to study solute transport in bentonite packing material surrounding a nuclear waste canister. The coupled processes considered were thermal filtration, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration. In the simulations, heat transport by coupled processes was negligible compared to heat conduction, but pressure and solute migration were affected. Solute migration was retarded relative to the uncoupled case when only chemical osmosis was considered. When both chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis were included, solute migration was enhanced. 18 refs., 20 figs.

  16. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  17. Active Storage Processing in a Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Evan J.; Fox, Kevin M.; Regimbal, Kevin M.; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2006-01-01

    By creating a processing system within a parallel file system one can harness the power of unused processing power on servers that have very fast access to the disks they are serving. By inserting a module the Lustre file system the Active Storage Concept is able to perform processing with the file system architecture. Results of using this technology are presented as the results of the Supercomputing StorCloud Challenge Application are reviewed.

  18. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  19. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  1. Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function

  2. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  3. Transport processes of radiopharmaceuticals and -modulators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy and radiology have been indispensable components in cancer care for many years. The detection limit of small tumor foci as well as the development of radio-resistance and severe side effects towards normal tissues led to the development of strategies to improve radio-diagnostic and -therapeutic approaches by pharmaceuticals. The term "radiopharmaceutical" has been used for drugs labeled with radioactive tracers for therapy or diagnosis. In addition, drugs have been described to sensitize tumor cells to radiotherapy (radiosensitizers) or to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of radiation (radioprotectors). The present review summarizes recent concepts on the transport of radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers, and radioprotectors in cells and tissues, e.g. by ATP-binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein. Strengths and weaknesses of current strategies to improve transport-based processes are discussed. PMID:21645349

  4. Onboard high data rate signal processing and storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Warner H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to advance the state of the art in onboard image data processing and storage through the use of advanced gallium arsenide integrated circuit technology. Viewgraphs are given on research and development efforts, an adaptive programmable processor chip set, design characteristics of an eight bit general processor, and a density comparison of silicon and gallium arsenide integrated circuits.

  5. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Storage effects on separated pink salmon processing byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing demand for utilizing fish byproducts and individual byproduct parts such as heads and viscera components can be collected directly from the commercial processing line. These separated parts can be made into specialized feeds or other end products. The storage and stability propertie...

  7. The Human Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Valentina; Singh, Gurpreet; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. TAP plays an essential role in the antigen presentation pathway by translocating cytosolic peptides derived from proteasomal degradation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Here, the peptides are loaded into major histocompatibility class I molecules to be in turn exposed at the cell surface for recognition by T-cells. TAP is a heterodimer formed by the association of two half-transporters, TAP1 and TAP2, with a typical ABC transporter core that consists of two nucleotide binding domains and two transmembrane domains. Despite the availability of biological data, a full understanding of the mechanism of action of TAP is limited by the absence of experimental structures of the full-length transporter. Here, we present homology models of TAP built on the crystal structures of P-glycoprotein, ABCB10, and Sav1866. The models represent the transporter in inward- and outward-facing conformations that could represent initial and final states of the transport cycle, respectively. We described conserved regions in the endoplasmic reticulum-facing loops with a role in the opening and closing of the cavity. We also identified conserved π-stacking interactions in the cytosolic part of the transmembrane domains that could explain the experimental data available for TAP1-Phe-265. Electrostatic potential calculations gave structural insights into the role of residues involved in peptide binding, such as TAP1-Val-288, TAP2-Cys-213, TAP2-Met-218. Moreover, these calculations identified additional residues potentially involved in peptide binding, in turn verified with replica exchange simulations performed on a peptide bound to the inward-facing models. PMID:22700967

  8. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  9. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  10. Survival of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria after Processing and during Storage: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-26

    The use of live probiotic bacteria as food supplement has become popular. Capability of probiotic bacteria to be kept at room temperature becomes necessary for customer's convenience and manufacturer's cost reduction. Hence, production of dried form of probiotic bacteria is important. Two common drying methods commonly used for microencapsulation are freeze drying and spray drying. In spite of their benefits, both methods have adverse effects on cell membrane integrity and protein structures resulting in decrease in bacterial viability. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria has been a promising technology to ensure bacterial stability during the drying process and to preserve their viability during storage without significantly losing their functional properties such acid tolerance, bile tolerance, surface hydrophobicity, and enzyme activities. Storage at room temperatures instead of freezing or low temperature storage is preferable for minimizing costs of handling, transportation, and storage. Concepts of water activity and glass transition become important in terms of determination of bacterial survival during the storage. The effectiveness of microencapsulation is also affected by microcapsule materials. Carbohydrate- and protein-based microencapsulants and their combination are discussed in terms of their protecting effect on probiotic bacteria during dehydration, during exposure to harsh gastrointestinal transit and small intestine transit and during storage. PMID:25853290

  11. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food, to evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle, and to establish the need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  12. Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, M.P.; Breault, R.W. ); Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. )

    1991-11-01

    This project investigated the properties and behavior with regard to handling, storage, and atomization in small-scale applications of different CWFs (coal water fuels) prepared from different parent coals and various beneficiation techniques as well as consideration for bulk storage and distribution. The CWFs that were prepared included Upper Elkhorn No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Upper Wyodak coal cleaned by heavy media separation. Also, several CWFs were prepared with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal cleaned by heavy media separation with filtration, chemical cleaning, oil agglomeration, and froth flotation.

  13. Storage stability and quality assessment of processed cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Savita; Kaur, Satinder; Dar, B N; Singh, Baljit

    2014-03-01

    Quality improvement of cereal brans, a health promoting ingredient for functional foods is the emerging research concept due to their low shelf stability and presence of non-nutrient components. A study was conducted to evaluate the storage quality of processed milling industry byproducts so that these can be potentially utilized as a dietary fibre source. Different cereal brans (wheat, rice, barley and oat) were processed by dry, wet, microwave heating, extrusion cooking and chemical methods at variable conditions. Processed brans were stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouches at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Quality assessments (moisture, free fatty acids, water activity and physical quality) of brans were done up to six months, at one month intervals. Free fatty acid content, moisture and water activity of the cereal brans remained stable during the entire storage period. Among treatments, extrusion processing is the most effective for stability. Processing treatments and storage temperature have the positive effect on extending the shelf life of all cereal brans. Therefore, processed cereal brans can be used as a dietary fortificant for the development of value added food products. PMID:24587536

  14. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  15. Tech Transfer Webinar: Amoeba Cysts as Natural Containers for the Transport and Storage of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    El-Etr, Sahar

    2014-10-08

    Sahar El-Etr, Biomedical Scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, shares a unique method for transporting clinical samples from the field to a laboratory. The use of amoeba as “natural” containers for pathogens was utilized to develop the first living system for the transport and storage of pathogens. The amoeba system works at ambient temperature for extended periods of time—capabilities currently not available for biological sample transport.

  16. Tech Transfer Webinar: Amoeba Cysts as Natural Containers for the Transport and Storage of Pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    El-Etr, Sahar

    2015-09-11

    Sahar El-Etr, Biomedical Scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, shares a unique method for transporting clinical samples from the field to a laboratory. The use of amoeba as ?natural? containers for pathogens was utilized to develop the first living system for the transport and storage of pathogens. The amoeba system works at ambient temperature for extended periods of time?capabilities currently not available for biological sample transport.

  17. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.; Jacobsen, J.S.

    1990-04-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TTIP) is used to derive governing equations and phenomenological equations for transport processes and chemical reactions in water-saturated semipermeable media. TTIP is based on three fundamental postulates. The first postulate, the assumption of local equilibrium, allows the formulation of balance equations for entropy. These equations are the bases for the derivation of governing equations for the thermodynamic variables, temperature, pressure, and composition. The governing equations involve vector fluxes of heat and mass and scalar rates of chemical reactions; in accordance with the second postulate of TTIP, these fluxes and rates are related, respectively, to all scalar driving forces (gradients of thermodynamic variables) acting within the system. The third postulate of TTIP states equality (the Onsager reciprocal relations) between certain of the phenomenological coefficients relating forces and fluxes. The description by TTIP of a system undergoing irreversible processes allows consideration of coupled transport processes such as thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis, and ultrafiltration. The coupled processes can make significant contributions to flows of mass and energy in slightly permeable, permselective geological materials such as clays and shales.

  18. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in riverine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Haggerty, R.; Camacho Botero, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    .27 (1.07, 1.47), with 95% confidence bounds. These correlations were used to predict solute transport processes in four rivers in the UK (not included in the database used to develop the correlations) by parameterizing the Transient Storage model (R2>0.96 for all 4 rivers) and the Aggregated Dead Zone model (R2=0.87 for a channelized river, and R2>0.99 for the natural rivers) with the moment matching technique. Since our proposed technique to predict and scale solute transport processes has been developed from multi-ecosystem data around the world, and is only a function of discharge, length and travel times, i.e., quantities that are expected to appear in uncertainty analyzes, we propose its application as a fundamental routine to establish uncertainty bounds in decision-taking processes regarding solute transport in riverine ecosystems.

  19. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105 Public... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of...

  20. Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, M.P.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-06-01

    The properties and behavior with regard to handling, storage, and atomization in small-scale applications of different coal-water fuels (CWFs) prepared from different parent coals and various beneficiation techniques, were investigated. The CWFs that were prepared included Upper Elkhorn No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Upper Wyodak coal cleaned by heavy media separation. Also, several CWFs were prepared with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal cleaned by heavy media separation with filtration, chemical cleaning, oil agglomeration, and froth flotation. Pressure drop measurements in tubes and viscometer measurements were used to construct rheograms of the seven CWFs that were prepared for shear rates up to 1000 1/s. Analysis of each CWF included proximate, ultimate and ash fusion temperatures. A fully automatic demonstration storage facility was designed and fabricated. The viscosity at higher shear rates (150,000 1/s) will be measured in a capillary viscometer to determine the viscosity at shear rate typically obtained with atomizers. The demonstration storage/handling facility will be tested. A cost analysis of a residential facility will be conducted. The seven CWFs will be burned in the residential combustor developed by Tecogen under contract DE-AC22-87PC79650. 41 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Large wood storage in streams of the Eastern Italian Alps and the relevance of hillslope processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, E.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of large wood (LW) in mountain channels provides the basis for evaluating natural morphological patterns as well as managing potentially hazardous wood transport during flood events. Few studies have investigated the distribution of LW in managed streams of the Alps across a wide spatial scale. This paper presents extensive field measurements of LW storage and channel morphology carried out in 13 channels of the Eastern Italian Alps with drainage areas ranging from 1.2 to 70 km2, mean bed slope between 0.03 and 0.38, and channel width between 2 and 20 m. More than 9000 LW elements were measured in the 33 reaches surveyed. A geostatistical, geographic information system (GIS)-based model for wood recruitment from hillslope instabilities was also developed and applied to the study basin. LW storage in the study channels results as being much lower than in seminatural basins of comparable size and climate, and only basins characterized by extensive mass wasting processes contain high wood loads with relevant morphological consequences. The statistical analysis of LW storage at the reach scale indicates that unit stream power is apparently the most significant hydromorphological factor influencing LW storage, in agreement with studies in other world regions. However, we argue that the effect of unit stream power on LW storage is not only linked to flow transport capacity but also derives from its association with LW supply and valley morphology. Both the GIS model and statistical tests on field data indicate that hillslope instabilities connected to the channel network dominate the LW recruitment volume and the distribution of in-channel wood storage.

  3. Slurry ice thermal energy storage for cheese process cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gladis, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial processes require a large load to be cooled in a relatively short period. These loads often utilize supply chilled-water temperatures in the range of 34 F (1.1 C) to 36 F (2.2 C). The low water temperatures can be supplied from conventional on-demand chillers, such as falling film water chillers or shell-and-tube chillers using a brine solution. The low water temperatures can also be supplied from thermal energy storage (TES) systems, such as static ice builders, or dynamic ice systems, such as an ice harvester or slurry ice maker. The benefits of using a TES system in industrial processes, versus an on-demand chiller, include smaller refrigeration equipment, reserve cooling capacity, lower electrical capacity requirements, and lower energy costs. This paper outlines a unique type of dynamic slurry ice system applied to a cheese processing plant. Dynamic ice systems separate the manufacture of ice from the storage of ice. These systems are capable of satisfying very large loads of short duration by rapidly melting stored ice. Rapid melting of ice is achievable with dynamic ice-type TES systems because the warm water returning from the load comes in direct contact with the ice in storage.

  4. Interactions of solutes and streambed sediment. 2. A dynamic analysis of coupled hydrologic and chemical processes that determine solute transport.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solute transport in streams is determined by the interaction of physical and chemical processes. Data from an injection experiment for chloride and several cations indicate significant influence of solute-streambed processes on transport in a mountain stream. These data are interpreted in terms of transient storage processes for all tracers and sorption processes for the cations. Process parameter values are estimated with simulations based on coupled quasi-two-dimensional transport and first-order mass transfer sorption. Comparative simulations demonstrate the relative roles of the physical and chemical processes in determining solute transport. -from Author

  5. X-ray computed tomography studies of gas storage and transport in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Miao, P.; Watson, A.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Pepin, G.P.; Moss, R.M. ); Semmelbeck, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Devonian shales and other unconventional resources can be highly fractured and may have significant amounts of gas stored by adsorption. Conventional experiments are not well suited for characterizing the properties important for describing gas storage and transport in these media. Here, X-ray computed tomography scanning is used to determine gas storage in dynamic gas flow experiments on Devonian shale samples. Several important properties are obtained from these experiments, including fracture widths, adsorption isotherms, and matrix porosities and permeabilities.

  6. The development and testprogram of transport and storage casks for vitrified high level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Spiker, H.; Hueggenberg, R.

    1992-12-31

    Reprocessing of irradiated fuel assemblies generates canisters filled with vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW). The canisters are made of stainless steel and welded leak-tight. These HLW canisters are subject to transport from the fuel reprocessing plant to intermediate and final storage. Since 1983, a number of different packages based on the type B(U) concept of the IAEA were therefore designed, tested, licensed and manufactured for the transport and the interim storage of HLW canisters in flasks. The theoretical layout of the cask was tested by measurements on a prototype cask of the scale 1:1. The measured heat transfer characteristics of this newly developed transport and storage cask will be described. They can be written as a function Nu - C * Ra{sup m}, with the variable factor C, and the constant exponent m., The factor C is different for the vertical and the horizontal position of the cask.

  7. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  8. Biosafety in embryos and semen cryopreservation, storage, management and transport.

    PubMed

    Bielanski, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarizes pertinent procedures, data and opinions on the potential hazards of disease transmission through liquid nitrogen (LN)-cryopreserved and banked germplasm and tissues for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) The importance of applying internationally adopted sanitary washing procedures to germplasm as a crucial step towards their successful microbial-free cryopreservation and storage is emphasised. Special attention is given to the survival of pathogens in LN, variety of vitrification methods, sterility of LN, risks associated with the use of straws and cryovials, and LN Dewars including dry shippers. It was experimentally demonstrated that cross-contamination between LN and embryos may occur, when infectious agents are present in LN and if embryos are not protected by use of a sealed container. It is important, therefore, to prevent direct contact of germplasm and reproductive tissues with LN during cryopreservation and their storage as a mandatory measure for reducing the risk of contamination. This includes the usage of hermetically sealed high quality shatter proof freezing containers and/or the application of a secondary enclosure such as "double bagging or straw in straw". A periodic disinfection of cryo-Dewars should be considered as an additional precaution to diminish the potential for inadvertent cross-contamination. It would be advisable to use separate LN Dewars to quarantine embryos derived from infected donors of valuable genotypes or from unknown health status, extinction-threatened species. PMID:25091919

  9. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  10. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  11. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  12. Chill Down Process of Hydrogen Transport Pipelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Klausner, James

    2006-01-01

    A pseudo-steady model has been developed to predict the chilldown history of pipe wall temperature in the horizontal transport pipeline for cryogenic fluids. A new film boiling heat transfer model is developed by incorporating the stratified flow structure for cryogenic chilldown. A modified nucleate boiling heat transfer correlation for cryogenic chilldown process inside a horizontal pipe is proposed. The efficacy of the correlations is assessed by comparing the model predictions with measured values of wall temperature in several azimuthal positions in a well controlled experiment by Chung et al. (2004). The computed pipe wall temperature histories match well with the measured results. The present model captures important features of thermal interaction between the pipe wall and the cryogenic fluid, provides a simple and robust platform for predicting pipe wall chilldown history in long horizontal pipe at relatively low computational cost, and builds a foundation to incorporate the two-phase hydrodynamic interaction in the chilldown process.

  13. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  14. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  15. Non-steady State Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Undisturbed Watersheds Due to Diffusive Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    Most soil C models assume that plant C inputs are matched by C loss through heterotrophic respiration. While these models are applicable for level terrain, on soil mantled uplands in hilly to mountainous regions, persistent soil mass transport represents a potentially large, but unstudied, flux of soil C. In this research we quantify the soil C erosional fluxes and non-steady state soil C storage within two undisturbed grass-covered hillslopes in Coastal California: Tennessee Valley (TV) (coastal Marin County) and Black Diamond (BD) (interior Contra Costa County). At both sites, previous geomorphic studies have quantified both the sediment transport processes (TV= gopher driven sediment transport; BD= abiotic soil shrink/swell) and their rates. Hillslope patterns of soil C storage were examined in relation to slope position with a hillslope sediment transport model. The average C erosion rates from convex slopes are between 1.4 and 2.7 g C m -2 yr-1 at TV and approximately 8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. The C erosional flux is locally as high as 14% of above ground net primary productivity (NPP) at TV and 8% at BD. The convex slopes are net C sinks because NPP likely exceeds respiration by a value equaling the size of C erosion. Eroded soils ultimately accumulate in depositional settings which have residence times on the order of 13kyrs at TV and 5.3kyrs at BD. At TV hollow, 15-24 kg C m-2 of soil C has accumulated at a long-term rate of 1.6-1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 . The present rates of C accumulation were calculated to be 0.3 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 0.6 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. During the hollow infilling, the depositional C inputs have been greater than C accumulation rates, meaning that much of the incoming eroded C is ultimately oxidized to CO2. At both sites, a fraction of the eroded C is exported from the watershed (C of 0.1-0.5 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 2 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD). When all hillslope components are integrated, these watersheds are continuous atmospheric C sinks at rates

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION PROCESS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical fate models require explicit algorithms for computing the effects of transformation and transport processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical concentrations. Transport processes in aquatic systems are driven by physical characteristics on the system an...

  17. A cold box for the transport and storage of vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lundbeck, H.; Håkansson, B.; Lloyd, J. S.; Litvinov, S. K.; Assaad, F.

    1978-01-01

    A cold box capable of maintaining a temperature below +4°C for 1 week was constructed and tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. Cooling is produced by commercial cold packs precooled in a deep-freeze or the freezing compartment of a refrigerator. The box can take approximately 3000 doses of vaccine and is simple, cheap and strong. It is primarily intended for storage of vaccines during field trips by vaccination teams, as an alternative to the refrigerator in regional and peripheral stores in the case of an electrical power failure, and for the delivery of vaccines from regional store to the district. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:308407

  18. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.C. Jr.; Jamison, P.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Mulled Coal process is a technology which has evolved from a line of investigations which began in the 1970`s. There was a major breakthrough in 1990, and since then, with significant support from DOE-PETC, the technology has progressed from the conceptual stage to a proven laboratory process. It is a simple process which involves the addition of a low cost specifically formulated reagent to wet fine coal by mixing the two in a pug mill. Although the converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, it handles, transports, and stores like dry coal. But, unlike thermally dried fine coal Mulled Coal is not dusty, it will not rewet, and it causes no fugitive dust problems. This project was designed to advance the technology from the status of a process which works well in the laboratory to the status of a technology which is fully ready for commercialization. Project objectives were to: 1. Prove the concept that the technology can be used to produce Mulled Coal of a consistent quality, on a continuous basis, at a convincing rate of production, and at a major preparation plant which produces fine clean coal on a commercial basis. 2. Prove the concept that Mulled Coal, either as a blend with coarser clean coal or as a stand-alone fuel will successfully pass through a representative cross section of conventional coal storage, handling and transportation environments without causing any of the problems normally associated with wet fine coal. 3 Test the design and reliability of Mulled Coal circuit equipment and controls. 4. Test the circuit over a wide range of operating conditions. 5. Project scale-up designs for major equipment components and control circuits. 6. Forecast capital and operating costs for commercial circuits ranging from 25 TPH to 75 TPH. This report describes the work, the test results, and conclusions at each step along the way.

  19. Transport and storage of vaccines in Hungary: the first cold chain monitor study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lugosi, L; Battersby, A

    1990-01-01

    With assistance from WHO the Hungarian Ministry of Health organized two cold chain studies: the first in three counties in summer (1 July to 30 September 1987), the second in six counties (including the previous three) in winter (1 January to 31 March 1988). The counties were chosen according to their distance (50-300 km) from Budapest, individual districts and child health centres being selected randomly. All participants were trained before beginning the studies. The vaccines (DPT, measles and BCG) for immunization, with attached cold chain monitors, were transported from the manufacturers to the child health centres using the normal distribution systems in the country. The whole cold chain process was analysed with regard to (1) actual exposures to adverse temperatures and delays in distribution; (2) the places where such exposure or delay occurred; (3) the percentage of vaccines at risk of deterioration (actual and predicted) at the end of the study; and (4) the performance of refrigerators of different types. Evaluation of the results (using WHO's EPIC software) showed significant deviations from acceptable standards. This first cold chain study in a European country proves that even in a temperate climate and with a reasonably well-organized public health service there can be significant weaknesses in the transportation and storage of vaccines. Recommendations to overcome these deficiencies are given. PMID:2208556

  20. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of...

  1. Monitoring of sediment transport processes using tracer stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redtenbacher, Matthias; Harb, Gabriele; Barbas, Teresa; Schneider, Josef

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades the vulnerability of our civilization to geomorphological damaging events like debris flows and exceptional floods increased. The reasons are, on one side, that the global hydrological cycle became more intense during the recent past and on the other side that the material assets of the population increased. Risk prevention, risk analysis and forecast methods thus became more important. Geomorphological processes are often not easy to analyse. To get information about the probability and the consequences of these increasing events, it is necessary to analyse the availability of sediments in the catchment area, the erosion processes of the sediment and the transport of the sediments along torrents. The project ClimCatch, which started in April 2012, investigates the torrential sediment transport processes in a non-glaciated Alpine valley in Austria and the related natural hazards under the viewpoint of the on-going climate change. Due to an extreme precipitation event in 2011 debris flow-similar discharges occurred in this catchment and since that the sediment sources are highly erodible there. The aims of the project are to derive a quantitative sediment budget model, including geomorphic process domains, determining sediment transport in the river system and the measurement of bed load output, besides others. To quantify river sediment dynamics several different methodologies are applied within the project. Discharge and sediment transport measurement as well as hydrological stations are installed in the catchment area. Aggradation and erosion are analysed by means of laser scanning technology in the sediment storage basin which is located at the outlet of the catchment. The observation and measurement of the sediment transport is performed by the application of radio telemetry stones and colour tracer stones. Line pebble counting, automated grain size determination using photographs and sieving on-site is performed to get qualitative sediment

  2. Influence of methane in CO2 transport and storage for CCS technology.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2012-12-01

    CO(2) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a good strategy to mitigate levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. The type and quantity of impurities influence the properties and behavior of the anthropogenic CO(2), and so must be considered in the design and operation of CCS technology facilities. Their study is necessary for CO(2) transport and storage, and to develop theoretical models for specific engineering applications to CCS technology. In this work we determined the influence of CH(4), an important impurity of anthropogenic CO(2), within different steps of CCS technology: transport, injection, and geological storage. For this, we obtained new pressure-density-temperature (PρT) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental data for six CO(2) + CH(4) mixtures at compositions which represent emissions from the main sources in the European Union and United States. The P and T ranges studied are within those estimated for CO(2) pipelines and geological storage sites. From these data we evaluated the minimal pressures for transport, regarding the density and pipeline's capacity requirements, and values for the solubility parameter of the mixtures, a factor which governs the solubility of substances present in the reservoir before injection. We concluded that the presence of CH(4) reduces the storage capacity and increases the buoyancy of the CO(2) plume, which diminishes the efficiency of solubility and residual trapping of CO(2), and reduces the injectivity into geological formations. PMID:23150938

  3. Research on Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation in CRIEPI (Part 2 Concrete Cask Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Koji Shirai; Jyunichi Tani; Taku Arai; Masumi Watatu; Hirofumi Takeda; Toshiari Saegusa; Philip L. Winston

    2008-10-01

    Concrete cask storage has been implemented in the world. At a later stage of storage period, the containment of the canister may deteriorate due to stress corrosion cracking phenomena in a salty air environment. High resistant stainless steels against SCC have been tested as compared with normal stainless steel. Taking account of the limited time-length of environment with certain level of humidity and temperature range, the high resistant stainless steels will survive from SCC damage. In addition, the adhesion of salt from salty environment on the canister surface will be further limited with respect to the canister temperature and angle of the canister surface against the salty air flow in the concrete cask. Optional countermeasure against SCC with respect to salty air environment has been studied. Devices consisting of various water trays to trap salty particles from the salty air were designed to be attached at the air inlet for natural cooling of the cask storage building. Efficiency for trapping salty particles was evaluated. Inspection of canister surface was carried out using an optical camera inserted from the air outlet through the annulus of a concrete cask that has stored real spent fuel for more than 15 years. The camera image revealed no gross degradation on the surface of the canister. Seismic response of a full-scale concrete cask with simulated spent fuel assemblies has been demonstrated. The cask did not tip over, but laterally moved by the earthquake motion. Stress generated on the surface of the spent fuel assemblies during the earthquake motion were within the elastic region.

  4. Vertical transport processes in unconfined aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Reckhow, David A.; Popielarczyk, David J.

    1989-02-01

    We derive simple two-dimensional mathematical models describing the unsteady transport of conservative contaminants through an unconfined aquifer with a gently sloping aquiclude subject to advection, recharge, and vertical dispersion. The inclusion of vertical transport terms permits the proper nonreactive analysis of closed and open chemical systems, with the latter allowing dispersion of volatile constituents across the water table. These systems exhibit conservative and pseudoreactive behavior respectively when the pollution is analyzed on a depth-integrated basis, as is common in present one-dimensional models of groundwater contamination. Vertical and longitudinal chloride and total inorganic carbon observations at the well-documented Babylon, Long Island sanitary landfill plume are used to calibrate and test the analyses with a modest level of accuracy, using the vertical dispersivity as a calibration factor in this testing process. The parameter is important in the determination of reaeration rates across the water table and nutrient mixing from below in the related problem of biological transformations near the free surface.

  5. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  6. Mass storage systems for data transport in the early space station era 1992-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard (Editor); Dalton, John (Editor); Healey, Mike (Editor); Kempster, Linda (Editor); Martin, John (Editor); Mccaleb, Fred (Editor); Sobieski, Stanley (Editor); Sos, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Program will provide a vehicle to deploy an unprecedented number of data producing experiments and operational devices. Peak down link data rates are expected to be in the 500 megabit per second range and the daily data volume could reach 2.4 terabytes. Such startling requirements inspired an internal NASA study to determine if economically viable data storage solutions are likely to be available to support the Ground Data Transport segment of the NASA data system. To derive the requirements for data storage subsystems, several alternative data transport architectures were identified with different degrees of decentralization. Data storage operations at each subsystem were categorized based on access time and retrieval functions, and reduced to the following types of subsystems: First in First out (FIFO) storage, fast random access storage, and slow access with staging. The study showed that industry funded magnetic and optical storage technology has a reasonable probability of meeting these requirements. There are, however, system level issues that need to be addressed in the near term.

  7. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W. (Inventor); Dean, William G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two storage containers are disclosed within which food or biological samples may be stored for transfer in a module by the space shuttle to a space station while maintaining the food or samples at very low temperatures. The container is formed in two parts, each part having an inner shell and an outer shell disposed about the inner shell. The space between the shells is filled with a continuous wrap multi-layer insulation and a getter material. The two parts of the container have interlocking members and when connected together are sealed for preventing leakage from the space between the shells. After the two parts are filled with frozen food or samples they are connected together and a vacuum is drawn in the space between the shells and the container is stored in the module. For the extremely low temperature requirements of biological samples, an internal liner having a phase change material charged by a refrigerant coil is disposed in the space between the shells, and the container is formed from glass fiber material including honeycomb structural elements. All surfaces of the glass fiber which face the vacuum space are lined with a metal foil.

  8. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-17 - Importation for exportation, and importation for transportation and exportation; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation for exportation, and importation for transportation and exportation; storage. 319.8-17 Section 319.8-17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  10. 75 FR 53686 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...This notice announces an open meeting of the Transportation and Storage (T&S) Subcommittee. The T&S Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission). The establishment of subcommittees is authorized in the Commission's charter. The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) (the......

  11. 75 FR 45608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...This notice announces an open meeting of the Transportation and Storage (T&S) Subcommittee. The T&S Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission). The establishment of subcommittees is authorized in the Commission's charter. The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) (the......

  12. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments. 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY...

  13. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments. 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY...

  14. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments. 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY...

  15. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public...

  16. 75 FR 64720 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of... subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission). The establishment...

  17. [Oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of palm oil and fat products based on it under various conditions of storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Zaĭtseva, L V; Stepanova, L I; Baĭkov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the effect of storage conditions for refined deodorized palm oil on the quality and safety: in containers made of ferrous metals (mild steel) at unregulated temperature, in sealed plastic bags at the temperature -20 degrees C in stainless steel under stratification of nitrogen at the temperature of 40+/-1 degrees C. The choice of the objects of study determined by the normative documents of the Russian Federation governing the transportation and storage of vegetable oils and fat products based on them. All samples of palm oil with peroxide value of 1,0 to 1,5 meq O2/kg indicated the presence of a weak foreign taste, is not peculiar impersonalfat, the samples with peroxide value above 1,5 meq O2/kg were observed pronounced off-flavors and odors characteristic of stale oil. Rancidity was observed in samples having peroxide value of 2,0 meq O2/kg or more. Free acid value and anizidin value for the studied period changed to a lesser extent, from 0,06 to 0,1 mg KOH/g and from 1,2 to 1,4 respectively. It is proved that, transportation/storage of palm oil at the temperature above 50 degrees C without stratification of nitrogen greatly accelerates the process of oxidative damage. Based on these data we can recommend transportation/storage and management process with the least possible time of contact of melted palm oil with oxygen to produce high-quality final product (within 2-3 hours from the time of melting). PMID:23156046

  18. The Storage, Transportation, and Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younker, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Congress established a comprehensive federal policy to dispose of wastes from nuclear reactors and defense facilities, centered on deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Site screening led to selection of three potential sites and in 1987, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to characterize only one site: Yucca Mountain in Nevada. For more than 20 years, teams of scientists and engineers have been evaluating the potential suitability of the site. On the basis of their work, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, concluded in February 2002 that a safe repository can be sited at Yucca Mountain. On July 23, 2002, President Bush signed Joint Resolution 87 approving the site at Yucca Mountain for development of a repository, which allows the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare and submit a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Concerns have been raised relative to the safe transportation of nuclear materials. The U.S. history of transportation of nuclear materials demonstrates that high-level nuclear materials can be safely transported. Since the 1960s, over 1.6 million miles have been traveled by more than 2,700 spent nuclear fuel shipments, and there has never been an accident severe enough to cause a release of radioactive materials. The DOE will use NRC-certified casks that must be able to withstand very stringent tests. The same design features that allow the casks to survive severe accidents also limit their vulnerability to sabotage. In addition, the NRC will approve all shipping routes and security plans. With regard to long-term safety, the Yucca Mountain disposal system has five key attributes. First, the arid climate and geology of Yucca Mountain combine to ensure that limited water will enter the emplacement tunnels. Second, the DOE has designed a waste package and drip shield that are expected to have very long lifetimes in the repository environment. Third, waste form

  19. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  20. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement are discussed. Potential annual fuel savings, with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries, is nearly 9,000,000 bbl of oil.

  1. Processing and storage effects on procyanidin composition and concentration of processed blueberry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries are a rich source of procyanidins that may contribute to the reduced risk of chronic disease; however due to seasonal availability the berries are commonly consumed in thermally processed forms after long term-term storage. In this study we evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mont...

  2. 41 CFR 302-7.401 - What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage of HHG? 302-7.401 Section 302-7.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.401 - What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage of HHG? 302-7.401 Section 302-7.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.401 - What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What method of transportation and payment should we authorize for shipment and temporary storage of HHG? 302-7.401 Section 302-7.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  5. 41 CFR 302-9.8 - Must my agency authorize transportation or emergency or temporary storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY OR TEMPORARY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must my agency...

  6. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processingtransport through chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  7. Review: Role of chemistry, mechanics, and transport on well integrity in CO2 storage environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carroll, Susan A.; Carey, William J.; Dzombak, David; Huerta, Nicolas J.; Li, Li; Richard, Tom; Um, Wooyong; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Zhang, Liwei

    2016-03-22

    Among the various risks associated with CO2 storage in deep geologic formations, wells are important potential pathways for fluid leaks and groundwater contamination. Injection of CO2 will perturb the storage reservoir and any wells that penetrate the CO2 or pressure footprints are potential pathways for leakage of CO2 and/or reservoir brine. Well leakage is of particular concern for regions with a long history of oil and gas exploration because they are top candidates for geologic CO2storage sites. This review explores in detail the ability of wells to retain their integrity against leakage with careful examination of the coupled physical andmore » chemical processes involved. Understanding time-dependent leakage is complicated by the changes in fluid flow, solute transport, chemical reactions, and mechanical stresses over decade or longer time frames for site operations and monitoring. Almost all studies of the potential for well leakage have been laboratory based, as there are limited data on field-scale leakage. When leakage occurs by diffusion only, laboratory experiments show that while CO2 and CO2-saturated brine react with cement and casing, the rate of degradation is transport-limited and alteration of cement and casing properties is low. When a leakage path is already present due to cement shrinkage or fracturing, gaps along interfaces (e.g. casing/cement or cement/rock), or casing failures, chemical and mechanical alteration have the potential to decrease or increase leakage risks. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that mineral precipitation or closure of strain-induced fractures can seal a leak pathway over time or conversely open pathways depending on flow-rate, chemistry, and the stress state. Experiments with steel/cement and cement/rock interfaces have indicated that protective mechanisms such as metal passivation, chemical alteration, mechanical deformation, and pore clogging can also help mitigate leakage. The specific

  8. Solute transport in heterogeneous karst systems: Dimensioning and estimation of the transport parameters via multi-sampling tracer-tests modelling using the OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaide, Lorraine; Bonniver, Isabelle; Rochez, Gaëtan; Hallet, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the modelling results of several tracer-tests performed in the cave system of Han-sur-Lesse (South Belgium). In Han-sur-Lesse, solute flows along accessible underground river stretches and through flooded areas that are rather unknown in terms of geometry. This paper focus on the impact of those flooded areas on solute transport and their dimensioning. The program used (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage: OTIS) is based on the two-region non equilibrium model that supposes the existence of an immobile water zone along the main flow zone in which solute can be caught. The simulations aim to replicate experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) by adapting the main transport and geometric parameters that govern solute transport in karst conduits. Furthermore, OTIS allows a discretization of the investigated system, which is particularly interesting in systems presenting heterogeneous geometries. Simulation results show that transient storage is a major process in flooded areas and that the crossing of these has a major effect on the BTCs shape. This influence is however rather complex and very dependent of the flooded areas geometry and transport parameters. Sensibility tests performed in this paper aim to validate the model and show the impact of the parametrization on the BTCs shape. Those tests demonstrate that transient storage is not necessarily transformed in retardation. Indeed, significant tailing effect is only observed in specific conditions (depending on the system geometry and/or the flow) that allow residence time in the storage area to be longer than restitution time. This study ends with a comparison of solute transport in river stretches and in flooded areas.

  9. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned

  10. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from <2% (e.g., caseinates, milk protein isolates) to 100% in lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose

  11. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  12. Storage and Transport of Hydrocarbons in Organic-Rich Mudstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Falk, K. I.; Coasne, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-rich mudstones - also called source rocks - are capable of economically producing significant quantities of oil and natural gas. Although the static physical and chemical properties of these rocks are generally well understood, the dynamics of hydrocarbon fluids in them is still a matter of conjecture and debate. In conventional porous petroleum reservoirs, the solid matrix is composed of inorganic minerals such as quartz or calcite, pore sizes are in the range of micrometers, and the following assumptions generally hold to a high degree of approximation: (1) thermodynamic and transport properties of the pore fluids are identical to their bulk values; (2) matrix solids are inert; (3) fluid-solid interactions are fully described by simple notions of wettability. In contrast, in source rock, oil and gas are in intimate contact with an organic solid called kerogen, the pore spaces of which are comparable to molecular dimensions. Therefore the dynamics of hydrocarbons in organic-rich mudstones must take into account significant departures from bulk thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and fluid-solid interactions are molecular-species specific. We present a multi-scale model of organic-rich mudstone that is consistent with a variety of molecular-level computations and physical property measurements, and that may serve as a basis for understanding the oil and gas production mechanisms of these rocks.

  13. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature. PMID:24426066

  14. Processing and storage effects on procyanidin composition and concentration of processed blueberry products.

    PubMed

    Brownmiller, Cindi; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-03-11

    Blueberries are a rich source of procyanidins that may contribute to the reduced risk of chronic disease; however, because of seasonal availability, the berries are commonly consumed in thermally processed forms after long-term storage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of processing and 6 months of storage on procyanidin composition and content of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (nonclarified and clarified). Processing blueberries into various forms resulted in significant losses of total procyanidins, with only 19 and 23% being retained in nonclarified and clarified juices, 41% retained in purees, and 65 and 78% being retained in berries CS and CW. The mono- and dimers were retained to a much greater extent than larger oligomers in all products following processing. Procyanidins were further degraded during 6 months of storage, with only 8% and 11% retained in clarified and nonclarified juices, 7% retained in pureed, and 22 and 32% retained in berries CS and CW. Similar to results obtained following processing, mono- and dimers were better retained than larger oligomers. Methods are needed to prevent procyanidin losses during processing and storage. PMID:19215129

  15. Transport Processes in High Temperature QCD Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Juhee

    The transport properties of high temperature QCD plasmas can be described by kinetic theory based on the Boltzmann equation. At a leading-log approximation, the Boltzmann equation is reformulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. First, we compute the spectral densities of Tµν and Jµ by perturbing the system with weak gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The spectral densities exhibit a smooth transition from free-streaming quasi-particles to hydrodynamics. This transition is analyzed with hydrodynamics and diffusion equation up to second order. We determine all of the first and second order transport coefficients which characterize the linear response in the hydrodynamic regime. Second, we simulate the wake of a heavy quark moving through the plasmas. At long distances, the energy density and flux distributions show sound waves and a diffusion wake. The kinetic theory calculations based on the Boltzmann equation at weak coupling are compared to the strong coupling results given by the AdS/CFT correspondence. By using the hard-thermal-loop effective theory, we determine the photon emission rate at next-to-leading order (NLO), i.e., at order g2mD /T. There are three mechanisms which contribute to the leading-order photon emission: (2 ↔ 2) elastic scatterings, (1 ↔ 2) collinear bremsstrahlung, and (1 ↔ 1) quark-photon conversion due to soft fermion exchange. At NLO, these three mechanisms are not completely independent. When the transverse momentum between quark and photon becomes soft, the Compton scattering with a soft gluon reduces to wide-angle bremsstrahlung. Similarly, bremsstrahlung reduces to the quark-photon conversion process when the photon carries most of the incoming momentum. Therefore, the rates should be matched to determine the wide-angle NLO correction. Collinear bremsstrahlung can be accounted for by solving an integral

  16. Development of a container for the transportation and storage of plutonium bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D.; Geinitz, R.; Thorp, D.; Rivera, M.

    1998-03-01

    There is a large backlog of plutonium contaminated materials at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, USA. The clean-up of this site requires this material to be packaged in such a way as to allow for efficient transportation to other sites or to a permanent geologic repository. Prior to off-site shipment of the material, it may be stored on-site for a period of time. For this reason, it is desirable to have a container capable of meeting the requirements for storage as well as the requirements for transportation. Most of the off-site transportation is envisioned to take place using the TRUPACT-II Type B package, with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as the destination. Prior to the development of this new container, the TRUPACT-II had a limit of 325 FGE (fissile gram equivalents) of plutonium due to criticality control concerns. Because of the relatively high plutonium content in the material to be transported, transporting 325 FGE per TRUPACT-II is uneconomical. Thus, the purpose of the new containers is to provide criticality control to increase the allowed TRUPACT-II payload and to provide a safe method for on-site storage prior to transport. This paper will describe the analysis and testing used to demonstrate that the Pipe Overpack Container provides safe on-site storage of plutonium bearing materials in unhardened buildings and provides criticality control during transportation within the TRUPACT-II. Analyses included worst-case criticality analyses, analyses of fork-lift time impacts, and analyses of roof structure collapse onto the container. Testing included dynamic crush tests, bare pipe impact tests, a 30-minute totally engulfing pool-fire test, and multiple package impact tests in end-on and side-on orientations.

  17. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  18. Reactive Transport Modeling of Cap Rock Integrity During Natural and Engineered CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-05-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (GEMBOCHS, SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfracture apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish EOR/sequestration and saline-aquifer settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible (indirect) impact on mineral dissolution/precipitation rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation; specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. Hence, while the extent of geochemical alteration is nearly independent of filling mode, that of geomechanical deformation is significantly more pronounced during engineered injection. This distinction limits the extent to which naturally

  19. Vertically Integrated Models for CO2 Storage with Coupled Thermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Gray, W. G.; Dahle, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    CO2 storage involves coupled processes that affect the migration and ultimate fate of injected CO2 over multiple length and time scales. Coupled thermal and mechanical processes may have implications for storage security, including thermally induced fracturing and loss of caprock integrity near the wellbore. This may occur when CO2 is injected at a different temperature from reservoir conditions, e.g. Snøhvit injection, potentially leading to large temperature, density and volume changes over space and time. In addition, thermally induced density changes impact plume buoyancy that may affect large-scale migration patterns in gravity-driven systems, e.g. Sleipner injection. This interaction becomes particularly important near the critical point. Therefore, thermal processes should be considered in order to correctly capture plume migration within the reservoir. A practical modeling approach for CO2 storage at the field scale is the vertical-equilibrium (VE) model, which solves partially integrated conservation equations for flow in two lateral dimensions. This class of models is well suited for strongly segregated flows. We extend the classical VE model to nonisothermal systems by integrating the heat transport equations, focusing on thermal processes that most impact the CO2 plume. The model allows for heating/cooling of the CO2 plume through heat exchange with the surrounding environment. The upscaling procedure assumes vertically constant temperature across the plume thickness for relatively thin plumes. Conduction across the plume boundaries, into the caprock above and brine below, is modeled by an analytical heat transfer function. As a starting point, we investigate the validity of the simplifying assumptions and heat transfer boundary conditions for relatively simple systems. We find that the upscaled model compares well for systems where heat advection in the plume is the dominant heat transport mechanism. For high CO2 flux, improvements to the model can be

  20. CaMKII regulation in information processing and storage

    PubMed Central

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Bayer, K. Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Ca2+/Calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by Ca2+/CaM, but becomes partially autonomous (Ca2+-independent) upon autophosphorylation at T286. This hallmark feature of CaMKII regulation provides a form of molecular memory and is indeed important in long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapse strength and memory formation. However, emerging evidence supports a direct role in information processing, while storage of synaptic information may instead be mediated by regulated interaction of CaMKII with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex. These and other CaMKII regulation mechanisms are discussed here in the context of the kinase structure and their impact on post-synaptic functions. Recent findings also implicate CaMKII in long-term depression (LTD), as well as functional roles at inhibitory synapses, lending renewed emphasis on better understanding the spatio-temporal control of CaMKII regulation. PMID:22717267

  1. The effects of gas-fluid-rock interactions on CO2 injection and storage: Insights from reactive transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2008-10-15

    Possible means of reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions include injecting CO{sub 2} in petroleum reservoirs for Enhanced Oil Recovery or storing CO{sub 2} in deep saline aquifers. Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into subsurface reservoirs would induce a complex interplay of multiphase flow, capillary trapping, dissolution, diffusion, convection, and chemical reactions that may have significant impacts on both short-term injection performance and long-term fate of CO{sub 2} storage. Reactive Transport Modeling is a promising approach that can be used to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO{sub 2} and associated gas-fluid-rock interactions. This presentation will summarize recent advances in reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and review key technical issues on (1) the short- and long-term behavior of injected CO{sub 2} in geological formations; (2) the role of reservoir mineral heterogeneity on injection performance and storage security; (3) the effect of gas mixtures (e.g., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) on CO{sub 2} storage; and (4) the physical and chemical processes during potential leakage of CO{sub 2} from the primary storage reservoir. Simulation results suggest that CO{sub 2} trapping capacity, rate, and impact on reservoir rocks depend on primary mineral composition and injecting gas mixtures. For example, models predict that the injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with H{sub 2}S in both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs lead to acidified zones and mineral dissolution adjacent to the injection well, and carbonate precipitation and mineral trapping away from the well. Co-injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and in particular with SO{sub 2} causes greater formation alteration and complex sulfur mineral (alunite, anhydrite, and pyrite) trapping, sometimes at a much faster rate than previously thought. The results from Reactive Transport Modeling provide valuable insights for analyzing and assessing the dynamic

  2. Overview of medium heterogeneity and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Y.; Tsang, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    Medium heterogeneity can have significant impact on the behavior of solute transport. Tracer breakthrough curves from transport in a heterogeneous medium are distinctly different from that in a homogeneous porous medium. Usually the shape of the breakthrough curves are highly non-symmetrical with a fast rise at early times and very long tail at late times, and often, they consist of multiple peaks. Moreover, unlike transport in a homogeneous medium where the same transport parameters describe the entire medium, transport through heterogeneous media gives rise to breakthrough curves which have strong spatial dependence. These inherent characteristics of transport in heterogeneous medium present special challenge to the performance assessment of a potential high level nuclear waste repository with respect to the possible release of radio nuclides to the accessible environment. Since an inherently desirable site characteristic for a waste repository is that flow and transport should be slow, then transport measurements in site characterization efforts will necessarily be spatially small and temporally short compare to the scales which are of relevance to performance assessment predictions. In this paper we discuss the role of medium heterogeneity in site characterization and performance assessment. Our discussion will be based on a specific example of a 3D heterogeneous stochastic model of a site generally similar to, the Aespoe Island, the site of the Hard Rock Laboratory in Southern Sweden. For our study, alternative 3D stochastic fields of hydraulic conductivities conditioned on ``point`` measurements shall be generated. Results of stochastic flow and transport simulations would be used to address the issues of (1) the relationship of tracer breakthrough with the structure of heterogeneity, and (2) the inference from small scale testing results to large scale and long term predictions.

  3. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design. PMID:23488142

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  5. Silica desiccant packets for storage and transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other clinically relevant species.

    PubMed

    Pell, Casey L; Williams, Melanie J; Dunne, Eileen M; Porter, Barbara D; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial isolates are often transported between laboratories for research and diagnostic purposes. Silica desiccant packets (SDPs), which are inexpensive and do not require freezing, were evaluated for storage and recovery of bacterial isolates. Conditions such as inoculum size, swab type and temperature of storage were investigated using ten Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The optimized protocol was then tested using 49 additional S. pneumoniae isolates representing 40 serogroups. Overall, S. pneumoniae growth was considered satisfactory (>100 colony forming units) for 98/109 (89.9%) and 20/20 (100%) swabs after 14 days at room temperature or 28 days at 4° C, respectively. Storage in SDPs did not impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae isolates to be subsequently serotyped. When the survival of nine other clinically relevant bacterial species was tested, seven were viable after 28 days at room temperature, the exceptions being Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. SDPs are suitable for transport and short-term storage of bacterial species including S. pneumoniae. PMID:23940811

  6. Use of transportable storage casks in the nuclear waste management system: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the viability of the use of transportable storage casks (TSCs), and other metal casks that are designed primarily for storage but which might be used to ship their stored contents to DOE on a one-time use basis (referred to in this study as storage only casks, or SOCs), in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system. The viability of the use of TSCs and SOCs was assessed in terms of the costs and savings involved in their use, the sensitivity of these costs and savings to changes in the capacity and cost of fabrication of the casks, the impacts of variation in cask design features on cost and radiation exposure of personnel, and their prospective use in connection with the transport of defense high level wastes. Estimates were developed of the costs of acquiring and handling of TSCs and SOCs at reactor sites. For comparison purposes, similar costs were developed for the use of concrete storage casks at reactor sites. Estimates of the savings involved to the DOE system as a result of receiving spent fuel in TSCs or SOCs were separately developed. These costs are developed and presented in Volume 2, Appendices A through J.

  7. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  8. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem

  9. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    could affect the safe storage of the used fuel. The information contained in the license and CoC renewal applications will require NRC review to verify that the aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ ISFSIs are adequately managed for the period of extended operation. To date, all of the ISFSIs located across the United States with more than 1,500 dry casks loaded with used fuel have initial license terms of 20 years; three ISFSIs (Surry, H.B. Robinson and Oconee) have received their renewed licenses for 20 years, and two other ISFSIs (Calvert Cliffs and Prairie Island) have applied for license renewal for 40 years. This report examines issues related to managing aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ISFSIs for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuels, following an approach similar to that of the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, NUREG-1801, for the aging management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. The report contains five chapters and an appendix on quality assurance for aging management programs for used-fuel dry storage systems. Chapter I of the report provides an overview of the ISFSI license renewal process based on 10 CFR 72 and the guidance provided in NUREG-1927. Chapter II contains definitions and terms for structures and components in DCSSs, materials, environments, aging effects, and aging mechanisms. Chapter III and Chapter IV contain generic TLAAs and AMPs, respectively, that have been developed for managing aging effects on the SSCs important to safety in the dry cask storage system designs described in Chapter V. The summary descriptions and tabulations of evaluations of AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in Chapter V include DCSS designs (i.e., NUHOMS{reg_sign}, HI-STORM 100, Transnuclear (TN) metal cask, NAC International S/T storage cask, ventilated storage cask (VSC-24), and the Westinghouse MC-10 metal dry storage cask) that have been and continue to be used by utilities across the country for

  10. Performance of Four Transport and Storage Systems for Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabodoarivelo, Marie Sylvianne; Imperiale, Bélen; andrianiavomikotroka, Rina; Brandao, Angela; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Sarman; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Morcillo, Nora; Rasolofo, Voahangy; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Vandamme, Peter; Martin, Anandi

    2015-01-01

    Background Detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for the control of the disease but it is often hampered by the limitation of transport and storage of samples from remote locations to the reference laboratory. We performed a retrospective field study to evaluate the performance of four supports enabling the transport and storage of samples to be used for molecular detection of drug resistance using the GenoType MTBDRplus. Methods Two hundred Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were selected and spotted on slides, FTA cards, GenoCards, and in ethanol. GenoType MTBDRplus was subsequently performed with the DNA extracted from these supports. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared to the results obtained by drug susceptibility testing. Results For all supports, the overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of resistance to RIF was between 95% and 100%, and for INH between 95% and 98%. Conclusion The four transport and storage supports showed a good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of resistance to RIF and INH in M. tuberculosis strains using the GenoType MTBDRplus. These supports can be maintained at room temperature and could represent an important alternative cost-effective method useful for rapid molecular detection of drug-resistant TB in low-resource settings. PMID:26431352

  11. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  12. Which factors, processes and storages influence low flow (Q347)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Michael; Scherrer, Simon; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Naef, Felix

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, estimation of residual water is based on Q347 (flow exceeded during 347 days per year). In ungauged catchments Q347 has to be determined with some simplified approaches. However, these statistical models often provide inaccurate results. The runoff reaction of a river depends on the spatial distribution of the Dominant Runoff Processes (DRP) like Hortonian Overland Flow (HOF), Saturated Overland Flow (SOF), Sub-Surface Flow (SSF) or Deep Percolation (DP) within its catchment area. Low flow is fed by slowly reacting groundwater or deep hillslope storages. These storages are supposed to be located mainly beneath permeable soils in highly permeable bedrock like talus, deposits of debris flows or rock fall, gravel of river deposits, lateral moraines or karst systems, represented in DRP-maps by slowly reacting SOF3-, SSF3- or DP- areas. To better understand these mechanisms, the relation between areas of slowly reacting SOF3, SSF3, DP and the form of the recession curves was analysed in 27 catchments of Swiss Plateau and Jura. Results show, that drainage characteristics and percentage of SOF3-, SSF3- and DP- areas in catchments relate well. The more extended the recharge areas, the smoother and longer the recession curves. For example the recession to Q347 in the Eulach River (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 54%) takes 95 days, in the Töss River only 10 days (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 9%). However, the differences in Q347 cannot be explained with these percentages. The runoff volume from Q347 to Q365 in 14 investigated catchments is only between 0.2 and 14 mm, about 1.5% of the annual precipitation volume. It seems that the storages mentioned above do not contribute significantly any more, when the discharge falls below Q347. It was found that catchments with high Q347 consist mainly of sandstone, conglomerate or large scaled wetlands. It seems that mainly porous and fissured solid rocks contribute to Q347. Very small Q347 are usually caused by seepage loss of

  13. Reactive transport models for mineral CO2 storage in basaltic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aradottir, E. S.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Bjornsson, G.; Jonsson, H.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 mineral storage in basalts may provide a long lasting, thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign solution to reduce anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. We present here development of reactive transport models of this process with focus on the CarbFix experiment at Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in Iceland. There, up to 2.2 tons/year of purified CO2 of volcanic origin will be dissolved in water and injected at intermediate depths (400-800 m) into relatively fresh basaltic lava. Plans call for a full-scale injection if the experiment is successful. Reactive transport modeling is an important factor in the CarbFix project, providing tools to predict and optimize long-term management of the injection site as well as to quantify the amount of CO2 that has the potential of being mineralized. TOUGHREACT and iTOUGH2 are used to develop reactive fluid flow models that simulate hydrology and mineral alteration associated with injecting dissolved CO2 into basalts. The mineral reactions database in TOUGHREACT has been revised and extended, providing an internally consistent database suitable for mineral reactions of interest for this study. A multiple interacting continua (MINC) dissolution model was developed to simulate the long and short-term dissolution of basaltic glass taking into account dissolution kinetics, leached layer formation and diffusion-limited dissolution rates. Our main focus has been on developing a three dimensional field model of the injection site at Hellisheidi. Hydrological parameters of the model were calibrated using iTOUGH2 to simulate tracer tests that have been ongoing since 2007. Modeling results indicate groundwater velocity in the reservoir to be significantly lower than expected. The slow groundwater velocity may necessitate increasing groundwater flow by producing downstream wells at low rates after CO2 injection has started. The three dimensional numerical model has proven to be a valuable tool in simulating different

  14. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  15. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  16. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  17. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, J. H.; Hurley, P. J.; Martin, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel of (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application.

  18. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  19. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  20. GNEP Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Analysis FY-08 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W

    2009-01-15

    for waste management calculations for the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The IWMS represents a collaborative effort between the Systems Analysis, Waste Forms, and Separations Campaigns with contributing authors from multiple laboratories. The IWMS reference is: 'Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Integrated Waste Management Strategy, D. Gombert, INL, et al, GNEP-WAST-WAST-AI-RT-2008-000214, March 2008'. (2) As input to the IWMS and support for program decisions, an evaluation of the current regulatory framework in the U.S. pertaining to the disposal of radioactive wastes under an advanced nuclear fuel cycle was completed by ANL. This evaluation also investigated potential disposal pathways for these wastes. The entire evaluation is provided in Appendix A of this report. (3) Support was provided to the development of the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement from INL, SNL and ANL M-TSD staff. (4) M-TSD staff prepared input for DSARR (Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle) report. The DSARR is an INL led report to examine the time-dependent dynamics for a transition from the current open fuel cycle to either a 1-tier or 2-tier closed fuel cycle. Section 5.3 Waste Management Impacts was provided to INL for incorporation into the DSARR. (5) SNL M-TSD staff prepared a M2 milestone report 'Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Contribution for Secretarial Decision Package'. The report purpose was to comprehensively evaluate and discuss packaging, storage, and transportation for all potential nuclear and radioactive materials in the process and waste streams being considered by the GNEP program. In particular, a systems view was used to capture all packaging, storage, and transport operations needed to link the various functional aspects of the fuel cycle. (6) SRNL M-TSD staff developed a deliverable report 'Management of Decay Heat from Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This report evaluated a range of options for managing

  1. Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    For CO(2) geological storage, permitting impurities, such as H(2)S, in CO(2) streams can lead to a great potential for capital and energy savings for CO(2) capture and separation, but it also increases costs and risk management for transportation and storage. To evaluate the cost-benefits, using a recently developed model (Ji, X.; Zhu, C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2012, 91, 40-59), this study predicts phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the system H(2)S-CO(2)-H(2)O-NaCl under transportation and storage conditions and discusses potential effects of H(2)S on transportation and storage. The prediction shows that inclusion of H(2)S in CO(2) streams may lead to two-phase flow. For H(2)S-CO(2) mixtures, at a given temperature, the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H(2)S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O system, the total gas solubility increases while the mass density of the aqueous solution with dissolved gas decreases. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O-NaCl system, at a given temperature, pressure and NaCl concentration, the solubility of the gas mixture in aqueous phase increases with increasing H(2)S content and then decreases, while the mass density of aqueous solution decreases and may be lower than the mass density of the solution without gas dissolution. PMID:22823266

  2. Quantification of chemical transport processes from soil to surface runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there is a conceptual understanding on processes governing chemical transport from soil to surface runoff, there are little literature and research results actually quantifying these individual processes. We developed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify chemical ...

  3. Large-Scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. The Brewer-Dobson circulation: tropical upwelling. 2. Mixing into polar vortices. 3. The latitudinal structure of "age" in the stratosphere. 4. The subtropical "tracer edges". 5. Transport in the lower troposphere. 6. Tracer modeling during SOLVE. 7. 3D modeling of "mean age". 8. Models and measurements II.

  4. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  5. Upper Mantle Magma Storage and Transport Beneath the Miocene Teno Volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.

    2008-12-01

    The nature and dynamics of magma plumbing systems are key variables to the understanding of overlying volcanic edifices. With the exception of a few intensely studied localities, these variables are typically unconstrained at volcanoes worldwide. Where attempted, studies of magma storage and transport systems reveal complex plumbing geometries, for a range of geological settings, indicating that assumptions of shallow, spherical-elliptical magma chambers are often oversimplified. At highly active volcanoes, geophysical monitoring is an effective tool to investigate plumbing system geometries. In the Canary Islands, however, the low eruption frequency results in poor deformation and volcano-seismic data sets, and volcanologists thus have to rely on alternative methods to study the magma plumbing system of Canarian volcanoes. We use clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry [Putirka et al. 1996, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol.], aided by petrography and major element chemistry, to reconstruct the magma plumbing system of the late Miocene, largely mafic Teno shield-volcano, Tenerife. In thin section, abundant clinopyroxene phenocrysts display darker coloured outer rims, which commonly host acicular apatite microcrystals and sometimes form dentritic protrusions. This is coupled with steep normal Fe-Mg zoning and drastic TiO2 enrichment at the clinopyroxene rims, and similar normal zonations are also observed in coexisting olivine. We suggest that the rims formed due to decompression induced crystallisation upon rapid magma ascent and accompanying degassing and undercooling. This process took place under disequilibrium conditions, implying that clinopyroxene rim compositions may not always be suitable for thermobarometric calculations. On the other hand, clinopyroxene compositions excluding the outer rims generally appear to be in chemical equilibrium with the host melt (fused groundmass and whole-rock compositions for ankaramitic and basaltic samples, respectively

  6. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  9. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  11. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma. PMID:21488512

  12. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 2. Transient storage and decay chain solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminant transport processes in streams, rivers, and other surface water bodies can be analyzed or predicted using the advection-dispersion equation and related transport models. In part 1 of this two-part series we presented a large number of one- and multi-dimensional analytical solutions of t...

  13. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  14. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  15. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask`s primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives.

  16. Effects of transport container and ambient storage temperature on motion characteristics of equine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P; Rowan, K R; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    2000-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare the cooling rates and storage temperatures within equine semen transport containers exposed to different ambient temperatures, and to evaluate the ability of these containers to preserve spermatozoal motility following 24 h of storage under these conditions. In Experiment 1, nonfat dried milk solids, glucose, sucrose, equine semen extender was divided into seven 40-mL aliquots and loaded into seven different semen transport containers: Equitainer I, Equitainer II, Equitainer III, ExpectaFoal, Bio-Flite, Lane STS, and Equine Express. After containers were loaded, they were subjected to one of three ambient storage temperatures: 1) 22 degrees C for 72 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h followed by 22 degrees C for 66 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 72 h. Cooling rates and storage temperatures of semen extender in each container were monitored with thermocouples and a chart recorder. In Experiment 2, semen from each of three stallions (3 ejaculates per stallion) was diluted to 25 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL with semen extender, divided into 40 mL aliquots and loaded into transport containers as in Experiment I. Containers were subjected to one of three ambient storage conditions: 1) 22 degrees C for 24 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h, followed by 22 degrees C for 18 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 24 h. After 24 h of storage, spermatozoal motion characteristics (percentage of motile spermatozoa; MOT, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa; PMOT, and mean curvilinear velocity; VCL) were evaluated using a computerized spermatozoal motion analyzer. Significant interactions were detected among storage conditions and semen transport containers for the majority of the temperature endpoints measured. When exposed to temporary ambient freezing conditions, the lowest temperatures attained by samples in containers ranged from -2.8 to 0.8 degrees C. Lowest temperature samples attained was not correlated (P > 0.05) with spermatozoal motility under any ambient

  17. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  18. R&D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  19. Prevention of Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs during production, storage, and transportation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule that requires shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth during storage and transportation, and requires these producers to maintain records concerning their compliance with the rule and to register with FDA. FDA is taking this action because SE is among the leading bacterial causes of foodborne illness in the United States, and shell eggs are a primary source of human SE infections. The final rule will reduce SE-associated illnesses and deaths by reducing the risk that shell eggs are contaminated with SE. PMID:19588581

  20. Ageing of a neutron shielding used in transport/storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Nizeyiman, Fidele; Alami, Aatif; Issard, Herve; Bellenger, Veronique

    2012-07-11

    In radioactive materials transport/storage casks, a mineral-filled vinylester composite is used for neutron shielding which relies on its hydrogen and boron atoms content. During cask service life, this composite is mainly subjected to three types of ageing: hydrothermal ageing, thermal oxidation and neutron irradiation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrothermal ageing on the properties and chemical composition of this polymer composite. At high temperature (120 Degree-Sign C and 140 Degree-Sign C), the main consequence is the strong decrease of mechanical properties induced by the filler/matrix debonding.

  1. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  2. 41 CFR 302-9.501 - How should we administer the allowances for transportation and emergency storage of a POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How should we administer the allowances for transportation and emergency storage of a POV? 302-9.501 Section 302-9.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION...

  3. Large-scale Atmospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Continuing earlier work, we continued an investigation of the seasonal behavior of the edges of the stratospheric surf zone. These edges form a barrier between the rapidly mixed surf zone and the relatively isolated tropics. In collaboration with Dr Lynn Sparling at GSFC, we used a statistical analysis of HALOE and CLAES trace gas data from UARS to identify and locate these edges during each UARS observing period. We found that the edges on both sides of the equator are present all year (a fact that is important for conceptual models of stratospheric transport), though that on the summer side of the equator is much less sharp than the winter edge. The edges migrate seasonally into the summer hemisphere. Their location also shows influence of the QBO, together with the SAO at higher altitudes. Comparisons with effective diffusivities, and the edge locations, suggest that the edge is sustained by surf zone entrainment during winter, but by the residual circulation during summer.

  4. Universality in Transport Processes of Unconventional Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauls, J. A.

    1997-03-01

    I will review recent work on the theory of charge and energy transport in unconventional superconductors, with applications to d-wave models for the cuprates and the heavy fermion superconductors.(M.J. Graf, S.-K. Yip, D. Rainer and J.A. Sauls, Phys. Rev. B,53), 15147 (1996). Comparisons with recent experiments will be presented.(L. Taillefer, this conference.) I will discuss the key features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface and excitation spectrum that are reflected in the electrical, thermal and acoustic response functions at very low temperatures, where transport is limited by electron scattering from random defects. Certain eigenvalues of the thermal conductivity and acoustic attenuation tensors are shown to be universal at low temperature, kB T<< γ, where γ is the bandwidth of impurity-induced bound states in the superconducting phase. The components of the electrical and thermal conductivity also obey a Wiedemann-Franz law with the Lorenz ratio, L(T)=κ/σ T, given by the Sommerfeld value of L_S=(π^2/3)(k_B/e)^2 for k_BT<<γ. For intermediate temperatures the Lorenz ratio deviates significantly from L_S, and is strongly dependent on the scattering cross section, and qualitatively different for resonant vs. nonresonant scattering. Nonuniversal results for the acoustic response, arising from nonvanishing impurity scattering vertex corrections, are shown to be direct tests of spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry by the pairing state.(M.J. Graf, et al., this conference.)

  5. Large-scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The PI has undertaken a theoretical analysis of the existence and nature of compact tracer-tracer relationships of the kind observed in the stratosphere, augmented with three-dimensional model simulations of stratospheric tracers (the latter being an extension of modeling work the group did during the SOLVE experiment). This work achieves a rigorous theoretical basis for the existence and shape of these relationships, as well as a quantitative theory of their width and evolution, in terms of the joint tracer-tracer PDF distribution. A paper on this work is almost complete and will soon be submitted to Rev. Geophys. We have analyzed lower stratospheric water in simulations with an isentropic-coordinate version of the MATCH transport model which we recently helped to develop. The three-dimensional structure of lower stratospheric water, in particular, attracted our attention: dry air is, below about 400K potential temperature, localized in the regions of the west Pacific and equatorial South America. We have been analyzing air trajectories to determine how air passes through the tropopause cold trap. This work is now being completed, and a paper will be submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. before the end of summer. We are continuing to perform experiments with the 'MATCH' CTM, in both sigma- and entropy-coordinate forms. We earlier found (in collaboration with Dr Natalie Mahowald, and as part of an NSF-funded project) that switching to isentropic coordinates made a substantial improvement to the simulation of the age of stratospheric air. We are now running experiments with near-tropopause sources in both versions of the model, to see if and to what extent the simulation of stratosphere-troposphere transport is dependent on the model coordinate. Personnel Research is supervised by the PI, Prof. Alan Plumb. Mr William Heres conducts the tracer modeling work and performs other modeling tasks. Two graduate students, Ms Irene Lee and Mr Michael Ring, have been participating

  6. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  7. Modeling Nonequilibrium Flow and Transport Processes Using HYDRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate process-based modeling of nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport remains a major challenge in vadose zone hydrology. The objective of this paper is to describe a wide range of nonequilibrium flow and transport modeling approaches available within the latest version of the HYDRUS-1D ...

  8. Vesicular Glutamate Transport Promotes Dopamine Storage and Glutamate Corelease In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hnasko, Thomas S.; Chuhma, Nao; Zhang, Hui; Goh, Germaine Y.; Sulzer, David; Palmiter, Richard D.; Rayport, Stephen; Edwards, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in the motivational systems underlying drug addiction, and recent work has suggested that they also release the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. To assess a physiological role for glutamate corelease, we disrupted the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 selectively in dopamine neurons. The conditional knockout abolishes glutamate release from midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and severely reduces their excitatory synaptic output in mesoaccumbens slices. Baseline motor behavior is not affected, but stimulation of locomotor activity by cocaine is impaired, apparently through a selective reduction of dopamine stores in the projection of VTA neurons to ventral striatum. Glutamate co-entry promotes monoamine storage by increasing the pH gradient that drives vesicular monoamine transport. Remarkably, low concentrations of glutamate acidify synaptic vesicles more slowly but to a greater extent than equimolar Cl−, indicating a distinct, presynaptic mechanism to regulate quantal size. PMID:20223200

  9. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  10. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  11. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 8, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-15

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. On the other hand, Mulled Coal does not cause the fugitive and airborne dust problems normally associated with thermally dried coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proved to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality, and at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems.

  12. Transport processes in biological systems: Tumoral cells and human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The entropy generation approach has been developed for the analysis of complex systems, with particular regards to biological systems, in order to evaluate their stationary states. The entropy generation is related to the transport processes related to exergy flows. Moreover, cancer can be described as an open complex dynamic and self-organizing system. Consequently, it is used as an example useful to evaluate the different thermo-chemical quantities of the transport processes in normal and in tumoral cells systems.

  13. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized (129)Xenon.

    PubMed

    Repetto, M; Zimmer, S; Allmendinger, F; Blümler, P; Doll, M; Grasdijk, J O; Heil, W; Jungmann, K; Karpuk, S; Krause, H-J; Offenhäusser, A; Schmidt, U; Sobolev, Y; Willmann, L

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-(129)Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1≈9 h (for T1(wall)=(34±9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car. PMID:26927028

  14. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized 129Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Allmendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1 ≈ 9 h (for T1wall = (34 ± 9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car.

  15. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of ribosomes in a eukaryotic system: Is there a facilitated transport process

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna-Gupta, A.; Ware, V.C. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have examined the kinetics of the process by which ribosomes are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm using Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected into the germinal vesicle with radiolabeled ribosomes or ribosomal subunits from X. laevis, Tetrahymena thermophila, or Escherichia coli. Microinjected eukaryotic mature ribosomes are redistributed into the oocyte cytoplasm by an apparent carrier-mediated transport process that exhibits saturation kinetics as increasing amounts of ribosomes are injected. T. thermophila ribosomes are competent to traverse the Xenopus nuclear envelope, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying ribosome transport is evolutionarily conserved. Microinjected E. coli ribosomes are not transported in this system, indicating that prokaryotic ribosomes lack the signals required for transport. Surprisingly, coinjected small (40S) and large (60S) subunits from T. thermophila are transported significantly faster than individual subunits. These observations support a facilitated transport model for the translocation of ribosomal subunits as separate units across the nuclear envelope whereby the transport rate of 60S or 40S subunits is enhanced by the presence of the partner subunit. Although the basic features of the transport mechanism have been preserved through evolution, other aspects of the process may be mediated through species-specific interactions. They hypothesize that a species-specific nuclear 40S-60S subunit association may expedite the transport of individual subunits across the nuclear envelope.

  16. Storage/processing performance of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to "cold sweetening" and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  17. Storage and processing evaluation of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to cold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease pr...

  18. Advanced Potato Breeding Clones: Storage and Processing Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  19. Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: II. Analysis of transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy Interaction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper (Ide and Wiggins, 2014) [1]. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovmöller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply the method to the double-gyre ocean circulation model in the situation where the Rossby-wave mode dominates the dynamic variability. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that the inter-gyre transport is controlled by the circulating eddy vortices in the fast eastward jet region, whereas the basin-scale Rossby waves have very little impact.

  20. NRC Technical Research Program to Evaluate Extended Storage and Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12547

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Compton, K.; Gordon, M.; Ahn, T.; Gonzales, H.; Pan, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Any new direction proposed for the back-end of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cycle will require storage of SNF beyond the current licensing periods. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a technical research program to determine if any changes in the 10 CFR part 71, and 72 requirements, and associated guidance might be necessary to regulate the safety of anticipated extended storage, and subsequent transport of SNF. This three part program of: 1) analysis of knowledge gaps in the potential degradation of materials, 2) short-term research and modeling, and 3) long-term demonstration of systems, will allow the NRC to make informed regulatory changes, and determine when and if additional monitoring and inspection of the systems is necessary. The NRC has started a research program to obtain data necessary to determine if the current regulatory guidance is sufficient if interim dry storage has to be extended beyond the currently approved licensing periods. The three-phased approach consists of: - the identification and prioritization of potential degradation of the components related to the safe operation of a dry cask storage system, - short-term research to determine if the initial analysis was correct, and - a long-term prototypic demonstration project to confirm the models and results obtained in the short-term research. The gap analysis has identified issues with the SCC of the stainless steel canisters, and SNF behavior. Issues impacting the SNF and canister internal performance such as high and low temperature distributions, and drying have also been identified. Research to evaluate these issues is underway. Evaluations have been conducted to determine the relative values that various types of long-term demonstration projects might provide. These projects or follow-on work is expected to continue over the next five years. (authors)

  1. Modelling bedload transport events using an inhomogeneous gamma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M. A.

    1992-10-01

    Monitored sequences of bedload transport events in two small gravel-bedded trout streams are described. To model the event timings, the inhomogeneous gamma process, with the special case of the Poisson process, are introduced, in which the baseline intensity is related to a linear regression combination of covariates. These may be time-varying covariates, such as seasonal cycles, covariates specific to an individual process or covariates common to more than one process. It is shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters may be obtained by an iterative least-squares procedure. The procedure is demonstrated by application to the bedload transport event sequences.

  2. Processing and transport of environmental virus samples.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

    1984-01-01

    Poliovirus-seeded tap water, conditioned with MgCl2 and passed through virus-adsorbing filters, gave better poliovirus recovery than water identically treated but conditioned with AlCl3. Elution of several filter types with beef extract yielded higher recoveries than did elution with glycine. Seeded samples filtered through various filters and stored showed considerable virus loss in 2 days when stored at 4 degrees C, whereas those stored at -70 degrees C gave stable virus recovery up to 4 days. Additionally, the use of antifoam during the elution process reduced foaming and increased virus recovery by 28%. PMID:6331312

  3. Reactive Transport Modeling of the CO2 Core Flooding Experiments for the Weyburn CO2 Storage Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y.; Sholokhova, Y.; Smith, M. M.; Carroll, S.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration and storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs such as Weyburn oil field has a large potential to reduce net CO2 released into atmosphere and, therefore, mitigate man-made global warming. One key research area for CO2 sequestration/EOR (enhanced oil recovery) operations, requiring both numerical and experimental investigations, is to develop a good understanding of the chemical rock-fluid interactions induced by CO2 injection that influence rock porosity and permeability evolution, and may potentially alter reservoir performance. In this study we apply a Darcy scale continuum model to simulate reactive transport and mineral-dissolution processes for the core flooding experiments in which the CO2-equilibrated brine is injected into carbonate rock samples of both the Midale Vuggy and Marly units from the Weyburn oil field. The three-dimensional reactive-transport model is developed and constrained based on physical characterization of the Vuggy and Marly flow units (e.g. mineral distribution and pore-space identification) and solution chemistry data, which are obtained from X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) analysis, and experimental measurements. It is observed experimentally that the mineral dissolution fronts become more unstable in highly heterogeneous Vuggy limestone, ultimately leading to the formation of highly porous flow channels, often referred to as "wormholes". In order to effectively account for strong coupling between flow, reactive transport and mineral dissolution processes, in particular within the wormholes, we employ empirical correlations to quantify the relationships between mineral dissolution and the resulting increases in porosity and permeability. The reactive transport simulations are performed by the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code, and their results are compared with experimental data. Our simulation results indicate that Darcy-scale based flow and reactive transport models are able to

  4. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  5. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting for Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and WasteTreatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-30

    The sixth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held November 15-17, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, and Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 55 Russian attendees from 16 different Russian organizations and four non-Russian attendees from the US. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C. The 16 different Russian design, industrial sites, and scientific organizations in attendance included staff from Rosatom/Minatom, Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia (GOSATOMNADZOR, NIERA/GAN), All Russian Designing & Scientific Research Institute of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), A. A. Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), All Russian & Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT), Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation Specialized State Designing Institute (GSPI), State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR), Siberian Chemical Combine Tomsk (SCC), Mayak PO, Mining Chemical Combine (MCC K-26), Institute of Biophysics (IBPh), Sverdlosk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building (SNIIChM), Kurchatov Institute (KI), Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Science (IPCh RAS) and Radon PO-Moscow. The four non-Russian attendees included

  6. Upper Mantle Magma Storage and Transport Beneath the Miocene Teno Volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longpré, M.; Troll, V. R.; Hansteen, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    The nature and dynamics of magma plumbing systems are key variables to the understanding of overlying volcanic edifices. With the exception of a few intensely studied localities, these variables are typically unconstrained at volcanoes around the world. Where attempted, studies of magma storage and transport reveal complex plumbing geometries, for a range of geological settings, indicating that assumptions of shallow, spherical-elliptical magma chambers are often oversimplified. At the highly active, basaltic shield-volcanoes, geophysical monitoring is an effective tool to investigate plumbing system geometries. In the Canary Islands, however, the low eruption frequency results in poor deformation and volcano-seismic data sets and, hence, volcanologists have to rely on alternative methods to study the magma plumbing system of Canarian volcanoes. We use clinopyroxene-liquid thermobarometry [Putirka et al. 1996, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol.], aided by petrography and mineral major element chemistry, to reconstruct the magma plumbing system of the late Miocene Teno shield-volcano, Tenerife. Thin section observations show that the numerous clinopyroxene phenocrysts display darker coloured outer rims, which commonly host acicular apatite microcrystals and sometimes form dentritic protrusions. This is coupled with steep normal Fe-Mg zoning and drastic TiO2 enrichment. Supported by similar Fe-Mg zonations in olivine, this suggests that these rims formed due to decompression induced crystallisation upon rapid magma ascent and accompanying degassing and undercooling. This process took place under disequilibrium conditions, implying that clinopyroxene rim compositions may not always be suitable for thermobarometric investigations. On the other hand, clinopyroxene compositions excluding the outer rims generally appear to be in chemical equilibrium with the melt. Thermobarometry indicates that clinopyroxene crystallisation occurred in the uppermost mantle, mostly from 20 to 40 km

  7. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert

    2013-07-01

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  8. Baseflow recession and recharge as nonlinear storage processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Hartmut

    1999-04-01

    Discharge in many rivers is often fed by outflow from a shallow groundwater reservoir. It is becoming clear that the outflow from this aquifer is not linearly proportional to storage as is commonly assumed in many algorithms. Numerical analysis of flow recession curves from about 100 river gauging stations instead reveals a nonlinear relationship between baseflow, Q, and storage, S, for which the equation S=aQb was adopted. Values of the exponent b are found by calibration to be between 0 and 1 but with a high concentration around 0·5, which is in accordance with the findings of other studies and theoretical approaches yielding b=0·5 for unconfined aquifers and relating the coefficient a to catchment properties, primarily area and shape of basin, pore volume and transmissivity. This non-linear reservoir function is proposed as a more realistic alternative to the linear reservoir function.The relatively fast response of groundwater flow to rainfall is mainly a result of the increase of hydraulic head of the groundwater reservoir accelerating the exfiltration of old, pre-event water into the river bed. As fissure and pore volumes communicate hydraulically, it appears physically reasonable to model the system by one non-linear reservoir for catchments, or parts of them, instead of applying independent parallel linear reservoirs. The non-linear reservoir algorithms are supported by an analytical derivation. They are extended for the automatic separation of baseflow from a time-series of daily discharge in rivers and the computation of storage and effective recharge of groundwater in river basins by inverse nonlinear reservoir routing. The time-series obtained allow the identification and quantification of long-term changes to the water balance. Relationships between computed groundwater storage and observed groundwater level can also be established.

  9. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, S Thomas; Heldebrant, David J; Linehan, John C; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J; Zheng, Feng

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  10. Linking stochastic sediment transport to physical processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Schumer, R.

    2010-12-01

    Intermittent transport is the rule rather than the exception in sedimentary systems. Avalanching dynamics in granular flows is known to produce stochastic transport fluctuations over a wide range of scales - for example, the well known power-law distributions of landslide magnitudes. Similar stochastic dynamics can occur in multi-phase flows, e.g., bedload transport in rivers. A generalized theoretical framework for understanding stochastic transport is lacking. A pragmatic alternative is the stochastic processes approach: using (fractional) advection-diffusion equations, conditioned with measured statistics from a real system, to make future predictions about transport. Linking the macroscopic statistics described by such models to the microscopic physics of sediment transport will require a new statistical mechanics approach. We propose to begin by delineating generic categories of transport mechanics - universality classes - and determining their statistical signatures through theory and experiment. A first separation may be drawn between periodic and aperiodic transport fluctuations. Periodic transport fluctuations have been observed in both sand piles and river delta experiments, and appear to arise under conditions of a well-defined transport threshold (e.g., an angle of repose) and limited dissipation. Under these conditions, inertia overwhelms system heterogeneity and gives rise to periodic oscillations having a characteristic magnitude. Aperiodic transport fluctuations often imply a strong control of system heterogeneity, and/or significant dissipation or friction capable of “breaking up” sediment pulses. For example, varying soil properties give rise to a range of critical failure slopes for landslides. Transitions in the dominant transport process from small to large time or space scales are expected to result in transitions in scaling. Bedload transport is super-diffusive at short timescales because of correlated motion due to particle momentum. At