Sample records for produced highly reproducible

  1. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Roberts, Susan B; Racette, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Clarke, Lucinda L; Kraus, William E

    2014-05-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial-the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for (2)H and (18)O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for (2)H and (18)O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5-4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

  2. The Doubly Labeled Water Method Produces Highly Reproducible Longitudinal Results in Nutrition Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W.; Roberts, Susan B.; Racette, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V.; Clarke, Lucinda L.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial—the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for 2H and 18O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for 2H and 18O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5–4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

  3. We present a commercially reproducible fabrication technique for producing high quantum efficiency photo-

    E-print Network

    fiber optic links. In this paper, we present a viable fabrication technique for producing high quantum bottleneck in the design of high performance systems. It is expected that high-speed serial data-cavity-enhanced (RCE) photodetectors have been the focus of extensive research over the past dec- ade in the design

  4. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  5. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10 000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm-2. The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices.

  6. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-14

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10,000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm(-2). The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices. PMID:24434798

  7. Reproducible, high performance patch antenna array apparatus and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Strassner, II, Bernd H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-23

    A reproducible, high-performance patch antenna array apparatus includes a patch antenna array provided on a unitary dielectric substrate, and a feed network provided on the same unitary substrate and proximity coupled to the patch antenna array. The reproducibility is enhanced by using photolithographic patterning and etching to produce both the patch antenna array and the feed network.

  8. A highly reproducible model of arterial thrombosis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Guarini

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a reproducible and reliable method of arterial thrombosis in a small laboratory animal. Rats were anesthetized with urethane, and a common carotid artery was exposed. A completely occlusive thrombus was produced by applying an electric current to the arterial wall (2 mA for 5 min) while simultaneously constricting the artery with a

  9. Osteoblast-specific expression of the fibrous dysplasia (FD)-causing mutation Gs?(R201C) produces a high bone mass phenotype but does not reproduce FD in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Cristina; Michienzi, Stefano; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Consiglio, Alberto Di; Cersosimo, Stefania; Spica, Emanuela; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Davis, Graham; Saggio, Isabella; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported the generation and initial characterization of the first direct model of human fibrous dysplasia (FD; OMIM #174800), obtained through the constitutive systemic expression of one of the disease-causing mutations, Gs?(R201C) , in the mouse. To define the specific pathogenetic role(s) of individual cell types within the stromal/osteogenic system in FD, we generated mice expressing Gs?(R201C) selectively in mature osteoblasts using the 2.3kb Col1a1 promoter. We show here that this results in a striking high bone mass phenotype but not in a mimicry of human FD. The high bone mass phenotype involves specifically a deforming excess of cortical bone and prolonged and ectopic cortical bone remodeling. Expression of genes characteristic of late stages of bone cell differentiation/maturation is profoundly altered as a result of expression of Gs?(R201C) in osteoblasts, and expression of the Wnt inhibitor Sost is reduced. Although high bone mass is, in fact, a feature of some types/stages of FD lesions in humans, it is marrow fibrosis, localized loss of adipocytes and hematopoietic tissue, osteomalacia, and osteolytic changes that together represent the characteristic pathological profile of FD, as well as the sources of specific morbidity. None of these features are reproduced in mice with osteoblast-specific expression of Gs?(R201C) . We further show that hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells, as well as more mature cell compartments, and adipocyte development are normal in these mice. These data demonstrate that effects of Gs? mutations underpinning FD-defining tissue changes and morbidity do not reflect the effects of the mutations on osteoblasts proper. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25487351

  10. Highly reproducible Bragg grating acousto-ultrasonic contact transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Guzman, Narciso; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic acousto-ultrasonic transducers offer numerous applications as embedded sensors for impact and damage detection in industrial and aerospace applications as well as non-destructive evaluation. Superficial contact transducers with a sheet of fiber optic Bragg gratings has been demonstrated for guided wave ultrasound based measurements. It is reported here that this method of measurement provides highly reproducible guided ultrasound data of the test composite component, despite the optical fiber transducers not being permanently embedded in it.

  11. Reproducibility of the Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Bouzas, V.; Costo, R.; Dumitrache, F.; García, M. A.; Morales, M. P.; Morjan, I.; Serna, C. J.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2010-10-01

    During the development of the BONSAI Project, the need for high quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles with some specific characteristics intensified the problem of the reproducibility in the nanoparticle production. Given the fact that the reaction yield for the production of the smallest and more homogeneous nanoparticles (BONFEX4) was very low (in the range of 1g/day), the process had to be repeated several times. These repetitions involved the use of three different CO2 lasers (two of monomodal gaussian beams TEMoo mode with spot sizes of 4 and 3.5 mm and one multimodal of 4 mm spot size). Keeping constant the rest of the experiment parameters (including the laser density) we obtained similar powders in nature as revealed by X-ray diffraction, and similar particle size distributions, but with different magnetic properties. When the same laser was used the reproducibility of the magnetic properties increased significantly.

  12. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the minimum daily activity requirement. The irradiation parameters that would be required to achieve these service rates are described. We believe the developed formalism will aid in the development of quality-control criteria required to ensure consistent supply of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity cyclotron-produced 99mTc.

  13. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the minimum daily activity requirement. The irradiation parameters that would be required to achieve these service rates are described. We believe the developed formalism will aid in the development of quality-control criteria required to ensure consistent supply of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc. PMID:25909462

  14. An efficient and reproducible indirect shoot regeneration from female leaf explants of Simmondsia chinensis, a liquid-wax producing shrub.

    PubMed

    Bala, Raman; Beniwal, Vijay Singh; Laura, Jitender Singh

    2015-04-01

    Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a perennial, dioecious, drought resistant and multipurpose seed oil crop grown in arid and semi-arid conditions throughout the world. A reproducible and more efficient method for indirect shoot organogenesis from female leaf explants has been standardized. The leaf explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone produced the highest frequency of callus compared with 1.5 mg l(-1) IBA. Maximum proliferation of callus was observed on MS medium containing a combination of 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D with 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. For shoot differentiation, the proliferated callus was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1.0-4.0 mg l(-1)) along with 40 mg l(-1) adenine sulphate as additive or in combination with ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Optimum shoots differentiated from callus was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg l(-1) NAA. On this medium, 100 % cultures were responded with an average number of 14.44 shoots per explant with their mean length of 4.78 cm. In vitro rooting (6.22 roots per explant) was achieved on half strength MS medium containing 2 % sucrose with 3.0 mg l(-1) IBA and 300 mg l(-1) activated charcoal (AC). Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under control conditions and acclimatized under field conditions with 90 % success rate. The present protocol is highly efficient, reproducible and economically viable for large scale production of female plants. PMID:25964722

  15. High Aspect-Ratio Iridium-Coated Nanopillars for Highly Reproducible Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kang, Guoguo; Matikainen, Antti; Stenberg, Petri; Färm, Elina; Li, Peng; Ritala, Mikko; Vahimaa, Pasi; Honkanen, Seppo; Tan, Xiaodi

    2015-06-01

    A variety of different gold and silver nanostructures have been proposed over the years as high sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. However, efficient use of SERS has been hindered by the difficulty of realizing SERS substrates that provide reproducible SERS response over the whole active area. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown iridium can be used to produce highly reliable SERS substrates. The substrates are based on a periodic array of high aspect-ratio iridium coated nanopillars that feature efficient and symmetrically distributed hot spots within the interpillar gaps (gap width < 10 nm). We show that the enhancement with the iridium based nanostructures is of significant magnitude and it equals the enhancement of silver based reference substrates. Most notably, we demonstrate that the ordered and well-defined plasmonic nanopillars offer a measurement-to-measurement variability of 5%, which paves the way for truly quantitative SERS measurements. PMID:25961706

  16. An improved and reproducible protocol for the extraction of high quality fungal RNA from plant biomass substrates.

    PubMed

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2014-11-01

    Isolation of high quantity and quality RNA is a crucial step in the detection of meaningful gene expression data. Obtaining intact fungal RNA from complex lignocellulosic substrates is often difficult, producing low integrity RNA which perform poorly in downstream applications. In this study we developed an RNA extraction method using CsCl centrifugation procedure, modified from previous reports and adapted for isolation of RNA from plant biomass. This method provided high level of integrity and good quantity of RNA which were suitable for reliable analyses of gene expression and produced consistent and reproducible results. PMID:24951842

  17. Efficacy and reproducibility of a produce wash in killing Salmonella on the surface of tomatoes assessed with a proposed standard method for produce sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Harris, L J; Beuchat, L R; Kajs, T M; Ward, T E; Taylor, C H

    2001-10-01

    The reproducibility of a method developed to evaluate point-of-use sanitizers for fresh produce was tested at three different laboratories. Mixtures of five Salmonella serotypes were inoculated on the surface of ripe tomatoes. After the inoculum was dry, tomatoes were placed inside a plastic bag and sprayed with sterile USP water, Dey and Engley (D/E) neutralizer broth, or a prototype Fit produce wash (PW), an alkaline solution comprised of generally recognized as safe ingredients (water, oleic acid, glycerol, ethanol, potassium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and distilled grapefruit oil), and rubbed for 30 s. The tomatoes were rinsed 10 s with 195 ml of D/E neutralizer broth (rinse solution), then combined with 20 ml of D/E neutralizer (residual wash solution) and rubbed by hand to remove residual Salmonella. Populations of Salmonella were determined for each tomato in the rinse solution and residual wash solution. Treatment with PW resulted in reductions in the number of Salmonella 2 to 4 logs greater than those achieved with the sterile water or D/E neutralizer broth controls. Consistent results were obtained across the three study sites, indicating reproducible results were obtained using the test method. The method used to determine the efficacy of killing or removing Salmonella from tomatoes in this study is suggested as a standard method for measuring the efficacy of sanitizers on tomatoes and other similar fruits and vegetables with rigid, smooth surfaces. PMID:11601693

  18. Electrochemical pretreatment of polycrystalline gold electrodes to produce a reproducible surface roughness for self-assembly: a study in phosphate buffer pH 7.4

    PubMed

    Hoogvliet; Dijksma; Kamp; van Bennekom WP

    2000-05-01

    It has been emphasized in several studies that the state of the surface, including the surface roughness, is very important for the reproducible formation of high-quality self-assembled monolayers on gold. The pulsed-potential pretreatment procedure described in this paper can, in a reproducible way, reduce the surface roughness of mechanically polished polycrystalline gold electrodes by a factor 2. The developed procedure, in which the gold is alternately oxidized and reduced, has been optimized for use in a flow system (100 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4). The influence of the pretreatment procedure on the surface roughness of the electrodes has been studied by in-situ oxygen adsorption measurements using cyclic voltammetry. The most effective pulse regime in producing a gold surface with a reproducible and relatively low surface roughness is a triple-potential pulse waveform, with potentials of +1.6, 0.0, and -0.8 Vvs SCE and pulse widths of 100 ms for each potential. Prolonged pulsing for 2000-5000 s with the gold working electrode in a flow-through cell showed an electropolishing effect, i.e., a decrease of the roughness in time. Flow conditions are very important: the roughness decreased faster at higher flow rates, while an increase was observed without flow. A process of reconstruction and dissolution of gold during application of the potential pulses under flow conditions is assumed to account for the observed phenomena. A self-assembled monolayer of thioctic acid with reproducible characteristics, determined with impedance measurements, could be formed on a pretreated gold surface. PMID:10815959

  19. On-wafer time-dependent high reproducibility nano-force tensile testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergers, L. I. J. C.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Time-dependent mechanical investigations of on-wafer specimens are of interest for improving the reliability of thin metal film microdevices. This paper presents a novel methodology, addressing key challenges in creep and anelasticity investigations through on-wafer tensile tests, achieving highly reproducible force and specimen deformation measurements and loading states. The methodology consists of a novel approach for precise loading using a pin-in-hole gripper and a high-precision specimen alignment system based on three-dimensional image tracking and optical profilometry resulting in angular alignment of <0.1 mrad and near-perfect co-linearity. A compact test system enables in situ tensile tests of on-wafer specimens under light and electron microscopy. Precision force measurement over a range of 0.07 µN to 250 mN is realized based on a simple drift-compensated elastically-hinged load cell with high-precision deflection measurement. The specimen deformation measurement, compensated for drift through image tracking, yields displacement reproducibility of <6 nm. Proof of principle tensile experiments are performed on 5 µm-thick aluminum-alloy thin film specimens, demonstrating reproducible Young’s modulus measurement of 72.6 ± 3.7 GPa. Room temperature creep experiments show excellent stability of the force measurement and underline the methodology’s high reproducibility and suitability for time-dependent nano-force tensile testing of on-wafer specimens.

  20. Reproducible, Ultra High-Throughput Formation of Multicellular Organization from Single Cell Suspension-

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Reproducible, Ultra High-Throughput Formation of Multicellular Organization from Single Cell´line Bauwens1,2 , Peter W. Zandstra1,2 * 1 Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2 Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University

  1. Highly Variable Spike Trains Underlie Reproducible Sensorimotor Responses in the Medicinal Leech

    E-print Network

    Zoccolan, Davide

    Highly Variable Spike Trains Underlie Reproducible Sensorimotor Responses in the Medicinal Leech and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, 34014 Trieste, Italy The nervous system of the leech mechanical stimulation of the leech skin. We analyzed variability at different levels of processing

  2. High resolution downscaling with WRF: reproducing observed climate in high topography islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. M.; Tome, R.; Azevedo, E. B.; Teixeira, M.

    2013-12-01

    Isolated islands are specially vulnerable to climate change. However, their climate is generally not explicitly reproduced in GCMs, or even in most Regional Climate Models, due to their size and complex topography. On the other hand, the isolated nature of their location may allow the use of high resolution in domains of limited size, with oceanic boundary conditions all around directly given by a GCM. It is important to know, though, how far do we need to go in horizontal resolution in order to reproduce the main features of observed climate and if the proposed method has significant advantages in relation to simpler procedures. This paper uses the WRF model to downscale global fields given by ERA-Interim and by three runs of the EC-Earth Climate Model (Hazeleger et al 2010): a control run representing the 1961-1990 climate, and two scenario runs corresponding to scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 up to the end of the 21st century. The WRF simulations builds on experience reproducing the climate in Iberia, at 9km horizontal resolution (Soares et al 2012, Cardoso et al 2013), which resulted in a good match with observations not only in what concerns the mean values of temperature and precipitation, but also the statistical distribution of high rank quantiles of daily precipitation (up to percentile 99.9). Here the WRF model is used on a nested grid configuration, with a larger domain simulated at 27km resolution and an inner domain at 6km. The cases of Madeira and Azores, 11 islands of different sizes in the subtropical North Atlantic, are simulated. Broadly speaking, results indicate significant improvements in the representation of observed precipitation in all islands in the ERA-Interim period, at the highest resolution. In the case of Madeira, the largest and bulkiest of the set, the improvement is the most remarkable, whereas in smaller islands there is a suggestion that the used resolution is still too coarse. The excellent results obtained by WRF in the Madeira ERA-Interim case indicate the ability of this model to perform as a regional climate model at high resolution, a requirement for the explicit simulation of climate in many isolated islands. Results obtained in the control and scenario runs are also analyzed, indicating significant changes in the precipitation climate in Madeira Island, and more subtle changes in the Azores. Finally, the WRF results are compared against two alternative downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and the precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005) References Barstad I, Smith RD (2005) Journal of Hydrometeorology 6, 85-99. Cardoso et al (2012) International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.361 Hazeleger et al (2010), Bulletim of the American Meteorological Society, 91, 1357-1363 . doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2877.1 Soares et al (2012) Climate Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1315-2.

  3. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  4. High efficiency and quantitatively reproducible protein digestion by trypsin-immobilized magnetic microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde- and NHS-activated magnetic microspheres were used to immobilize trypsin (CHO-trypsin and NHS-trypsin), and their performance for protein digestion was evaluated by reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos instrument. NHS-trypsin provided greater sequence coverage and identified more peptides for the digestion of bovine serum albumin. A one-minute digestion at room temperature using the immobilized trypsin also identified more peptides (96 ± 6 vs. 48 ± 1) and produced higher sequence coverage (90 ± 2% vs. 75 ± 2%) than traditional free trypsin digestion for 12 hours at 37 °C. Analysis of 15 nM (0.001 mg/mL) BSA digested by NHS-trypsin in 1 min. at room temperature consistently yielded one detected peptide; 150 nM BSA generated 22 peptides. Peptide intensity and protein spectral count were used to evaluate the run-to-run digestion reproducibility of NHS-trypsin with a three-protein-mixture. Three high intensity peptides for each protein generated intensity ratios from 0.70 to 1.09 and spectral count ratios from 0.78 to 1.18. Finally, RAW 264.7 cell lysates were digested by NHS-trypsin for 10 min. and 30 min. at room temperature; 604 and 697 protein groups, respectively, were identified by RPLC-ESI-MS/MS, with a peptide false discovery rate of less than 1%. Digestion by solution phase trypsin for 12 hours at 37 °C resulted in identification of 878 protein groups. PMID:22176736

  5. Highly reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis of humic acids in cyclodextrin- or oligosaccharide-modified background electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, L; Pacheco, M L; Havel, J

    2000-10-20

    Capillary zone electrophoresis has been used for the characterization and separation of humic acids. It was found that addition of saccharides like alpha-, beta-, gamma-cyclodextrins, maltose, hydroxyethylcellulose or dextran sulfate in the background electrolyte (50 mM Na2 B4 O7, pH 9.6) yields better separation patterns and highly reproducible electropherograms. Electropherograms with higher numbers of peaks and high reproducibility were obtained with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins or with a mixture of alpha- + gamma-cyclodextrin-modified background electrolytes. Separation was carried out with the cathode at the detector end of the column. Adsorption of humic acids to the capillary wall was diminished using an epoxy-coated capillary tube. PMID:11105880

  6. AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain

    E-print Network

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    to be lower than 8 fA for bias voltages up to 20 V. The responsivity of the photodetectors is 0.13 A/W at 272-blind photodetectors with reproducible avalanche gain as high as 1560 under ultraviolet illumination. The solar-blind photodetectors have a sharp cutoff around 276 nm. The dark currents of the 40 m diameter devices are measured

  7. Rapidly-dissolvable microneedle patches via a highly scalable and reproducible soft lithography approach.

    PubMed

    Moga, Katherine A; Bickford, Lissett R; Geil, Robert D; Dunn, Stuart S; Pandya, Ashish A; Wang, Yapei; Fain, John H; Archuleta, Christine F; O'Neill, Adrian T; Desimone, Joseph M

    2013-09-25

    Microneedle devices for transdermal drug delivery have recently become an attractive method to overcome the diffusion-limiting epidermis and effectively transport therapeutics to the body. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly reproducible and completely dissolvable polymer microneedles on flexible water-soluble substrates. These biocompatible microneedles (made by using a soft lithography process known as PRINT) showed efficacy in piercing both murine and human skin samples and delivering a fluorescent drug surrogate to the tissue. PMID:23893866

  8. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2014-07-01

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  9. Design of experiments for highly reproducible pulsed laser deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, M.; Guillaume, A.; Scholtyssek, J. M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a very versatile tool to deposit thin films from a large variety of materials. Pulsed KrF excimer laser radiation at 248 nm wavelength can be employed to evaporate most oxide materials. Special focus has been put on transferring the stoichiometry of the target to the thin film, which is very important for complex oxides such as the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. For the multilayer deposition of superconducting devices highly reproducible thin films with controlled morphological and electronic properties are required. We report on methods of experimental design for the optimized deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-? thin films on single crystalline oxide substrates.

  10. Low-cost/high-reproducibility flexible sensor based on photonics for strain measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, R. P.; Gomes, J. M.; Carmo, J. P.; Silva, A. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a flexible sensor based on photonics for measuring strain, curvatures and vibrations. This flexible sensor is composed by a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The selected FBG resonates at the wavelength of 1552.37 nm and is embedded before the curing for enabling a strong adhesion between both components. Few prototypes were fabricated and characterized. The measurements showed a maximum strain sensitivity of ?400 pm per 1% elongation, revealing to be sensitive to strain/bending forces and vibration. The measurements allowed to establish a predictable response for both static and dynamic behavior, corresponding to a resolution of ?88 pm per curvature degree. This flexible sensor also allowed high strain cycles and presented the linear behavior of ?14 pm °C-1 over the temperature range 20-110 °C. The high-simplicity of the fabrication process results on low-cost with high-degree of reproducibility of their characteristics.

  11. THE LHC CRYOMAGNET SUPPORTS IN GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY: A LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION WITH HIGH REPRODUCIBILITY IN PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Poncet, A.; Struik, M.; Parma, V. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Trigo, J. [EADS, CASA-Espacio, Madrid, Av. Aragon 28022 (Spain)

    2008-03-03

    The about 1700 LHC main ring super-conducting magnets are supported within their cryostats on 4700 low heat in leak column-type supports. The supports were designed to ensure a precise and stable positioning of the heavy dipole and quadrupole magnets while keeping thermal conduction heat loads within budget. A trade-off between mechanical and thermal properties, as well as cost considerations, led to the choice of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GFRE). Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), featuring a high level of automation and control, was the manufacturing process retained to ensure the reproducibility of the performance of the supports throughout the large production.The Spanish aerospace company EADS-CASA Espacio developed the specific RTM process, and produced the total quantity of supports between 2001 and 2004.This paper describes the development and the production of the supports, and presents the production experience and the achieved performance.

  12. A reproducible approach to high-throughput biological data acquisition and integration

    PubMed Central

    Rahnavard, Gholamali; Waldron, Levi; McIver, Lauren; Shafquat, Afrah; Franzosa, Eric A.; Miropolsky, Larissa; Sweeney, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Modern biological research requires rapid, complex, and reproducible integration of multiple experimental results generated both internally and externally (e.g., from public repositories). Although large systematic meta-analyses are among the most effective approaches both for clinical biomarker discovery and for computational inference of biomolecular mechanisms, identifying, acquiring, and integrating relevant experimental results from multiple sources for a given study can be time-consuming and error-prone. To enable efficient and reproducible integration of diverse experimental results, we developed a novel approach for standardized acquisition and analysis of high-throughput and heterogeneous biological data. This allowed, first, novel biomolecular network reconstruction in human prostate cancer, which correctly recovered and extended the NF?B signaling pathway. Next, we investigated host-microbiome interactions. In less than an hour of analysis time, the system retrieved data and integrated six germ-free murine intestinal gene expression datasets to identify the genes most influenced by the gut microbiota, which comprised a set of immune-response and carbohydrate metabolism processes. Finally, we constructed integrated functional interaction networks to compare connectivity of peptide secretion pathways in the model organisms Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  13. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

    PubMed

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 ?m. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. PMID:26067193

  14. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A.; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 ?m. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. PMID:26067193

  15. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from Elsevier Ltd. Most current candidate HIV vaccines seem to produce little

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    vaccines seem to produce little protection against infection, but reduce viral load and slow the decline in CD4 lymphocyte numbers. Such disease- modifying vaccines could potentially provide important the following question: could disease-modifying HIV vaccines cause population-level perversity (ie, increase

  16. Spreading-wetting method for highly reproducible tertiary growth of perfective bilayer TS-1 membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Liu, Yong; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan; Ma, Laibo

    2015-07-01

    Spreading-wetting method is adopted to seed a support for tertiary growth of hydrophobic TS-1 membrane. It deposits the seed on the macro-hole of the support and results in a dispersive seed distribution. This enables a highly reproducible preparation of the perfective TS-1 membrane, revealed by SEM as a bilayer structure. An intermediate layer of the TS-1 membrane avoids the leaching of Al from the support and ensures the upper layer as the pure hydrophobic TS-1 membrane, proved by XRD, EDS, and water contact angle measurements. Another important advance about the TS-1 membrane is employing a Pd/SiO2 catalytic hydrocracking method to activate it at 593 K. Such a mild method favors maintaining that perfective macrostructure and hydrophobicity. Bearing the thermal stress, generated during the activation process, desires the TS-1 membrane with a sufficient thickness, gained by prolonging the crystallization time. This phenomenon is verified by gas permeation and ascribed with the membrane's mechanical properties.

  17. Unrefined wood hydrolysates are viable reactants for the reproducible synthesis of highly swellable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Laleh; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-08-01

    A value-adding robust and sequential synthetic pathway was elaborated to produce hydrogel structures with ionic character from crude acetylated galactoglucomannan-rich wood hydrolysate (WH). The WH was first-step liquor originating from a sulphite cracking pulp process for dissolving pulp. The synthetically modified WH fractions were verified at each step by NMR and FTIR, and the hydrogels were characterized with respect to their swelling and mechanical properties. Altering the crosslinking chemistry and the content of ionic moieties resulted in hydrogels with various swelling ratios and mechanical properties. Renewable hydrogel formulations with swelling ratios as high as Qeq=270 were achieved. PMID:24751275

  18. Quantifying Trends in Disease Impact to Produce a Consistent and Reproducible Definition of an Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Jones, Kate E.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as “emerging infectious diseases” (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label ‘emerging’ is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled “emerging,” and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health. PMID:23967065

  19. Quantitative analysis of MRI signal abnormalities of brain white matter with high reproducibility and accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingchang Wei; Simon K. Warfield; Kelly H. Zou; Ying Wu; Xiaoming Li; Alexandre Guimond; John P. Mugler; Randall R. Benson; Leslie Wolfson; Howard L. Weiner; Charles R. G. Guttmann

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility and accuracy com- pared to radiologists of three automated segmentation pipe- lines for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mea- surement of brain white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA). Materials and Methods: WMSA segmentation was per- formed on pairs of whole brain scans from 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 older subjects who were positioned

  20. Controlling data quality and reproducibility of a high-sensitivity immunoassay using isotachophoresis in a microchip.

    PubMed

    Park, C Charles; Kazakova, Irina; Kawabata, Tomohisa; Spaid, Michael; Chien, Ring-Ling; Wada, H Garrett; Satomura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    This report describes a method of controlling the sensitivity and reproducibility of a microchip-based immunoassay by using isotachophoresis to preconcentrate the antigen and antibody prior to binding. Gel electrophoresis separation is coupled to the preconcentration step to separate the immunocomplex products formed. The system employs a quartz-based LabChip that automates the metering, preconcentration, reaction, separation, and detection. The system also uses a handoff mechanism that switches the immunocomplex from the stacking mode to the separation mode. We show that the handoff timing affects the data quality and repeatability of the electropherograms, and we demonstrate an automatic handoff mechanism to precisely control the signal intensity and separation of peaks of interest. In so doing, the automatic handoff mechanism also improves the reproducibility of the assay. When applied to the homogeneous liquid-phase detection of alpha-fetoprotein, a common tumor marker, the system shows a greater than 200-fold stacking of specific analytes of interest. PMID:18173249

  1. Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-05-11

    The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

  2. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B. (Knoxville, TN); Steger, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wright, Ralph R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  3. Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao

    2014-03-01

    Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

  4. Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J., E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei, E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-21

    Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

  5. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2015-01-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1?×?10(-10)?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing. PMID:25974125

  6. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1?×?10?10?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing. PMID:25974125

  7. Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves 

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

    2006-06-22

    older, larger bulls experience more stress during castration. Castration is a simple and inexpensive way producers can add value to bull calves. The downside to castration is that steer calves will be 15 to 25 pounds lighter than bull calves... any possible discounts. Buyers look for well-managed, healthy, thrifty cattle that have been dehorned, castrated and vaccinated. Producers should also evaluate other cost-effective management practices that can increase weaning weights and...

  8. Inexpensive and Highly Reproducible Cloud-Based Variant Calling of 2,535 Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Carroll, Andrew; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    Population scale sequencing of whole human genomes is becoming economically feasible; however, data management and analysis remains a formidable challenge for many research groups. Large sequencing studies, like the 1000 Genomes Project, have improved our understanding of human demography and the effect of rare genetic variation in disease. Variant calling on datasets of hundreds or thousands of genomes is time-consuming, expensive, and not easily reproducible given the myriad components of a variant calling pipeline. Here, we describe a cloud-based pipeline for joint variant calling in large samples using the Real Time Genomics population caller. We deployed the population caller on the Amazon cloud with the DNAnexus platform in order to achieve low-cost variant calling. Using our pipeline, we were able to identify 68.3 million variants in 2,535 samples from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. By performing the variant calling in a parallel manner, the data was processed within 5 days at a compute cost of $7.33 per sample (a total cost of $18,590 for completed jobs and $21,805 for all jobs). Analysis of cost dependence and running time on the data size suggests that, given near linear scalability, cloud computing can be a cheap and efficient platform for analyzing even larger sequencing studies in the future. PMID:26110529

  9. Inexpensive and Highly Reproducible Cloud-Based Variant Calling of 2,535 Human Genomes.

    PubMed

    Shringarpure, Suyash S; Carroll, Andrew; De La Vega, Francisco M; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Population scale sequencing of whole human genomes is becoming economically feasible; however, data management and analysis remains a formidable challenge for many research groups. Large sequencing studies, like the 1000 Genomes Project, have improved our understanding of human demography and the effect of rare genetic variation in disease. Variant calling on datasets of hundreds or thousands of genomes is time-consuming, expensive, and not easily reproducible given the myriad components of a variant calling pipeline. Here, we describe a cloud-based pipeline for joint variant calling in large samples using the Real Time Genomics population caller. We deployed the population caller on the Amazon cloud with the DNAnexus platform in order to achieve low-cost variant calling. Using our pipeline, we were able to identify 68.3 million variants in 2,535 samples from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. By performing the variant calling in a parallel manner, the data was processed within 5 days at a compute cost of $7.33 per sample (a total cost of $18,590 for completed jobs and $21,805 for all jobs). Analysis of cost dependence and running time on the data size suggests that, given near linear scalability, cloud computing can be a cheap and efficient platform for analyzing even larger sequencing studies in the future. PMID:26110529

  10. Gold nanoisland films as reproducible SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection of fungicides.

    PubMed

    Khlebtsov, Boris N; Khanadeev, Vitaly A; Panfilova, Elizaveta V; Bratashov, Daniil N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2015-04-01

    A wet-chemical approach is used to fabricate centimeter-scale gold nanoisland films (NIFs) with tunable morphology of islands and with strong electromagnetic coupling between them. The approach consists in a uniform seeding of small gold nanoparticles on a glass or silicon substrate, followed by controllable growth of the seeds into small nanoislands. A special technique for TEM sampling was developed to follow the gradual formation of larger-sized isolated nanoparticles, nanoislands of sintered overgrown seeds, and a complete gold layer with nanoscale cracks. The electromagnetic field distribution inside the fabricated NIFs was calculated by FDTD simulations applied to actual TEM images of the fabricated samples rather than to artificial models commonly used. SERS measurements with 1,4-aminothiophenol (ATP) molecules demonstrated the analytical enhancement factor about of 10(7) and the fundamental enhancement factor about of 10(8) for optimized substrates. These values were at least 1 order of magnitude higher than that for self-assembled arrays of gold nanostars and silver nanocubes. SERS spectra of independent samples demonstrated good sample-to-sample reproducibility in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the main peaks less than 20%. Additionally, Raman maps with 1 ?m increment in X-Y directions of NIFs (800 spectral spots) demonstrated good point-to-point repeatability in the intensity of the main Raman vibration modes (RSD varied from 5% to 15% for 50 randomly selected points). A real-life application of the fabricated SERS substrates is exemplified by the detection of the thiram fungicide in apple peels within the 5-250 ppb linear detection range. Specifically, the NIF-based SERS technology detected thiram on apple peel down to level of 5 ng/cm(2). PMID:25764374

  11. Targets for producing high purity I-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Tellurium powder in improved targets is bombarded with a cyclotron beam to produce Xe-123. Flowing gas streams carry the Xe-123 through one cold trap which removes Xe-123 that subsequently decays to I-123. During this bombardment energy is deposited in the target material causing its temperature to rise. Some of the tellurium vaporizes and subsequently condenses on surfaces that are cooler than the vaporization temperature. Provision is made for the repeated bombardment of this condensed tellurium.

  12. Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usselman, T. M.; Lofgren, G. E.; Williams, R. J.; Donaldson, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Many of the textures, morphologies, and mineral chemistries of the high-titanium mare basalts have been experimentally duplicated using single-stage cooling histories. Lunar high-titanium mare basalts are modeled in a 1 m thick gravitationally differentiating flow based on cooling rates, thermal models, and modal olivine contents. The low-pressure equilibrium phase relations of a synthetic high-titanium basalt composition were investigated as a function of oxygen fugacity, and petrographic criteria are developed for the recognition of phenocrysts which were present in the liquid at the time of eruption.

  13. Reproducible Growth of High-Quality Cubic-SiC Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor electronic devices and circuits based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which devices made from conventional semiconductors cannot adequately perform. The ability of SiC-based devices to function under such extreme conditions is expected to enable significant improvements in a variety of applications and systems. These include greatly improved high-voltage switching for saving energy in public electric power distribution and electric motor drives; more powerful microwave electronic circuits for radar and communications; and sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines.

  14. Accurate and Reproducible Gene Expression Profiles from Laser Capture Microdissection, Transcript Amplification, and High Density Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Veronica; Mahadevappa, Mamatha; Raja, Rajiv; Warrington, Janet A.; Watson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Gene expression profiling using high density oligonucleotide arrays is a powerful method to generate an unbiased survey of a cell’s transcriptional landscape. Increasingly complex biological questions require that this approach be applicable to the small numbers of cells that are obtained from sources such as laser capture microdissection (LCM) of solid tissues. In this report, we demonstrate that two rounds of transcript amplification can generate accurate and reproducible gene expression profiles using high density oligonucleotide microarrays, starting with as little as 10 ng of total RNA. Biased amplification of the 3? end of transcripts does not have a major impact on the overall transcript profile due to the 3? bias of probe sets incorporated in the array design. Furthermore, greater than 95% of all genes detected demonstrate less than a twofold difference in expression when independent tissue dissections of identical cell populations are compared. The accuracy and technical reproducibility of the method suggests that expression profiling using transcript amplification and high density oligonucleotide microarrays can be used on a routine basis. PMID:12552074

  15. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  16. Highly reproducible near-field optical imaging with sub-20-nm resolution based on template-stripped gold pyramids.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy W; Lapin, Zachary J; Beams, Ryan; Lindquist, Nathan C; Rodrigo, Sergio G; Novotny, Lukas; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2012-10-23

    With a template-stripping fabrication technique, we demonstrate the mass fabrication of high-quality, uniform, ultrasharp (10 nm) metallic probes suitable for single-molecule fluorescence imaging, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), and other near-field imaging techniques. We achieve reproducible single-molecule imaging with sub-20-nm spatial resolution and an enhancement in the detected fluorescence signal of up to 200. Similar results are obtained for TERS imaging of carbon nanotubes. We show that the large apex angle (70.5°) of our pyramidal tip is well suited to scatter the near-field optical signal into the far-field, leading to larger emission enhancement and hence to a larger quantum yield. Each gold or silver pyramidal probe is used on-demand, one at a time, and the unused tips can be stored for extended times without degradation or contamination. The high yield (>95%), reproducibility, durability, and massively parallel fabrication (1.5 million identical probes over a wafer) of the probes hold promise for reliable optical sensing and detection and for cementing near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy as a routine characterization technique. PMID:22938087

  17. Controlled reproducible alignment of cone targets and mitigation of preplasma in high intensity laser interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie [Nevada Terawatt Facility, Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89521-0042 (United States); Cho, Byoung-Ick; Ditmire, Todd [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712-0263 (United States); Osterholz, Jens [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712-0263 (United States); Institute of Laser and Plasmaphysics, Heinrich-Heine-University Geb. 25.33 Universitaetsstr. 1, 40225, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The use of cone targets in high intensity laser-plasma experiments has been of recent interest because of their potential use in integrated fast ignition experiments. Simpler experiments provide a good avenue for understanding the underlying physics, however precise control of the alignment along with good pointing accuracy is of crucial importance. While on big laser facilities target alignment is done precisely with several microscopes, it is not always the case on smaller facilities. This can have a detrimental effect on the quality of the results. We have developed and characterized a method for accurate alignment of intense laser pulses into a cone target. This, along with optimal positioning of the focus compared to the tip, efficiently uses the shape of the target to microfocus the laser light and concentrates the hot electrons in the tip, and can mitigate preplasma issues.

  18. Modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchannels for highly efficient and reproducible electrophoretic separations of double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2005-05-01

    This paper deals with dynamic coating of the microchannels fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chips and DNA separation by microchip electrophoresis (MCE). After testing a number of polymers, including 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, different sizes of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), we found that coating of the PMMA microchannels with PEO(Mr = 6.0 x 10(5) g/mol) on the first layer is essential to minimize the interaction of DNA with PMMA surface. To achieve high efficiency, multilayer coating of PMMA chips with PEO, PVP, and PEO containing gold nanoparticles [PEO(GNP)] is important. A 2-(PEO-PVP)-PEO(GNP) PMMA chip, which was repeatedly coated with 1.0% PEO and 5.0% PVP twice, and then coated with 0.75% PEO(GNP) each for 30 min, provided a high efficiency (up to 1.7 x 10(6) plates/m) for the separation of DNA markers V (pBR 322/HaeIII digest) and VI (pBR 328/BgiI digest and pBR 328/HinfI digest) when using 0.75% PEO(GNP). With such a high efficiency, we demonstrated the separation of hsp65 gene fragments of Mycobacterium HaeIII digests by MCE within 90 s. The advantages of this approach to DNA analysis include ease of filling the microchannel with 0.75% PEO(GNP), rapidity, and reproducibility. PMID:15909522

  19. High-pressure dielectric barrier discharge Xenon lamps generating short pulses of high-peak-power VUV radiation (172nm) with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Robert; Ward, Barry; Mildren, Richard; Kane, Deborah

    2003-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are used to efficiently generate radiation in the ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions (88nm-350nm) by forming rare-gas and rare-gas halide excimers in a transient plasma. Usually, DBD lamps generate the light output quasi-continuously or in bursts with a high degree of stochastic or random variability in the instantaneous UV/VUV intensity. However, regular pulses of high-peak-power UV/VUV, with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility, are of interest for applications in biology, surface treatment and cleaning, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Such pulses can be generated from spatially homogeneous plasmas in a Xe DBD when the discharge is driven by uni-polar voltage pulses of short duration ( 100ns)^1. In the present study, we will report Xe DBD lamp performance and VUV output pulse characteristics for gas pressures up to 2.5bar and excitation conditions tailored for high-peak-power output. The experimental results will be compared to theoretical results from a detailed 1-D computer model of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma kinetics and Xe species population densities. ^1R.P.Mildren and R.J.Carman, J.Phys.D, 34, L1-L6, (2001)

  20. Large-area fabrication of highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman substrate via a facile double sided tape-assisted transfer approach using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Chao; Shi, Xin; Yang, Zhongbo; Long, Yitao; Fang, Jixiang

    2014-02-01

    Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications.Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05840a

  1. Sensitivity gains, linearity, and spectral reproducibility in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional MAS NMR spectra of high dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C, 15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high-quality artifact-free datasets. PMID:24752819

  2. High-precision, cost-effective cutting system for producing thin sections of oral tissues containing dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piattelli; A. Scarano; M. Quaranta

    1997-01-01

    A new high-precision, cost-effective cutting system, able to produce thin (20–30 ?m) sections of oral tissues, containing dental implants, is presented. With this system the authors have been able to obtain, in a reproducible and consistent way, thin slides containing biomaterials and biological tissues. Very high cellular detail was possible, even at high magnifications (× 1200). Histochemical reactions (e.g. acid

  3. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  4. Genomic targeting with a positive-selection lox integration vector allows highly reproducible gene expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushige, S; Sauer, B

    1992-01-01

    Stable transformants of mammalian cells from gene transfer often show extreme variability in expression of the introduced transgene. This occurs from the highly variable number of copies integrated into the genome and from position effects on gene expression due to random integration. We have eliminated both of these constraints on predictable gene expression by use of a lox recombination vector. The positive selection vector system is designed to directly select Cre-mediated DNA integration at a lox target previously placed into the genome of cultured mammalian cells. Proper targeting activates expression of a defective lox-neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) fusion gene target. With CHO cell lines containing this target, almost all of the selected transformants (54 of 56 independent G418-resistant colonies) were simple single-copy integrants of the targeting DNA. To monitor gene expression at a single chromosomal site, we used a beta-actin promoter-lacZ reporter construct. Independent G418-resistant colonies from site-specific integration of the reporter gene all showed nearly identical levels of beta-galactosidase activity when the reporter construct integrated at a particular chromosomal position. The same construct integrated at a second chromosomal position exhibited a slightly different level of activity, characteristic of that second position. These results show that Cre-mediated site-specific integration can facilitate the construction of isogenic cell lines and thereby permit reproducible gene expression in stably transformed cell lines. Images PMID:1518811

  5. Quantitative Analysis with the Cameca Sxfive fe at High Lateral Resolution and High Reproducibility. Applications to Geochronology and Mineralogy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrke, Hans-Ulrich; Hombourger, Chrystel; Outrequin, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Schottky emitter and its implementation as electron source in Electron Microprobe has significantly improved the characterization of materials in earth sciences and in metallurgy. The strength of an Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is the ability to accurately measure and quantify element in traces at few 10's ppm level. The Field Emission (FE) Source allows trace element analysis with high beam currents thanks to the high brightness of the source and the excellent stability of the beam current, trading off spatial resolution. Of course, accuracy of major element quantification is maintained with a FE source. As X-rays are generated from a much larger diameter than the diameter of the incident electron beam, it is advised to work at low voltage and low beam current in order to take full advantage of the small spot sizes achievable with a Field Emission Source. Thus, the analytical resolution is not limited anymore by the beam diameter but only by the diameter of the X-ray emission volume. One of the advantages of the FE Source is to obtain fine focused electron beam at low beam voltage (?10 keV) while maintaining high and stable beam current. In these experimental conditions, the penetration depth of the primary electrons and thus the interaction volume- in which electrons are scattered and generate X-rays- decreases to sub-?m scale (compared to micron scale of the traditional Electron Microprobe at 15 or 20 keV). Thanks to WDS spectrometers with sub 10eV energy resolution, accurate quantitative analysis can be achieved even on sub micron phases at low beam energy and high lateral resolution using L- and M-Lines for heavy elements. This will be illustrated, in a first example, by measuring different areas in a Monazite grain. U, Pb and Th are quantitatively analyzed with high precision in order to characterize age domains. PIC PIC In the above example, several generations of monazite growth are represented in the quantified high-resolution X-ray maps. Of foremost interest is the high Y rim and fracture filling monazite (ca. ~1800 Ma) which has penetrated much older monazite (ca. ~2400 Ma). (Monazite from Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canadian Artic) In a second example, quantification of small refractory phases (hibonite, grossite, perovskite, ...) formed by gas condensation in the solar nebula will be presented. Paris Meteorite is a stone classified by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle as a CM chondrite. It contains chondrules and Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI). These latter are materials formed at nearly the same time as the solar system i.e. 4.56 billion years ago. PIC PIC

  6. fMRI changes over time and reproducibility in unmedicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Whalley, H. C.; Gountouna, V-E.; Hall, J.; McIntosh, A. M.; Simonotto, E.; Job, D. E.; Owens, D. G. C.; Johnstone, E. C.; Lawrie, S. M.

    Background. Functional brain abnormalities have been repeatedly demonstrated in schizophrenia but there is little data concerning their progression. For such studies to have credibility it is first important to establish the reproducibility...

  7. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ruckman, Mark (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Daniel (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  8. Highly Reproducible and Sensitive SERS Substrates with Ag Inter-Nanoparticle Gaps of 5 nm Fabricated by Ultrathin Aluminum Mask Technique.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qun; Zhan, Zhibing; Dou, Jinxia; Zheng, Xianzheng; Xu, Rui; Wu, Minghong; Lei, Yong

    2015-06-24

    Applicable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates require high enhancement factor (EF), excellent spatial reproducibility, and low-cost fabrication method on a large area. Although several SERS substrates with high EF and relative standard deviation (RSD) of signal less than 5% were reported, reliable fabrication for large area SERS substrates with both high sensitivity and high reproducibility via low-cost routes remains a challenge. Here, we report a facile and cost-effective fabrication process for large-scale SERS substrate with Ag inter-nanoparticle (NP) gaps of 5 nm based on ultrathin alumina mask (UTAM) surface pattern technique. Such closely packed Ag NP arrays with high density of electromagnetic field enhancement ("hot spots") on large area exhibit high SERS activity and excellent reproducibility, simultaneously. Rhodamine 6G molecules with concentration of 1 × 10(-7) M are used to determine the SERS performance, and an EF of ?10(9) is obtained. It should be noted that we obtain RSDs about 2% from 10 random spots on an area of 1 cm(2), which implies the highly reproducible signals. Finite-difference time-domain simulations further suggest that the enhanced electric field originates from the narrow gap, which agrees well with the experimental results. The low value of RSD and the high EF of SERS signals indicate that the as-prepared substrate may be promising for highly sensitive and uniform SERS detection. PMID:26023763

  9. Highly reproducible SERS substrate based on polarization-free Ag nanoparticles decorated SiO2/Si core-shell nanowires array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Jian-An; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    SiO2/Si core-shell nanowires array coated with gap-rich silver nanoparticles were demonstrated as a highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. SERS detection of a relative standard deviation of 8% for 10-4 M R6G with a spot size of ˜2 ?m and 900 spots over an area of 150 × 150 ?m2 was reported. The high reproducibility is ascribed to the polarization-independent electrical field distribution among three-dimensional nanowire structure with an optimized thickness of SiO2 shell layer.

  10. Retention reproducibility of basic drugs in high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica column with a methanol-ammonium nitrate eluent. Batch-to-batch reproducibility of the stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Hurdley, T G; Westlake, J P; Gill, R; Osselton, M D

    1988-11-25

    The effect of changing the brand and batches of the silica stationary phase used with a methanol-aqueous ammonium nitrate eluent for the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of basic drugs has been studied. Considerable care had to be taken to obtain a reproducible eluent and the effect of small changes in the concentration of the ammonia solution were examined closely. Large differences in both the capacity factor and relative capacity factors were found for separations on columns packed with four different brands of silica. Significant differences were also observed with columns containing eighteen different batches of Spherisorb S5W, which had been manufactured over a period of several years. PMID:3235625

  11. Ultramicroelectrode sensors and detectors. Considerations of the stability, sensitivity, reproducibility and mechanism of ion transport in gas phase chromatography and in high performance liquid phase chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossella Brina; B. Stanley Pons; Martin Fleischmann

    1988-01-01

    We describe in this paper the use of ultramicroelectrodes as sensitive sensors and detectors in the gas phase and in liquid solutions of high resistance; particularly aspects regarding the sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility of the devices. The advantages of these detectors can be improved notably by appropriate choice of method of pretreatment of the electrode surface. The surface separating the

  12. Low-temperature approach to high-yield and reproducible syntheses of high-quality small-sized PbSe colloidal nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jianying; Schuurmans, Carl; Zhang, Yanguang; Nagelkerke, Robbert; Wu, Xiaohua; Kingston, David; Wang, Zhi Yuan; Wilkinson, Diana; Li, Chunsheng; Leek, Donald M; Tao, Ye; Yu, Kui

    2011-02-01

    Small-sized PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized at low temperature such as 50-80 °C with high reaction yield (up to 100%), high quality, and high synthetic reproducibility, via a noninjection-based one-pot approach. These small-sized PbSe NCs with their first excitonic absorption in wavelength shorter than 1200 nm (corresponding to size < ?3.7 nm) were developed for photovoltaic applications requiring a large quantity of materials. These colloidal PbSe NCs, also called quantum dots, are high-quality, in terms of narrow size distribution with a typical standard deviation of ?7-9%, excellent optical properties with high quantum yield of ?50-90% and small full width at half-maximum of ?130-150 nm of their band-gap photoemission peaks, and high storage stability. Our synthetic design aimed at promotion of the formation of PbSe monomers for fast and sizable nucleation with the presence of a large number of nuclei at low temperature. For formation of the PbSe monomer, our low-temperature approach suggests the existence of two pathways of Pb-Se (route a) and Pb-P (route b) complexes. Either pathway may dominate, depending on the method used and its experimental conditions. Experimentally, a reducing/nucleation agent, diphenylphosphine, was added to enhance route b. The present study addresses two challenging issues in the NC community, the monomer formation mechanism and the reproducible syntheses of small-sized NCs with high yield and high quality and large-scale capability, bringing insight to the fundamental understanding of optimization of the NC yield and quality via control of the precursor complex reactivity and thus nucleation/growth. Such advances in colloidal science should, in turn, promote the development of next-generation low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells. Schottky-type solar cells using our PbSe NCs as the active material have achieved the highest power conversion efficiency of 2.82%, in comparison with the same type of solar cells using other PbSe NCs, under Air Mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) irradiation of 100 mW/cm(2). PMID:21244024

  13. High volume producibility and manufacturing of Z-plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.; Shanken, Stuart N.

    1989-09-01

    The high volume producibility of Z-plane technology has been studied in detail in order to define a plan for the transition of the technology into production. Cost models have been developed as part of this effort. It is emphasized that the transition into high volume memory module production will yield many direct benefits for focal plane array applications, such as lower cost, higher reliability, greater availability, and enhanced performance options.

  14. Use of chloro-hydrocarbons to produce high density electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, K.W.

    1981-12-29

    Chloro-hydrocarbons are used as pitch binder modifiers to improve the strength, density and electrical properties of carbon and graphite articles produced from carbonaceous particles, binders, and additives, and are particularly useful in manufacture of electrodes used in ultra high powered electric arc steel furnaces.

  15. Perovskite-based hybrid solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency with high reproducibility using a thin film sandwich approach.

    PubMed

    Conings, Bert; Baeten, Linny; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; D'Haen, Jan; Manca, Jean; Boyen, Hans-Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Organometal halide perovskites have tremendous potential as light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. In this work we demonstrate hybrid solar cells based on the mixed perovskite CH3 NH3 PbI2 Cl in a thin film sandwich structure, with unprecedented reproducibility and generating efficiencies up to 10.8%. The successfulness of our approach is corroborated by the experimental electronic structure determination of this perovskite. PMID:24338932

  16. Vacancy supersaturations produced by high-energy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Venezia, V.C.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Gossmann, H.J. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Agarwal, A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Friessnegg, T.; Nielsen, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for detecting the vacancy clusters produced by high-energy ion implantation into silicon is proposed and tested. This technique takes advantage of the fact that metal impurities, such as Au, are gettered near one-half of the projected range ({1/2}R{sub p}) of MeV implants. The vacancy clustered region produced by a 2 MeV Si{sup +} implant into silicon has been labeled with Au diffused in from the front surface. The trapped Au was detected by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to profile the vacancy clusters. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis shows that the Au in the region of vacancy clusters is in the form of precipitates. By annealing MeV implanted samples prior to introduction of the Au, changes in the defect concentration within the vacancy clustered region were monitored as a function of annealing conditions.

  17. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOEpatents

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  18. Effects produced by iodine irradiation on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lazanu, S.; Slav, A.; Lepadatu, A.-M.; Stavarache, I.; Palade, C.; Iordache, G.; Ciurea, M. L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2012-12-10

    The effects of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -26+}I{sup 127} ions of 28 MeV kinetic energy on high resistivity (100) Si were studied. The profile of primary defects was simulated. The defects produced by irradiation which act as traps were investigated. Thermally stimulated current measurements without externally applied bias were used, and for this the traps were charged by illuminating samples with 1000, 800, and 400 nm wavelengths. The discharge currents were recorded and modeled, and therefore the parameters of the traps were determined. The presence of I ions, heavier than Si, stopped into the target was modeled as a temperature independent electric field.

  19. Efficient and reproducible generation of high-expressing, stable human cell lines without need for antibiotic selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Schiedner; Sabine Hertel; Corinna Bialek; Helmut Kewes; Gero Waschütza; Christoph Volpers

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human cell lines are the most innovative choice of host cell for production of biopharmaceuticals since they allow for authentic posttranslational modification of therapeutic proteins. We present a new method for generating high and stable protein expressing cell lines based on human amniocytes without the requirement of antibiotic selection. RESULTS: Primary amniocytes from routine amniocentesis samples can be efficiently

  20. Laser-produced highly-charged ions of heavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Láska, L.; Králiková, B.; Krása, J.; Mašek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skála, J.; Straka, P.; Woryna, E.; Parys, P.; Wo?owski, J.; Mróz, W.; Collier, J.; Haseroth, H.; Langbein, K.; Golubev, A.; Sharkov, B.; Shumshurov, A.

    1997-04-01

    Results of systematic studies of laser-produced multiply charged ions are summarized. Experiments were performed using the iodine laser system PERUN operating with the fundamental frequency (?=1.315 ?m) and its 2nd (?=0.657 ?m) and 3rd (?=0.438 ?m) harmonics. Short laser pulse (350 ps) and a focus spot diameter of 100 ?m allowed for the laser power densities in the range of 5×1013-1.5×1015W/cm2. Different medium- and high-Z elements were tested as a target. Corpuscular diagnostics were based on a time-of-flight method. The ions with maximum charge state around 50+ and having energy higher than 4 MeV were registered for Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi in a distance of about 2m. Correlation of X-ray radiation and ion generation was examined. The occurrence of highly charged ions in the far expansion zone is ascribed to the mechanism of charge distribution "freezing" during a two temperature plasma expansion.

  1. Highly uniform and reproducible visible to near-infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hong Q.; Choquette, Kent D.; Hammons, B. E.; Breiland, William G.; Crawford, Mary H.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-04-01

    We present the growth and characterization of vertical- cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) from visible to near-infrared wavelength grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include the control on growth rate and composition using an in situ normal-incidence reflectometer, optimization of ultra-high material uniformity, and comprehensive p- and n- type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl4 and Si2H6 over the entire Al composition range. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of selectively oxidized VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continues-wave demonstration of all-AlGaAs 700-nm red VCSELs, high- performance n-side up 850-nm VCSELs, and low threshold current and low-threshold voltage 1.06 micrometer VCSELs using InGaAs/GaAsP strain-compensated quantum wells.

  2. Efficient and reproducible generation of high-expressing, stable human cell lines without need for antibiotic selection

    PubMed Central

    Schiedner, Gudrun; Hertel, Sabine; Bialek, Corinna; Kewes, Helmut; Waschütza, Gero; Volpers, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background Human cell lines are the most innovative choice of host cell for production of biopharmaceuticals since they allow for authentic posttranslational modification of therapeutic proteins. We present a new method for generating high and stable protein expressing cell lines based on human amniocytes without the requirement of antibiotic selection. Results Primary amniocytes from routine amniocentesis samples can be efficiently transformed with adenoviral functions resulting in stable human cell lines. Cotransfection of the primary human amniocytes with a plasmid expressing adenoviral E1 functions plus a second plasmid containing a gene of interest resulted in permanent cell lines expressing up to 30 pg/cell/day of a fully glycosylated and sialylated protein. Expression of the gene of interest is very stable for more than 90 passages and, importantly, was achieved in the absence of any antibiotic selection. Conclusion We describe an improved method for developing high protein expressing stable human cell lines. These cell lines are of non-tumor origin, they are immortalized by a function not oncogenic in human and they are from an ethically accepted and easily accessible cell source. Since the cell can be easily adapted to growth in serum-free and chemically defined medium they fulfill the requirements of biopharmaceutical production processes. PMID:18269738

  3. Quercetin nanosuspensions produced by high-pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ayse; Ozcelik, Beraat; Huang, Qingrong

    2014-02-26

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) was used to increase the water solubility of quercetin crystals, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties but poor water solubility and oral bioavailability. The improved water solubility of quercetin by HPH treatment could be attributed to very fine suspensions produced in the nanometric range (~400 nm) and loss of crystallinity caused by mechanical friction and stresses, which were verified by particle size measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Easily water redispersible powders were fabricated by the combination of HPH treatment and spray-drying process when maltodextrin was used as a carrier agent. HPH-treated spray-dried powders exhibited higher antioxidant activities than nontreated samples through increased water dispersity in terms of radical scavenging activity, reducing ability, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity determinations. This study suggests that the combination of HPH treatment with spray-drying would be an excellent processing method for the development of quercetin-based functional food products. PMID:24471519

  4. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  5. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  6. Low and high velocity clouds produced by young stellar clusters

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; Canto, J

    2009-01-01

    Intermediate and high velocity HI clouds rain onto the plane of our Galaxy. They are observed at heights of between 500 and 1500 pc, falling onto the Galactic plane at velocities from 50 to 140 km s$^{-1}$. To explain the origin of these clouds, we present a galactic fountain model, driven by the wind from a super stellar cluster (SSC). We solve the equations for a steady, radiative de Laval nozzle flow. We consider two effects not considered previously in astrophysical nozzle flow models: cooling functions for different metallicities, and the direct action of the galactic gravitational field on the gas flowing along the nozzle. For an adiabatic nozzle flow, the gravity acting directly on the gas within the nozzle "stalls" the nozzle flow for initial wind velocities lower than the escape velocity from the Galaxy. For the same wind velocity, a radiative nozzle flow stalls at lower altitudes above the galactic plane. We find that SSC winds with velocities of $v_w=500 - 800$ km s$^{-1}$ produce nozzles stall at ...

  7. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)). PMID:21902048

  8. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The thermal efficiency is better than 67% operating at full load. This fuel processor has been integrated with a 5-kW fuel cell producing electricity and hot water.

  9. Reproducibility of striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using [11C]raclopride with high-resolution positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alakurtti, Kati; Aalto, Sargo; Johansson, Jarkko J; Någren, Kjell; Tuokkola, Terhi; Oikonen, Vesa; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of small striatal brain structures such as the ventral striatum (VST) has been hampered by low spatial resolution causing partial-volume effects. The high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a brain-dedicated PET scanner that has considerably better spatial resolution than its predecessors. However, its superior spatial resolution is associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the test–retest reliability of the striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using the HRRT scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two [11C]raclopride PET scans with a 2.5-hour interval. Dopamine D2 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential (BPND) using the simplified reference tissue model. To evaluate the reproducibility of repeated BPND estimations, absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. VAR values indicated fairly good reproducibility and were 3.6% to 4.5% for the caudate nucleus and putamen and 4.5% to 6.4% for the lateral and medial part of the thalamus. In the VST, the VAR value was 5.8% when the definition was made in the coronal plane. However, the ICC values were only moderate, in the range of 0.34 to 0.66, for all regions except the putamen (0.87). Experimental signal processing methods improved neither ICC nor VAR values significantly. PMID:20442726

  10. A Novel Extraction Method Combining Plasma with a Whole-Blood Fraction Shows Excellent Sensitivity and Reproducibility for Patients at High Risk for Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jan; Schloßnagel, Hannes; Heinz, Werner; Doedt, Thomas; Soeller, Rainer; Einsele, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still a major problem in routine clinical practice. Early diagnosis is essential for a good patient prognosis. PCR is a highly sensitive method for the detection of nucleic acids and could play an important role in improving the diagnosis of fungal infections. Therefore, a novel DNA extraction method, ultraclean production (UCP), was developed allowing purification of both cellular and cell-free circulating fungal DNA. In this prospective study we evaluated the commercially available UCP extraction system and compared it to an in-house system. Sixty-three patients at high risk for IA were screened twice weekly, and DNA extracted by both methods was cross-analyzed, in triplicate, by two different real-time PCR assays. The negative predictive values were high for all methods (94.3 to 100%), qualifying them as screening methods, but the sensitivity and diagnostic odds ratios were higher using the UCP extraction method. Sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 66.7% using the in-house extracts to 100% using the UCP extraction method. Most of the unclassified patients showed no positive PCR results; however, single-positive PCR replicates were observed in some cases. These can bear clinical relevance but should be interpreted with additional clinical and laboratory data. The PCR assays from the UCP extracts showed greater reproducibility than the in-house method for probable IA patients. The standardized UCP extraction method yielded superior results, with regard to sensitivity and reproducibility, than the in-house method. This was independent of the PCR assay used to detect fungal DNA in the sample extracts. PMID:22593600

  11. Highly-reproducible Raman scattering of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag for methylamphetamine detection under near-infrared laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongmei; Liu, Honglin; Han, Zhenzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-07-13

    This study reported the significantly improved Raman enhancement ability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by decorating them on single NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 core-shell particles (UC@SiO2@Ag) under a 785 nm excitation. The optimal thickness of the silica shell can be easily obtained by adjusting the amounts of TEOS, which is the crucial element to balance the upconversion and the formation of a hot spot by Ag NP aggregation. This substrate revealed highly reproducible properties, which is crucial to the practical application of SERS technology. This substrate exhibited an excellent sensitivity for methylamphetamine detection under near-infrared excitation. The advantages of NIR excitation in our SERS sensing open up a new application field of UC-noble metal composites, and also promise a new research direction for the synthesis and applications of SERS-active nanostructures. PMID:26090604

  12. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  13. Tape high power neutron producing target for NCT V. Kononova

    E-print Network

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    in Fig. 1. The target is made of 0.5 mm thick 60 mm width flexible carbon fiber tape. Its moving device of neutron producing matter (hydride, nitride, oxide or fluoride of lithium) on the substrate. The active of active material and substrate matter are different the active material can be put on substrate (tape

  14. Laser-produced plasmas interaction with high pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolowski, J.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Woryna, E.; Zakharov, Yu P.

    1999-03-01

    This work presents results of two experiments accomplished at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) in Warsaw: (1) investigations of the influence of magnetic field on a laser-produced plasma in the presence or absence of the background plasma, (2) investigations of dynamics of laser-produced plasma in a strong magnetic field. The aim of experiment 1 (performed in collaboration with the Institute of Laser Physics (ILP) RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) was laboratory simulation of depolarization and deflection of plasma streams drifting across magnetic field in geoplasma background. An Nd:glass laser (5 ns, 2 J) was used to produce the plasma inside Helmholtz coils 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img9. The diagnostics for studying the interaction processes were: ion collectors, Langmuir and magnetic probes and an image converter camera. We present a comparison of the effects investigated in that experiment with some phenomena occurring in the geoplasma. In experiment 2 the plasma was produced by means of a Nd:glass laser (1 ns, 10 J) focused on a solid target located in a single-turn coil 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img10. Plasma expansion was investigated with an automated interferometer along the magnetic field lines and perpendicular to these lines. From the interferograms, it has been revealed that the plasma stream has a clear asymmetry for 0741-3335/41/3A/069/img11 caused by an unmagnetized ion Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  15. Reproducibility of activation in Broca's area during covert generation of single words at high field: A single trial FMRI study at 4 T

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Mayer; Jing Xu; Juliana Paré-Blagoev; Stefan Posse

    2006-01-01

    Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) has arguably become the most ubiquitously used imaging modality, questions remain about the reproducibility of the observed patterns of activation and the acquisition time required to achieve statistically significant and reproducible maps. In the current study, we investigated the reliability of activation in Broca's area, on both a voxel-wise and region of interest level,

  16. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  17. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  18. A highly reproducible solenoid micropump system for the analysis of total inorganic carbon and ammonium using gas-diffusion with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple, economic, and miniaturized flow-based analyzer based on solenoid micropumps is presented. It was applied to determine two parameters of high environmental interest: ammonium and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in natural waters. The method is based on gas diffusion (GD) of CO? and NH3 through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an acidic or alkaline donor stream, respectively. The analytes are trapped in an acceptor solution, being slightly alkaline for CO? and slightly acidic for NH?. The analytes are quantified using a homemade stainless steel conductimetric cell. The proposed system required five solenoid micro-pumps, one for each reagent and sample. Two especially made air bubble traps were placed down-stream of the solendoid pumps, which provided the acceptor solutions, by this increasing the method's reproducibility. Values of RSD lower than 1% were obtained. Achieved limits of detection were 0.27 µmol L?¹ for NH?? and 50 µmol L?¹ for TIC. Add-recovery tests were used to prove the trueness of the method and recoveries of 99.5 ± 7.5% were obtained for both analytes. The proposed system proved to be adequate for monitoring purpose of TIC and NH?? due to its high sample throughput and repeatability. PMID:24274287

  19. Improving the reproducibility of pyrolysis MS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roussis, S.G.; Fedora, J.W. [Imperial Oil, Sarnia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of the majority of volatile samples is primarily accomplished with established techniques (EI, CI). These techniques are based on the direct vapourization of the sample, upon heating, in the ionization source of a mass spectrometer. Typical analytical techniques, able to analyze non-volatile samples are those that allow the desorption of components from the solid or liquid phase directly to the gas phase. Field Desorption (FD) and Desorption Chemical Ionization (DCI) are two of these techniques. Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) has been more successful in analyzing polar samples than non-volatile hydrocarbon samples. Limited information is available for the capabilities of the newer ionization techniques (Electrospray Ionization, ESI; Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization, MALDI) to characterize the non-volatile hydrocarbon samples. ESI of mixtures of compounds produces complex mass spectra, consisting of multiply charged ion species, that may be difficult to interpret. MALDI has the potential for ionization of non-volatile hydrocarbon samples, but extensive research is required to determine the appropriate matrix compounds that will permit the unbiased desorption of all sample components. An important requirement in the characterization of the non-volatile samples using direct desorption techniques without prior chromatographic separation, is the use of ultra high resolution (>50,000), for the separation of high molecular weight isobaric peaks. In the present work, the experimental parameters affecting reproducibility have been studied, optimum conditions have been determined that permit reproducible analysis.

  20. An in vitro biofilm model system maintaining a highly reproducible species and metabolic diversity approaching that of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our knowledge of microbial diversity in the human oral cavity has vastly expanded during the last two decades of research. However, much of what is known about the behavior of oral species to date derives from pure culture approaches and the studies combining several cultivated species, which likely does not fully reflect their function in complex microbial communities. It has been shown in studies with a limited number of cultivated species that early oral biofilm development occurs in a successional manner and that continuous low pH can lead to an enrichment of aciduric species. Observations that in vitro grown plaque biofilm microcosms can maintain similar pH profiles in response to carbohydrate addition as plaque in vivo suggests a complex microbial community can be established in the laboratory. In light of this, our primary goal was to develop a robust in vitro biofilm-model system from a pooled saliva inoculum in order to study the stability, reproducibility, and development of the oral microbiome, and its dynamic response to environmental changes from the community to the molecular level. Results Comparative metagenomic analyses confirmed a high similarity of metabolic potential in biofilms to recently available oral metagenomes from healthy subjects as part of the Human Microbiome Project. A time-series metagenomic analysis of the taxonomic community composition in biofilms revealed that the proportions of major species at 3 hours of growth are maintained during 48 hours of biofilm development. By employing deep pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate this biofilm model with regards to bacterial taxonomic diversity, we show a high reproducibility of the taxonomic carriage and proportions between: 1) individual biofilm samples; 2) biofilm batches grown at different dates; 3) DNA extraction techniques and 4) research laboratories. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that we now have the capability to grow stable oral microbial in vitro biofilms containing more than one hundred operational taxonomic units (OTU) which represent 60-80% of the original inoculum OTU richness. Previously uncultivated Human Oral Taxa (HOT) were identified in the biofilms and contributed to approximately one-third of the totally captured 16S rRNA gene diversity. To our knowledge, this represents the highest oral bacterial diversity reported for an in vitro model system so far. This robust model will help investigate currently uncultivated species and the known virulence properties for many oral pathogens not solely restricted to pure culture systems, but within multi-species biofilms. PMID:24451062

  1. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  2. Comparison of methods of producing very highly stripped uranium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1983-10-01

    A comparison is made between the production of high intensity beams of helium-like uranium ions, U/sup 90 +/, by conventional and exotic ion sources, and by the foil stripping of highly accelerated ions output from the Bevalac. The parameter requirements are specified and compared to the parameters achievable by present day ion source technology. The EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source) comes closest to satisfying the necessary parameters, and this possibility is considered in some detail. We conclude that existing and near-future ion source technology does not provide a means of production of high intensity U/sup 90 +/ beams. Foil stripping of lower charge state species that have been accelerated through the Bevalac provides a convenient approach.

  3. Electrical Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using a Single Free-Standing, Thermally Controlled Piezoresistive Microcantilever for Highly Reproducible and Accurate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 ?g/mL to 200 ?g/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 ?g/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays. PMID:23899933

  4. Neutrinos produced by ultrahigh-energy photons at high redshift.

    PubMed

    Kusenko, A; Postma, M

    2001-02-19

    Some of the proposed explanations for the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays invoke new sources of energetic photons (e.g., topological defects, relic particles, etc.). At high redshift, when the cosmic microwave background has a higher temperature but the radio background is low, the ultrahigh-energy photons can generate neutrinos through pair production of muons and pions. The resulting diffuse background of 10(17) eV neutrinos can be detected by future experiments. PMID:11290160

  5. Reproducible research in palaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurcock, Pontus; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The reproducibility of research findings is attracting increasing attention across all scientific disciplines. In palaeomagnetism as elsewhere, computer-based analysis techniques are becoming more commonplace, complex, and diverse. Analyses can often be difficult to reproduce from scratch, both for the original researchers and for others seeking to build on the work. We present a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program designed to make reproducibility easier. Part of the problem is the divide between interactive and scripted (batch) analysis programs. An interactive desktop program with a graphical interface is a powerful tool for exploring data and iteratively refining analyses, but usually cannot operate without human interaction. This makes it impossible to re-run an analysis automatically, or to integrate it into a larger automated scientific workflow - for example, a script to generate figures and tables for a paper. In some cases the parameters of the analysis process itself are not saved explicitly, making it hard to repeat or improve the analysis even with human interaction. Conversely, non-interactive batch tools can be controlled by pre-written scripts and configuration files, allowing an analysis to be 'replayed' automatically from the raw data. However, this advantage comes at the expense of exploratory capability: iteratively improving an analysis entails a time-consuming cycle of editing scripts, running them, and viewing the output. Batch tools also tend to require more computer expertise from their users. PuffinPlot is a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program which aims to bridge this gap. First released in 2012, it offers both an interactive, user-friendly desktop interface and a batch scripting interface, both making use of the same core library of palaeomagnetic functions. We present new improvements to the program that help to integrate the interactive and batch approaches, allowing an analysis to be interactively explored and refined, then saved as a self-contained configuration which can be re-run without human interaction. PuffinPlot can thus be used as a component of a larger scientific workflow, integrated with workflow management tools such as Kepler, without compromising its capabilities as an exploratory tool. Since both PuffinPlot and the platform it runs on (Java) are Free/Open Source software, even the most fundamental components of an analysis can be verified and reproduced.

  6. Process for producing a high emittance coating and resulting article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Huong G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Dudley L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Process for anodizing aluminum or its alloys to obtain a surface particularly having high infrared emittance by anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate surface in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution at elevated temperature and by a step-wise current density procedure, followed by sealing the resulting anodized surface. In a preferred embodiment the aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate is first alkaline cleaned and then chemically brightened in an acid bath The resulting cleaned substrate is anodized in a 15% by weight sulfuric acid bath maintained at a temperature of 30.degree. C. Anodizing is carried out by a step-wise current density procedure at 19 amperes per square ft. (ASF) for 20 minutes, 15 ASF for 20 minutes and 10 ASF for 20 minutes. After anodizing the sample is sealed by immersion in water at 200.degree. F. and then air dried. The resulting coating has a high infrared emissivity of about 0.92 and a solar absorptivity of about 0.2, for a 5657 aluminum alloy, and a relatively thick anodic coating of about 1 mil.

  7. High density THz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    E-print Network

    Tammaro, S; Roy, P; Lampin, J -F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2014-01-01

    Frequency combs (FC) have radically changed the landscape of frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy investigations extending tremendously the achievable resolution while increasing signal to noise ratio. Initially developed in the visible and near-IR spectral regions, the use of FC has been expanded to mid-IR, extreme ultra-violet and X-ray. Significant effort is presently dedicated to the generation of FC at THz frequencies. One solution based on converting a stabilized optical frequency comb using a photoconductive terahertz emitter, remains hampered by the low available THz power. Another approach is based on active mode locked THz quantum-cascade-lasers providing intense FC over a relatively limited spectral extension. Alternatively, here we show that dense powerful THz FC is generated over one decade of frequency by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this mode, the entire ring behaves in a similar fashion to a THz resonator wherein electron bunches emit powerful THz pulses quasi-synch...

  8. High flux of relativistic electrons produced in femtosecond laser-thin foil target interactions: Characterization with nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Hannachi, F.; Malka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Claverie, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Meot, V.; Morel, P. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Faure, J.; Glinec, Y.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Santos, J. J. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    We present a protocol to characterize the high energy electron beam emitted in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with matter at intensities higher than 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. The electron energies and angular distributions are determined as well as the total number of electrons produced above a 10 MeV threshold. This protocol is based on measurements with an electron spectrometer and nuclear activation techniques, combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on the GEANT3 code. The method is detailed and exemplified with data obtained with polypropylene and copper thin solid targets at a laser intensity of 2x10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Special care is taken of the different sources of uncertainties. In particular, the reproducibility of the laser shots is considered.

  9. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:25832284

  10. Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since

    E-print Network

    Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized Winners® is known for its unique varieties and high quality products that enable

  11. Identification of microRNAs specific for high producer CHO cell lines using steady-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Maccani, Andreas; Hackl, Matthias; Leitner, Christian; Steinfellner, Willibald; Graf, Alexandra B; Tatto, Nadine E; Karbiener, Michael; Scheideler, Marcel; Grillari, Johannes; Mattanovich, Diethard; Kunert, Renate; Borth, Nicole; Grabherr, Reingard; Ernst, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Hence, microRNAs are considered as potential targets for engineering of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to improve recombinant protein production. Here, we analyzed and compared the microRNA expression patterns of high, low, and non-producing recombinant CHO cell lines expressing two structurally different model proteins in order to identify microRNAs that are involved in heterologous protein synthesis and secretion and thus might be promising targets for cell engineering to increase productivity. To generate reproducible and comparable data, the cells were cultivated in a bioreactor under steady-state conditions. Global microRNA expression analysis showed that mature microRNAs were predominantly upregulated in the producing cell lines compared to the non-producer. Several microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between high and low producers, but none of them commonly for both model proteins. The identification of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is essential to understand the biological function of microRNAs. Therefore, we negatively correlated microRNA and global mRNA expression data and combined them with computationally predicted and experimentally validated targets. However, statistical analysis of the identified microRNA-mRNA interactions indicated a considerable false positive rate. Our results and the comparison to published data suggest that the reaction of CHO cells to the heterologous protein expression is strongly product- and/or clone-specific. In addition, this study highlights the urgent need for reliable CHO-specific microRNA target prediction tools and experimentally validated target databases in order to facilitate functional analysis of high-throughput microRNA expression data in CHO cells. PMID:25052466

  12. Assessment of mean EGFR gene copy number is a highly reproducible method for evaluating FISH in histological and cytological cancer specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inti Zlobec; Ines Raineri; Sandra Schneider; René Schoenegg; Bruno Grilli; Michelle Herzog; Spasenija Savic; Lukas Bubendorf

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were first, to systematically assess the inter-observer reproducibility of mean Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (MCN) in histological and cytological specimens from lung and non-lung cancers, second to compare the performance of this quantitative approach to the current Colorado criteria for the assessment of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positivity and third

  13. Experimental challenges to reproduce seismic fault motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation briefly reviews scientific and technical development in the studies of intermediate to high-velocity frictional properties of faults and summarizes remaining technical challenges to reproduce nucleation to growth processes of large earthquakes in laboratory. Nearly 10 high-velocity or low to high-velocity friction apparatuses have been built in the last several years in the world and it has become possible now to produce sub-plate velocity to seismic slip rate in a single machine. Despite spreading of high-velocity friction studies, reproducing seismic fault motion at high P and T conditions to cover the entire seismogenic zone is still a big challenge. Previous studies focused on (1) frictional melting, (2) thermal pressurization, and (3) high-velocity gouge behavior without frictional melting. Frictional melting process was solved as a Stefan problem with very good agreement with experimental results. Thermal pressurization has been solved theoretically based on measured transport properties and has been included successfully in the modeling of earthquake generation. High-velocity gouge experiments in the last several years have revealed that a wide variety of gouges exhibit dramatic weakening at high velocities (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Most gouge experiments were done under dry conditions partly to separate gouge friction from the involvement of thermal pressurization. However, recent studies demonstrated that dehydration or degassing due to mineral decomposition can occur during seismic fault motion. Those results not only provided a new view of looking at natural fault zones in search of geological evidence of seismic fault motion, but also indicated that thermal pressurization and gouge weakening can occur simultaneously even in initially dry gouge. Thus experiments with controlled pore pressure are needed. I have struggled to make a pressure vessel for wet high-velocity experiments in the last several years. A technical difficulty was how to absorb hydrodynamic shock due to abrupt fault motion in the vessel, and this was overcome by pressurizing water in the vessel, acting as pore fluid, using pressurized gas (in other words using gas as a cushion). I will report preliminary experimental results on high-velocity rock-on-rock friction under pore-water pressure. Other technical challenges are (i) how to produce step-change in velocity to see if the framework of rate-and-state friction law holds in high-velocity regime, (ii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments in hydrothermal conditions to study frictional properties relevant to slow slip and low-frequency tremors, and (iii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments at high normal stresses. The first task became possible with a low to high-velocity apparatus in Beijing and a few other machines, and I will show some preliminary results. There is no fundamental difficulty in (ii) since O-ring is enough to seal piston rotating at a high speed. However, (iii) will be the hardest because of severe thermal fracturing of host rocks that limits the axial stress. Use of aluminum sleeve made it possible to apply the normal stress to about 30 MPa, but new device and a high motor power is needed to go higher normal stress.

  14. Producing high current sheet electron beam with compact, repetitive Tesla generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhanliang Wang; Yubin Gong; Yanyu Wei; Zhaoyun Duan; Huarong Gong; Zhigang Lu; Lingna Yue; Hairong Yin; Jin Xu; Jinjun Feng

    2012-01-01

    Sheet electron beam device has the potential for high-power millimeter wave to terahertz regime radiation. A key part of this system is a high current sheet electron beam source. This paper introduces our currently ongoing program on producing high current, high aspect ratio sheet electron beam with compact, repetitive 160KV generator. In our experimental, a cathode which looks like a

  15. A miniature passive direct formic acid fuel cell based twin-cell stack with highly stable and reproducible long-term discharge performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Hong; Shi-Jun Liao; Jian-Huang Zeng; Yi-Liang Zhong; Zhen-Xing Liang

    2011-01-01

    A miniature air-breathing twin-cell stack is designed and evaluated for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) applications. The stack consists of two face-to-face single cells with one shared fuel reservoir. This particular design has advantages in volume reduction relative to single cells in series connection. The performance, stability and reproducibility of the stack are investigated extensively for practical fuel cell

  16. High Frequency of c-Met Expression in Gastric Cancers Producing Alpha Fetoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Amemiya; Koji Kono; Yoshiyuki Mori; Akihiro Takahashi; Fumiko Ichihara; Hidehiko Iizuka; Takayoshi Sekikawa; Yoshiro Matsumoto

    2000-01-01

    Gastric cancers producing ?-fetoprotein (AFP) have a poor prognosis and a high incidence of liver metastasis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, are known to induce mitosis and cell movement and to promote tumor progression. In the present study, c-Met and HGF expression in AFP-producing gastric cancer was compared with those gastric cancers that do not produce AFP.

  17. High-Frequency Stimulation Produces a Transient Blockade of Voltage-Gated Currents in Subthalamic Neurons

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    tetanus, consist- ing of 100- s bipolar stimuli at a frequency of 100­250 Hz during 1 min, produced a full. Thus a high-frequency tetanus produces a blockade of the spontaneous activities of STN neurons) and its surgical destruction, both greatly ameliorate motor signs of Parkinson's disease in patients, led

  18. High volume manufacturing of nanoimprint lithography produced devices: addressing the stamp supply challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Zhou; Mohamed Asbahi; Gang Luo; Torbjörn Eriksson; Shoko Yamada; Prasanna Venkatesh Krishnan; Babak Heidari

    2010-01-01

    In order to realize industrial level manufacturing using Nano Imprint Lithography, one of the key challenges is to supply stamps for the high volume machines. The master stamp is typically time consuming to produce and thus very expensive. It is therefore preferable to produce the maximum amount of replicated stamp from a master and to ensure that each stamp replica

  19. Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,

    E-print Network

    Basu, Amar S.

    Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae-producing algae of interest in 2nd generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

  20. High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a

    E-print Network

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    ,11]. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), especially single-walled carbon nano- tubes, have been used as fillersHigh tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a , Jie, electrical, and thermal properties [12­14]. To produce a carbon nanotube nano-fiber, one method

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier

    E-print Network

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite are mostly composed of magmatic rocks of the Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite (TTG e.g. Jahn et al. 1981

  2. Setting the Default to Reproducible Reproducibility in Computational and

    E-print Network

    Borwein, Jonathan

    from the workshop discussions are: 1. It is important to promote a culture change that will integrate support this culture change. 3. Reproducible research practices and the use of appropriate tools should data and code. The "reproducible research" movement recognizes that traditional scientific research

  3. WHY DO MOST TROPICAL ANIMALS REPRODUCE SEASONALLY? TESTING HYPOTHESES ON AN AUSTRALIAN SNAKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Brown; R. Shine

    2006-01-01

    Most species reproduce seasonally, even in the tropics where activity occurs year-round. Squamate reptiles provide ideal model organisms to clarify the ultimate (adap- tive) reasons for the restriction of reproduction to specific times of year. Females of almost all temperate-zone reptile species produce their eggs or offspring in the warmest time of the year, thereby synchronizing embryogenesis with high ambient

  4. Intense electron emission due to picosecond laser-produced plasmas in high gradient electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Wang; T. Tsang; H. Kirk; T. Srinivasan-Rao; J. Fischer; K. Batchelor; P. Russell; R. C. Fernow

    1992-01-01

    Picosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 266 nm have been focused onto a solid metal cathode in coincidence with high-gradient electric fields to produce high brightness electron beams. At power densities exceeding 10 exp 9 W\\/sq cm, a solid density plasma is formed and intense bursts of electrons are emitted from the target accompanied by macroscopic surface damage. An

  5. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  6. High-energy ions produced in explosions of superheated atomic clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ditmire; J. W. G. Tisch; E. Springate; M. B. Mason; N. Hay; R. A. Smith; J. Marangos; M. H. R. Hutchinson

    1997-01-01

    Efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy is of fundamental importance in many areas of physics. A promising avenue for producing matter with unprecedented energy densities is by heating atomic clusters, an intermediate form of matter between molecules and solids1, with high-intensity, ultra-short light pulses2-4. Studies of noble-gas clusters heated with high-intensity (>1016Wcm-2) laser pulses indicate that a highly

  7. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: roy@fzu.cz, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní B?ežany (Czech Republic); Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní B?ežany (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18??m was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  8. Reproducible network benchmarks with coNCEPTUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Pakin, S. D. (Scott D.)

    2004-01-01

    A cornerstone of scientific progress is the ability to reproduce experimental results. However, in the context of network benchmarking, system complexity impedes a researcher's attempts to record all of the information needed to exactly reconstruct a network-benchmarking experiment. Without this information, results may be misinterpreted and are unlikely to be reproducible. This paper presents a tool called CONCEPTUAL which simplifies most aspects of recording and presenting network performance data. CONCEPTUAL includes two core components: (1) a compiler for a high-level, domain-specific programming language that makes it possible to specify arbitrary communication patterns tersely but precisely and (2) a complementary run-time library that obviates the need for writing (and debugging) all of the mundane but necessary routines needed for benchmarking, such as those that calibrate timers, compute statistics, or output log files. The result is that CONCEPTUAL makes it easy to present network-performance data in a form that promotes reproducibility.

  9. Derivation of High Enterotoxin B-Producing Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus from the Parent Strains

    PubMed Central

    Altenbern, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Certain pH-sensitive (membrane) mutants of Staphylococcus aureus, strains 14458 and 778, produce significantly more type-B enterotoxin (SEB) than the parent type. Some carbohydrate mutants (car) from these parent strains also are superior to the parent in SEB formation. By isolating car mutants from high-SEB-producing membrane mutants, it is possible to derive a double mutant producing from six to 50 times as much SEB as the parent type. Inversion of the sequence by isolating pH-sensitive mutants from car mutants does not yield clones with strikingly higher SEB production than the parent strain. The successful isolation sequence (pH-sensitive mutant first and car mutants derived from it) is relatively simple and virtually assures detection of a truly high-SEB-producing clone. The total number of clones whose direct assay for SEB formation is necessary for detection of a high-producing mutant is on the order of 50 to 60. PMID:240311

  10. Properties of a high-torularhodin-producing mutant of Rhodotorula glutinis cultivated under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, H; Nakanishi, T; Satonaka, K; Miki, W; Fujita, T; Komemushi, S

    2000-01-01

    To characterize the properties of torularhodin, which is one of the carotenoid pigments produced by the yeast Rhodotorula sp., a mutant which produces large amounts of torularhodin was constructed and its tolerance against oxidative stress was investigated. The mutant we obtained was capable of producing large amounts of torularhodin in response to irradiation with blue light. The mutant, incubated under irradiation with white light that resulted in an increased production of torularhodin, exhibited resistance to growth inhibition induced by the addition of methylene blue as the generator of singlet oxygen. Leakage of lactate dehydrogenase to the growth medium from the mutant was not increased as compared to that from a parent strain and a high-beta-carotene-producing mutant. These results suggest that an increase in the production of torularhodin reduces the susceptibility to injury induced by an active oxygen species. PMID:16232728

  11. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr. William R.; Geller, Clint B.

    1997-12-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.

  12. Experimental demonstration of producing high resolution zone plates by spatial-frequency multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, W.B.; Howells, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier publication, the possibility of producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray applications by spatial-frequency multiplication was analyzed theoretically. The theory predicted that for a daughter zone plate generated from the interference of mth and nth diffraction orders of a parent zone plate, its primary focal spot size and focal length are one (m + n)th of their counterparts of the parent zone plate, respectively. It was also shown that a zone plate with the outermost zone width of as small as 13.8 nm might be produced by this technique. In this paper, we report an experiment which we carried out with laser light (lambda = 4166A) for demonstrating this technique. In addition, an outlook for producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray application is briefly discussed.

  13. The high maltose-producing ?-amylase of the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadette S. Collins; Catherine T. Kelly; William M. Fogarty; Evelyn M. Doyle

    1993-01-01

    The a-amylase of Thermomonospora curvata catalyses the formation of very high levels of maltose from starch (73%, w\\/w) without the attendant production of glucose. The enzyme was produced extracellularly in high yield during batch fermentation in a 5-1 fermentor. Purification was achieved by ammonium sulphate fractionation, Superose-12 gel filtration and DEAE-Sephacel ionexchange chromatography. The enzyme exhibited maxima for activity at

  14. Hot compression behavior of the AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cerri; P. Leo; P. P. De Marco

    2007-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of a Mg–9Al–1Zn alloy produced by high pressure die casting has been investigated by means of compression tests in the temperature and strain rate ranges of 125–300°C and 1.6×10?5 to 10?1s?1, respectively. The samples were deformed in the high pressure die casting state or after an exposure at 415°C for 2h to evaluate any different response

  15. Effect of high temperature on the apparent activation energy of respiration of fresh produce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Nei; Toshitaka Uchino; Natsumi Sakai; Shun-ichirou Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain why the apparent activation energy of respiration of fresh produce is negative at the higher temperatures of 40–50°C. We assumed that maintenance of respiratory enzyme function was reduced at high temperatures, but the activity of the individual enzymes was not changed. In this study, experiments for testing the assumption were carried out to examine

  16. Medium and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Daurelio; Fabio Nenci; Massimo Cinquepalmi; Giuseppe Chita

    1998-01-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For

  17. Picosecond 14.7 nm interferometry of high intensity laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Picosecond 14.7 nm interferometry of high intensity laser-produced plasmas JAMES DUNN,1 JORGE 28 October 2004! Abstract We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps X-ray laser source development of the technique includ- ing utilizing a shorter wavelength, 4v harmonic at 266 nm wavelength

  18. Development of induction heated hot water producer using soft switching PWM high frequency inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Sadakata; M. Nakaoka; Hidekazu Yamashita; Hideki Omori; Haruo Terai

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual electromagnetic induction eddy current-based stainless steel spiral type heater for heat exchanger in hot water producer and boiler, which is suitable and acceptable for new generation consumer power application. In addition, an edge-resonant PWM high frequency inverter using IGBTs can operate under a principle of zero voltage soft commutation is developed and demonstrated for

  19. High quality shocks produced by lasers: Application to equations of state measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bossi; D. Batani; A. Bernardinello; L. Muller; A. Benuzzi; M. Koenig; B. Faral; T. A. Hall; Th. Loewer

    1998-01-01

    High quality shock waves with direct and indirect laser drive were generated. We used Phase Zone Plate smoothing technique in the case of direct drive and thermal X-rays from laser heated cavities in the case of indirect drive. The possibility of producing homogeneous, steady shock waves without significant preheating effects with both methods has been proved. Such shocks have been

  20. Superplastic behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die cast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Cavaliere; P. P. De Marco

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature and hot tensile properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die cast after friction stir processing (FSP) were studied in the present paper. Such process is a modification of classical friction stir welding one in which the sheets are not joined but the stirring action of the tool, on the bulk material, is used to

  1. Vitra-violet process for producing flame resistant polyamides and products produced thereby. [protective clothing for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.; Stringham, R. S. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    Aromatic polyamides with improved nonflammability characteristics are produced by contacting a polyamide substrate with a gaseous medium comprising a minor amount of a haloolefinic material and an inert diluent in the presence of light having sufficient energy to effect chemical addition of the haloolefin to the polyamide substrate.

  2. An Enzymatic Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Cytidine-Producing Microbial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Liu, Yongfei; Zu, Xin; Li, Ning; Li, Feiran; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine is an industrially useful precursor for the production of antiviral compounds and a variety of industrial compounds. Interest in the microbial production of cytidine has grown recently and high-throughput screening of cytidine over-producers is an important approach in large-scale industrial production using microorganisms. An enzymatic assay for cytidine was developed combining cytidine deaminase (CDA) and indophenol method. CDA catalyzes the cleavage of cytidine to uridine and NH3, the latter of which can be accurately determined using the indophenol method. The assay was performed in 96-well plates and had a linear detection range of cytidine of 0.058 - 10 mM. This assay was used to determine the amount of cytidine in fermentation flasks and the results were compared with that of High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The detection range of the CDA method is not as wide as that of the HPLC, furthermore the correlation factor of CDA method is not as high as that of HPLC. However, it was suitable for the detection of large numbers of crude samples and was applied to high-throughput screening for high cytidine-producing strains using 96-well deep-hole culture plates. This assay was proved to be simple, accurate, specific and suitable for cytidine detection and high-throughput screening of cytidine-producing strains in large numbers of samples (96 well or more). PMID:25816248

  3. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  4. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  5. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. This invention has applications to breeding blankets for fusion reactors as well as to alkali metal thermal to electric converters.

  6. High l state population in O sup 7+ produced in ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemmler, J. (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches avec les Ions Lourds, 14 - Caen (France)); Bourgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The high {ell}-state population of fast ions excited in ion-solid interactions is very different from {ell}-state populations produced under single collision conditions. A study of the population dynamics of electronic excitation and transport within the framework of a classical transport theory for O{sup 2+} (2 MeV/u) ions traversing carbon foils shows food agreement with experimental results from delayed photon emission spectroscopy. We investigate the dependence of the characteristic exponent for the power-law decay of delayed Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} radiation on the initial n,{ell} distribution. From our simulations we find evidence that the very high {ell}-state populations produced in ion-solid collision are the consequence of a high-{ell} state diffusion under the influence of multiple inelastic and elastic collisions in the bulk of the solid. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  8. High contrast internal and external coronagraph masks produced by various techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Daniel; White, Victor; Muller, Richard; Dickie, Matthew; Yee, Karl; Ruiz, Ronald; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric; Kern, Brian; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    High contrast internal and external coronagraphic imaging requires a variety of masks depending on different architectures to suppress star light. Various fabrication technologies are required to address a wide range of needs including gradient amplitude transmission, tunable phase profiles, ultra-low reflectivity, precise small scale features, and low-chromaticity. We present the approaches employed at JPL to produce pupil plane and image plane coronagraph masks, and lab-scale external occulter type masks by various techniques including electron beam, ion beam, deep reactive ion etching, and black silicon technologies with illustrative examples of each. Further development is in progress to produce circular masks of various kinds for obscured aperture telescopes.

  9. Liquid State Forging: Novel Potentiality to Produce High Performance Components, Process, Plant and Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, M.; Zago, A.; Claus, P.; Motoiu, P.

    2007-04-01

    The paper deals about a new patented process able to the production of high resistance and high toughness parts, taking into consideration also the tooling need. The molten alloy is introduced into the die cavity at low pressure, then the alloy is forged. The forging action takes place during the alloy solidification process, favouring the reduction of the duration of the process and the production of parts characterised by very high mechanical and ductility properties. The very high mechanical characteristics of the produced parts are obtained thank to their very low porosity content, as well as to their unique microstructure features. Moreover, the process allow the optimisation of the yield of the alloy, in fact the feeding system and the risers are practically absent, this means minimum production of scraps to be recycled. After a short description of the main features of the equipment and of the process, the work take into consideration the aluminium based produced parts, in their as cast state and after T6 heat treatment, comparing their characteristics with those obtainable by the most traditional low pressure and gravity casting processes. In particular, samples for the evaluation of the mechanical properties have been machined from the produced parts to obtain their tensile strength, together with their ductility characteristics. The maximum attained hardness values have also been evaluated. Tensile strength higher than 440 MPa, with elongation up to 18% with hardness higher than 125 HB are easily attainable on Al alloys type A356. Light microscopy observations performed on the transverse section of polished samples and the analysis of the fracture surfaces after mechanical tests allowed to focus the attention on the microstructure details and to highlight the ductile aspects of the fracture to confirm the high quality and high performance of the produced parts.

  10. On the formation of tide-produced seiches and double high waters in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, D. G.; Macdonald, R. G.; McKee, D.; Nimmo-Smith, W. A. M.; Graham, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    We describe a mechanism by which the tide, forcing a coastal water body, produces an oscillation at the natural period of the water body - a seiche - around the time of high water. The seiche appears as a distortion in the tidal curve which can, under certain conditions, produce a double high water. The formation of the seiche is explored with a numerical simulation of a sea strait, forced by the tide at its open ends. A seiche, of wavelength equal to twice the length of the strait, is formed when the mean depth of the strait is similar to the tidal range: the rapid reduction of friction as high water is approached appears to be an important part of the formation process. Observations of water level in the centre of a shallow sea strait in north Wales confirm that there is a residual oscillation around high water with the form of a damped seiche. The crest of the seiche occurs just before, and the trough just after, the maximum in the fitted tidal curve. The seiche slows the fall of the tide after high water and on one occasion, at neap tides, the fall is reversed and a double high water is formed. It is possible that this mechanism, hitherto unidentified, contributes to the formation of double high waters in other shallow coastal locations.

  11. High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

  12. Use of high hydrostatic pressure to produce high quality and safe fresh pork sausage

    E-print Network

    Huang, Mei

    1997-01-01

    transmitting medium) on the following page, The isostatic pressing systems may be operated as warm isostatic pressing (WIP) systems (Mertens, I993). WIP is a forming technique. Isostatic pressure is applied in combination with temperature between ambient... by indirect compression of the pressure transmitting medium 18 2. 2. 2 High Pressure Equipment A "warm isostatic pressing system" (model EPSI 4-10-100), is available from Engineered Pressure System Inc. , (EPSI), a subsidiary of National Forge Co...

  13. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  14. TRIDIAGONAL REPRODUCING KERNELS AND SUBNORMALITY

    E-print Network

    McGuire, Paul

    . MCGUIRE For John B. Conway, on the occasion of his retirement. Abstract. We consider analytic reproducing, subnormal operator, tridi- agonal kernel. 1 #12;2 GREGORY T. ADAMS, NATHAN S. FELDMAN, AND PAUL J. MCGUIRE, but this is not a problem for the general theory. The interested reader is referred to Adams, McGuire, and Paulsen [2

  15. Reproducibility of natural head position.

    PubMed

    Chiu, C S; Clark, R K

    1991-04-01

    The orientation of the head, when the natural head position was adopted, was measured relative to the true vertical on standardized black and white profile photographs. Two methods of obtaining the natural head position were compared and their reproducibility tested. No statistically significant difference was found between the two different methods or at different sittings. PMID:2050893

  16. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  17. Transmission electron microscope investigations on Cu-Ag alloys produced by high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormout, K. S.; Yang, B.; Pippan, R.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-Ag alloys in three different compositions (Cu - 25/50/75wt% Ag) were produced by powder consolidation followed by high-pressure torsion. Deformation was performed till a saturation regime was reached. The generated microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and vary from ultra-fine grained to nanocrystalline to even partially amorphous structures. Vickers hardness measurements show a strong increase in hardness compared with the pure metals, annealing at 130°C leads to an additional increase in hardness.

  18. Silver-indium joints produced at low temperature for high temperature devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky W. Chuang; Chin C. Lee

    2002-01-01

    A two-step fluxless bonding process adopted to produce high temperature silver-indium joints (80 wt% silver and 20 wt% indium) at relatively low process temperature of 206°C has been developed. After annealing the joint continuously for 26 h at 145°C, its melting temperature increases to 765-780°C, as confirmed by a de-bonding test. The technique thus developed provides a viable alternative to

  19. Influences of Floating Particles Produced by High-Pressure, Pulsed Glow Discharge on Excimer Laser Excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Go Imada; Takahiro Shinkai; Wataru Masuda; Kiyoshi Yatsui

    2001-01-01

    The floating particles produced by the high-pressure, pulsed glow discharge on KrF excimer laser excitation have been visualized by the pulsed-laser scatter method. The double-pulse discharge experiments have also been carried out to study the effects of the floating particles on the discharge instabilities. The particles with diameters of the order of 100 mum are observed in the discharge region

  20. The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    solubility product constant (pK*sp) is defined as: pKsp ¼ ÀLog Ca2þ Â Ã 1Àxð Þ Mg2þ Â Ãx CO3 2À Â Ã ð2ÞThe solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J the first measurements of the solubility of this CaCO3 in seawater. The resulting solubility (pK*sp = 5.89 Æ

  1. Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.. Cavaliere; P. P. De Marco

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 °C for 2 h and an ageing

  2. Polydiacetylene-Based High-Throughput Screen for Surfactin Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyan; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional mutation is still an attractive approach for strain improvement, it is tedious, time-consuming, and inefficient to screen for surfactin producing strains. To overcome this, we developed a high-throughput screening method for surfactin producing mutants by applying polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles as sensors with visible chromatic change from blue to red, detected as colorimetric response (CR%) signal, which can even semi-quantify the yields of surfactin. Bacillus subtilis 723 was used as parent strain and multiply mutated with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Mutants were cultured in MicroFlask by Duetz (24 square deepwell plates, Applikon Biotechnology) and surfactin titers were tested in 96-well plates with PDA vesicles. Mutants with surfactin titers above150 mg/L (CR% value above 26%) were selected as high-yield strains and further quantified by HPLC. By integrating MicroFlask cultivation and the PDA vesicles detection, we screened 27,000 mutants and found 37 high-yield strains. From these, one mutant produced 473.6 mg/L surfactin (including 353.1 mg/L C15 surfactin), which was 5.4-fold than that of the parent strain. This method is efficient, cost-effective and provides wider application in screening for various surfactants. PMID:24498439

  3. Simulations of high power laser-produced multi-keV X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ji; Chen, Bolun; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Li

    2015-05-01

    Multi-keV x-ray source produced by high power laser interaction with solid metal target are widely used in high energy density physics research. This work proposed a numerical simulation method for designing the laser plasma X-ray source. The simulation was conducted using a collisional-radiative spectral code combined with one-dimension hydrodynamics code. Quite good agreement was found between the simulations and the experimental results. This work indicates that it is possible to apply this method in x-ray source optimizing.

  4. High bandwidth data recording systems for pulsed power and laser produced plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Clancy, T.; Fittinghoff, D.; Halvorson, C.; Mills, T.; Nikitin, A.; Perry, T.; Roberson, G. P.; Smith, D.; Teruya, A.; Miller, E. K.; Trainham, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Special Technologies Laboratory, Bechtel Nevada, 5520 Ekwill Street, Suite B, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We present two high bandwidth data transmission and recording systems for the measurement of transient signals during pulsed power and laser produced plasmas. These systems use fiber optic cables to transmit analog data over long distances to high bandwidth digitizing oscilloscopes. One system is based on the direct modulation of a laser diode and has a bandwidth of 1.5 GHz. The other system is based upon a Mach-Zehnder modulator and has a bandwidth of 12 GHz, and is limited by the photoreceiver. The signals are recorded on commercial digitizing oscilloscopes that have approximately six effective bits. The transmission systems use many off-the-shelf components from the telecommunications industry and thus have a high reliability and a moderate cost. Investigation of the reduction in optical transmission of the fibers during exposure to high dose radiation will also be discussed.

  5. High Bandwidth Data Recording Systems for Pulsed Power and Laser Produced Plasma Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    May, M J; Clancy, T; Fittinghoff, D; Halvorson, C; MIlls, T; Nikitin, A; Perry, T; Roberson, P; Smith, D; Teruya, A; Miller, K; Trainham, C

    2006-05-02

    We present two high bandwidth data transmission and recording systems for the measurement of transient signals during pulsed power and laser produced plasmas. These systems use fiber optic cables to transmit analog data over long distances to high bandwidth digitizing oscilloscopes. One system is based on the direct modulation of a laser diode and has a bandwidth of 1.5 GHz. The other system is based upon a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder modulator and has a bandwidth of 12 GHz, and is limited by the photo receiver. The signals are recorded on commercial digitizing oscilloscopes that have approximately 6 effective bits. The transmission systems use many off-the-shelf components from the telecommunications industry and thus have a high reliability and a moderate cost. Results from recent measurements will be presented. Investigation of the reduction in optical transmission by the fibers during exposure to high dose radiation will also be discussed.

  6. Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  7. Investigating TLE-Producing High Plains Mesoscale Convective Systems with the NLDN and ELF Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Price, C.; Cummer, S. A.; Williams, E. R.; Stanley, M. A.; Nelson, T. E.

    2001-12-01

    During the 2000 STEPS and the 1999 NASA Stratospheric Sprites Balloon campaigns, several remote sensing tools were employed to investigate TLE-producing storms over the High Plains. Low-light video systems deployed at Yucca Ridge documented TLEs (sprites, halos, trolls and gnomes) above a variety of storm systems. A new hybrid ELF/VLF technique used receivers in Israel to monitor sprite-related ELF transients originating in Nebraska, a range of 11 Mm. Over 90 percent of the sprites were associated with distinctive ELF transients. The new geolocation technique positioned these transients largely within the boundary of the parent cloud. Detailed analyses of MCS over the STEPS network on 18 and 19 July 2000 revealed the sprite-producing +CGs tended to cluster near but not coincident with the coldest cloud tops. Two methods of calculating the charge moments of the TLE-parent +CGs confirmed that large values (500 C km and up) are an apparent requirement for sprites. Continued analysis of the large MCS of 18 August 1999 show sprite-producing +CGs tend to congregate below the colder portions of the storm's cloud shield within stratiform precipitation areas with relatively low radar reflectivities (25 - 40 dBZ). Five halos were associated with -CGs by the NLDN. Furthermore three of the five produced large negative ELF transients monitored in Israel. All five were associated with ELF slow-tails recorded at about 1000 km range.

  8. Estimating high mosquito-producing rice fields using spectral and spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Washino, R. K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Salute, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The cultivation of irrigated rice provides ideal larval habitat for a number of anopheline vectors of malaria throughout the world. Anopheles freeborni, a potential vector of human malaria, is associated with the nearly 240,000 hectares of irrigated rice grown annually in Northern and Central California; therefore, this species can serve as a model for the study of rice field anopheline population dynamics. Analysis of field data revealed that rice fields with early season canopy development, that are located near bloodmeal sources (i.e., pastures with livestock) were more likely to produce anopheline larvae than fields with less developed canopies located further from pastures. Remote sensing reflectance measurements of early-season canopy development and geographic information system (GIS) measurements of distanes between rice fields and pastures with livestock were combined to distinguish between high and low mosquito-producing rice fields. Using spectral and distance measures in either a discriminant or Bayesian analysis, the identification of high mosquito-producing fields was made with 85 percent accuracy nearly two months before anopheline larval populations peaked. Since omission errors were also minimized by these approaches, they could provide a new basis for directing abatement techniques for the control of malaria vectors.

  9. Stable high surface area lactate dehydrogenase particles produced by spray freezing into liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Josh D; Simpson, Dale T; Cloonan, Carrie; Lai, Edwina S; Williams, Robert O; Barrie Kitto, G; Johnston, Keith P

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme activities were determined for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) powder produced by lyophilization, and two fast freezing processes, spray freeze-drying (SFD) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) nitrogen. The 0.25 mg/mL LDH aqueous feed solutions included either 30 or 100 mg/mL trehalose. The SFL process produced powders with very high enzyme activities upon reconstitution, similar to lyophilization. However, the specific surface area of 13 m(2)/g for SFL was an order of magnitude larger than for lyophilization. In SFD activities were reduced in the spraying step by the long exposure to the gas-liquid interface for 0.1-1s, versus only 2 ms in SFL. The ability to produce stable high surface area submicron particles of fragile proteins such as LDH by SFL is of practical interest in protein storage and in various applications in controlled release including encapsulation into bioerodible polymers. The SFL process has been scaled down for solution volumes <1 mL to facilitate studies of therapeutic proteins. PMID:17027245

  10. Comparative proteomics analysis of high n-butanol producing metabolically engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Kojima, Kyoko; Xu, Ningning; Mobley, James; Zhou, Lufang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

    2015-01-10

    The acidogenic Clostridium tyrobutyricum has recently been metabolically engineered to produce n-butanol. The objective of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding as to how butanol production was regulated in C. tyrobutyricum to guide the engineering of next-generation strains. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis, covering 78.1% of open reading frames and 95% of core enzymes, using wild type, ACKKO mutant (?ack) producing 37.30 g/L of butyrate and ACKKO-adhE2 mutant (?ack-adhE2) producing 16.68 g/L of butanol. In ACKKO-adhE2, the expression of most glycolytic enzymes was decreased, the thiolase (thl), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ato), 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (hbd) and crotonase (crt) that convert acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA were increased, and the heterologous bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) catalyzing butanol formation was highly expressed. The apparent imbalance of energy and redox was observed due to the downregulation of acids production and the addition of butanol synthesis pathway, which also resulted in increased expression of chaperone proteins and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA) and the silence of sporulation transcription factor Spo0A (spo0A) as the cellular responses to butanol production. This study revealed the mechanism of carbon redistribution, and limiting factors and rational metabolic cell and process engineering strategies to achieve high butanol production in C. tyrobutyricum. PMID:25449011

  11. Reproducibility of Interpreting "and" and "or" in Terminology Systems

    E-print Network

    Cimino, James J.

    Reproducibility of Interpreting "and" and "or" in Terminology Systems Eneida A. Mendonça, M.D.1 quality terminologies are a fundamental requirement in a range of health care applications. To ensure high quality terminologies we should reflect about the understandability, reproducibility and utility criteria

  12. Generation and Evaluation of High ?-Glucan Producing Mutant Strains of Sparassis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Rak; Kang, Hyeon-Woo

    2013-01-01

    A chemical mutagenesis technique was employed for development of mutant strains of Sparassis crispa targeting the shortened cultivation time and the high ?-glucan content. The homogenized mycelial fragments of S. crispa IUM4010 strain were treated with 0.2 vol% methyl methanesulfonate, an alkylating agent, yielding 199 mutant strains. Subsequent screening in terms of growth and ?-glucan content yielded two mutant strains, B4 and S7. Both mutants exhibited a significant increase in ?-glucan productivity by producing 0.254 and 0.236 mg soluble ?-glucan/mg dry cell weight for the B4 and S7 strains, respectively, whereas the wild type strain produced 0.102 mg soluble ?-glucan/mg dry cell weight. The results demonstrate the usefulness of chemical mutagenesis for generation of mutant mushroom strains. PMID:24198672

  13. Reverse stridulatory wing motion produces highly resonant calls in a neotropical katydid (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae).

    PubMed

    Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the biomechanics of an unusual form of wing stridulation in katydids, termed here 'reverse stridulation'. Male crickets and katydids produced sound to attract females by rubbing their forewings together. One of the wings bears a vein ventrally modified with teeth (a file), while the other harbours a scraper on its anal edge. The wings open and close in rhythmic cycles, but sound is usually produced during the closing phase as the scraper moves along the file. Scraper-tooth strikes create vibrations that are subsequently amplified by wing cells specialised in sound radiation. The sound produced is either resonant (pure tone) or non-resonant (broadband); these two forms vary across species, but resonant requires complex wing mechanics. Using a sensitive optical diode and high-speed video to examine wing motion, and Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) to study wing resonances, I describe the mechanics of stridulation used by males of the neotropical katydid Ischnomela gracilis (Pseudophyllinae). Males sing with a pure tone at ca.15 kHz and, in contrast to most Ensifera using wing stridulation, produce sound during the opening phase of the wings. The stridulatory file exhibits evident adaptations for such reverse scraper motion. LDV recordings show that the wing cells resonate sharply at ca. 15 kHz. Recordings of wing motion suggest that during the opening phase, the scraper strikes nearly 15,000 teeth/s. Therefore, the song of this species is produced by resonance. The implications of such adaptations (reverse motion, file morphology, and wing resonance) are discussed. PMID:22062685

  14. Development of high-performance ER gel produced by electric-field assisted molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Anzai, H.

    2009-02-01

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a novel functional elastomer whose surface frictional and adhesive property varies according to the intensity of applied electric field. This peculiar phenomenon is named as Electro-adhesive effect. A generated shear stress of ERG under applied electric field is approximately 30~40 times higher than that of ERF because of high adhesive strength. However, the performances of ERG vary widely due to its surface condition, especially density and distribution of ER particles at the surface. In order to stabilize and improve the performance of ERG, the electric- filed assisted molding process is proposed as the producing method of ERG. In this study, first, the principle of electro-adhesive effect is theoretically investigated. Second, a high-performance ERG produced by the proposed process, in which ER particles are aligned densely at the surface, is developed and its performance is evaluated experimentally. As the experimental result, the high-performance ERG shows twice higher shear stress than the conventional ERG.

  15. Spatial coherence of third harmonic produced by high-intensity interaction in a noble gas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.S.; Meyerhofer, D.D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The spatial coherence of third harmonic produced by the interaction of a high-intensity laser and a thin, noble gas target is measured using a Young`s double-slit setup. The third harmonic is generated in Xe with 1.5-ps, 1.053-{mu}m CPA laser focused with f no. = 70 optics into a 10-T, 1-mm-thick gas jet. The harmonic near field is imaged with 10X magnification and the spatial coherence is analyzed with slit separations of 2 mm, 3mm and 4 mm across a 1-cm-diam harmonic pulse.

  16. Variability in High-Energy Photon Bursts Produced by Lightning Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity. They have been discovered by Fishman et al. [Science, 264, 1313, 1994] using BATSE detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory originally launched to perform observations of celestial gamma-ray sources. These events have also been detected by the RHESSI [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], AGILE [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010], and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010]. Moreover, measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intra-cloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g, Lu et al., JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Photon spectra corresponding to relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) in large-scale thunderstorm electric fields usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. However, it has been suggested that high-potential +IC lightning leaders could produce a sufficient number of energetic electrons to explain TGFs [Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011], and Xu et al. [GRL, 39, L08801, 2012] have shown that this mechanism could explain the TGF spectrum for lightning potentials higher than 100 MV. In addition to TGFs, X-ray bursts are produced by negative cloud-to-ground (-CGs) lightning leaders in association with stepping processes and are observed from the ground [Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L01803, 2005]. In this work, we will investigate the variation of photon spectra and photon fluences with respect to the electrical properties of the causative lightning discharge in a unified fashion for TGFs and CG-lightning-produced X-ray bursts. We will show how the lightning-produced X-ray spectrum converges toward the RREA spectrum for very high potential drops in the vicinity of the lightning leader tip, and demonstrate why only the most energetic TGFs can be detected from low-orbit satellites.

  17. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M.; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P. S.; Lindbäck, Toril

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ?734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ?734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ?734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ?734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak. PMID:25692100

  18. Robust reproducible resting state networks in the awake rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Lino; Pendse, Gautam; Chang, Pei-Ching; Bishop, James; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) have been studied extensively with functional MRI in humans in health and disease to reflect brain function in the un-stimulated state as well as reveal how the brain is altered with disease. Rodent models of disease have been used comprehensively to understand the biology of the disease as well as in the development of new therapies. RSN reported studies in rodents, however, are few, and most studies are performed with anesthetized rodents that might alter networks and differ from their non-anesthetized state. Acquiring RSN data in the awake rodent avoids the issues of anesthesia effects on brain function. Using high field fMRI we determined RSNs in awake rats using an independent component analysis (ICA) approach, however, ICA analysis can produce a large number of components, some with biological relevance (networks). We further have applied a novel method to determine networks that are robust and reproducible among all the components found with ICA. This analysis indicates that 7 networks are robust and reproducible in the rat and their putative role is discussed. PMID:22028788

  19. Evidence of plasma polarization shift of Ti He-? resonance line in high density laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, F. Y.; Percie du Sert, O. A. M. B.; Rosmej, F. B.; Riley, D.

    2012-12-01

    A spectroscopic study of the He-? (1s2 1s0 - ls2p 1p1) line emission (4749.73 eV) from high density plasma was conducted. The plasma was produced by irradiating Ti targets with intense (I ? l×l019 W/cm2), 400nm wavelength high contrast, short (45fs) p-polarized laser pulses at an angle of 45°. A line shift up to 3.4+1.0 eV (1.9±0.55 mÅ) was observed in the He-? line. The line width of the resonance line at FWHM was measured to be 12.1±0.6 eV (6.7±0.35 mÅ). For comparison, we looked into the emission of the same spectral line from plasma produced by irradiating the same target with laser pulses of reduced intensities (?1017 W/cm2): we observed a spectral shift of only 1.8+1.0 eV (0.9+0.55mÅ) and the line-width measures up to 5.8+0.25 eV (2.7+0.35 mÅ). These data provide evidence of plasma polarization shift of the Ti He-? line.

  20. Prevalence and Characterization of High Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Gulf of Mexico Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bowers, John C; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in detection and enumeration of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) have created powerful molecular-based tools to better understand the presence of spoilage bacteria and conditions, resulting in increased risk of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. We examined 235 scombrotoxin-forming fish from the Gulf of Mexico for the presence of high HPB. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was the most prevalent HPB (49%), followed by Morganella morganii (14%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), and Raoultella planticola (3%). The growth characteristics and histamine production capabilities of the two most prevalent HPB were further examined. M. morganii and P. damselae had optimum growth at 35°C and 30 to 35°C and 0 to 2% and 1 to 3% NaCl, respectively. P. damselae produced significantly (P < 0.001) higher histamine than M. morganii in inoculated mahimahi and Spanish mackerel incubated at 30°C for 24 h, but histamine production was not significantly different between the two HPB in inoculated tuna, possibly due to differences in muscle composition and salt content. Results in this study showed that P. damselae was the most prevalent high HPB in Gulf of Mexico fish. In addition, previously reported results using the traditional Niven's method may underreport the prevalence of P. damselae. Molecular-based methods should be used in addition to culture-based methods to enhance detection and enumeration of HPB. PMID:26197285

  1. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-28

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

  2. An International Ki67 Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67’s value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study. Methods Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays—one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided. Results Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation. Conclusions Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world’s most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without standardizing scoring methodology because analytical validity is limited. PMID:24203987

  3. Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Namyoung; Son, Dae-Yong; Jang, In-Hyuk; Kang, Seong Min; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-15

    High efficiency perovskite solar cells were fabricated reproducibly via Lewis base adduct of lead(II) iodide. PbI2 was dissolved in N,N-dimethyformamide with equimolar N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and CH3NH3I. Stretching vibration of S?O appeared at 1045 cm(-1) for bare DMSO, which was shifted to 1020 and 1015 cm(-1) upon reacting DMSO with PbI2 and PbI2 + CH3NH3I, respectively, indicative of forming the adduct of PbI2·DMSO and CH3NH3I·PbI2·DMSO due to interaction between Lewis base DMSO and/or iodide (I(-)) and Lewis acid PbI2. Spin-coating of a DMF solution containing PbI2, CH3NH3I, and DMSO (1:1:1 mol %) formed a transparent adduct film, which was converted to a dark brown film upon heating at low temperature of 65 °C for 1 min due to removal of the volatile DMSO from the adduct. The adduct-induced CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited high charge extraction characteristics with hole mobility as high as 3.9 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and slow recombination rate. Average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.3% was achieved from 41 cells and the best PCE of 19.7% was attained via adduct approach. PMID:26125203

  4. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-01

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  5. Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

  6. Application of Reverse Genetics for Producing Attenuated Vaccine Strains against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Yuko; TAKEMAE, Nobuhiro; SAITO, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, reverse genetics was applied to produce vaccine candidate strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N1 subtype. The H5 subtype vaccine strains were generated by a reverse genetics method in a biosafety level 2 facility. The strain contained the HA gene from the H5N1 subtype HPAIV attenuated by genetic modification at the cleavage site, the NA gene derived from the H5N1 subtype HPAI or the H5N3 subtype of avian influenza virus and internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Vaccination with an inactivated recombinant virus with oil-emulsion completely protected chickens from a homologous viral challenge with a 640 HAU or 3,200 HAU/vaccination dose. Vaccination with a higher dose of antigen, 3,200 HAU, was effective at increasing survival and efficiently reduced viral shedding even when challenged by a virus of a different HA clade. The feasibility of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was demonstrated against a challenge with H5N1 HPAIVs when the recombinant H5N3 subtype viruses were used as the antigens of the vaccine. Our study demonstrated that the use of reverse genetics would be an option to promptly produce an inactivated vaccine with better matching of antigenicity to a circulating strain. PMID:24805906

  7. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  8. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocaña, J. L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-11-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  9. High Producing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene Alleles in Protection against Severe Manifestations of Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Sing-Sin; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Chinna, Karuthan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection usually presents with mild self-limiting dengue fever (DF). Few however, would present with the more severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In the present study, the association between IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? gene polymorphisms and dengue severity was investigated. Methods: A case-control study was performed on a total of 120 unrelated controls, 86 DF patients and 196 DHF/DSS patients. The polymorphisms in IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Results: A protective association of TNF-? -308A allele and -308GA genotype against DHF/DSS was observed, while TNF-? -238A allele and -238GA genotype were associated with DHF/DSS. A combination of TNF-? -308GA+AA genotype and IL-10 non-GCC haplotypes, IL-12B pro homozygotes (pro1/pro1, pro2/pro2) and IL-12B 3'UTR AC were significantly correlated with protective effects against DHF/DSS. An association between the cytokine gene polymorphisms and protection against the clinical features of severe dengue including thrombocytopenia and increased liver enzymes was observed in this study. Conclusion: The overall findings of the study support the correlation of high-producer TNF-? genotypes combined with low-producer IL-10 haplotypes and IL-12B genotypes in reduced risk of DHF/DSS. PMID:25589894

  10. Process of high temperature synthesis in producing composite carbide powders for thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyma?ski, K.; Formanek, B.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the characterization of powders containing hard phases of chromium carbides in a NiCr matrix, intended for thermal spraying coatings. The synthesized composite powder containing hard phases and plastic matrix, produced in high-temperature synthesis with chosen powder metallurgy processes has been presented. Commercial materials, such as NiCr- CrxCy, are fabricated by means of agglomeration and sintering method. Processes of high temperature synthesis of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr23C6 carbides combined with NiCr powder mechanical alloying are presented in the article. Parameters of the carbides synthesis were determined in the reactive -protective atmosphere. In the rotation- vibration mill, processes were conducted using grinding and appropriate mechanical alloying at variable amplitude. The standard and synthesized powders were thermally sprayed by HVOF method in Jet Kote II and Diamond Jet system. The structure and phase composition of the powders and coatings were determined by: light and scanning microscopy, X-ray phase analysis (RTG) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The structure and wear properties of HVOF sprayed coatings containing chromium carbides has been presented. The thermally sprayed coatings are characterized of wear resistance in abrasion and erosion tests. The sprayed coatings characterized high resistance in wear conditions.

  11. Reproducibility of two-dimensional exercise echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Oberman, A; Fan, P H; Nanda, N C; Lee, J Y; Huster, W J; Sulentic, J A; Storey, O F

    1989-10-01

    To determine the reproducibility of two-dimensional exercise echocardiography, duplicate studies were performed on the same patients a median of 14 days apart. Because measurements are operator-dependent, interobserver variability was calculated for two experienced readers who interpreted the findings independently in a blinded manner. A high degree of interobserver agreement was found in evaluation of both ejection fraction measurements and wall motion abnormalities. Readings for ejection fraction immediately after exercise taken on different days could be estimated within 4% of the values measured in the first test; similarly measured wall motion score index was within 6% of that in the first test. Ejection fractions and wall motion scores were highly correlated between tests 1 and 2. The correlation coefficients between tests 1 and 2 were 0.92 for both the pre- and postexercise ejection fractions and 0.98 for both the pre- and postexercise wall motion scores. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography immediately after exercise is highly reproducible, providing a valuable tool for assessing serial changes in left ventricular function. PMID:2794280

  12. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  13. Micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie

    2013-09-10

    The present invention relates to micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams. In one embodiment, the micro-cone target includes a substantially cone-shaped body including an outer surface, an inner surface, a generally flat and round, open-ended base, and a tip defining an apex. The cone-shaped body tapers along its length from the generally flat and round, open-ended base to the tip defining the apex. In addition, the outer surface and the inner surface connect the base to the tip, and the tip curves inwardly to define an outer surface that is concave, which is bounded by a rim formed at a juncture where the outer surface meets the tip.

  14. Ultrafine grained high density manganese zinc ferrite produced using polyol process assisted by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudisson, T.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Valenzuela, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the polyol process and their consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique at relatively low temperature and short time, namely 500 °C for 10 min. NPs were obtained as perfectly epitaxied aggregated nanoclusters forming a kind of spherical pseudo-single-crystals of about 40 nm in size. The results on NPs consolidation by SPS underlined the importance of this clustering on the grain growth mechanism. Grain growth proceeds by coalescing nanocrystalline aggregates into single grain of almost the same average size, thus leading to a high density ceramic. Due to magnetic exchange interactions between grains, the produced ceramic does not exhibit thermal relaxation whereas their precursor polyol-made NPs are superparamagnetic.

  15. Serological screening for Coxiella burnetii infection and related reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Almeria, S; Garcia-Ispierto, I

    2012-08-01

    The possible relationship between Coxiella-seropositivity and the reproductive performance of cows during the previous year to the serological screening was examined in three high producing dairy herds. The herds had a history of subfertility (<25% of pregnancies for the total number of AI), abortion (>18% abortions) and a positive polymerase chain reaction test for Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk with an excretion higher than 10(4)Coxiella /ml for all three herds. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 50.2% of the 781 parous cows analyzed. Coxiella seropositivity was linked to placenta retention, to changes in the interval from parturition to conception (with the lowest interval parturition-conception for cows with low level of seropositivity), early pregnancy (cows becoming pregnant before Day 90 postpartum) and maintenance of gestation during the early fetal period, while it failed to affect rates of abortion after Day 90 of gestation or stillbirth. PMID:21862091

  16. Interlocking of ?-carotene in beta-lactoglobulin aggregates produced under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Azza; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Borel, Patrick; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Chobert, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-15

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developing World. This deficiency can be prevented by alimentary or pharmaceutical supplementation. However, both vitamin A oxidation and isomerization should be prevented, as these phenomenons result in loss of nutritional efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a food protein matrix, ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) aggregates produced by high pressure (HP), on the stabilization of ?-carotene during storage and gastro-duodenal digestion and therefore on its bioavailability. In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of ?-Lg aggregates entrapping ?-carotene showed that up to 12% and 33% of total ?-carotene was released after peptic and pancreatic digestion, respectively. Overall, our study showed that ?-Lg aggregates are efficient for caging and stabilization of ?-carotene during storage and digestion. Hence, it may be an interesting approach for the protection and the delivery of vitamin A. PMID:23561103

  17. High precision Penning trap mass spectrometry of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Barquest, B. R.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Ferrer, R.; Lincoln, D. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.; Savory, J.

    2011-09-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) is the only present facility to combine high precision Penning trap mass spectrometry with fast beam projectile fragmentation. Located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), LEBIT is able to measure radionuclides produced in a chemically independent process with minimal decay losses. Recent exotic mass measurements include 66As, 63-66Fe, and 32Si. 66As is a new candidate to test the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis. The masses of the neutron-rich iron isotopes provide additional information about the mass surface and the subshell closure at N = 40. 32Si is a member of the A = 32, T = 2 quintet; its measurement permits the most stringent test of the validity of the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME). An overview of some recent measurements will be presented as well as advanced techniques for ion manipulation.

  18. Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, P. [INFM-Dept. of 'Ingegneria dell'Innovazione', Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, 73100, Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; De Marco, P.P. [INFM-Dept. of 'Ingegneria dell'Innovazione', Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, 73100, Lecce (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 deg. C for 2 h and an ageing treatment at 220 deg. C for 4 h. The heat treatment resulted in a significant increase in the fatigue properties of the HPDC material, while no significance influence of heat treatment was recorded in the FSP condition. The morphology of fracture surfaces was examined by employing a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM)

  19. Quantizations from reproducing kernel spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Twareque Ali, S., E-mail: stali@mathstat.concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dieetcam, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Pierre Gazeau, Jean, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Laboratoire APC, Université Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to explore the existence and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert subspaces of L{sup 2}(C,d{sup 2}z/?) based on subsets of complex Hermite polynomials. The resulting coherent states (CS) form a family depending on a nonnegative parameter s. We examine some interesting issues, mainly related to CS quantization, like the existence of the usual harmonic oscillator spectrum despite the absence of canonical commutation rules. The question of mathematical and physical equivalences between the s-dependent quantizations is also considered. -- Highlights: ? We discuss in detail an interesting decomposition of L{sup 2}, in terms of ladder operators. ? We consider coherent states on this structure and we use them for quantization. ? We show how this structure is related with non hermitian quantum mechanics. ? We consider the relation between different schemes of quantizations.

  20. Reproducing the kinematics of damped Lyman ? systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin; Neeleman, Marcel; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-02-01

    We examine the kinematic structure of damped Lyman ? systems (DLAs) in a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using the AREPO code. We are able to match the distribution of velocity widths of associated low-ionization metal absorbers substantially better than earlier work. Our simulations produce a population of DLAs dominated by haloes with virial velocities around 70 km s-1, consistent with a picture of relatively small, faint objects. In addition, we reproduce the observed correlation between velocity width and metallicity and the equivalent width distribution of Si II. Some discrepancies of moderate statistical significance remain; too many of our spectra show absorption concentrated at the edge of the profile and there are slight differences in the exact shape of the velocity width distribution. We show that the improvement over previous work is mostly due to our strong feedback from star formation and our detailed modelling of the metal ionization state.

  1. Purification and characterization of highly branched ?-glucan-producing enzymes from Paenibacillus sp. PP710.

    PubMed

    Tsusaki, Keiji; Watanabe, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Takuo; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2012-01-01

    Highly branched ?-glucan molecules exhibit low digestibility for ?-amylase and glucoamylase, and abundant in ?-(1?3)-, ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkages and ?-(1?6)-linked branch points where another glucosyl chain is initiated through an ?-(1?3)-linkage. From a culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. PP710, we purified ?-glucosidase (AGL) and ?-amylase (AMY), which were involved in the production of highly branched ?-glucan from maltodextrin. AGL catalyzed the transglucosylation reaction of a glucosyl residue to a nonreducing-end glucosyl residue by ?-1,6-, ?-1,4-, and ?-1,3-linkages. AMY catalyzed the hydrolysis of the ?-1,4-linkage and the intermolecular or intramolecular transfer of maltooligosaccharide like cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). It also catalyzed the transfer of an ?-1,4-glucosyl chain to a C3- or C4-hydroxyl group in the ?-1,4- or ?-1,6-linked nonreducing-end residue or the ?-1,6-linked residue located in the other chains. Hence AMY was regarded as a novel enzyme. We think that the mechanism of formation of highly branched ?-glucan from maltodextrin is as follows: ?-1,6- and ?-1,3-linked residues are generated by the transglucosylation of AGL at the nonreducing ends of glucosyl chains. Then AMY catalyzes the transfer of ?-1,4-chains to C3- or C4-hydroxyl groups in the ?-1,4- or ?-1,6-linked residues generated by AGL. Thus the concerted reactions of both AGL and AMY are necessary to produce the highly branched ?-glucan from maltodextrin. PMID:22484939

  2. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  3. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  4. Intense electron emission due to picosecond laser-produced plasmas in high gradient electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Tsang, T.; Kirk, H.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.; Batchelor, K.; Russell, P.; Fernow, R.C. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Picosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 266 nm have been focused onto a solid metal cathode in coincidence with high gradient electric fields to produce high brightness electron beams. At power densities exceeding 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, a solid density plasma is formed and intense bursts of electrons are emitted from the target accompanied by macroscopic surface damage. An inferred {similar to}1 {mu}C of integrated charge with an average current of {similar to}20 A is emitted from a radio-frequency cavity driven at electric field gradients of {similar to}80 MV/m. In another experiment, where a dc extraction field of {similar to}6 MV/m is used, we observed an electron charge of {similar to}0.17 {mu}C. Both results are compared with the Schottky effect and the Fowler--Nordheim field emission. We found that this laser-induced intense electron emission shares many features with the explosive electron emission processes. No selective wavelength dependence is observed in the production of the intense electron emission in the dc extraction field. The integrated electrons give an apparent quantum efficiency of {similar to}1.2%, which is one of the highest reported to date from metal photocathodes at these photon energies.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Reproducibility and unpredictability.

    PubMed

    des Combes, B J; Porchet, M; Waeber, B; Brunner, H R

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of blood pressure readings taken by the portable semiautomatic blood pressure recorder Remler M 2000 was investigated in 101 unselected, untreated volunteers. On the average, pressures recorded during usual daily activities were lower by approximately 10 mm Hg than pressures measured in the office. However, individual ambulatory pressures could not be predicted from office readings, and the difference varied among the volunteers from +14 to -43 mm Hg. The reproducibility of office and ambulatory pressures was investigated in 84 subjects. There was a highly significant correlation between pressure levels determined at a 3- to 4-month interval with both the conventional auscultatory method in the office and the Remler ambulatory recorder. These data demonstrate that the Remler M 2000 ambulatory blood pressure recorder, when used properly, provides reproducible blood pressure profiles during customary daily activities. The ambulatory pressure recorder seems particularly useful for a baseline evaluation of the usual daily blood pressure, which in the individual subject differs in a highly unpredictable manner from the blood pressure measured at the physician's office. PMID:6735450

  6. Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses

    E-print Network

    Limpouch, Jiri

    Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

  7. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining a mutant FAD2-1A and a mutant FAD2-1B gene. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6%. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high ...

  8. ccsd-00001731,version2-7Nov2004 Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    a high pressure gas is irradiated by a focused laser light, a hot and dense plasma is produced.[1. When the ArF laser light is irradiated in high pressure Ar gas up to 130 atm whose wavelength, and the laser light is focused at the center of the high pressure gas chamber by a lens with a focal length

  9. Multiple Species of Trichosporon Produce Biofilms Highly Resistant to Triazoles and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Iturrieta-González, Isabel Antonieta; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Bizerra, Fernando César; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon spp. have increased considerably in recent years, especially in neutropenic and critically ill patients using catheters and antibiotics. The genus presents limited sensitivity to different antifungal agents, but triazoles are the first choice for treatment. Here, we investigated the biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility to triazoles and amphotericin B of 54 Trichosporon spp. isolates obtained from blood samples (19), urine (20) and superficial mycosis (15). All isolates and 7 reference strains were identified by sequence analysis and phylogenetic inferences of the IGS1 region of the rDNA. Biofilms were grown on 96-well plates and quantitation was performed using crystal violet staining, complemented with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Susceptibility tests for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B were processed using the microdilution broth method (CLSI) for planktonic cells and XTT reduction assay for biofilm-forming cells. Our results showed that T. asahii was the most frequent species identified (66.7%), followed by T. faecale (11.1%), T. asteroides (9.3%), T. inkin (7.4%), T. dermatis (3.7%) and one T. coremiiforme (1.8%). We identified 4 genotypes within T. asahii isolates (G1, G3, G4 and G5) and 2 genotypes within T. faecale (G1 and G3). All species exhibited high adhesion and biofilm formation capabilities, mainly T. inkin, T. asteroides and T. faecale. Microscopy images of high biofilm-producing isolates showed that T. asahii presented mainly hyphae and arthroconidia, whereas T. asteroides exhibited mainly short arthroconidia and few filaments. Voriconazole exhibited the best in vitro activity against all species tested. Biofilm-forming cells of isolates and reference strains were highly resistant to all antifungals tested. We concluded that levels of biofilm formation by Trichosporon spp. were similar or even greater than those described for the Candida genus. Biofilm-forming cells were at least 1,000 times more resistant to antifungals than planktonic cells, especially to voriconazole. PMID:25360765

  10. The reproducibility of patch tests.

    PubMed

    Bourke, J F; Batta, K; Prais, L; Abdullah, A; Foulds, I S

    1999-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the reproducibility of patch testing. Discordant results have been reported in up to 44% of cases. The clinical relevance of these discordant patch tests has not been previously assessed. We studied 383 consecutive patients receiving simultaneous duplicate patch testing on opposite sides of the upper back with 10 allergens from the European standard series. Completely discordant patch tests-a negative test on one side with a positive test on the opposite side-were recorded in 30 (8%) patients. Two patients had discordant tests to two of the allergens; 28 had discordant reactions to one allergen. Completely discordant tests were recorded for nickel in 10 (3%) patients, balsam of Peru in two (0.5%), thiomersal in one (0.3%), cobalt in four (1%), paraphenylenediamine in three (0.8%), fragrance mix in two (0.5%), formaldehyde in four (1%), potassium dichromate in two (0.5%), lanolin in three (0.8%) and Kathon CG in one (0.3%). Of those patients with completely discordant patch tests, the allergen was deemed to be a true positive in 11 (3% of total) cases and of possible relevance in a further three. The allergen was felt to be relevant to the presenting complaint in seven (2% of total) patients. PMID:10215776

  11. A high-throughput approach to identify genomic variants of bacterial metabolite producers at the single-cell level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for visualizing intracellular metabolite concentrations within single cells of Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum that expedites the screening process of producers. It is based on transcription factors and we used it to isolate new L-lysine producing mutants of C. glutamicum from a large library of mutagenized cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). This high-throughput method fills the gap between existing high-throughput methods for mutant generation and genome analysis. The technology has diverse applications in the analysis of producer populations and screening of mutant libraries that carry mutations in plasmids or genomes. PMID:22640862

  12. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Li, C K; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Séguin, F H; Amendt, P A; Landen, O L; Town, R P J; Betti, R; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M

    2009-07-01

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m> approximately [8pibeta(1+D_{m}k_{ perpendicular};{2}gamma_{max};{-1})];{1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions. PMID:19658823

  13. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    PubMed

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  14. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform

    PubMed Central

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  15. Spectroscopy of high lying resonances in 9Be produced with radioactive 8Li beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Mendes, D. R.; Descouvemont, P.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Pampa Condori, R.; Moraes, M. C.; Scarduelli, V.; Rossi, E.; Zagatto, V. A.; Santos, H.; Aguiar, V. A. P.; Britos, T.; Assunção, M.; Zamora, J. C.; Duarte, J.; Shorto, J. M. B.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p,?)5He and 8Li(p,p)8Li reactions measured at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) system. The experiment was realized in inverse kinematics using a thick [CH2]n polyethylene target and an incident 8Li beam, produced by RIBRAS. Using the thick target method, the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2 - 2.1 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The excitation function of the 8Li(p,?)5He reaction, populating resonances between 16.888 and 19.0 MeV in 9Be, was obtained[1] and the resonances were fitted using R-matrix calculations. This study shed light on spins, parities, partial widths and isospin values of high lying resonances in 9Be. The measurement of the resonant elastic scattering 8Li(p,p)8Li populating resonances in the same energy region can constrain the resonance parameters. Preliminary results of the elastic scattering are also presented.

  16. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  17. Polyandrous females benefit by producing sons that achieve high reproductive success in a competitive environment

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Renée C.

    2011-01-01

    Females of many taxa often copulate with multiple males and incite sperm competition. On the premise that males of high genetic quality are more successful in sperm competition, it has been suggested that females may benefit from polyandry by accruing ‘good genes’ for their offspring. Laboratory studies have shown that multiple mating can increase female fitness through enhanced embryo viability, and have exposed how polyandry influences the evolution of the ejaculate. However, such studies often do not allow for both female mate choice and male–male competition to operate simultaneously. Here, I took house mice (Mus domesticus) from selection lines that had been evolving with (polygamous) and without (monogamous) sperm competition for 16 generations and, by placing them in free-ranging enclosures for 11 weeks, forced them to compete for access to resources and mates. Parentage analyses revealed that female reproductive success was not influenced by selection history, but there was a significant paternity bias towards males from the polygamous selection lines. Therefore, I show that female house mice benefit from polyandry by producing sons that achieve increased fitness in a semi-natural environment. PMID:21288948

  18. Measurements of neutrons produced by high-energy muons at the Boulby Underground Laboratory

    E-print Network

    H. M. Araujo; J. Blockley; C. Bungau; M. J. Carson; H. Chagani; E. Daw; B. Edwards; C. Ghag; E. V. Korolkova; V. A. Kudryavtsev; P. K. Lightfoot; A. Lindote; I. Liubarsky; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; K. Mavrokoridis; J. E. McMillan; A. St. J. Murphy; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. M. Preece; M. Robinson; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; R. J. Walker; H. Wang; J. White

    2008-05-20

    We present the first measurements of the muon-induced neutron flux at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. The experiment was carried out with an 0.73 tonne liquid scintillator that also served as an anticoincidence system for the ZEPLIN-II direct dark matter search. The experimental method exploited the delayed coincidences between high-energy muon signals and gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture on hydrogen or other elements. The muon-induced neutron rate, defined as the average number of detected neutrons per detected muon, was measured as $0.079 \\pm 0.003$ (stat.) neutrons/muon using neutron-capture signals above 0.55 MeV in a time window of 40-190 $\\mu$s after the muon trigger. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron production, transport and detection in a precisely modeled laboratory and experimental setup using the GEANT4 toolkit gave a result 1.8 times higher than the measured value. The difference greatly exceeds all statistical and systematic uncertainties. As the vast majority of neutrons detected in the current setup were produced in lead we evaluated from our measurements the neutron yield in lead as $(1.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^{-3}$ neutrons/muon/(g/cm$^2$) for a mean muon energy of about 260 GeV.

  19. Thermophysical property measurement at high temperatures by laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethehem, PA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Excitation by a high-power laser pulse of a material surface generates a sequence of plasma, fluid flow, and acoustic events. These are well separated in time, and their detection and analysis can lead to determination of material properties of the condensed phase target. We have developed a new methodology for real-time determination of molten metal composition by time-resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas (LPP). If the laser pulse is shaped in such a way that the movement of the bulk surface due to evaporation is kept in pace with the thermal diffusion front advancing into the interior of the target, the LPP plume becomes representative of the bulk in elemental composition. In addition, the mass loss due to LPP ablation is very well correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the target matter. For several elemental solid specimens, we show that the product of the ablation thickness and heat of formation is proportional to the thermal diffusivity per unit molecular weight. Such measurements can be extended to molten metal specimens if the mass loss by ablation, density, heat of formation, and molecular weight can be determined simultaneously. The results from the solid specimen and the progress with a levitation-assisted molten metal experiment are presented.

  20. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  1. Medium- and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Nenci, Fabio; Cinquepalmi, Massimo; Chita, Giuseppe

    1998-07-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For the other ones, operating to high pressure range, generally the two components of the transducers are both threaded only and threaded and then circularly welded by micro TIG for the other higher range, till to 1000 bar. In this work the products, operating on the approximately equals 30 divided by 200 bar, are considered. These, when assembled on industrial plants, as an outcome of a non-correct operating sequence, give a 'shifted' electrical signal. This is due to a shift of the 'zero electrical signal' that unbalances the electrical bridge - thin layer sensor - that is the sensitive part of the product. Moreover, for the same problem, often some mechanical settlings of the transducer happen during the first pressure semi-components, with an increasing of the product manufacturing costs. In light of all this, the above referred, in this work the whole transducer has been re-designed according to the specific laser welding technology requirements. On the new product no threaded parts exist but only a circular laser welding with a full penetration depth about 2.5 divided by 3 mm high. Three different alloys have been tested according to the applications and the mechanical properties requested to the transducer. By using a 1.5 KW CO2 laser system many different working parameters have been evaluated for correlating laser parameters to the penetration depths, crown wides, interaction laser-materia times, mechanical and metallurgical properties. Moreover during the laser welding process the measurements of the maximum temperature, reached by the transducer top, has been read and recorded. At least some transducers, before the usual destructive testings, have been undertaken to many pressure test cycles to verify any pressure drops, the transducer sealing and the total quality of the new product.

  2. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13??g?mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  3. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13??g?mL?1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  4. High-intensity narrow light pulse produced by self-focusing in laser spark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Bakos; I. B. Foeldes; Z. Soerlei

    1981-01-01

    The shape of a laser light pulse, transmitted through a spark produced in air by this pulse, is investigated. A single-mode single-frequency ruby laser was used. A light pulse which is narrower and more intense than the original pulse is observed on the laser pulse as a result of the interaction between the light pulse and the plasma produced by

  5. Brucella abortus strain 2308 produces brucebactin, a highly efficient catecholic siderophore.

    PubMed

    González Carreró, Manuel I; Sangari, Félix J; Agüero, Jesús; García Lobo, Juan M

    2002-02-01

    Brucella abortus is known to produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (2,3-DHBA) and to use this catechol as a siderophore to grow under iron-limited conditions. In this study a mutant (BAM41) is described that is deficient in siderophore production by insertion of Tn5 in the virulent B. abortus strain 2308. This mutant was unable to grow on iron-deprived medium and its growth could not be restored by addition of 2,3-DHBA. Production of catecholic compounds by both the Brucella mutant and parental strains under iron-deprivation conditions was assayed by TLC. Two catecholic substances were identified in the supernatant of the parental strain 2308. The faster migrating spot showed the same retention factor (R(f)) as that of purified 2,3-DHBA. The mutant BAM41 overproduced 2,3-DHBA, but failed to form the slower migrating catechol. This defect could only be complemented by the addition of the slow-migrating catechol from strain 2308. The genomic region containing Tn5 in BAM41 was cloned and the position of the transposon was determined by nucleotide sequencing. The sequence revealed that the insertion had occurred at a gene with homology to Escherichia coli entF, a locus involved in the late steps of the biosynthesis of the complex catecholic siderophore enterobactin. Intracellular survival and growth rates of the B. abortus wild-type and entF mutant strains in mouse-derived J774 macrophages were similar, indicating that production of this siderophore was not essential in this model of infection. It is concluded that B. abortus synthesizes a previously unknown and highly efficient catecholic siderophore, different from 2,3-DHBA, for which the name brucebactin is proposed. PMID:11832499

  6. Factors affecting the fertility of high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; López-Béjar, M

    2007-02-01

    Infertility has been often correlated to a rising milk yield in high producing dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using logistic regression procedures, the effects of several management indicators on the fertility of four dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Data derived from 10,965 artificial insemination (AI). The factors examined were: herd, milking frequency (three versus two milkings per day), lactation number, previous twinning and disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra, milk production at AI, the inseminating bull, season (warm versus cool period) and year effects, AI technician and repeat breeding syndrome (cows undergoing four or more AI). Our findings indicated no effects on fertility of the herd, year of AI, previous twining, placenta retention and pyometra and milk production at AI. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in cows milked three times per day (by a factor of 0.62); for each one unit increase in lactation number (by a factor of 0.92); for inseminations performed during the warm period (by a factor of 0.67); in repeat breeder cows (by a factor of 0.73); and when 3 of the 45 inseminating bulls included in the study were used (by factors of 0.35, 0.43 and 0.44, respectively). Of the 13 AI technicians participating in the study, 3 were related to a fertility rate improved by odds ratios of 1.86, 1.84 and 1.30, respectively, whereas 2 technicians gave rise to fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Under our study conditions, management practices were able to compensate for the effects of previous twining and reproductive disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra. However, fertility was significantly affected by the factors milking frequency, AI technician, inseminating bull, repeat breeding syndrome, lactation number and AI season. PMID:17118434

  7. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  8. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to enhance crappie recruitment should consider the enhancement and preservation of backwaters.

  9. A New Strategy to Deliver Synthetic Protein Drugs: Self-reproducible Biologics Using Minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hyoju; Kim, Youngkyun; Kim, Juryun; Jung, Hyerin; Rim, Yeri Alice; Jung, Seung Min; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics. PMID:25091294

  10. Reproducibility of Research Algorithms in GOES-R Operational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennelly, E.; Botos, C.; Snell, H. E.; Steinfelt, E.; Khanna, R.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    The research to operations transition for satellite observations is an area of active interest as identified by The National Research Council Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations. Their report recommends improved transitional processes for bridging technology from research to operations. Assuring the accuracy of operational algorithm results as compared to research baselines, called reproducibility in this paper, is a critical step in the GOES-R transition process. This paper defines reproducibility methods and measurements for verifying that operationally implemented algorithms conform to research baselines, demonstrated with examples from GOES-R software development. The approach defines reproducibility for implemented algorithms that produce continuous data in terms of a traditional goodness-of-fit measure (i.e., correlation coefficient), while the reproducibility for discrete categorical data is measured using a classification matrix. These reproducibility metrics have been incorporated in a set of Test Tools developed for GOES-R and the software processes have been developed to include these metrics to validate both the scientific and numerical implementation of the GOES-R algorithms. In this work, we outline the test and validation processes and summarize the current results for GOES-R Level 2+ algorithms.

  11. Influence of laser satellite transitions on spectroscopy of high-intensity laser-produced plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Osterheld; B. K. F. Young; J. Dunn; R. E. Stewart; I. Yu. Skobelev; A. Ya. Faenov; A. I. Magunov

    1997-01-01

    The oscillating electromagnetic field of an intense laser pulse can significantly affect the emission properties of ions in a plasma. For sufficiently intense laser fields, induced second order processes produce discrete radiative transitions. In addition, these induced radiative processes alter the level population kinetics, and the spectrum of spontaneous transitions. We discuss the effects of these processes on the n

  12. A highly integrated, mass produced battery module as basis for various EV and HEV systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Eberleh; F. von Borck; S. Raiser

    2010-01-01

    The battery system is the key component in a full electric or a plug-in electric vehicle. Important aspects are cost, package, safety, performance and durability. With a modular design the fundamental requirements can be fulfilled at a sub-level. Providing easy and appropriate interfaces all special issues can be solved efficient on system level. Such a module can be mass produced

  13. High precision 3D metallic microstructures produced using proton beam micromachining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. van Kan; A. A. Bettiol; F. Watt

    2001-01-01

    A crucial step in the development of mechanically strong microstructures is the conversion of structures made from resist material of low hardness and strength, to harder and more durable metallic microstructures. The implementation of a post lithographic process step such as electroplating offers the possibility of producing metallic structures. In proton beam micromachining (PBM) a focused MeV beam is scanned

  14. Development of Bottom-Fermenting Saccharomyces Strains That Produce High SO2 Levels, Using Integrated Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Imoto, Jun; Minato, Toshiko; Oouchi, Rie; Sugihara, Mao; Imai, Takeo; Ishiguro, Tatsuji; Mizutani, Satoru; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Sulfite plays an important role in beer flavor stability. Although breeding of bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces strains that produce high levels of SO2 is desirable, it is complicated by the fact that undesirable H2S is produced as an intermediate in the same pathway. Here, we report the development of a high-level SO2-producing bottom-fermenting yeast strain by integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed that O-acetylhomoserine (OAH) is the rate-limiting factor for the production of SO2 and H2S. Appropriate genetic modifications were then introduced into a prototype strain to increase metabolic fluxes from aspartate to OAH and from sulfate to SO2, resulting in high SO2 and low H2S production. Spontaneous mutants of an industrial strain that were resistant to both methionine and threonine analogs were then analyzed for similar metabolic fluxes. One promising mutant produced much higher levels of SO2 than the parent but produced parental levels of H2S. PMID:18310411

  15. Identification of lactic acid bacterial strains with high conjugated linoleic acid-producing ability from natural sauerkraut fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z; Lin, J; Gong, D

    2009-01-01

    Natural sauerkraut fermentations contain a great number of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacterial strains with high conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability from natural sauerkraut fermentations. Fifteen CLA-producing lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated in the study. One of these strains, designated as NCUL005, showed the highest CLA-producing ability (0.623 mg/mL). The transformation efficiency of converting linoleic acid into CLA by NCUL005 was 26.67%. The CLA produced by NCUL005 comprised a mixture of 32.2% cis9, trans11-C18:2 isomer and 67.8% trans10, cis12-C18:2 isomer. NCUL005 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, based on its cell morphology, characteristics of lactic acid production, and analysis result from Biolog Microbial Identification System (BMIS). PMID:19490332

  16. Reproducible Measurements of MPI Performance Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Gropp; Ewing L. Lusk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe the diculties inherent in making accurate, reproducible measurements of message-passing performance. We describe some of the mistakes often made in attempting such mea- surements and the consequences of such mistakes. We describe mpptest, a suite of performance measurement programs developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that attempts to avoid such mistakes and obtain reproducible measures of

  17. Reproducibility of Genucom knee analysis system testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall R. Wroble; Edward S. Grood; Frank R. Noyes; David J. Schmitt

    1990-01-01

    The Genucom knee analysis system was studied to determine the reproducibility of test results. In the first phase of the study we investigated the reproducibility of anterior\\/posterior stress tests at 30° and 90° of flexion and varus\\/valgus stress tests at 20° of flexion in 10 control subjects during three seatings on 3 sep arate days. In the second phase we

  18. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of ?-linolenic acid (GLA); however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11) isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w) cell dry weight (CDW). We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w) lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains. PMID:26046932

  19. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. PMID:23260272

  20. Laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements: physical properties and compressive strength of mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bouzoubaa; M. H. Zhang; A. Bilodeau; V. M. Malhotra

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the production of laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements. The effect of grinding of the Portland cement clinker, fly ash, and gypsum with or without a superplasticizer on the physical properties of the cements, and the compressive strength of the mortars made with the resulting blended cements, is discussed. The use of ground fly ash compared with

  1. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are frequently implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D-10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 individua...

  2. Can an optical plankton counter produce reasonable estimates of zooplankton abundance and biovolume in water with high detritus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhang; M. Roman; A. Sanford; H. Adolf; C. Lascara; R. Burgett

    2000-01-01

    The Optical Plankton Counter (OPC) has been used in oceanic and fresh waters to estimate zooplankton abundance and biovolume. However, it is not clear whether the OPC can produce accurate estimates of zooplankton abundance and biovolume in waters with high detritus. In order to test the capability of the OPC to estimate zooplankton abundance and biovolume in Chesapeake Bay, two

  3. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings per inch (.28 openings per centimeter)] and is used in conjunction with the press-piston head. Supporting equipment includes a soy-milk heat exchanger for maintaining selected coagulation temperatures, a filter system for separating okara from other particulate matter and from soy milk, two pumps, and various thermocouples, flowmeters, level indicators, pressure sensors, valves, tubes, and sample ports

  4. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Reproducibility of dynamically represented acoustic lung images from healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Maher, T M; Gat, M; Allen, D; Devaraj, A; Wells, A U; Geddes, D M

    2008-01-01

    Background and aim: Acoustic lung imaging offers a unique method for visualising the lung. This study was designed to demonstrate reproducibility of acoustic lung images recorded from healthy individuals at different time points and to assess intra- and inter-rater agreement in the assessment of dynamically represented acoustic lung images. Methods: Recordings from 29 healthy volunteers were made on three separate occasions using vibration response imaging. Reproducibility was measured using quantitative, computerised assessment of vibration energy. Dynamically represented acoustic lung images were scored by six blinded raters. Results: Quantitative measurement of acoustic recordings was highly reproducible with an intraclass correlation score of 0.86 (very good agreement). Intraclass correlations for inter-rater agreement and reproducibility were 0.61 (good agreement) and 0.86 (very good agreement), respectively. There was no significant difference found between the six raters at any time point. Raters ranged from 88% to 95% in their ability to identically evaluate the different features of the same image presented to them blinded on two separate occasions. Conclusion: Acoustic lung imaging is reproducible in healthy individuals. Graphic representation of lung images can be interpreted with a high degree of accuracy by the same and by different reviewers. PMID:18024534

  6. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    PubMed

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al. PMID:2308468

  7. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yongli

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaAS(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia, or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid to form the desired compound or a precursor that can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities, and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE systems. Ongoing research using the same apparatus suggests that photon or electron irradiation could be used to promote the reactions needed to produce the intended material.

  8. Nano-grained pure copper with high-strength and high-conductivity produced by equal channel angular rolling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asiyeh Habibi; Mostafa Ketabchi; Mohammad Eskandarzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Equal channel angular rolling, based on the equal channel angular pressing, is a severe plastic deformation process which can develop the grains below 1?m in diameter. Microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of commercial pure copper strips processed by equal channel angular rolling were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic micrographs of the strips produced by ten passes of equal channel angular

  9. Brucella abortus strain 2308 produces brucebactin, a highly efficient catecholic siderophore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel I. Gonza; J. Sangari; Juan M. Garci

    Brucella abortus is known to produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (2,3-DHBA) and to use this catechol as a siderophore to grow under iron-limited conditions. In this study a mutant (BAM41) is described that is deficient in siderophore production by insertion of Tn5 in the virulent B. abortus strain 2308. This mutant was unable to grow on iron-deprived medium and its growth could not

  10. High-intensity narrow light pulse produced by self-focusing in laser spark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Bakos

    1981-01-01

    The shape of the laser light pulse transmitted through the spark produced in air by the same light pulse is investigated. A single-mode and single-frequency ruby laser is used. A narrow spike, overriding the amplitude of the original light pulse, is observed in the transmitted light. The spike is explained as the result of self-focusing taking place in the plasma.

  11. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sameoto; C. Menon

    2009-01-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an

  12. A high-gain fusion-fission reactor for producing uranium-233

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-F. Su; G. L. Woodruff; N. J. McCormick

    1976-01-01

    The neutronics of several hybrid fission-fusion reactors were analyzed using a computational method based on the ANISN transport code (Engle, 1967) to develop a design capable of producing large quantities of U-233 while maintaining a tritium breeding ratio greater than unity. In the optimum design, an equilibrium concentration of Pu-239 and U-238 replaces thorium in a converter region, significantly increasing

  13. Highly ordered nanoscale patterns produced by masked ion bombardment of a moving solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Martin P.; Bradley, R. Mark

    2012-09-01

    We introduce a fabrication method in which a mask with a long, narrow slit is placed between the source of an ion beam and the surface of a solid moving with constant speed. Numerical simulations reveal the method can generate surface ripples and arrays of nanoholes that are virtually defect free. In contrast, the patterns produced by ion bombardment with a broad, unmasked beam are typically rife with defects.

  14. Measurements of the light flash produced by high velocity particle impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Eichhorn

    1975-01-01

    The impact light flash produced by electrostatically accelerated iron particles with diameters ranging from 5 to 0.05 micron and velocities lying between 1 km\\/sec and 30 km\\/sec has been investigated by means of photomultipliers. A target materials, mainly gold and tungsten were used. The pulse of the multiplier was registered directly and after electronic integration. The pulse height of the

  15. Optimisation of the Mixing Process for Producing Self-Compacting High-Performance Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Beitzel

    \\u000a Today’s concrete structures call for high-tech construction materials, for example self-compacting high-performance concrete\\u000a (SCHPC) as self-compacting high-strength concrete (SCHSC) and self-compacting ultra-high-strength concrete (SCUHSC). These\\u000a concretes are defined as concretes with special properties. This development aims to increase the packing density through\\u000a the selection of coarse and fine aggregates combined with a reduction in the water-to-binder ratio (w\\/b). To achieve

  16. Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)

  17. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2012-08-01

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6 %, which may be high enough to cause oxidative instability of the oil. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high oleic acid background to further reduce the linolenic acid content. As a result, soybean lines with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid (HOLL) content were produced using different sources of mutant FAD2-1A genes. While oleic acid content of these HOLL lines was stable across two testing environments, the reduction of linolenic acid content varied depending on the number of mutant FAD3 genes combined with mutant FAD2-1 genes, on the severity of mutation in the FAD2-1A gene, and on the testing environment. Combination of two mutant FAD2-1 genes and one mutant FAD3 gene resulted in less than 2 % linolenic acid content in Portageville, Missouri (MO) while four mutant genes were needed to achieve the same linolenic acid in Columbia, MO. This study generated non-transgenic soybeans with the highest oleic acid content and lowest linolenic acid content reported to date, offering a unique alternative to produce a fatty acid profile similar to olive oil. PMID:22476873

  18. Cold highly ionized ions: Comparison of energies of recoil ions produced by heavy ions and by synchrotron radiation x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.; Levin, J.C.; O, C.S.; Cederquist, H.; Elston, S.B.; Short, R.T.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1987-01-01

    The energies of highly excited, high-charge-state recoil ions produced by fast heavy-ion impact on target atoms (''hammer'' method) have been compared with the energies of similar-charge-state recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades subsequent to inner-shell photoabsorption of tuned synchrotron radiation x rays (''scalpel'' method). These comparisons show that the ''hammer'' method leads to recoil ion temperatures typically 4 orders of magnitude lower than those which occur in plasma sources in which ions of similar ionization and excitation states have comparable abundance, while the ''scalpel'' method leads to temperatures up to 6 orders of magnitude lower. Advantages and drawbacks of each method for potential precision spectroscopy of stored or trapped high charge state ions, and for production of extracted beams of low emittance for use in secondary ion-atom collision studies at eV to keV energies are discussed. 20 refs.

  19. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Leonard P.; Cockburn, Iain M.; Simcoe, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total) prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B)/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible—in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures. PMID:26057340

  20. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Leonard P; Cockburn, Iain M; Simcoe, Timothy S

    2015-06-01

    Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total) prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B)/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible-in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures. PMID:26057340

  1. High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  2. Isolation and characteristics analysis of a novel high bacterial cellulose producing strain Gluconacetobacter intermedius CIs26.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Jia, Jingjing; Xing, Jianrong; Chen, Jianbing; Lu, Shengmin

    2013-02-15

    A strain producing bacterial cellulose (BC) screened from rotten mandarin fruit was identified as Gluconacetobacter intermedius CIs26 by the examination of general taxonomical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum showed that pellicle produced by strain CIs26 was composed of glucan, and had the same functional group as a typical BC. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis indicated that the BC was type I in structure with crystallinity index of 75%. BC yields of strain CIs26 in Hestrin-Schramn (HS), citrus waste modified HS (CMHS) and citrus waste solution (CWS) mediums were 2.1 g/L, 5.7 g/L, and 7.2 g/L, respectively. It was shown that citrus waste could stimulate BC production of strain CIs26 efficiently. Based on the ability of utilization of citrus waste, this strain appeared to have potential in BC manufacture on an industrial scale. PMID:23399252

  3. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  4. Measuring user innovation in Dutch high tech SMEs: Frequency, nature and transfer to producers

    E-print Network

    de Jong, Jeroen P.J.

    2009-02-27

    A detailed survey of 498 “high tech” SMEs in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty four percent of these relatively small firms reported developing entirely novel process ...

  5. Experience in producing gasoline and diesel fuel from high-sulfur crudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Bugai; T. I. Selivanov; M. I. Akhmetshin; A. E. D'yachenko; A. A. Mironov; V. I. Nikulik

    1966-01-01

    1.Possibility was shown for obtaining commercial diesel fuel with sulfur content up to 1% from high-sulfur crudes by means of treating heavy high-sulfur diesel fractions in the 43–102 unit operating under conditions of destructive adsorption desulfurization (390–420°C temperature in the reactor center, charging stock velocity 1.2–1.8\\/h) and subsequently blending them with straight-run light diesel components.2.The cost of diesel fuel with

  6. Reproducibility and uncertainty of wastewater turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Joannis, C; Ruban, G; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G; Bertrand-Krajewski, J-L; Joannis, C; Ruban, G

    2008-01-01

    Turbidity monitoring is a valuable tool for operating sewer systems, but it is often considered as a somewhat tricky parameter for assessing water quality, because measured values depend on the model of sensor, and even on the operator. This paper details the main components of the uncertainty in turbidity measurements with a special focus on reproducibility, and provides guidelines for improving the reproducibility of measurements in wastewater relying on proper calibration procedures. Calibration appears to be the main source of uncertainties, and proper procedures must account for uncertainties in standard solutions as well as non linearity of the calibration curve. With such procedures, uncertainty and reproducibility of field measurement can be kept lower than 5% or 25 FAU. On the other hand, reproducibility has no meaning if different measuring principles (attenuation vs. nephelometry) or very different wavelengths are used. PMID:18520026

  7. Producing Persistent, High-Current, High-Duty-Factor H- Beams for Routine 1 MW Operation of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, SNS has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ~50 mA H- ions from the ion source with a ~5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ~3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ~170 C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H- beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 C.

  8. Quantitative measurement of hard x-ray spectra for high intensity laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Nishimura, H.; Namimoto, T.; Fujioka, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Hosoda, H.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishikino, M.; Kawachi, T.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Ogura, K.; Pirozhkov, A.; Yogo, A.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Okano, Y. [Laser Research Center for Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, National Institute of Natural Science 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Pioneering Research Unit for Next Generation, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    X-ray line spectra ranging from 17 to 77 keV were quantitatively measured with a Laue spectrometer, composed of a cylindrically curved crystal and a detector. Either a visible CCD detector coupled with a CsI phosphor screen or an imaging plate can be chosen, depending on the signal intensities and exposure times. The absolute sensitivity of the spectrometer system was calibrated using pre-characterized laser-produced x-ray sources and radioisotopes. The integrated reflectivity for the crystal is in good agreement with predictions by an open code for x-ray diffraction. The energy transfer efficiency from incident laser beams to hot electrons, as the energy transfer agency for specific x-ray line emissions, is derived as a consequence of this work.

  9. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gao, Yongli [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1991-12-31

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on MBE grown GaAs(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid form the desired compound or a precursor than can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE-systems and on going research using the same apparatus suggests than photon or electron irradiation could also be used to promote the reactions needed to give the intended material.

  10. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Gao, Yongli (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on MBE grown GaAs(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid form the desired compound or a precursor than can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE-systems and on going research using the same apparatus suggests than photon or electron irradiation could also be used to promote the reactions needed to give the intended material.

  11. Optimal Seeding of Self-Reproducing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amor A. Menezes; Pierre T. Kabamba

    2011-01-01

    This article is motivated by the need to minimize the number of elements required to establish a self-reproducing system. One such system is a self-reproducing extraterrestrial robotic colony, which reduces the launch payload mass for space exploration compared to current mission configurations. In this work, self-reproduction is achieved by the actions of a robot on available resources. An important consideration

  12. A review of research and methods for producing high-consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Dalton, L.; Peercy, D.; Pollock, G.; Sicking, C.

    1994-12-31

    The development of software for use in high-consequence systems mandates rigorous (formal) processes, methods, and techniques to improve the safety characteristics of those systems. This paper provides a brief overview of current research and practices in high-consequence software, including applied design methods. Some of the practices that are discussed include: fault tree analysis, failure mode effects analysis, petri nets, both hardware and software interlocks, n-version programming, Independent Vulnerability Analyses, and watchdogs. Techniques that offer improvement in the dependability of software in high-consequence systems applications are identified and discussed. Limitations of these techniques are also explored. Research in formal methods, the cleanroom process, and reliability models are reviewed. In addition, current work by several leading researchers as well as approaches being used by leading practitioners are examined.

  13. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs. PMID:25745256

  14. High precision Penning trap mass spectrometry of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Anna; Bachelet, C.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Campbell, C. M.; Ferrer, R.; Guenaut, C.; Lincoln, D.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A. M.; Ringle, R.; Savory, J.; Schwarz, S.; Block, M.; Schury, P.; Folden, C. M., III; Melconian, D.; Sjue, S. K. J.

    2009-10-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility combines high precision Penning trap mass spectrometry with fast beam projectile fragmentation and high pressure gas stopping techniques. Advanced ion manipulation, such as high efficiency continuous mass selection in an ion-guide and radio-frequency ion accumulation and bunching, are used to purify, cool, and pulse the beam. Recent mass measurements include ^63-66Fe, ^66As, and ^32Si. The neutron-rich iron isotopes access the N = 40 subshell closure. The new significantly lower mass uncertainty makes ^66As a candidate to test the CVC hypothesis. ^32Si, member of the A = 32, T = 2 quintet, provides the most precise test of the isobaric multiplet mass equation . An overview of the various aspects of ion manipulation and some of the resulting measurements will be presented.

  15. Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kameyama, Ikuya

    1997-01-01

    Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.

  16. A Tetracycline-regulated Cell Line Produces High-titer Lentiviral Vectors that Specifically Target Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Paul D.; Zhang, Chupei; Lee, Chi-Lin; Wang, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are a powerful means of delivering genetic material to many types of cells. Because of safety concerns associated with these HIV-1 derived vectors, producing large quantities of LVs is challenging. In this paper, we report a method for producing high titers of self-inactivating LVs. We retrovirally transduce the tet-off stable producer cell line GPR to generate a cell line, GPRS, which can express all the viral components, including a dendritic cell-specific glycoprotein, SVGmu. Then, we use concatemeric DNA transfection to transfect the LV transfer plasmid encoding a reporter gene GFP in combination with a selectable marker. Several of the resulting clones can produce LV at a titer 10-fold greater than what we achieve with transient transfection. Plus, these viruses efficiently transduce dendritic cells in vitro and generate a strong T cell immune response to our reporter antigen. This method may be a good option for producing strong LV-based vaccines for clinical studies of cancer or infectious diseases. PMID:23851977

  17. The magnitude of variability produced by methods used to estimate annual stormwater contaminant loads for highly urbanised catchments.

    PubMed

    Beck, H J; Birch, G F

    2013-06-01

    Stormwater contaminant loading estimates using event mean concentration (EMC), rainfall/runoff relationship calculations and computer modelling (Model of Urban Stormwater Infrastructure Conceptualisation--MUSIC) demonstrated high variability in common methods of water quality assessment. Predictions of metal, nutrient and total suspended solid loadings for three highly urbanised catchments in Sydney estuary, Australia, varied greatly within and amongst methods tested. EMC and rainfall/runoff relationship calculations produced similar estimates (within 1 SD) in a statistically significant number of trials; however, considerable variability within estimates (?50 and ?25 % relative standard deviation, respectively) questions the reliability of these methods. Likewise, upper and lower default inputs in a commonly used loading model (MUSIC) produced an extensive range of loading estimates (3.8-8.3 times above and 2.6-4.1 times below typical default inputs, respectively). Default and calibrated MUSIC simulations produced loading estimates that agreed with EMC and rainfall/runoff calculations in some trials (4-10 from 18); however, they were not frequent enough to statistically infer that these methods produced the same results. Great variance within and amongst mean annual loads estimated by common methods of water quality assessment has important ramifications for water quality managers requiring accurate estimates of the quantities and nature of contaminants requiring treatment. PMID:23064853

  18. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  19. Dynamics of laser-produced Sn microplasma for a high-brightness extreme ultraviolet light source

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    materials, both solid targets and puff gas targets, for probing and surface metrology at other soft x-ray ultraviolet EUV light for next generation high vol- ume manufacturing HVM lithography of semiconductor to detect defects embedded between layers known as phase defects.3 Currently, metrology work has been per

  20. Mechanisms and Predictors of Insulator Degradation and Erosion Produced by Pulsed High-Current Surface Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Engel; Magne Kristiansen

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms and predictors of insulator degradation and erosion by pulsed high-current surface discharges are presented and discussed. Erosion and degradation depend on the insulator material, the electrode material, the ambient gas, and the presence of UV stabilizers in, or on the surface of, the insulator. Insulator degradation is the result of material decomposition into conductive metal or carbon species

  1. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  2. Case Study: Louvered Screen Produces High Efficiency Boreholes for Mine Dewatering - Sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Each dewatering borehole within a dewatering system is designed to accommodate a dedicated pump whose capacity may be several thousand cubic meters of water per day. A typical network of dewatering boreholes (i.e. wellfield) is designed to operate continuously 24 hours-per day without interruption. Its demands for power or fuel are often high, particularly when the efficiencies of the boreholes

  3. Attitudinal Variability Among Southern High Plains Cotton Producers Toward Integrated Crop\\/Livestock Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Kistler; Kelly J. Jones; Matt T. Baker; David L. Doerfert

    Sustainable agriculture is important for farmers nationwide, and especially farmers in the Texas Southern High Plains. Studies conducted in the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program stress the need for sustainable agriculture; however, if agriculture is to move towards sustainability, sustainable practices must be adopted. Integrated crop\\/livestock systems were used as an indicator of sustainable behavior. Q methodology was utilized

  4. Glass-ceramic produced from a municipal waste incinerator fly ash with high Cl content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Myung Kim; Hyung-Sun Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study is concerned with recycling waste materials, focusing on the development of a glass-ceramic from Korean incinerator fly ash with a high Cl content, and the evaluation of its physical properties. In the process, water washing as a pre-treatment before melting the fly ash was used to remove the large amount of Cl in the ash, and to reduce

  5. Increasing Cottonseed Utilization Through Breeding and Genetic Engineering to Produce High Levels of (+)-Gossypol in Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is composed of ~22.5% of high quality protein. The estimate of world cottonseed production for 2006 is over 42.5 million metric tons (National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, 2005), which translates to an estimated 9.56 million metric tons of protein available for use as a food/fe...

  6. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations of the peas and oats were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them...

  7. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity, and sorting behavior were similar among treatments. Ruminal in situ starch digestibility was greater for SHRD than KP forages, and total-tract dietary starch digestibility was greater for SHRD than KP. Milk yield and starch digestibility were greater for SHRD than KP. Lack of improvement in milk fat content and rumination activity for SHRD compared with KP and reduced milk fat content for SHRD compared with KPH, however, suggest no improvement in physically effective fiber from the longer theoretical length of cut used with SHRD in a BMR hybrid. PMID:26026754

  8. The development of a cyclonic combustor for high particulate, low caloric value gas produced by a fluidized bed 

    E-print Network

    Cardenas, Manuel Moises

    1985-01-01

    the combustion of a low caloric value (LCV) and high particulate gas. Performance tests were conducted to verify the cyclone combustor design flexibility by identifying satisfactory performance characteristics. The LCV gas was produced from the gasification... technologies. It was eventually decided to study fluidized bed (FB) energy conversion technology and an experimental facility was designed and constructed. Both combustion and gasification operating modes were investigated with the conclusion...

  9. High-strain-rate superplasticity at low temperature in a ZK61 magnesium alloy produced by powder metallurgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Watanabe; Toshiji Mukai; Mamoru Mabuchi; Kenji Higashi

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, superplastic behavior of a pseudo single phase magnesium alloy, ZK61, was investigated at about half the absolute melting point. The material was produced by the P\\/M route, and had a fine grain size of [approximately]500 nm. It is demonstrated that the P\\/M ZK61 alloy can behave in a superplastic manner at a high strain rate of

  10. Dry sliding wear behaviour of nickel aluminides coatings produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sierra; A. J. Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Nickel aluminides coatings have been produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis using concentrated solar energy, with nickel composition of coatings ranging from 45 to 75at.%. The dry sliding wear behaviour of coatings has been performed in a pin-on-disk tribometer. NiAl coatings (50at.% Ni) have been tested against Al2O3 and WC–Co balls, while other coatings have been tested against Al2O3 balls. In

  11. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Kafi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Amin Tamadon; Mehdi Saeb

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4

  12. Local bioprospecting for high-lipid producing microalgal strains to be grown on concentrated municipal wastewater for biofuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenguang Zhou; Yecong Li; Min Min; Bing Hu; Paul Chen; Roger Ruan

    2011-01-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production depends heavily on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study, 60 algae-like microorganisms collected from different sampling sites in Minnesota were examined using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures to select high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strains capable of growing on concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) for simultaneous energy crop production and

  13. Effect of Crude Protein on Reproductive Efficiency, Serum Total Protein, and Albumin in the High-Producing Dairy Cow1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Jordan; L. V. Swanson

    1979-01-01

    Forty-five high-producing dairy cows were assigned randomly in equal numbers and fed one of three isocaloric rations of 12.7, 16.3, or 19.3% crude protein starting at 4 days postpartum and con- tinuing for 91 days. The 19.3% group had fewer days to first observed estrus (27 days) than the 16.3 and 12.7% groups (41 days). The 12.7 and 16.3% groups

  14. Ultra-low emittance, high current proton beams produced with a laser-virtual cathode sheath accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Cowan; J. Fuchs; H. Ruhl; Y. Sentoku; A. Kemp; P. Audebert; M. Roth; R. Stephens; I. Barton; A. Blazevic; E. Brambrink; J. Cobble; J. C. Fernández; J.-C. Gauthier; M. Geissel; M. Hegelich; J. Kaae; S. Karsch; G. P. Le Sage; S. Letzring; M. Manclossi; S. Meyroneinc; A. Newkirk; H. Pépin; N. Renard-Legalloudec

    2005-01-01

    The laminarity of high current multi-MeV proton beams produced by irradiating thin metallic foils with ultra-intense lasers has been measured. For proton energies >10MeV, the transverse and longitudinal emittance are, respectively, <0.004mmmrad and <10?4eVs, i.e. at least 100-fold and may be as much as 104-fold better than conventional accelerators beams. The ion beam source size is measured to be <15?m

  15. Deep oxidation of methane using catalysts and carriers produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Xanthopoulou; G Vekinis

    2000-01-01

    The self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method has been used to produce a range of oxide catalysts which have been found to be active for deep oxidation of methane. The SHS materials studied include various compositions based on the systems Al–Mn–Mg–O, Mg–Cr–O, Mg–Al–O, Mg–Cr–Al–O and Cu–Cr–O with and without the addition of Cerium oxide and an epoxide additive. Specific compositions of

  16. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  17. Nanoscale TiB2-dispersed Cu-matrix composite produced by a high-energy milling and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina Dudina; Dae-Hwan Kwon; Khoa Xuan Huynh; Thuy Dang Nguyen; Ji-Soon Kim; Young-Soon Kwon

    2005-01-01

    Nanocomposite Cu-TiB2 powder was in situ synthesized by means of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using high-energy ball milled Ti-B-Cu elemental mixtures as powder precursors. The effect of the preliminary mechanical treatment on the SHS reaction was studied. The size of TiB2 particles produced by SHS was shown to decrease with increasing duration of the preliminary mechanical treatment. Subsequent mechanical treatment

  18. Quantified high-throughput screening of Escherichia coli producing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) based on FACS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yim, Sung Sun; Kang, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Si Jae; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2013-08-01

    Here, we report on a highly sensitive method for the detection of P(3HB) accumulation in Escherichia coli cells based on the automated flow cytometry system using fluorescent dyes. E. coli containing P(3HB) were stained with either BODIPY or Nile red fluorescent dye, and their staining properties were analyzed under a variety of conditions. Compared with Nile red, BODIPY was much more sensitive in staining P(3HB) and overall demonstrated a more rapid staining of cells, a greater resistance to photobleaching, and greater cell viability. In addition, we also successfully monitored heterogeneity in P(3HB) accumulation within a cell population using BODIPY staining and flow cytometry. We believe this optimized staining method using BODIPY in combination with screening by high-speed flow cytometer will be helpful in the engineering of host cells toward an enhanced production of bioplastics. PMID:23740474

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic screening of chlorophyll derivatives produced during fruit storage.

    PubMed

    Almela, L; Fernández-López, J A; Roca, M J

    2000-02-18

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection was applied to the systematic screening of chlorophylls and derivative pigments. The chromatographic procedure proposed made it possible to successfully separate and identify eight chlorophyll derivatives (the a and b forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyllide, pheophytin and pheophorbide) by using a linear gradient of methanol, acetone and ammonium acetate. The method has been routinely applied to study chlorophyll degradation during the postharvest storage of cherimoya (Annona cherimola, Mill.) fruits. The brilliant green colour even at maturity, and its high chlorophyllase and Mg-dechelating activities, indicate that this plant material might be suitable for investigating the as yet not well known chlorophyll breakdown processes. PMID:10722106

  20. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods. PMID:25521615

  1. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mangler; C. Gammer; H. P. Karnthaler; C. Rentenberger

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220°C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the

  2. Direct Observation of Beam Bunching Produced by a High Power Microwave Free-Electron Laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gardelle; J. Labrouche; J. L. Rullier

    1996-01-01

    In this Letter we present a direct measurement of beam bunching by a high power free-electron laser (FEL). An induction linac delivered a 1 kA, 2.2 MeV electron beam to a FEL in which a 35 GHz input signal was amplified to power levels of the order of 10 MW. Measurements using both electronic and optical techniques were performed at

  3. High-Oleic Peanut Oils Produced by HpRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing of Oleate Desaturase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongmei Yin; Shizheng Deng; Kehui Zhan; Dangqun Cui

    2007-01-01

    The quality of peanut oil largely depends on the quantity of oleic (18:1) and linoleic acids (18:2). These two acids comprise\\u000a more than 80% of the total fatty acids in peanuts. The oleate desaturase (FAD2) gene is important for maintaining high oleic acid content. A partial conservative sequence of the FAD2 gene from peanut was selected. The sense and antisense

  4. Milk Response to Concentrate Supplementation of High Producing Dairy Cows Grazing at Two Pasture Allowances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bargo; L. D. Muller; J. E. Delahoy; T. W. Cassidy

    2002-01-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated)infive4 ×4Latinsquareswith21-dperiods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplemen- tation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter\\/cow per day) and two concentrate supple- mentation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate\\/4

  5. High-resolution measurement of phase singularities produced by computer-generated holograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Rockstuhl; Andrey Albert Ivanovskyy; Marat Samuil Soskin; Martin Guy Salt; Hans Peter Herzig; Rene Dändliker

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements of the intensity as well as the phase distribution in the various diffraction orders of computer-generated holograms designed to generate a higher order Gauss–Laguerre beam. For the direct measurement of the phase distribution in the diffraction orders a high-resolution interferometer is used, which allows access to a lateral length scale for the localization of phase singularities below

  6. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  7. Characteristics of High-Intensity Laser Produced Proton Beams From a Thin-Film Target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teh Lin; Kirk Flippo; Vina Wong; Mathew Rever; Kelly Nash; Anatoly Maksimchuk; Donald Umstadter

    2003-01-01

    We report on the dependence of high-intensity laser accelerated proton beams on material properties of various thin-film targets. Evidence of star-like filaments [1] and beam hollowing (predicted from the electrothermal instability theory [2]) is observed on Radiochromic Film (RCF) and CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The proton beam profile also varies with initial target conductivity and target thickness. These phenomenona are

  8. A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine.

    PubMed

    Oskuee, Reza Kazemi; Dosti, Fatemeh; Gholami, Leila; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. PMID:25686952

  9. Culture of a high-chlorophyll-producing and halotolerant Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Deuchi, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    In order to increase the value of freshwater algae as raw ingredients for health foods and feed for seawater-based farmed fish, we sought to breed high-chlorophyll halotolerant Chlorella with the objective of generating strains with both high chlorophyll concentrations (? 5%) and halotolerance (up to 1% NaCl). We used the Chlorella vulgaris K strain in our research institute culture collection and induced mutations with UV irradiation and acriflavine which is known to effect mutations of mitochondrial DNA that are associated with chlorophyll production. Screenings were conducted on seawater-based "For Chlorella spp." (FC) agar medium, and dark-green-colored colonies were visually selected by macroscopic inspection. We obtained a high-chlorophyll halotolerant strain (designated C. vulgaris M-207A7) that had a chlorophyll concentration of 6.7% (d.m.), a level at least three-fold higher than that of K strain. This isolate also exhibited a greater survival rate in seawater that of K strain. PMID:24331982

  10. Development of Compton radiography using high-Z backlighters produced by ultra-intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Park, Hye-Sook; Patel, Prav; Maddox, Brian; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hatchett, Stephen P.; Remington, Bruce A.; Key, Michael H.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Tabak, Max; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Landen, Otto L.; Hey, Dan; MacKinnon, Andy; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry; Szabo, Csilla

    2007-08-01

    High-energy x-ray backlighters will be valuable for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and for radiography of imploded inertial confinement fusion cores using Compton scattering to observe cold, dense plasma. Key considerations are the available backlight brightness, and the backlight size. To quantify these parameters we have characterized the emission from low- and high-Z planar foils irradiated by intense picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses from the TITAN laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Spectra generated by a sequence of elements from Mo to Pb, spanning the x-ray energy range from 17 keV to 75 keV, have been recorded using a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) in single hit regime and a Dual Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). High-resolution point-projection 2D radiographs have also been recorded on Fuji BaFBr:Eu2 image plates using calibrated resolution grids. We discuss the results in light of the requirements for applications at NIF.

  11. Thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil to produce high yield high surface area SiC nanorods.

    PubMed

    Pol, V G; Pol, S V; Gedanken, A; Lim, S H; Zhong, Z; Lin, J

    2006-06-15

    This article reports on the synthesis of high surface area (563m2/g) beta-SiC nanorods by thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil at a relatively low reaction temperature (800 degrees C) in a closed Swagelok cell. High yield (75%) of SiC nanorods are obtained in this one-stage, solvent-, catalyst-, and template-free synthesis technique that runs at a relative low temperature and employs cheap single-precursor. The morphological (TEM, HR-SEM), compositional (CHNS, EDX, SAEDX]), structural (XRD, HR-TEM, and ED), thermal (TGA) characterizations and surface area analysis are carried out for the obtained SiC nanorods. The possibility of hydrogen storage in this high surface area nano-SiC rods are also tested and reported for the first time. PMID:16771390

  12. On the use of ICE/SAT Lidar Space-Born Observations to Evaluate the Ability of MM5 Meso-Scale Model to Reproduce High Altitude Clouds Over Europe in Fall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P.; Yang, K.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L.; Stehr, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS/Aura offers unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, coupled with global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Publicly released SO2 pollution data are processed with the Band Residual Difference (BRD) algorithm that uses calibrated residuals at SO2 absorption band centers produced by the NASA operational ozone algorithm (OMTO3). By using optimum wavelengths for retrieval of SO2, the retrieval sensitivity is improved over NASA predecessor Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by factors of 10 to 20, depending on location. The ground footprint of OMI is 8 times smaller than TOMS. These factors produce a two orders of magnitude improvement in the minimum detectable mass of SO2. The improved sensitivity now permits daily global measurement of heavy anthropogenic SO2 pollution. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions have been measured by OMI over known sources of air pollution, such as eastern China, Eastern Europe, and from individual copper smelters in South America and elsewhere. Here we present data from a case study conducted over Shenyang in NE China as part of EAST-AIRE in April 2005. SO2 observations from instrumented aircraft flights are compared with OMI SO2 maps. The OMI SO2 algorithm was improved to account for the known altitude profile of SO2, and the comparison demonstrates that this algorithm can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. Between 5 and 7 April 2005 a cold front traveled from continental China, over Korea and on to the Sea of Japan. The satellite-derived measurements of SO2 confirm the in situ aircraft observations of high concentrations of SO2 (ca 4 DU) ahead of the front and lower concentrations behind it and provide evidence for a large-scale impact of pollutant emissions. The BRD algorithm sensitivity does not represent the maximum sensitivity theoretically achievable with OMI, and hence future improvements in instrument calibration and the algorithm should allow even weaker SO2 sources to be monitored routinely. Such measurements are essential given the growing concern over the effects of anthropogenically-forced climate change and intercontinental transport of air pollution. http://www.knmi.nl/omi/research/product/so2/introduction.html

  13. Observations on combustion front propagation in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis process producing refractory ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Ho Park; Tae-Sung Kang; Sang Hwan Kim

    2002-01-01

    High-temperature refractory ceramics can be produced in the combustion regime by using self-propagating, high-temperature\\u000a synthesis (SHS) processes. The numerical simulation of the SHS process in a simplified diffusion-reaction system is investigated.\\u000a The SHS process is simplified by the one- and two-dimensional pseudo-homoge-neous environment. The stiff equations of the\\u000a SHS process are solved by using finite difference methods on two-dimensional adaptive

  14. Influence of the chemical composition of titanium carbide on the high-temperature properties of cemented carbides produced by impregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaripov, N.G.; Bloshenko, V.N.; Kabirov, R.R. [Institute of Structural Macrokinetics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    One of the main problems encountered in development of cemented carbides is obtaining the optimum combination of hardness, wear resistance, high-temperature strength, and heat resistance with toughness of the material. Frequently it is solved by creation of a structure in which each refractory particle is surrounded by a layer of binder metal. Methods of liquid-phase sintering and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with subsequent strong compacting of the reaction products may be used for this purpose. The properties of materials produced by this method are determined primarily by the properties of the metal binder.

  15. High-stearic and High-oleic cottonseed oils produced by hairpin RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2002-08-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Delta 9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine omega 6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  16. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material investigated, allows a much simplified and therefore cost-effective mask fabrication. The fabrication procedure for these masks is identical to Direct-write procedures allowing the application of the research generated for this scheme to the Gray-Scale mask fabrication. Using these types of masks in reduction stepper systems will allow a high-quality mass fabrication of DOEs at a low cost.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure and UV light treatment of produce contaminated with Eimeria acervulina as a Cyclospora cayetanensis surrogate.

    PubMed

    Kniel, Kalmia E; Shearer, Adrienne E H; Cascarino, Jennifer L; Wilkins, Gary C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence, size, genome, and life cycle of Eimeria acervulina make this organism a good surrogate for Cyclospora cayetanensis, a protozoan that causes gastroenteritis in humans, including recent outbreaks in the United States and Canada associated with contaminated raspberries and basil. Laboratory studies of C. cayetanensis are difficult because of the lack of readily available oocysts and of infection models and assays. UV radiation and high-hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP) are both safe technologies with potential for use on fresh produce. Raspberries and basil were inoculated with sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at high (10(6) oocysts) and low (10(4) oocysts) levels, and inoculated and control produce were treated with UV (up to 261 mW/cm2) or HPP (550 MPa at 40 degrees C for 2 min). Oocysts recovered from produce were fed to 3-week-old broiler chickens, which were scored for weight gain, oocyst shedding, and lesions at 6 days postinoculation. Oocysts exhibited enhanced excystation on raspberries but not on basil. Birds fed oocysts from UV-treated raspberries had reduced infection rates, which varied with oocyst inoculum level and UV intensity. Birds fed oocysts from UV-treated raspberries (10(4) oocysts) were asymptomatic but shed oocysts, and birds fed oocysts from UV-treated basil (10(4) oocysts) were asymptomatic and did not shed oocysts. Birds fed oocysts from HPP-treated raspberries and basil were asymptomatic and did not shed oocysts. These results suggest that UV radiation and HPP may be used to reduce the risk for cyclosporiasis infection associated with produce. Both treatments yielded healthy animals; however, HPP was more effective, as indicated by results for produce with higher contamination levels. PMID:18095439

  18. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  19. High resolution TEM studies of carbon nanotubes produced by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. H.; Aguilar-Elguézabal, A.; Alonso, G.

    2006-10-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were grown inside a quartz tube by spray pyrolysis of ferrocene/benzene under gas flow. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used in order to analyze the samples. The main features observed were huge nanotubes of the order of 250 ?m and few nm wide capped at one end. Moreover, onion-like structures were also observed on different regions of the sample. Furthermore, it is good to stress that most of the carbon nanotubes showed filamentary formation although capricious sausage-like structures were also observed with iron particles inside the tubules.

  20. Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

  1. First experiment on fission transients in highly fissile spherical nuclei produced by fragmentation of radioactive beams

    E-print Network

    C. Schmitt; P. N. Nadtochy; A. Heinz; B. Jurado; A. Kelic; K. -H. Schmidt

    2007-02-12

    We report on a novel experimental approach for studying the dissipative spreading of collective motion in a meta-stable nuclear system, using, for the first time, highly fissile nuclei with spherical shape. This was achieved by fragmentation of 45 radioactive heavy-ion beams at GSI, Darmstadt. The use of inverse kinematics and a dedicated experimental set-up allowed for the identification in atomic number of both fission fragments. From the width of their charge distributions, a transient time of (3.3 +/- 0.7) 10-21 s is deduced for initially spherical nuclei.

  2. Strength and high fatigue properties of ultrafine-grained titanium rods produced by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. P.

    2010-09-01

    The formation of an ultrafine-grained structure (UFGS) in titanium by severe plastic deformation significantly increases its mechanical properties, among them fatigue strength. In this work, high mechanical properties of titanium long rods are achieved using a combination of equal-channel angular pressing and subsequent thermal and thermomechanical treatment. The formation of a homogeneous UFGS in a rod of commercial titanium is found to increase the fatigue limit by a factor of about 1.5. Moreover, the fatigue strength of UFGS titanium estimated on notched specimens is higher than that of coarse-grained titanium, which is important for its structural application in medicine.

  3. Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy produces faithful high-resolution images of protein surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, C; Allen, M; Elings, V; Engel, A; Müller, D J

    1999-01-01

    Compared to contact-mode atomic force microscopy (CMAFM), tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) has the advantage of allowing imaging surfaces of macromolecules, even when they are only weakly attached to the support. In this study, TMAFM is applied to two different regular protein layers whose structures are known to great detail, the purple membrane from Halobacterium salinarum and the hexagonally packed intermediate (HPI) layer from Deinococcus radiodurans, to assess the faithfulness of high-resolution TMAFM images. Topographs exhibited a lateral resolution between 1.1 and 1. 5 nm and a vertical resolution of approximately 0.1 nm. For all protein surfaces, TMAFM and CMAFM topographs were in excellent agreement. TMAFM was capable of imaging the fragile polypeptide loop connecting the transmembrane alpha-helices E and F of bacteriorhodopsin in its native extended conformation. The standard deviation (SD) of averages calculated from TMAFM topographs exhibited an enhanced minimum (between 0.1 and 0.9 nm) that can be assigned to the higher noise of the raw data. However, the SD difference, indicating the flexibility of protein subunits, exhibited an excellent agreement between the two imaging modes. This demonstrates that the recently invented imaging-mode TMAFM has the ability to faithfully record high-resolution images and has sufficient sensitivity to contour individual peptide loops without detectable deformations. PMID:10423460

  4. The effect of vessel material on granules produced in a high-shear mixer.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Anneke M; Visser, Marinella R; Eissens, Anko C; Wesselingh, Johannes A; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2004-10-01

    In this study the effect of different vessel wall materials on the granule size distributions obtained during high-shear granulation of different materials is investigated. The distributions obtained in glass and stainless steel vessels differ from those obtained in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) vessels. The high contact angle of PMMA forces all liquid immediately into the more easily wetted powder bed. In this vessel a fast liquid absorbing powder nucleates in the droplet controlled regime, leading to a narrow particle size distribution. In a vessel with a low contact angle (glass or stainless steel) a liquid layer can be formed on the wall surface. This liquid causes an inhomogeneous distribution of liquid over the powder bed; a broader granule size distribution is the result. With a powder that slowly absorbs liquid, local overwet areas can be created, resulting in large granules. This results in broader granule size distributions as well. In conclusion; the contact angle of the vessel material and the wetting rate of the powder used determine the granule growth process and the resulting granule size distribution. PMID:15451005

  5. Using Plasma-Activated High Performance Fibers with Nanocrystalline Structure in Producing New Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, V.; Korneeva, N.

    2008-08-01

    A wet-pull-out method for investigation of interaction between the high performance polyethylene (HPPE) fiber and polymer matrix is discussed. The paper concerns a cold plasma technique for improving the bond of the HPPE fibers to the matrices and the fibers impregnation with the matrix. Controlled parameters are pull-out force and the height of the matrix capillary lifting along the fiber both in air and in vacuum, in combination with plasma activation of the fibers. The method allows one to estimate the wetting and impregnation of multi-filament fiber with the matrix and simultaneously measure the joint strength. Coupled action of plasma treatment and vacuum impregnation of the fibers improves the joint strength by a factor of 3. Plasma activated HPPE fibers impregnated in air show the value of shear strength ? of 4 Kg/mm2. To understand the effect of treatment initial and plasma-activated fibers were used to fabricate composite materials (CM). The properties and failure modes were compared to those of CM reinforced with untreated fibers. The failure mode of CM reinforced with plasma-activated fibers points to a high strength of the bond between the fibers and the matrix.

  6. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the ?Reproducible Research Standard? (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  7. Relevance relations for the concept of reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Atmanspacher, H.; Bezzola Lambert, L.; Folkers, G.; Schubiger, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reproducibility is widely considered a cornerstone of scientific methodology. However, recent problems with the reproducibility of empirical results in large-scale systems and in biomedical research have cast doubts on its universal and rigid applicability beyond the so-called basic sciences. Reproducibility is a particularly difficult issue in interdisciplinary work where the results to be reproduced typically refer to different levels of description of the system considered. In such cases, it is mandatory to distinguish between more and less relevant features, attributes or observables of the system, depending on the level at which they are described. For this reason, we propose a scheme for a general ‘relation of relevance’ between the level of complexity at which a system is considered and the granularity of its description. This relation implies relevance criteria for particular selected aspects of a system and its description, which can be operationally implemented by an interlevel relation called ‘contextual emergence’. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels and thus construct level-specific criteria for reproducibility in an overall consistent fashion. Relevance relations merged with contextual emergence challenge the old idea of one fundamental ontology from which everything else derives. At the same time, our proposal is specific enough to resist the backlash into a relativist patchwork of unconnected model fragments. PMID:24554574

  8. Reproducibility responsibilities in the HPC arena

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; McLay, Robert [Texas Advanced Computing Center

    2014-01-01

    Expecting bit-for-bit reproducibility in the HPC arena is not feasible because of the ever changing hardware and software. No user s application is an island; it lives in an HPC eco-system that changes over time. Old hardware stops working and even old software won t run on new hardware. Further, software libraries change over time either by changing the internals or even interfaces. So bit-for-bit reproducibility should not be expected. Rather a reasonable expectation is that results are reproducible within error bounds; or that the answers are close (which is its own debate.) To expect a researcher to reproduce their own results or the results of others within some error bounds, there must be enough information to recreate all the details of the experiment. This requires complete documentation of all phases of the researcher s workflow; from code to versioning to programming and runtime environments to publishing of data. This argument is the core statement of the Yale 2009 Declaration on Reproducible Research [1]. Although the HPC ecosystem is often outside the researchers control, the application code could be built almost identically and there is a chance for very similar results with just only round-off error differences. To achieve complete documentation at every step, the researcher, the computing center, and the funding agencies all have a role. In this thesis, the role of the researcher is expanded upon as compared to the Yale report and the role of the computing centers is described.

  9. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  10. High-efficiency homologous recombination in the oil-producing alga Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Oliver; Benemann, Christina S. E.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Vick, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Algae have reemerged as potential next-generation feedstocks for biofuels, but strain improvement and progress in algal biology research have been limited by the lack of advanced molecular tools for most eukaryotic microalgae. Here we describe the development of an efficient transformation method for Nannochloropsis sp., a fast-growing, unicellular alga capable of accumulating large amounts of oil. Moreover, we provide additional evidence that Nannochloropsis is haploid, and we demonstrate that insertion of transformation constructs into the nuclear genome can occur by high-efficiency homologous recombination. As examples, we generated knockouts of the genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, resulting in strains that were unable to grow on nitrate and nitrate/nitrite, respectively. The application of homologous recombination in this industrially relevant alga has the potential to rapidly advance algal functional genomics and biotechnology. PMID:22123974

  11. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  12. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  13. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    PubMed Central

    Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  14. Application of x-ray-laser interferometry to study high-density laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; Libby, S. B.; London, R. A.; Moreno, J. C.; Trebes, J. E.; Weber, F.

    1996-02-01

    Collisionally pumped soft-x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 4 to 40 nm. With the recent advances in the development of multilayer mirrors and beam splitters in the soft-x-ray regime, we can utilize the unique properties of x-ray lasers to study large, rapidly evolving laser-driven plasmas with high electron densities. Using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser, which operates at a wavelength of 15.5 nm, we have performed a series of radiography, moire deflectometry, and interferometry experiments to characterize plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion. We describe experiments using a soft-x-ray laser interferometer, operated in the Mach-Zehnder configuration, to study CH plasmas. The two-dimensional density profiles obtained from the interferograms allow us to validate and benchmark our numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions.

  15. Producing high-strength liquor from mesophilic batch acidification of chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Luschnig, Olaf; Bürger, Christoph; Günther, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the results from anaerobic batch acidification of chicken manure as a mono-substrate studied under mesophilic conditions. The manure was diluted with tap water to prevent methane formation during acidification and to improve mixing conditions by reducing fluid viscosity; no anaerobic digester sludge has been added as an inoculum. Highest acidification rates were measured at concentrations of 10?gVS?L?¹ and 20?gVS?L?¹; the pH value remained high (pH?6.9-7.9) throughout the test duration and unexpected fast methane formation was observed in every single batch. At substrate concentrations of 10?gVS?L?¹ there was a remarkable methane formation representing a value of 82% of the respective biochemical methane potential of chicken manure. Increasing substrate concentrations did not supress methane formation but impaired acid production. Consequently, the liquor cannot be stored over longer periods but should immediately be used in a digestion process. PMID:25672618

  16. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-print Network

    Asadpour, Reza; Khan, M Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceed...

  17. Prokaryotic High-Level Expression System in Producing Adhesin Recombinant Protein E of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Minoo; Bouzari, Saeed; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jafari, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesion protein E (PE) of Haemophilus influenzae is a 16 - 18 kDa protein with 160 amino acids which causes adhesion to epithelial cells and acts as a major factor in pathogenesis. Objectives: In this study, we performed cloning, expression and purification of PE as a candidate antigen for vaccine design upon further study. Materials and Methods: At first, the pe gene of NTHi ATCC 49766 strain (483 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, to sequence the resulted amplicon, it was cloned into TA vector (pTZ57R/T). In the next step, the sequenced gene was sub-cloned in pBAD/gIII A vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli TOP10. For overexpression, the recombinant bacteria were grown in broth medium containing arabinose and the recombinant protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography (Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid) (Ni-NTA agarose). Finally, the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAG) and confirmed by western blotting. Results: The cloned gene was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The sequenced gene was searched for homology in GenBank and 99% similarity was found to the already deposited genes in GenBank. Then we obtained PE using Ni-NTA agarose with up to 7 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The pe gene was successfully cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Finally, PE was obtained with high concentration. Due to high homology and similarity among the pe gene from NTHi ATCC 49766 and other NTHi strains in GenBank, we believe that the protein is a universal antigen to be used as a vaccine design candidate and further studies to evaluate its immunogenicity is underway. PMID:26034537

  18. Improving upon Nature: Active site remodeling produces highly efficient aldolase activity towards hydrophobic electrophilic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Manoj; Toone, Eric J.; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Substrate specificity of enzymes is frequently narrow and constrained by multiple interactions, limiting the use of natural enzymes in biocatalytic applications. Aldolases have important synthetic applications, but the usefulness of these enzymes is hampered by their narrow reactivity profile with unnatural substrates. To explore the determinants of substrate selectivity and alter the specificity of E. coli 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, we employed structure-based mutagenesis coupled with library screening of mutant enzymes localized to the bacterial periplasm. We identified two active site mutations (T161S/S184L) that work additively to enhance the substrate specificity of this aldolase to include catalysis of retro-aldol cleavage of (4S)-2-keto-4-hydroxy-4-(2?-pyridyl)butyrate (S-KHPB). These mutations improve the value of kcat/KMS-KHPB by >450-fold, resulting in a catalytic efficiency that is comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme with the natural substrate while retaining high stereoselectivity. Moreover, the value of kcatS-KHPB for this mutant enzyme, a parameter critical for biocatalytic applications, is 3-fold higher than the maximum value achieved by the natural aldolase with any substrate. This mutant also possesses high catalytic efficiency for the retro-aldol cleavage of the natural substrate, KDPG, and a >50-fold improved activity for cleavage of 2-keto-4-hydroxy-octonoate (KHO), a non-functionalized hydrophobic analog. These data suggest a substrate binding mode that illuminates the origin of facial selectivity in aldol addition reactions catalyzed by KDPG and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate (KDPGal) aldolases. Furthermore, targeting mutations to the active site provides marked improvement in substrate selectivity, demonstrating that structure-guided active site mutagenesis combined with selection techniques can efficiently identify proteins with characteristics that compare favorably to naturally occurring enzymes. PMID:22316217

  19. Reproducing the assembly of massive galaxies within the hierarchical cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; Monaco, Pierluigi; Silva, Laura; Grazian, Andrea

    2007-12-01

    In order to gain insight into the physical mechanisms leading to the formation of stars and their assembly in galaxies, we compare the predictions of the MOdel for the Rise of GAlaxies aNd Active nuclei (MORGANA) to the properties of K- and 850-?m-selected galaxies (such as number counts, redshift distributions and luminosity functions) by combining MORGANA with the spectrophotometric model GRASIL. We find that it is possible to reproduce the K- and 850-?m-band data sets at the same time and with a standard Salpeter initial mass function, and ascribe this success to our improved modelling of cooling in DM haloes. We then predict that massively star-forming discs are common at z ~ 2 and dominate the star formation rate, but most of them merge with other galaxies within ~100 Myr. Our preferred model produces an overabundance of bright galaxies at z < 1; this overabundance might be connected to the build-up of the diffuse stellar component in galaxy clusters, as suggested by Monaco et al., but a naive implementation of the mechanism suggested in that paper does not produce a sufficient slowdown of the evolution of these objects. Moreover, our model overpredicts the number of 1010-1011Msolar galaxies at z ~ 1; this is a common behaviour of theoretical models as shown by Fontana et al.. These findings show that, while the overall build-up of the stellar mass is correctly reproduced by galaxy formation models, the `downsizing' trend of galaxies is not fully reproduced yet. This hints to some missing feedback mechanism in order to reproduce at the same time the formation of both the massive and the small galaxies.

  20. Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: where will it end?

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C

    2001-06-01

    The dairy industry in the United States has changed dramatically in the last decade. Milk production per cow has increased steadily because of a combination of improved management, better nutrition, and intense genetic selection. Dairy farms are larger, and nearly 30% of the dairy cows in the United States are on farms with 500 or more cows. The shift toward more productive cows and larger herds is associated with a decrease in reproductive efficiency. Cows with the greatest milk production have the highest incidence of infertility, but epidemiological studies suggest that, in addition to milk production, other factors are probably decreasing reproductive efficiency in our dairy herds. The reproductive physiology of dairy cows has changed over the past 50 yr, and physiological adaptations to high milk production may explain part of the reproductive decline. Critical areas for new research include control of the estrous cycle, metabolic effects of lactation on reproduction, mechanisms linking disease to reproduction, and early embryonic mortality. Solving reproductive loss in dairy cows will not be easy because only a small number of research groups study reproduction in postpartum dairy cows. Therefore, the present research base will need to be expanded. For this to occur, research funding must be increased above its current level and a renewed emphasis must be placed on solving the emerging crisis of infertility in dairy cows. PMID:11417685

  1. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  2. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-print Network

    Reza Asadpour; Raghu V. K. Chavali; M. Ryyan Khan; Muhammad A. Alam

    2015-05-15

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceeding the bifacial HIT performance at practical albedo reflections. Unlike the traditional design, this bifacial design is relatively insensitive to Perovskite thickness variations, which may translate to simpler manufacture and higher yield.

  3. High energy and density plasmas produced by UHI interaction and buried-layer targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baton, Sophie; Dervieux, Vincent; Loupias, Berenice; Blancard, Christophe; Bowen, Christopher; Gremillet, Laurent; Lecherbourg, Ludovic; Pain, Jean-Christophe; Reverdin, Charles; Renaudin, Patrick; Rousseaux, Christophe; Silvert, Virginie; Allan, Peter; Brown, Colin; Hill, Matthew; Hoarty, David

    2013-10-01

    The radiative properties of hot (hundreds of eV), dense (rho ~ rhosol) plasmas are of interest in several research fields including inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The achieved plasma conditions (temperature, density, LTE/NLTE) have to be well characterized to constrain equation of state and opacity models. Ongoing progresses in ultra-intense laser facilities have led to the experimental demonstration of laser-driven isochoric heating of solid-density, micrometer targets to high temperatures (>100 eV). Here, we report on a recent experiment carried out with the ELFIE at LULI. The ultra-fast heating of various targets (multi-layered and reduced-mass targets) by using different laser conditions (1w and 2w) was inferred from their thermal x-ray emission. Two main diagnostics were used: a time-integrated Von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a toroidal crystal spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera. According to combined atomic physics and hydrodynamic calculations, the measurements are consistent with densities rho ~ rhosol and maximum temperatures T ~ 450 eV.

  4. Study of near surface layer of graphite produced by nitrogen ion bombardment at high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolova, L. D.; Borisov, A. M.; Krasil'Nikova, N. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Nemov, A. S.; Tarasova, V. V.

    To study the modified surface layers of graphites and deposited films of sputtered material, the dependences of sputtering yield Y, and ion-electron emission coefficient gamma on ion incidence angle and target temperature under high dose 30 keV N-2(+) ion irradiation have been measured. In the angular range theta=0-80degrees Y and gamma increase approximately as inverse costheta, Y of POCO-AXF-5Q are 1.5 times larger than of MPG-LT. The dependences of gamma (T) manifests a step-like behaviour typical for the radiation induced phase transitions. EPR analysis shows that at near room temperatures the point electron defects are typical of carbon and the defects due to carbon atoms interacting with N-14 nuclei. At elevated temperatures (greater than or equal to300 degreesC) there are the defects typical of graphite-like structures. The films deposited on glass collectors shows for cold targets only the defects typical of carbon, for the heated graphites - also the defects associated with C-N-14 nuclei interaction.

  5. Selection of psychrotrophic Leuconostoc spp. producing highly active dextransucrase from lactate fermented vegetables.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyun-Ju; Seo, Dong Mi; Han, Nam Soo

    2007-06-10

    Leuconostoc is the major bacterial genus in the initial phase of the lactate fermentation of vegetables. The dextransucrase elaborated from this bacterium is used to synthesize dextran polymers or prebiotic oligosaccharides. To use Leuconostoc as a starter culture in the manufacture of the kimchi-like fermented foods at low temperature, we isolated microbial flora that showed fast growth rates and high enzyme activity under the test conditions. Nine hundred colonies of Leuconostoc were collected from kimchi, sauerkraut, and pickled cucumber using three consecutive selection media; after batch culture and enzyme activity assays, four strains were selected. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the strains revealed that HJ-S7 and HJ-S13 were Leuconostoc (Ln.) mesenteroides and HJ-P4 and HJ-P5 were Ln. citreum. When compared to the type strain, Ln. mesenteroides B-512F, HJ-P4 showed a more than twofold faster growth rate and 20-fold higher enzyme activity during cultivation at 8 degrees C. These strains are suitable as oligosaccharide-synthesizing starters for the fermentation of not only kimchi but also sauerkraut and pickled cucumbers. PMID:17482304

  6. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Kolpin, Dana W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2014-10-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L:<2 ng/L) > imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source. PMID:25042208

  7. Reproducibility in patient-specific IMRT QA.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Elizabeth M; Balter, Peter A; Stingo, Francesco C; Jones, Jimmy; Followill, David S; Kry, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of patient-specific, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) results in a clinical setting. Six clinical patient plans were delivered to a variety of devices and analyses, including 1) radiographic film; 2) ion chamber; 3) 2D diode array delivered and analyzed in three different configurations (AP delivery with field-by-field analysis, AP delivery with composite analysis, and planned gantry angle delivery); 4) helical diode array; and 5) in-house-designed multiple ion chamber phantom. The six clinical plans were selected from a range of treatment sites and were of various levels of complexity. Of note, three of the plans had failed at least preliminary evaluation with our in-house IMRT QA; the other three plans had passed QA. These plans were delivered three times sequentially without changing the setup, and then delivered two more times after breaking down and rebuilding the setup between each. This allowed for an investigation of reproducibility (in terms of dose, dose difference or percent of pixels passing gamma) of both the delivery and the physical setup. This study showed that the variability introduced from the setup was generally higher than the variability from redelivering the plan. Radiographic film showed the poorest reproducibility of the dosimeters investigated. In conclusion, the various IMRT QA systems demonstrated varying abilities to reproduce QA results consistently. All dosimetric devices demonstrated a reproducibility (coefficient of variation) of less than 4% in their QA results for all plans, with an average reproducibility of less than 2%. This work provides some quantification for the variability that may be seen for IMRT QA dosimeters. PMID:24892350

  8. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  9. Practical experience with passenger car engine blocks produced in high quality compacted graphite iron

    SciTech Connect

    Tholl, M.; Magata, A.; Dawson, S.

    1996-09-01

    Although the superior properties of compacted graphite iron (CGI) are well known, its application to the series production of complex castings such as passenger car engine blocks has been precluded by the absence of a reliable foundry production technique. Despite the narrow chemistry range over which high quality CGI is stable, recent advances in cast iron foundry process control technology now serve as the starting point for a comprehensive CGI engine development program at Adam Opel AG. The Opel CGI program originated with the 2.5 liter V6 DTM racing engine which now delivers 2.7 times more power and weights 20% less than the standard grey iron production. Acoustical evaluations were then performed on identically designed 2.0 liter Family 2 engines to show that the audible noise level of the CGI engine was 1.1 to 1.5 dB(A) less than that of the grey iron engine. Simultaneously the 35% higher elastic modulus of CGI relative to conventional grey iron resulted in a 7% increase of the torsional vibration frequency. Other benefits realized from the CGI studies include a 70% reduction in bore distortion, 44% improvement in honed surface roughness (Ra) and more than 40% improvement in cylinder bore wear resistance. As a result of these positive results Opel has recently undertaken a complete redesign of its 1.4/1.6 liter Family 1 gasoline engine block for series production. The new CGI block is 29.4% lighter than its grey iron predecessor while providing the same power output (105 hp). The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the compacted graphite iron engine development programs at Adam Opel AG.

  10. Comparable High Rates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Birds of Prey from Germany and Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas blaCTX-M-1 predominated among German isolates (100%), blaCTX-M-9 was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23300857

  11. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

  12. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

  13. Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 administration reduces the lifespan of aged high antibody producer mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging process may result in immune modifications that lead to disruption of innate and acquired immunity mechanisms that may induce chronic-degenerative events. The heat shock proteins (Hsp), phylogeneticaly conserved among organisms, present as main function the ability of folding and refolding proteins, but they also are associated with chronic-degenerative disorders. Here were evaluated the role of M. leprae native Hsp65 (WT) and its point-mutated (K409A) on survival and anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 antibody production of aged genetically selected mice for high (HIII) and low (LIII) antibody production; data from 120- and 270-days old mice (named “adult” or “aged”, respectively) were compared. Results WT Hsp65 administration induces reduction in the mean survival time of adult and aged female HIII mice, this effect being stronger in aged individuals. Surprisingly, the native protein administration increased the survival of aged female LIII when compared to K409A and control groups. No survival differences were observed in aged male mice after Hsp65 proteins inoculation. We observed increase in IgG1 anti-Hsp65 in WT and K409A aged HIII female mice groups and no marked changes in the anti-DNA (adult and aged HIII) and anti-Hsp65 IgG1 or IgG2a isotypes production in adult HIII female and aged male mice. LIII male mice presented increased anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 IgG2a isotype production after WT or K409A injection, and LIII female groups showed no alterations. Conclusions The results revealed that the WT Hsp65 interferes with survival of aged HIII female mice without involvement of a remarkable IgG1 and IgG2a anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 antibodies production. The deleterious effects of Hsp65 on survival time in aged HIII female mice could be linked to a gender-effect and are in agreement with those previously reported in lupus-prone mice. PMID:24669842

  14. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and ?-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

  15. Highly effective mixed pinning landscape produced by combined proton and heavy-ion irradiations in commercial coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civale, Leonardo; Leroux, Maxim; Kihlstrom, Karen; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Rupich, Marty; Fleshler, Steven; Malozemoff, Alex P.; Ghigo, G.; Kayani, A.

    2015-03-01

    Particle irradiation is a very useful method to enhance the critical current density (Jc) in high Tc superconductors. As the nature of the damage produced under given irradiation conditions is well studied, it also provides a valuable tool to engineer controlled pinning landscapes to improve our understanding of vortex matter. Recently, it has been shown that proton irradiation can produce significant further Jc increase in commercial coated conductors (CC) with already high Jc. Here we report a further step towards Jc design, by combining 4 MeV proton and 250 MeV Au irradiations on the same CC. We show that the Jc improvement is better than what results from each individual irradiation, with columnar and random defects being dominant at low and high fields, respectively. Flux creep rates provide additional information about the vortex dynamics and depinning mechanisms in different regions of the Temperature-Field-Orientation phase diagram. Work supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  17. Reproducibility of topographic measures of the glaucomatous optic nerve head

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, O; Michaeli-Cohen, A; Silver, D; Versano, D; Neudorfer, M; Dzhanov, R; Lazar, M

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Laser scanning tomography provides an assessment of three dimensional optic disc topography. For the clinical purpose of follow up of glaucoma patients, the repeatability of the various measured variables is essential. In the present study, the reproducibility of morphometric variables calculated by the topographic scanning system, TopSS (Laser Diagnostic Technology, San Diego, CA) was investigated.?METHODS—Two independent measurements (30 minutes apart) each consisting of three complete images of the optic disc were performed on 16 eyes of 16 glaucoma patients using a TopSS. The instrument calculates 14 morphometric variables for the characterisation of the optic disc.?RESULTS—From the two tailed paired tests, all variables were seen to have good reproducibility. However, correlation and regression analyses showed that only the three variables, volume below, half depth area, and average cup depth, are acceptably reproducible.?CONCLUSION—The TopSS provides three variables which describe the physiological shape of the optic disc that have high reproducibility. These three variables might be useful for following the progression of optic disc changes in glaucoma patients.?? Keywords: optic nerve head; scanning laser; glaucoma; tomography PMID:9536873

  18. High-order harmonic generation during propagation of femtosecond pulses through the laser-produced plasmas of semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics of the ultrashort pulses of Ti:sapphire laser in the plasma plumes produced during laser ablation of various semiconductors (Te, Se, Si, As, Sb, and Ge) is reported. Application of two-color pump allowed the generation of enhanced odd and even harmonics. The resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonics was observed in the Ge, Se, Sb, As, and Te plasmas. The enhanced 35th harmonic obtained from selenium plasma was twelve times stronger than the neighboring harmonics. We also demonstrate the quasi-phase-matching of the harmonics generated in the As plasma.

  19. REPRODUCIBILITY IN INTERLABORATORY IMPACT SOUND INSULATION MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Pedro; O. Carvalho

    This paper presents the results of an interlaborato ry comparison test concerning the impact sound insulation for a concrete slab floor to deter mine the reproducibility for the weighted normalized impact sound pressure level L'n,w and for all the involved main parameters (reverberation time and impact normalized sound pressure level, at the receiving room and for each 100 to 3150

  20. ON REPRODUCIBILITY AND TRACEABILITY OF SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ON REPRODUCIBILITY AND TRACEABILITY OF SIMULATIONS Olivier Dalle University of Nice Sophia the notion of traceability and its potential use in order to improve the simulation methodology. 1 a computerized representation of the system under study (called the simulation model), and to test hypotheses

  1. Multiresolution Reproducing Kernel Particle Methods in Acoustics

    E-print Network

    Liu, Wing Kam

    In the analysis of complex phenomena of acoustic systems, the computational model­ ing requires special attention window function which translates and dilates in space and time to cover the entire domain of interestMultiresolution Reproducing Kernel Particle Methods in Acoustics R. A. Uras Reactor Engineering

  2. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  3. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Nagel

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  4. Reproducing color images using custom inks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Stollnitz; Victor Ostromoukhov; David H. Salesin

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the general problem of reproducing color images on an offset press using custom inks in any combination and number. While this problem has been explored previously for the case of two inks, there are a number of new mathematical and algorithmic chal- lenges that arise as the number of inks increases. These challenges include more complex gamut mapping

  5. Reproducibility of twitch and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M Luo; N Hart; N Mustfa; W. D. C Man; G. F Rafferty; M. I Polkey; J Moxham

    2002-01-01

    Twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Tw Pdi) measured with magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve is used to follow up patients and to assess the effect of clinical treatments on diaphragm function. However the reproducibility of Tw Pdi on different occasions has been little studied. We investigated 32 normal subjects, measuring Tw Pdi elicited by bilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves

  6. Europe Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Illustrative black and white maps, tables, and graphs designed for clear reproducibility depict Europe's size, population, resources, commodities, trade, cities, schooling, jobs, energy, industry, demographic statistics, food, and agriculture. Also included are 33 United States Department of State individual country maps. This volume is intended…

  7. A novel highly charged exopolysaccharide produced by two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, Paola; Cuzzi, Bruno; Liut, Gianfranco; Segonds, Christine; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Rizzo, Roberto

    2011-09-27

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a non-fermenting Gram-negative microorganism capable of causing chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis patients and its ability to form biofilms on polystyrene and glass surfaces, as well as on cystic fibrosis-derived bronchial epithelial IB3-I cells was recently demonstrated. The latter evidence might explain the power of S. maltophilia to produce persistent lung infections, despite intensive antibiotic treatment. In addition to being important components of the extracellular biofilm matrix, polysaccharides are involved in virulence, as they contribute to bacterial survival in a hostile environment. With the aim of contributing to the elucidation of S. maltophilia virulence factors, the exopolysaccharides produced by two mucoid clinical isolates of S. maltophilia obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients were completely characterised, mainly by means of ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that, although the two isolates were recovered from two different patients living in different countries (Italy and France), the exopolysaccharides produced have an identical primary structure, with the following repeating unit: The exopolysaccharide is highly negatively charged for the presence of three uronic acids on four residues in the repeating unit. Moreover, an ether-linked d-lactate substituent is located on C-3 and one O-acetyl group on C-4 of the galacturonic acid side chain. Another O-acetyl group substitutes C-2 of the galacturonic acid in the backbone, making this primary structure unique. PMID:21636078

  8. Characters of homogentisate oxygenase gene mutation and high clonality of the natural pigment-producing Vibrio cholerae strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some microorganisms can produce pigments such as melanin, which has been associated with virulence in the host and with a survival advantage in the environment. In Vibrio cholerae, studies have shown that pigment-producing mutants are more virulent than the parental strain in terms of increased UV resistance, production of major virulence factors, and colonization. To date, almost all of the pigmented V. cholerae strains investigated have been induced by chemicals, culture stress, or transposon mutagenesis. However, during our cholera surveillance, some nontoxigenic serogroup O139 strains and one toxigenic O1 strain, which can produce pigment steadily under the commonly used experimental growth conditions, were obtained in different years and from different areas. The genes VC1344 to VC1347, which correspond to the El Tor strain N16961 genome and which comprise an operon in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, have been confirmed to be associated with a pigmented phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of pigment production in these strains. Results Sequencing of the VC1344, VC1345, VC1346, and VC1347 genes in these pigmented strains suggested that a deletion mutation in the homogentisate oxygenase gene (VC1345) may be associated with the pigmented phenotype, and gene complementation confirmed the role of this gene in pigment production. An identical 15-bp deletion was found in the VC1345 gene of all six O139 pigment-producing strains examined, and a 10-bp deletion was found in the VC1345 gene of the O1 strain. Strict sequence conservation in the VC1344 gene but higher variance in the other three genes of this operon were observed, indicating the different stress response functions of these genes in environmental adaption and selection. On the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, the pigment-producing O139 strains showed high clonality, even though they were isolated in different years and from different regions. Additionally all these O139 strains belong to the rb4 ribotype, which contains the O139 strains isolated from diarrheal patients, although these strains are cholera toxin negative. Conclusion Dysfunction of homogentisate oxygenase (VC1345) causes homogentisate accumulation and pigment formation in naturally pigmented strains of V. cholerae. The high clonality of these strains may correlate to an environmental survival advantage in the V. cholerae community due to their pigment production, and may imply a potential protective function of melanin in environmental survival of such strains. PMID:21592381

  9. Critical current density of high-temperature superconducting ceramics based on yttrium and thallium produced by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Kikin; A. G. Peresada; Iu. S. Karimov; M. D. Nersesian

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the critical current density in high-Tc superconductors based on Y and Tl ceramics produced by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. At 77 K in a zero magnetic field, the critical current densities of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) are 150 and 63 A\\/sq cm, respectively, in agreement with data in the literature. The Jc(H) curves

  10. Real time detection of anthrax spores using highly specific anti-EA1 recombinant antibodies produced by competitive panning.

    PubMed

    Love, Tracey E; Redmond, Caroline; Mayers, Carl N

    2008-05-20

    We describe a targeted approach for the production of biological recognition elements capable of fast, specific detection of anthrax spores on biosensor surfaces. The aim was to produce single chain antibodies (scFvs) to EA1, a Bacillus anthracis S-layer protein that is also present, although not identical, in related to Bacillus species. The aim of the work was to produce antibodies that would detect B. anthracis EA1 protein and intact spores with a high degree of specificity, but would not detect other Bacillus species. Existing monoclonal antibodies were evaluated and found to recognise B. anthracis EA1 and S-layer proteins from other closely related Bacillus species. Recombinant anti-EA1 scFvs were isolated from B. anthracis immune library that contained antibody genes raised against B. anthracis spores and purified exosporium. Two approaches for scFv selection were used; standard (non-competitive) panning, and competitive panning. The non-competitive biopanning strategy isolated scFvs that recognised EA1 from B. anthracis, but also cross-reacted with other Bacillus species. In contrast, the competitive panning approach used S-layer proteins from other Bacillus species to generate scFvs that were highly specific to B. anthracis EA1 and demonstrated apparent nanomolar binding affinities. Specific, real time detection of B. anthracis spores was demonstrated with these scFvs using an evanescent wave biosensor, the Resonant Mirror. The approach described can be used to generate specific antibodies to any desired target where homologous proteins also exist in closely related species, and demonstrates clear advantages to using recombinant technology to produce biological recognition elements for detection of biological threat agents. PMID:18395220

  11. Chemical Fabrication Used to Produce Thin-Film Materials for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Rybicki, George C.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Junek, William; Gorse, Joseph; Thompson, Tracy L.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space solar arrays is the development of a high-efficiency, thin-film solar cell that can be fabricated directly on a flexible, lightweight, space-qualified durable substrate such as Kapton (DuPont) or other polyimide or suitable polymer film. Cell efficiencies approaching 20 percent at AM0 (air mass zero) are required. Current thin-film cell fabrication approaches are limited by either (1) the ultimate efficiency that can be achieved with the device material and structure or (2) the requirement for high-temperature deposition processes that are incompatible with all presently known flexible polyimide or other polymer substrate materials. Cell fabrication processes must be developed that will produce high-efficiency cells at temperatures below 400 degrees Celsius, and preferably below 300 degress Celsius to minimize the problems associated with the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and thin-film solar cell and/or the decomposition of the substrate.

  12. The pneumatonograph and Perkins' tonometer. A clinical study of the reproducibility in glaucomatous eyes.

    PubMed

    Gudmundson, L E

    1984-10-01

    Reproducibility by means of replicated single pressure readings of 82 eyes of 46 glaucoma patients in the supine position were compared. The standard deviation was 7% for the pneumatonograph compared to 13% for the Perkins hand held applanation tonometer. The difference of the reproducibility is highly significant. PMID:6507062

  13. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles M; Seely, John F; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E; Weaver, James L; Obenschain, Steven P; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-01

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at 23 the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm(2) square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm(2) photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10(-7) J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm(2) and with 0.4 ns time resolution. PMID:19044704

  14. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-01

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at 23 the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm2 square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm2 photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5×10-7 J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm2 and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  15. Compact experimental apparatus for producing high-repetition-rate 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensation on an atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Seung Jin; Moon, Ye Lin; Kim, Jung Bog; Lee, Jin Seung

    2013-08-01

    We construct a compact experimental apparatus for producing high-repetition-rate ultra cold 87Rb atom based on an external atom chip. Initially, we produce an atomic flux from a 2D+ MOT (magneto-optical trap) in a nearly isolated 2D+ MOT chamber and improve the flux by adjusting the cooling beam detuning of the 2D+ MOT. The flux is trapped in the 3D MOT for 1.2 s and is further cooled by performing compressing the MOT for 20 ms and using polarization gradient cooling for 6.2 ms. After optical pumping into the 5 S F = 2 ( m F = 2) ground state, we transport atoms toward the chip surface by performing external Z coil trapping. At 1 mm below the chip surface, the external Z coil trap is completely switched to an atom chip trap by using a Z wire and a dimple wire on the chip with external bias fields. The transport and the switching take totally 520 ms. The number of atoms trapped on the atom chip is measured to be about 2 × 107. After the atoms has been compressed for 100 ms to increase trap frequencies, we perform RF evaporative cooling in the RF frequency range from 32 MHz to 6.82 MHz for 2.4 seconds. The final number of atoms in the atomic cloud after RF cooling is 1.2 × 105 atoms, and we are able to observe some Bose-Einstein condensation. The repetition rate for producing the condensation is 0.234 Hz. In this paper, we describe our experimental apparatus and processes.

  16. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Le, Yuan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-07-29

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions-dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions-that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future. PMID:21705830

  17. Effects of OLRs and HRTs on hydrogen production from high salinity substrate by halophilic hydrogen producing bacterium (HHPB).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Lee, Yunhee; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2013-08-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on hydrogen production were investigated with glucose medium containing 2% NaCl. Halophilic hydrogen producing bacterium (HHPB) Clostridium bifermentans 3AT-ma, which can survive under high salt conditions, was used. Sponge media were used as 20% of working volume. The OLR and HRT were varied in 10-60 g-glucose/L-reactor/day and 24-6h. With OLR of 20 g-glucose/L/day, shorter HRT resulted in higher hydrogen producing rate and yield. When the OLR was increased from 20 to 60 g-glucose/L-reactor/day at HRT 6h, the hydrogen production rate increased, while the hydrogen production yield decreased due to the increase and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. Biohydrogen production was possible from the salinity substrate using HHPB, and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 1.1 mol-H?/mol-glucose with optimal conditions of OLR of 20 g-glucose/L/day and HRT of 12h. PMID:23305894

  18. Theoretical investigation of the stability of highly charged C60 molecules produced with intense near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnoun, Riadh; Nakai, Katsunori; Sato, Yukio; Kono, Hirohiko; Fujimura, Yuichi; Tanaka, Motohiko

    2006-11-01

    We theoretically investigated the stability of highly charged C60z + cations produced from C60 with an ultrashort intense laser pulse of ? ˜1800nm. We first calculated the equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies of C60z + as well as C60. We then calculated key energies relevant to dissociation of C60z +, such as the excess vibrational energy acquired upon sudden tunnel ionization from C60. By comparing the magnitudes of the calculated energies, we found that C60z + cations up to z ˜12 can be produced as a stable or quasistable (microsecond-order lifetime) intact parent cation, in agreement with the recent experimental report by V. R. Bhardwaj et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 043001 (2004)] that almost only intact parent C60z + cations up to z =12 are detected by a mass spectrometer. The results of Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculation suggest that the lifetime of C60z + drastically decreases by ten orders of magnitude as z increases from z =11 to z =13. Using the time-dependent adiabatic state approach, we also investigated the vibrational excitation of C60 and C60z + by an intense near-infrared pulse. The results indicate that large-amplitude vibration with energy of >10eV is induced in the delocalized hg(1)-like mode of C60z +.

  19. High frequency of IL-4 producing helper T lymphocytes associated with a reduced incidence of heart allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Van Hoffen, E; Polen, E; Robertus-Teunissen, M; De Jonge, N; Lahpor, J R; Gmelig-Meyling, F H; De Weger, R A

    2000-01-01

    The reduction in the frequency of rejection episodes several months after heart transplantation (HTX) correlates with the development of donor-specific nonresponsiveness. This is reflected in a reduced frequency of donor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) in the peripheral blood. We investigated whether the reduced CTL frequency and the incidence of rejection episodes coincided with a change in the frequency of either IL-2- or IL-4-producing helper T lymphocytes (HTL). We measured the frequency of HTL before and at several time points after HTX in the blood of ten recipients, using limiting dilution analysis for IL-2 and IL-4. In most patients, HTL frequencies dropped immediately after transplantation, but returned to pre-HTX values later after transplantation. No consistent decrease or increase in frequencies was observed long after HTX. In contrast to IL-2, the HTL frequencies for IL-4 before transplantation were significantly higher in patients without post-HTX rejection episodes requiring treatment than in patients with such episodes. This phenomenon was observed for the in vitro responses towards both donor and third-party cells. In conclusion, relatively high frequencies of IL-4-producing T cells may have a beneficial effect on the outcome of human heart transplantation, because they are associated with a reduced incidence of rejection episodes after transplantation. PMID:11111999

  20. Is Transcranial Doppler for the Detection of Venous-to-Arterial Circulation Shunts Reproducible?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sastry; K. Daly; T. Chengodu; C. McCollum

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated the reproducibility of contrast transcranial Doppler (TCD), a safe non-invasive test for investigation of venous-to-arterial circulation shunts (v-aCS), usually patent foramen ovale, in young stroke patients. We also investigated whether microbubble contrast was reproducible and whether the addition of blood to agitated saline contrast affected the number of microbubbles produced. Methods: TCD investigation for v-aCS was repeated

  1. A paper-based microbial fuel cell array for rapid and high-throughput screening of electricity-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gihoon; Hassett, Daniel J; Choi, Seokheun

    2015-06-21

    There is a large global effort to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) techniques and advance their translational potential toward practical, real-world applications. Significant boosts in MFC performance can be achieved with the development of new techniques in synthetic biology that can regulate microbial metabolic pathways or control their gene expression. For these new directions, a high-throughput and rapid screening tool for microbial biopower production is needed. In this work, a 48-well, paper-based sensing platform was developed for the high-throughput and rapid characterization of the electricity-producing capability of microbes. 48 spatially distinct wells of a sensor array were prepared by patterning 48 hydrophilic reservoirs on paper with hydrophobic wax boundaries. This paper-based platform exploited the ability of paper to quickly wick fluid and promoted bacterial attachment to the anode pads, resulting in instant current generation upon loading of the bacterial inoculum. We validated the utility of our MFC array by studying how strategic genetic modifications impacted the electrochemical activity of various Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strains. Within just 20 minutes, we successfully determined the electricity generation capacity of eight isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa. These efforts demonstrate that our MFC array displays highly comparable performance characteristics and identifies genes in P. aeruginosa that can trigger a higher power density. PMID:25939879

  2. Local bioprospecting for high-lipid producing microalgal strains to be grown on concentrated municipal wastewater for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2011-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production depends heavily on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study, 60 algae-like microorganisms collected from different sampling sites in Minnesota were examined using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures to select high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strains capable of growing on concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) for simultaneous energy crop production and wastewater treatment. Twenty-seven facultative heterotrophic microalgae strains were found, among which 17 strains were proved to be tolerant to CMW. These 17 top-performing strains were identified through morphological observation and DNA sequencing as Chlorella sp., Heynigia sp., Hindakia sp., Micractinium sp., and Scenedesmus sp. Five strains were chosen for other studies because of their ability to adapt to CMW, high growth rates (0.455-0.498 d(-1)) and higher lipid productivities (74.5-77.8 mg L(-1)d(-1)). These strains are considered highly promising compared with other strains reported in the literature. PMID:21546246

  3. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M-F; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-10-01

    A large radius, R=44.3 m, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 lines/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 A wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 microm wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 A, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (full width at half maximum), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies. PMID:19044476

  4. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  5. Laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements: Physical properties and compressive strength of mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzoubaa, N.; Zhang, M.H.; Bilodeau, A.; Malhotra, V.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)] [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the production of laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements. The effect of grinding of the Portland cement clinker, fly ash, and gypsum with or without a superplasticizer on the physical properties of the cements, and the compressive strength of the mortars made with the resulting blended cements, is discussed. The use of ground fly ash compared with unground fly ash resulted in a substantial increase in the compressive strength of the mortars; the improvement in the strength seems to increase with an increase in the fineness of the fly ash. This was particularly significant for the coarser fly ash. The superplasticizer interground with the clinker seems to act as a grinding aid in the production of Portland cement.

  6. Plants probiotics as a tool to produce highly functional fruits: the case of phyllobacterium and vitamin C in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R; Rivera, Lina P; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

  7. Biological effectiveness of nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons interacting in tissues near the bone- soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, Mark Randall

    1999-12-01

    High-energy protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR)-or generated by nuclear interactions of GCR heavy-ions with material-are capable of penetrating great thicknesses of shielding to irradiate humans in spacecraft or in lunar or Martian habitats. As protons interact with the nuclei of the elemental constituents of soft tissue and bone, low energy nuclei-target fragments-are emitted into the cells responsible for bone development and maintenance and for hematopoiesis. Leukemogenesis is the principal endpoint of concern because it is the most likely deleterious effect, and it has a short latency period and comparatively low survival rate, although other myelo- proliferative disorders and osteosarcoma also may be induced. A one-dimensional proton-target fragment transport model was used to calculate the energy spectra of fragments produced in bone and soft tissue, and present in marrow cavities at distances from a bone interface. In terms of dose equivalent, the target fragments are as significant as the incident protons. An average radiation quality factor was found to be between 1.8 and 2.6. Biological response to the highly non- uniform energy deposition of the target fragments is such that an alternative approach to conventional predictive risk assessment is needed. Alternative procedures are presented. In vitro cell response and relative biological effectiveness were calculated from the radial dose distribution of each fragment produced by 1-GeV protons using parameters of a modified Ion-Gamma- Kill (IGK) model of radiation action. The modelled endpoints were survival of C3H10t 1/2 and V79 cells, neoplastic transformation of C3H10t1/2 cells, and mutation of the X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in V79 cells. The dose equivalent and cell responses increased by 10% or less near the interface. Since RBE increases with decreasing dose in the IGK model, comparisons with quality factors were made at dose levels 0.01 <= D [Gy] <= 2. Applying average quality factors derived herein to GCR exposures results in a <= 5% increase of in average quality. Calculated RBEs indicate that accepted quality factors for high-energy protons may be too low due to the relatively high effectiveness of the low-charged target fragments. Derived RBEs for target fragments increase the calculated biological effectiveness of GCR by 20% to 180%.

  8. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Helix-Nielsen, Claus; Klaerke, Dan A; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2015-01-01

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) His 8-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated by Astemizole binding to membrane embedded hERG-GFP-His 8 with a stoichiometry corresponding to tetramer assembly. The 156 kDa hERG-GFP protein accumulated to a membrane density of 1.6%. Fluorescence size exclusion chromatography of hERG-GFP-His 8 solubilized in Fos-Choline-12 supplemented with cholesteryl-hemisuccinate and Astemizole resulted in a monodisperse elution profile demonstrating a high quality of the hERG channels. hERG-GFP-His 8 purified by Ni-affinity chromatography maintained the ability to bind Astemizole with the correct stoichiometry indicating that the native, tetrameric structure was preserved. To our knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays. PMID:25656388

  9. Reproducibility of Genucom knee analysis system testing.

    PubMed

    Wroble, R R; Grood, E S; Noyes, F R; Schmitt, D J

    1990-01-01

    The Genucom knee analysis system was studied to determine the reproducibility of test results. In the first phase of the study we investigated the reproducibility of anterior/posterior stress tests at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion and varus/valgus stress tests at 20 degrees of flexion in 10 control subjects during three seatings on 3 separate days. In the second phase we studied the effect of errors in the digitization procedure (a part of the patient installation process) on anterior/posterior translation measurements. In the third phase we studied the reproducibility of a battery of tests in patients with chronic unilateral ACL deficient knees. The test battery was repeated 8 times on each knee on 6 separate days. In Phase I, analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between tests within a single seating. The day-to-day variance of all subjects was not significant, but we found a significant interaction between day and subject which was due to significant day-to-day differences in individual subjects. We found in Phase II that changing the location of the tibial joint line digitization points in the anterior/posterior or proximal/distal direction affected anterior/posterior translation measurements. Effects were larger at 30 degrees of flexion than at 90 degrees and when both the medial and lateral points were moved. Movement of the femoral condylar points resulted in a similar pattern of effects. In Phase III, although we found significant differences between our two examiners, there were no significant intraexaminer test-to-test (within seating) effects. Additionally, while there was no significant day-to-day variance overall, we found a significant interaction between day and subject.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2403188

  10. Reproducibility of Reported In utero Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In studies of the fetal origins of disease and life course epidemiology, measures of fetal exposure may be based on information reported by the adults who were exposed in utero. In particular, the full spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking is now an area of active investigation, and the ability to report such exposure reproducibly is of interest. We evaluated the reproducibility of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, reported by the adult daughter during consecutive pregnancies. METHODS This study was based on 11,257 women who enrolled for more than one pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants completed a questionnaire around 17 weeks of gestation, which asked about their in utero exposure to tobacco smoke. Kappa statistics were calculated. Determinants of agreement were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS Weighted Kappa for in utero exposure for the first and second reports was 0.80. Determinants of agreement were higher education (better) and longer time between reports (worse). CONCLUSIONS Information on in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking provided by adult women was highly reproducible in this population. PMID:21130369

  11. Git can facilitate greater reproducibility and increased transparency in science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducibility is the hallmark of good science. Maintaining a high degree of transparency in scientific reporting is essential not just for gaining trust and credibility within the scientific community but also for facilitating the development of new ideas. Sharing data and computer code associated with publications is becoming increasingly common, motivated partly in response to data deposition requirements from journals and mandates from funders. Despite this increase in transparency, it is still difficult to reproduce or build upon the findings of most scientific publications without access to a more complete workflow. Findings Version control systems (VCS), which have long been used to maintain code repositories in the software industry, are now finding new applications in science. One such open source VCS, Git, provides a lightweight yet robust framework that is ideal for managing the full suite of research outputs such as datasets, statistical code, figures, lab notes, and manuscripts. For individual researchers, Git provides a powerful way to track and compare versions, retrace errors, explore new approaches in a structured manner, while maintaining a full audit trail. For larger collaborative efforts, Git and Git hosting services make it possible for everyone to work asynchronously and merge their contributions at any time, all the while maintaining a complete authorship trail. In this paper I provide an overview of Git along with use-cases that highlight how this tool can be leveraged to make science more reproducible and transparent, foster new collaborations, and support novel uses. PMID:23448176

  12. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and generate summary statistics relating the particular area to the land system archetype. Such an extension demonstrates the advantages of open geoprocesses, because the user does not need to replicate the whole workflow, which included considerable data preparation steps, and can still access an analysis result tailored to his needs. The LSAs are the basis for science-based policy recommendations for sustainable land management and yield improvement at a global scale. The reproducibility of the study strengthens the scientific work and the open source platform allows scientists to adapt and extend it to provide new original contributions to sustainable land use management.

  13. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: A C4 Dicot Producing High-Lysine Edible Pseudo-Cereal

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K.; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R.; Gupta, Ravi P.; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  14. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-band high-frequency clicks.

    PubMed

    Kyhn, L A; Jensen, F H; Beedholm, K; Tougaard, J; Hansen, M; Madsen, P T

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of smaller odontocetes have recently been shown to produce stereotyped narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Click source parameters of NBHF clicks are very similar, and it is unclear whether the sonars of individual NBHF species are adapted to specific habitats or the presence of other NBHF species. Here, we test whether sympatric NBHF species sharing the same habitat show similar adaptations in their echolocation clicks and whether their clicks display signs of character displacement. Wide-band sound recordings were obtained with a six-element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133+/-2 kHz) and Peale's (129+/-3 kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12+/-3 kHz for both species. The source level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185+/-6 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's (177+/-5 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25 dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging in a coastal environment. We conclude that the small species-specific shifts in distribution of centroid frequencies around 130 kHz may reflect character displacement in otherwise-stereotyped NBHF clicks. PMID:20472781

  15. Plasmidome-Analysis of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Using Conventional Typing and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brolund, Alma; Franzén, Oscar; Melefors, Öjar; Tegmark-Wisell, Karin; Sandegren, Linus

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli are an emerging global problem, threatening the effectiveness of the extensively used ?-lactam antibiotics. ESBL dissemination is facilitated by plasmids, transposons, and other mobile elements. We have characterized the plasmid content of ESBL-producing E. coli from human urinary tract infections. Ten diverse isolates were selected; they had unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (<90% similarity), were from geographically dispersed locations and had diverging antibiotic resistance profiles. Three isolates belonged to the globally disseminated sequence type ST131. ESBL-genes of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 phylogroups were identified in all ten isolates. The plasmid content (plasmidome) of each strain was analyzed using a combination of molecular methods and high-throughput sequencing. Hidden Markov Model-based analysis of unassembled sequencing reads was used to analyze the genetic diversity of the plasmid samples and to detect resistance genes. Each isolate contained between two and eight distinct plasmids, and at least 22 large plasmids were identified overall. The plasmids were variants of pUTI89, pKF3-70, pEK499, pKF3-140, pKF3-70, p1ESCUM, pEK204, pHK17a, p083CORR, R64, pLF82, pSFO157, and R721. In addition, small cryptic high copy-number plasmids were frequent, containing one to seven open reading frames per plasmid. Three clustered groups of such small cryptic plasmids could be distinguished based on sequence similarity. Extrachromosomal prophages were found in three isolates. Two of them resembled the E. coli P1 phage and one was previously unknown. The present study confirms plasmid multiplicity in multi-resistant E. coli. We conclude that high-throughput sequencing successfully provides information on the extrachromosomal gene content and can be used to generate a genetic fingerprint of possible use in epidemiology. This could be a valuable tool for tracing plasmids in outbreaks. PMID:23785449

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics and wavepacket dynamics of highly charged fullerene cations produced with intense near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Katsunori; Kono, Hirohiko; Sato, Yukio; Niitsu, Naoyuki; Sahnoun, Riadh; Tanaka, Motohiko; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2007-09-01

    We theoretically investigated the stability of highly charged C60z+ cations produced with an ultrashort intense laser pulse of ? ˜ 1800 nm. We first review the results of our theoretical investigation of the stability of C60z+ cations and report that C60z+ cations up to z = 12 can be produced as a stable or quasistable (?s-order lifetime) intact parent cation. We next present the results of simulation as to how much vibrational energy is acquired by C 60 or C60z+ through the interaction with an ultrashort intense pulse of ? = 1800 nm. This type of simulation was carried out by incorporating an ab initio classical molecular dynamics method into the framework of the time-dependent adiabatic state approach. The results indicate that large-amplitude vibration with energy of >20 eV is induced in the hg(1) mode of C60z+. C 60 or C60z+ is mostly elongated along the field polarization direction, of which the motion can be described by using the time-dependent (TD) potential along the hg(1) coordinate. We also solved the corresponding TD Schrödinger equation to propagate the vibrational wavepacket on the TD potential. We found that the acquired vibrational energy is maximized at Tp ˜ Tvib/2, where Tp is the pulse length and Tvib is the vibrational period of the hg(1) mode. We show how the vibrational energy deposited in C 60 can be controlled by changing the pulse separation of a train of three pulses. We finally discuss the structure and dissociation of C20z+.

  17. Reproducibility data on SUMMiT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limary, Siv; Stewart, Harold D.; Irwin, Lloyd W.; McBrayer, John; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; de Boer, Maarten P.; Jakubczak, Jerome F.

    1999-08-01

    SUMMiT at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL is a standardized MEMS technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SUMMiT run to obtain post- processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

  18. Reproducibility Data on SUMMiT

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Lloyd; Jakubczak, Jay; Limary, Siv; McBrayer, John; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James; Sniegowski, Jeffry; Stewart, Harold; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-16

    SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology) at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL (Microelectronics Development Laboratory) is a standardized MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers (with the third oxide layer being planarized) to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SWiT run to obtain post-processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

  19. Multiresolution reproducing kernel particle methods in acoustics.

    SciTech Connect

    Uras, R. A.; Chang, C.-T.; Chen, Y.; Liu, W. K.; Reactor Engineering; Northwestern Univ.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of complex phenomena of acoustic systems, the computational modeling requires special attention in order to give a realistic representation of the physics. As a powerful tool, the finite element method has been widely used in the study of complex systems. In order to capture the important physical phenomena, p-finite elements and/or hp-finite elements are employed. The Reproducing Kernel Particle Methods (RKPM) are emerging as an effective alternative due to the absence of a mesh and the ability to analyze a specific frequency range. In this study, a wavelet particle method based on the multiresolution analysis encountered in signal processing has been developed. The interpolation functions consist of spline functions with a built-in window which permits translation as well as dilation. A variation in the size of the window implies a geometrical refinement and allows the filtering of the desired frequency range. An adaptivity similar to hp-finite element method is obtained through the choice of an optimal dilation parameter. The analysis of the wave equation shows the effectiveness of this approach. The frequency/wave number relationship of the continuum case can be closely simulated by using the reproducing kernel particle methods. A similar methodology is also developed for the Timoshenko beam.

  20. Precision and Reproducibility in Biological Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregor, Thomas; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Bialek, William; Tank, David W.

    2007-03-01

    During embryonic development, information about spatial location is represented by the concentration of various morphogen molecules. The reproducibility and precision of biological pattern formation thus is limited by the accuracy with which these concentration profiles can be established and ``read out'' by their target pathways. We consider four measures of precision for the Bicoid morphogen in the Drosophila embryo: The concentration differences that distinguish neighboring cells, the limits set by the random arrival of Bcd molecules at their targets (which depends on the absolute concentration), the noise in readout of Bcd by the activation of Hunchback, and the reproducibility of Bcd concentration at corresponding positions in multiple embryos. We show, through a combination of different experiments, that all of these quantities are ˜10%. This agreement among different measures of accuracy, which depend on very different molecular mechanisms, indicates that the embryo is not faced with sloppy input signals and noisy readout mechanisms; rather we have to understand how the embryo exerts precise control over absolute concentrations and responds reliably to small changes in these concentrations, down to the limits set by basic physical principles.

  1. Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized #1 plant brand Proven Winners.

    E-print Network

    Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since of independent garden centers. As a team member of Four Star Greenhouse, you will join the Four Star Greenhouse website to view the complete job description at http

  2. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2012-01-15

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4 kg). Serum samples were collected twice weekly to measure progesterone and every 2 wk to detect ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB), and ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Body condition score (BCS) was recorded weekly after calving. Based on the serum progesterone profile, 52 (34.4%) cows had normal ovarian activity (NLA), whereas 36 (23.8%) cows had a prolonged luteal phase (PLP), the most prevalent type of abnormal pattern of luteal activity. Furthermore, 63 cows with short luteal activity, delayed first ovulation, or cystic ovaries were excluded from this study. Serum AGP concentrations, as an indication of postpartum chronic endometritis, were not different (P > 0.05) between cows with NLA and PLP. Categories of peak milk yields (kg) were positively correlated with the incidence (%) of cows with PLP (r = 0.87, P = 0.02). Furthermore, milk yield peak, day of milk yield peak, mean milk yield (8 wk in milk), and milk yield on the expected day of luteolysis were higher (P < 0.05) in cows with PLP than NLA, and cows with PLP had greater loss of BCS (P = 0.007) than those with NLA. The likelihood of cows with PLP decreased by 0.9-fold for every 1 d delay of commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Moreover, the likelihood of cows with PLP increased by 1.8-fold for each 1 mmol/L increase in the 1st wk serum ?HB concentrations. In conclusion, higher mean of milk yield, greater BCS loss, earlier C-LA, and later peak milk yield were the major risk factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum PLP in clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. PMID:21958642

  3. High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of multicharged argon and krypton ions using a laser-produced x-ray source with a gas puff target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Bartnik; Vladimir M. Dyakin; Anatoly Y. Faenov; Henryk Fiedorowicz; Roman Jarocki; Joseph Nilsen; Albert L. Osterheld; Igor Y. Skobelev; Miroslaw Szczurek

    1997-01-01

    A hot and dense plasma can be produced by high-power laser irradiation of a high-pressure gas puff target. The plasma emits strong x-ray radiation in low photon-energy range (soft x-rays and XUV radiation) and is considered to be used as a debrisless laser-produced x-ray source. It was shown that the laser-irradiated gas puff plasma is an ideal source for the

  4. Improving purity and size of single-crystal diamond plates produced by high-rate CVD growth and lift-off process using ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Mokuno; A. Chayahara; H. Yamada; N. Tsubouchi

    2009-01-01

    The lift-off process using ion implantation has recently been applied to produce large and thick single-crystal diamond plates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CVD growth conditions for undoped, as opposed to nitrogen-doped, diamond were investigated to improve the purity of plates produced by this technique. This utilized apparatus identical to that for high-rate growth with nitrogen addition under high-density plasma.

  5. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 ?m, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB. PMID:22172913

  6. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  7. Identification of high gamma-aminobutyric acid producing marine yeast strains by physiological and biochemical characteristics and gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-feng; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Masuda, Kazuaki; Watabe, Shugo

    2009-07-01

    Four marine yeasts isolated from the Pacific Ocean off Japan (Siki No. 4, Siki No. 15, Hach No. 6, and Inub No. 11), which showed high gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing abilities, were identified and classified by physiological and biochemical characteristics and gene sequence analyses. Analysis of biochemical data suggested that while Siki No. 15 was identical to Candida, the remaining three isolates belonged to the genus Pichia. However, these data were insufficient to resolve their identity at the species level. Subsequently, analysis of the 5.8S rRNA genes and the two internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) sequences revealed that Siki No. 15 belongs to Pichia guilliermondii, while the remaining three isolates corresponded to Pichia anomala. Since Siki No. 4 showed slightly different biochemical properties than the other two isolates, which were otherwise identical, we sought to investigate the sequences of the intergenic spacer region 1 (IGS1). We observed few nucleotide changes, suggesting that the Hach No. 6 and Inub No. 11 isolates belong to different but new strains for which we propose the names P. anomola MR-1 and MR-2 respectively. PMID:19584549

  8. Chemical interactions in the layered system BCxNy/Ni(Cu)/Si, produced by CVD at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P S; Kosinova, M I; Flege, S; Baake, O; Pollakowski, B; Trunova, V A; Klein, A; Beckhoff, B; Kuznetsov, F A; Ensinger, W

    2012-08-01

    Layered samples Si(100)/C/Ni/BC(x)N(y) and Si(100)/C/Cu/BC(x)N(y) were produced by physical vapor deposition of a metal (Ni, Cu, resp.) and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of the boron carbonitride on a Si(100) substrate. Between the Si and the Ni (Cu) and on the surface of the Ni (Cu) layer, thin carbon layers were deposited, as a diffusion barrier or as a protection against oxidation, respectively. Afterwards, the surface carbon layer was removed. As precursor, trimethylamine borane and, as an auxiliary gas, H(2) and NH(3) were used, respectively. The chemical compositions of the layers and of the interfaces in between were characterized by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The application of H(2) yielded the BC(x)N(y) compound whereas the use of NH(3) led to a mixture of h-BN and graphitic carbon. At the BC(x)N(y)/metal interface, metal borides could be identified. At the relatively high synthesis temperature of 700 °C, broad regions of Cu or Ni and Si were observed between the metal layer and the substrate Si. PMID:22692593

  9. Type of new Chinese-produced high-speed camera and its utilization in detonation physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Y.

    This paper introduces the technological capability and special features of the new, domestically produced, Type SJZ-15 high-speed rotating mirror scanning camera and its utilization in detonation physics experiments. The camera uses an axial flow gas turbine and a two-stage internal blower for cooling. The turbine and blower use the same group of nozzles. The structure is simple, has good axial balance, and improves the cooling capability of the driving bearing housing. The two ends of the rotating mirror use three elastic bearing supporters. The axial bearings have 0-type elastic rubber balls, which are automatically centered and absorb vibration very well. The rotating mirror does not use an axial vacuum system, but the picture quality is excellent. The first objective lens Fujica type and permits use as a split-range camera. The operation handles are located on the same side of the camera. The operation handles for the rotating mirror and the main objective lens are not as convenient as the micrometer adjustment. Detonation experimental tests, technology evaluations, and actual usage prove the operation is simple and reliable, the quality of optical image formation is excellent, the light strength is appropriate, and it is an instrument of comparatively great potential.

  10. Effect of surface produced secondary electrons on the sheath structure induced by high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie [College of Opto-Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Dielectric window breakdown, whose mechanism is not thoroughly understood, is a major factor of limiting the transmission and radiation of high-power microwave on the order of 1 GW. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid-like sheath model is developed to investigate the sheath structures formed at different gas pressures. The dominant processes during the surface flashover are isolated by this model. In vacuum, electron multipactor is self-sustained by secondary electron emission, a positive space-charge potential is formed on the dielectric surface. With increasing gas pressure, electron-neutral ionization prevails against secondary electron emission. The multipactor effect is suppressed by the shielding of plasma electrons. This leads to the sheath potential changing gradually from a positive space-charge potential to a negative space-charge potential. For argon gas pressure lower than 14 Torr, the sheath is space charge limited. A potential minimum could be formed in front of the dielectric which traps secondary electrons emitted from the wall. With the higher argon gas pressure, the number density of ions becomes comparable to that of electrons, all surface produced electrons are accelerated toward the presheath region. Therefore, the normal sheath is formed and the resulting surface flashover on the dielectric surface becomes rf-driven volumetric breakdown.

  11. Lateralization produced by interaural temporal and intensitive disparities of high-frequency, raised-sine stimuli: Data and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic pointing task was used to measure extents of laterality produced by combinations of ongoing envelope-based interaural temporal disparities (ITDs) and interaural intensitive disparities (IIDs) of 4-kHz-centered raised-sine stimuli [Bernstein and Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3234–3242 (2009),] while varying, parametrically, their peakedness, depth of modulation, and frequency of modulation. The study was designed to assess whether IIDs act as “weights” within the putative “binaural display” at high spectral frequencies (where the envelopes convey ITD-information) as appears to be the case at low spectral frequencies (where the waveforms, i.e., fine-structure and envelopes, convey ITD-information). The data indicate that envelope-based IIDs do principally act as weights and that they appear to exert their influence on lateral position independently of the influence of ITDs. Quantitative analyses revealed that an augmented form of the cross-correlation-based “position-variable” model of Stern and Shear [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2278–2288 (1996)] accounted for 94% of the variance in the data. This success notwithstanding, for a small subset of the data, predictions could be improved by assuming that the listeners utilized information within auditory filters having center frequencies above 4 kHz. PMID:22280602

  12. On the Possibility of New High Tc Superconductors by Producing metal Heterostructures as in the Cuprate Perovskites

    E-print Network

    Antonio Bianconi

    2011-07-16

    Here we propose a possible way to produce superconductors with high critical temperature Tc by confinement of a Fermi liquid in a superlattice of quantum stripes (wells, wires or dots). The enhancement of Tc is obtained by tuning the size L of the stripes (wells, wires or dots), and the wavelength of electrons at the Fermi level {\\lambda}F at the resonance condition L {\\lambda}F. The 3D superconducting phase is stabilized by the condition that the separation W between the stripes (wells, wires or dots) should be of the order of the coherence length {\\xi}0. This quantum state is realized in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O8+y superconductor with Tc= 84K, where the resonance condition kFy~2{\\pi}/L for the component of the Fermi wavevector normal to the stripe direction holds. This work gives the parameters for the design of new superconducting materials with higher Tc made of metal heterostructures approaching the atomic limit.

  13. On the Possibility of New High Tc Superconductors by Producing metal Heterostructures as in the Cuprate Perovskites

    E-print Network

    Bianconi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a possible way to produce superconductors with high critical temperature Tc by confinement of a Fermi liquid in a superlattice of quantum stripes (wells, wires or dots). The enhancement of Tc is obtained by tuning the size L of the stripes (wells, wires or dots), and the wavelength of electrons at the Fermi level {\\lambda}F at the resonance condition L {\\lambda}F. The 3D superconducting phase is stabilized by the condition that the separation W between the stripes (wells, wires or dots) should be of the order of the coherence length {\\xi}0. This quantum state is realized in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu2O8+y superconductor with Tc= 84K, where the resonance condition kFy~2{\\pi}/L for the component of the Fermi wavevector normal to the stripe direction holds. This work gives the parameters for the design of new superconducting materials with higher Tc made of metal heterostructures approaching the atomic limit.

  14. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  15. Applied nitrogen and phosphorus effects on yield and nutrient uptake by high-energy sorghum produced for grain and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Hons, F.M.; Moresco, R.F.; Wiedenfeld, R.P.; Cothren, J.T.

    1986-11-01

    Limited information is available concerning nutrient requirements of high-energy sorghums (HES)(Sorghum bicolor L., Moench). The purpose of this study was to compare a HES, an intermediate grain cultivar (IGC), and a conventional grain cultivar (CGC) for grain and biomass (stover) yield, responses to applied N and P, and effects on nutrient partitioning removal. Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 on Ships clay (Udic Chromustert) near College Station, TX. Nitrogen (0, 84, 168 kg N/ha) and P(0, 15, 30 kg P/ha) were factorially applied to the three cultivars. Soil nutrient availability decreased after only one year of total dry matter harvesting and was reflected in greater responses to applied N and lower tissue nutrient concentrations and removals the second year. Cultivar and N influenced grain and biomass yields, while applied P had little effect on these parameters. The CGC and IGC produced more grain, but less biomass, than HES. The CGC removed the least nutrients in biomass and the most in grain, while removals by HES components were resersed. Although HES did yield more total dry matter, total crop N and P removals were similiar for all cultivars. HES did remove greater total quantities of all other nutrients. Applied N increased concentrations and uptake of most nutrients in grain and biomass. 15 references.

  16. A simple dissolved metals mixing method to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Suminar, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Baqiya, Malik A., E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Istianah,, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Lestari, Rina, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Angela, Riyan, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    A simple dissolved metals mixing method has been effectively used to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} (MT) nanocrystals. The method involves the mixing of independently dissolved magnesium and titanium metal powders in hydrochloric acid followed by calcination. The phase purity and nanocrystallinity were determined by making use of laboratory x-ray diffraction data, to which Rietveld-based analyses were performed. Results showed that the method yielded only one type magnesium titanate powders, i.e. MgTiO{sub 3}, with no Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases. The presence of residual rutile or periclase was controlled by adding excessive Mg up to 5% (mol) in the stoichiometric mixing. The method also resulted in MT nanocrystals with estimated average crystallite size of 76±2 nm after calcination at 600°C and 150±4 nm (at 800°C). A transmission electron micrograph confirmed the formation of the nanocrystallites.

  17. Every Good Virtue You Ever Wanted in a Q-switched Solid-state Laser and More: Monolithic, Diode-pumped, Self-q-switched, Highly Reproducible, Diffraction-limited Nd:yag Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Lee, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Q-switched lasers are well known, for example, laser radar, laser remote sensing, satellite orbit determination, Moon orbit and 'moon quake' determination, satellite laser communication, and many nonlinear optics applications. Most of the applications require additional properties of the Q-switched lasers, such as single-axial and/or single-transverse mode, high repetition rate, stable pulse shape and pulse width, or ultra compact and rugged oscillators. Furthermore, space based and airborne lasers for lidar and laser communication applications require efficient, compact, lightweight, long-lived, and stable-pulsed laser sources. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have recently shown the potential for satisfying all of these requirements. We will report on the operating characteristics of a diode-pumped, monolithic, self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser where the chromium ions act as a saturable absorber for the laser emission at 1064 nm. The pulse duration is 3.5 ns and the output is highly polarized with an extinction ratio of 700:1. It is further shown that the output is single-longitudinal-mode with transform-limited spectral line width without pulse-to-pulse mode competition. Consequently, the pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuation is less than the instrument resolution of 0.25 percent. This self-stabilization mechanism is because the lasing mode bleaches the distributed absorber and establishes a gain-loss grating similar to that used in the distributed feedback semiconductor lasers. A repetition rate above 5 KHz has also been demonstrated. For higher power, this laser can be used for injection seeding an amplifier (or amplifier chain) or injection locking of a power oscillator pumped by diode lasers. We will discuss some research directions on the master oscillator for higher output energy per pulse as well as how to scale the output power of the diode-pumped amplifier(s) to multi-kilowatt average power.

  18. The reproducibility of intrapartum cardiotocogram assessments.

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M. D.; Fabia, J.; Leduc, B.; Brisson, J.; Bastide, A.; Blouin, D.; Gauthier, R. J.; Lalonde, A.

    1982-01-01

    Five obstetrician-gynecologists experienced in fetal monitoring assessed 150 intrapartum cardiotocograms obtained with an external transducer. There were three successive blind readings, the first two without any clinical data apart from gestational age. The reviewers indicated whether the tracings showed definite, possible or no abnormalities. The interpretations given by each reviewer for any one tracing were fairly consistent, but they varied markedly from one reviewer to another. The proportion of tracings interpreted as normal ranged from 39% to 74%, and the proportion assessed as abnormal ranged from 3% to 43%. All five observers agreed on the interpretation of 29% of the tracings. Inter-reviewer reproducibility scarcely changed when clinical data were provided. These findings emphasize the need to evaluate all methods of fetal monitoring before they become widespread. PMID:7104902

  19. P-Value Precision and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Dennis D.; Stefanski, Leonard A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary P-values are useful statistical measures of evidence against a null hypothesis. In contrast to other statistical estimates, however, their sample-to-sample variability is usually not considered or estimated, and therefore not fully appreciated. Via a systematic study of log-scale p-value standard errors, bootstrap prediction bounds, and reproducibility probabilities for future replicate p-values, we show that p-values exhibit surprisingly large variability in typical data situations. In addition to providing context to discussions about the failure of statistical results to replicate, our findings shed light on the relative value of exact p-values vis-a-vis approximate p-values, and indicate that the use of *, **, and *** to denote levels .05, .01, and .001 of statistical significance in subject-matter journals is about the right level of precision for reporting p-values when judged by widely accepted rules for rounding statistical estimates. PMID:22690019

  20. Effect of supplemental fat in high-energy rations on hot-weather performance of producing dairy cows 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Ralph R.

    1959-01-01

    Colony development by Aspergillus nidulans temporally and spatially controlled to produce asexual fruiting structures known as conidiophores approximately 18 hours after germination of the conidiospores. Mutations that ...

  1. Feasibility of producing a short, high energy s-band linear accelerator using a klystron power source

    SciTech Connect

    Baillie, Devin [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Aubin, J. St. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Steciw, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To use a finite-element method (FEM) model to study the feasibility of producing a short s-band (2.9985 GHz) waveguide capable of producing x-rays energies up to 10 MV, for applications in a linac-MR, as well as conventional radiotherapy. Methods: An existing waveguide FEM model developed by the authors' group is used to simulate replacing the magnetron power source with a klystron. Peak fields within the waveguide are compared with a published experimental threshold for electric breakdown. The RF fields in the first accelerating cavity are scaled, approximating the effect of modifications to the first coupling cavity. Electron trajectories are calculated within the RF fields, and the energy spectrum, beam current, and focal spot of the electron beam are analyzed. One electron spectrum is selected for Monte Carlo simulations and the resulting PDD compared to measurement. Results: When the first cavity fields are scaled by a factor of 0.475, the peak magnitude of the electric fields within the waveguide are calculated to be 223.1 MV/m, 29% lower than the published threshold for breakdown at this operating frequency. Maximum electron energy increased from 6.2 to 10.4 MeV, and beam current increased from 134 to 170 mA. The focal spot FWHM is decreased slightly from 0.07 to 0.05 mm, and the width of the energy spectrum increased slightly from 0.44 to 0.70 MeV. Monte Carlo results show d{sub max} is at 2.15 cm for a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} field, compared with 2.3 cm for a Varian 10 MV linac, while the penumbral widths are 4.8 and 5.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The authors' simulation results show that a short, high-energy, s-band accelerator is feasible and electric breakdown is not expected to interfere with operation at these field strengths. With minor modifications to the first coupling cavity, all electron beam parameters are improved.

  2. An improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A Kimbrel; Scott A Givan; Anne B Halgren; Allison L Creason; Dallice I Mills; Gary M Banowetz; Donald J Armstrong; Jeff H Chang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino acid analog with herbicidal activity that specifically inhibits germination

  3. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  4. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  5. An Improved, High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germinati...

  6. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  7. High-throughput pyrosequencing of the chloroplast genome of a highly neutral-lipid-producing marine pennate diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Yorikane; Yoshino, Tomoko; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Mayama, Shigeki; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2011-09-01

    The chloroplast genome of the highly neutral-lipid-producing marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 was fully sequenced using high-throughput pyrosequencing. The general features and gene content were compared with three other complete diatom chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome is 134,918 bp with an inverted repeat of 13,330 bp and is slightly larger than the other diatom chloroplast genomes due to several low gene-density regions lacking similarity to the other diatom chloroplast genomes. Protein-coding genes were nearly identical to those from Phaeodactylum tricornutum. On the other hand, we found unique sequence variations in genes of photosystem II which differ from the consensus in other diatom chloroplasts. Furthermore, five functional unknown ORFs and a putative serine recombinase gene, serC2, are located in the low gene-density regions. SerC2 was also identified in the plasmids of another pennate diatom, Cylindrotheca fusiformis, and in the plastid genome of the diatom endosymbiont of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. Exogenous plasmids might have been incorporated into the chloroplast genome of Fistulifera sp. by lateral gene transfer. Chloroplast genome sequencing analysis of this novel diatom provides many important insights into diatom evolution. PMID:21290260

  8. Multiresolution Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Liu, Wing Kam

    Multiresolution Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for Computational Fluid Dynamics Wing Kam Liu­ cal Method in Fluids. Abstract Multiresolution analysis based on Reproducing Kernel Particle Method in fluid dynamics. KEY WORDS: meshless kernel particle method, multiresolution analysis, wavelets

  9. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Au nanotubes and their sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Si Yin; Ye, Enyi; Pan, Pei Hua; Lee, Coryl Jing Jun; Hui, Hui Kim; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Koh, Leng Duei; Dong, Zhili; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02399h

  10. Reproducibility of binary-mixture toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Sørensen, Helle; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2007-01-01

    Binary-mixture studies often are conducted with the aim of elucidating the effect of one specific chemical on the biological action of another. The results can be interpreted in relation to reference models by the use of response-surface analyses and isobolograms. The amount of data needed for these analyses is, however, extensive, and the experiments therefore rarely are repeated. In the present study, we investigate the reproducibility of isobole shapes of binary-mixture toxicity experiments in terms of deviation from the reference model of concentration addition (CA), dose-level dependence, and isobole asymmetry. We use data from four herbicide mixtures tested in three to five independent experiments on the aquatic test plant Lemna minor and the terrestrial plant Tripleurospermum inodorum. The results showed that the variation both within and among experiments was approximately half the size for the aquatic test system compared to the terrestrial system. As a consequence, a consistent deviation from CA could be obtained in three of four herbicide mixtures for L. minor, whereas this was only the case for one or two of the herbicide mixtures tested on T. inodorum. For one mixture on T. inodorum, both CA synergism and antagonism were detected. Dose-dependent effects could not be repeated consistently, just as the asymmetry found in some isoboles could not. The study emphasizes the importance of repeating mixture toxicity experiments, especially for test systems with large variability, and using caution when drawing biological conclusions from the test results. PMID:17269472

  11. RAPID COMMUNICATION VARROA JACOBSONI DOES REPRODUCE IN WORKER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) reported that Varroa jacobsoni greatly prefers drone over worker brood, and only reproduces in the drone brood of Apis cerana colonies in Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In Apis mellifera the mites also prefer drone cells, but can reproduce effectively in both worker and drone cells. The capacity to reproduce in worker

  12. Real time detection of anthrax spores using highly specific anti-EA1 recombinant antibodies produced by competitive panning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey E. Love; Caroline Redmond; Carl N. Mayers

    2008-01-01

    We describe a targeted approach for the production of biological recognition elements capable of fast, specific detection of anthrax spores on biosensor surfaces. The aim was to produce single chain antibodies (scFvs) to EA1, a Bacillus anthracis S-layer protein that is also present, although not identical, in related to Bacillus species. The aim of the work was to produce antibodies

  13. High rate of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase and OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a university hospital in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Girlich, D; Bouihat, N; Poirel, L; Benouda, A; Nordmann, P

    2014-04-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates are being increasingly reported, particularly from countries surrounding the Mediterranean area. We aimed to quantify the prevalence of carbapenemase- and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs from hospitalized patients in a University hospital in Morocco, and to compare the performance of three screening media: ChromID ESBL (bioMérieux), Brilliance CRE (OXOID, Thermofisher) and SUPERCARBA (home made). Genetic detection and plasmid analysis were performed by PCR and sequencing. Strain comparison was performed by multi-locus sequence typing and the Diversilab technique (bioMérieux). The prevalence of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was high, with 33 ESBL producers (42.85%, mainly CTX-M-15) and 10 OXA-48 producers (13%), corresponding to two major clones of K. pneumoniae (70%) and a clone of Enterobacter cloacae (30%). The three screening media showed the same sensitivity for detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, whereas the SUPERCARBA medium was more specific than the two other media. The average faecal carriage of ESBL or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae varied from 1 × 10(2) to >1 × 10(8) CFU/g of stools. This study shows a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and particularly of OXA-48 producers. The new carbapenem-containing medium, SUPERCARBA, was as sensitive as Brilliance CRE and ChromID ESBL, and more specific for the detection of Enterobacteriaceae expressing those carbapenemases. PMID:23927757

  14. High-Resolution Radiographs Produced by Single X-Ray (lambda2.9 Angstroms) Pulses from UV Laser and Xe Cluster Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The ability to produce high spatial resolution radiographs of tiny objects with short pulse x-rays is of high interest in the fields of x-ray micro-imaging and high field physics. This work reports the taking of radiographs exhibiting a resolution better than 10 microns of fruit flies and ants with a single x-ray (about 4.5 keV) pulse. The x-ray pulse was

  15. Africa Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. 1990 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A collection of reproducible black and white maps, charts, and graphs for classroom use profiles Africa today. Individual country maps were originally produced by the United Nations, U.S. Department of State, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The material depicts the continent's (1) size, (2) population, (3) resources, (4) commodities, (5)…

  16. Reproducibility of the measurement of sweet taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Luo, Wendy; Herman, William H

    2012-12-01

    Developing interventions to prevent and treat obesity are medical and public health imperatives. Taste is a major determinant of food intake and reliable methods to measure taste preferences need to be established. This study aimed to establish the short-term reproducibility of sweet taste preference measurements using 5-level sucrose concentrations in healthy adult volunteers. We defined sweet taste preference as the geometric mean of the preferred sucrose concentration determined from two series of two-alternative, forced-choice staircase procedures administered 10min apart on a single day. We repeated the same procedures at a second visit 3-7days later. Twenty-six adults (13 men and 13 women, age 33.2±12.2years) completed the measurements. The median number of pairs presented for each series was three (25th and 75th percentiles: 3, 4). The intraclass correlation coefficients between the measurements was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.92) within a few days. This study showed high short-term reproducibility of a simple, 5-level procedure for measuring sweet taste preferences. This method may be useful for assessing sweet taste preferences and the risks resulting from those preferences. PMID:22967817

  17. Accuracy, reproducibility, and variability of portable peak flowmeters.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C

    1995-03-01

    The accuracy, reproducibility, and variability of seven commercially available peak flowmeters were assessed using the pulmonary waveform generator as recommended by the American Thoracic Society. The standard models were tested for peak flows of 100, 200, 320, 500, and 700 L/min. The low-range models were tested for peak flows of 80, 150, 200, 250, and 320 L/min. Most of the units provided highly repeatable estimates of peak flow. However, the accuracy of several devices (Assess [Healthscan Products, Cedar Grove, NJ] and Mini-Wright [Clement Clarke International, Harlow, Essex, UK] low-range models, and the Ferraris [Ferraris Medical, Holland, NY] and Mini-Wright standard-range models) did not meet the National Asthma Education Program (NAEP) recommendations. The device with the best performance in terms of accuracy, variability, and reproducibility, and the only one in which all units tested met the NAEP recommendations, was the Astech (Center Laboratories, Port Washington, NY) full-range model. PMID:7874931

  18. Effect of soil moisture content on the splash phenomenon reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Ry?ak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Polakowski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods for testing splash (the first phase of water erosion) may be an analysis of photos taken using so-called high-speed cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of measurements using a single drop splash of simulated precipitation. The height from which the drops fell resulted in a splash of 1.5 m. Tests were carried out using two types of soil: Eutric Cambisol (loamy silt) and Orthic Luvisol (sandy loam); three initial pressure heads were applied equal to 16 kPa, 3.1 kPa, and 0.1 kPa. Images for one, five, and 10 drops were recorded at a rate of 2000 frames per second. It was found that (i) the dispersion of soil caused by the striking of the 1st drop was significantly different from the splash impact caused by subsequent drops; (ii) with every drop, the splash phenomenon proceeded more reproducibly, that is, the number of particles of soil and/or water that splashed were increasingly close to each other; (iii) the number of particles that were detached during the splash were strongly correlated with its surface area; and (iv) the higher the water film was on the surface the smaller the width of the crown was. PMID:25785859

  19. Effect of Soil Moisture Content on the Splash Phenomenon Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Ry?ak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Polakowski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods for testing splash (the first phase of water erosion) may be an analysis of photos taken using so-called high-speed cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of measurements using a single drop splash of simulated precipitation. The height from which the drops fell resulted in a splash of 1.5 m. Tests were carried out using two types of soil: Eutric Cambisol (loamy silt) and Orthic Luvisol (sandy loam); three initial pressure heads were applied equal to 16 kPa, 3.1 kPa, and 0.1 kPa. Images for one, five, and 10 drops were recorded at a rate of 2000 frames per second. It was found that (i) the dispersion of soil caused by the striking of the 1st drop was significantly different from the splash impact caused by subsequent drops; (ii) with every drop, the splash phenomenon proceeded more reproducibly, that is, the number of particles of soil and/or water that splashed were increasingly close to each other; (iii) the number of particles that were detached during the splash were strongly correlated with its surface area; and (iv) the higher the water film was on the surface the smaller the width of the crown was. PMID:25785859

  20. A precision translation stage for reproducing measured target volume motions.

    PubMed

    Litzenberg, Dale W; Hadley, Scott W; Lam, Kwok L; Balter, James M

    2007-01-01

    The development of 4D imaging, treatment planning and treatment delivery methods for radiation therapy require the use of a high-precision translation stage for testing and validation. These technologies may require spatial resolutions of 1 mm, and temporal resolutions of 2-30 Hz for CT imaging, electromagnetic tracking, and fluoroscopic imaging. A 1D programmable translation stage capable of reproducing idealized and measured anatomic motions common to the thorax has been design and built to meet these spatial and temporal resolution requirement with phantoms weighing up to 27 kg. The stage consists of a polycarbonate base and table, driven by an AC servo motor with encoder feedback by means of a belt-coupled precision screw. Complex motions are possible through a programmable motion controller that is capable of running multiple independent control and monitoring programs concurrently. Programmable input and output ports allow motion to be synchronized with beam delivery and other imaging and treatment delivery devices to within 2.0 ms. Average deviations from the programmed positions are typically 0.2 mm or less, while the average typical maximum positional errors are typically 0.5 mm for an indefinite number of idealized breathing motion cycles and while reproducing measured target volume motions for several minutes. PMID:17712294

  1. Reproducing Natural Spider Silks’ Copolymer Behavior in Synthetic Silk Mimics

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P.; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia, indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into ?-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure. PMID:23110450

  2. Reproducing natural spider silks' copolymer behavior in synthetic silk mimics.

    PubMed

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-12-10

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia , indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into ?-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure. PMID:23110450

  3. Space- and time-resolved density measurements of a high-intensity laser-produced plasma for x-ray laser studies.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, S; D'Oliveira, P; Hulin, S; Monot, P; Réau, F; Auguste, T

    2002-04-01

    We present a detailed study on the spatiotemporal density evolution of a plasma created by optical-field ionization of a high-pressure pulsed gas jet by a 10-TW, 60-fs Ti:sapphire laser. The plasma dynamics has been studied on a 17-ns time scale with a 60-fs time resolution and a 5-microm space resolution using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The density profile and the plasma radial expansion were accurately measured for conditions relevant to x-ray laser schemes in H-like nitrogen which were recently proposed [S. Hulin et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693 (2000)]. The results were reproduced well by hydrocode simulations that allowed to infer the plasma temperature. PMID:12006081

  4. Photothrombotic Ischemia: A Minimally Invasive and Reproducible Photochemical Cortical Lesion Model for Mouse Stroke Studies

    PubMed Central

    Labat-gest, Vivien; Tomasi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The photothrombotic stroke model aims to induce an ischemic damage within a given cortical area by means of photo-activation of a previously injected light-sensitive dye. Following illumination, the dye is activated and produces singlet oxygen that damages components of endothelial cell membranes, with subsequent platelet aggregation and thrombi formation, which eventually determines the interruption of local blood flow. This approach, initially proposed by Rosenblum and El-Sabban in 1977, was later improved by Watson in 1985 in rat brain and set the basis of the current model. Also, the increased availability of transgenic mouse lines further contributed to raise the interest on the photothrombosis model. Briefly, a photosensitive dye (Rose Bengal) is injected intraperitoneally and enters the blood stream. When illuminated by a cold light source, the dye becomes activated and induces endothelial damage with platelet activation and thrombosis, resulting in local blood flow interruption. The light source can be applied on the intact skull with no need of craniotomy, which allows targeting of any cortical area of interest in a reproducible and non-invasive way. The mouse is then sutured and allowed to wake up. The evaluation of ischemic damage can be quickly accomplished by triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride or cresyl violet staining. This technique produces infarction of small size and well-delimited boundaries, which is highly advantageous for precise cell characterization or functional studies. Furthermore, it is particularly suitable for studying cellular and molecular responses underlying brain plasticity in transgenic mice. PMID:23770844

  5. Reproducible culture and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells using an automated microwell platform?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Waqar; Moens, Nathalie; Veraitch, Farlan S.; Hernandez, Diana; Mason, Chris; Lye, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their progeny in high throughput drug discovery and regenerative medicine will require production at scale of well characterized cells at an appropriate level of purity. The adoption of automated bioprocessing techniques offers the possibility to overcome the lack of consistency and high failure rates seen with current manual protocols. To build the case for increased use of automation this work addresses the key question: “can an automated system match the quality of a highly skilled and experienced person working manually?” To answer this we first describe an integrated automation platform designed for the ‘hands-free’ culture and differentiation of ESCs in microwell formats. Next we outline a framework for the systematic investigation and optimization of key bioprocess variables for the rapid establishment of validatable Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Finally the experimental comparison between manual and automated bioprocessing is exemplified by expansion of the murine Oct-4-GiP ESC line over eight sequential passages with their subsequent directed differentiation into neural precursors. Our results show that ESCs can be effectively maintained and differentiated in a highly reproducible manner by the automated system described. Statistical analysis of the results for cell growth over single and multiple passages shows up to a 3-fold improvement in the consistency of cell growth kinetics with automated passaging. The quality of the cells produced was evaluated using a panel of biological markers including cell growth rate and viability, nutrient and metabolite profiles, changes in gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Automated processing of the ESCs had no measurable negative effect on either their pluripotency or their ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Equally important is that over a 6-month period of culture without antibiotics in the medium, we have not had any cases of culture contamination. This study thus confirms the benefits of adopting automated bioprocess routes to produce cells for therapy and for use in basic discovery research. PMID:23956681

  6. Dissemination of a clone carrying a fosA3-harbouring plasmid mediates high fosfomycin resistance rate of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Shen, Ping; Wei, Zeqing; Liu, Lilin; He, Fang; Shi, Keren; Wang, Yanfei; Wang, Haiping; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin has been proposed as an adjunct to other active agents for treating KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants among KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from clinical samples in China. In total, 278 KPC-producing and 80 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (non-KPC-producing) clinical K. pneumoniae isolates were collected in 12 hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Fosfomycin susceptibility testing was carried out using the agar dilution method. Phylogenetic clonal patterns were revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes (fosA, fosA3 and fosC2) by PCR amplification. A plasmid was completely sequenced by next-generation sequencing. The fosfomycin resistance rate in KPC-producers (60.8%; 169/278) was significantly higher than in ESBL-producers (12.5%; 10/80). In addition, 94 KPC-producing isolates were positive for fosA3 and most of them were clonally related. A 23939-bp plasmid (pFOS18) co-harbouring fosA3 and bla(KPC-2) was completely sequenced, revealing that the fosA3 gene was flanked by two copies of IS26; however, bla(KPC-2) was located on a Tn3-Tn4401 integration structure. Although the fosA3 and blaKPC-2 genes are located on different transposon systems, they are able to spread together worldwide through plasmid transfer. Dissemination of the clone carrying the fosA3-harbouring plasmid mediates the high fosfomycin resistance rate of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in China. Fosfomycin as an alternative option for treating infections caused by KPC-producing K. pneumoniae should not be recommended in hospitals in which fosfomycin-resistant clonal dissemination is emerging. PMID:25450805

  7. Association of high levels of serum antibody to staphylococcal toxic shock antigen with nasal carriage of toxic shock antigen-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, H L; Kirkland, J J; Bond, G G; Warner, E K; Petty, G P

    1984-01-01

    Forty-four asymptomatic male subjects were examined for their nasal carriage of strains of Staphylococcus aureus capable of producing staphylococcal toxic shock antigen (TSA), an exotoxin implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In addition, the levels of antibody to TSA in sera from these subjects were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. aureus was isolated from the anterior nares of 23 subjects. Of those 23 isolates of S. aureus, 9 were found to produce TSA. All individuals carrying strains of S. aureus capable of producing TSA had high to moderate levels of antibody to TSA. In contrast, those individuals carrying strains not producing TSA had levels of antibody to TSA ranging from high to nondetectable. A second examination of nasal samples from 42 of these subjects revealed that 86% of those carrying S. aureus initially still carried S. aureus after a period of 3 months; all subjects found to carry TSA-producing strains initially and that were examined a second time yielded TSA-producing strains once again. PMID:6698614

  8. Protection conferred by recombinant Yersinia pestis antigens produced by a rapid and highly scalable plant expression system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Santi; Anatoli Giritch; Chad J. Roy; Sylvestre Marillonnet; Victor Klimyuk; Yuri Gleba; Robert Webb; Charles J. Arntzen; Hugh S. Mason

    2006-01-01

    Plague is still an endemic disease in different regions of the world. Increasing reports of incidence, the discovery of antibiotic resistance strains, and concern about a potential use of the causative bacteria Yersinia pestis as an agent of biological warfare have highlighted the need for a safe, efficacious, and rapidly producible vaccine. The use of F1 and V antigens and

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of free long chain fatty acids produced during lipolysis by anaerobic digestor sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme N. Jarvis; Jürgen H. Thiele

    1997-01-01

    The development of sample extraction techniques in conjunction with application of a modified version of an established HPLC technique allowed the rapid estimation of concentrations of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) produced by the lipolytic activity of bacteria in anaerobic digestor sludges or experiments using the sludges as inocula. It was established that free long chain fatty acids will preferentially

  10. Life cycle analysis of green diesel produced from renewable feedstocks indicates relatively high energy efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom N; P Koers

    pproximately 50% of globally produced crude petroleum is refined into transportation fuels, the fastest growing component of the energy sector. This sharply rising use of a non-renewable feedstock has a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be converted into liquid transportation fuels. Therefore, increasing biofuel usage in the transportation sector can

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus NC7401, Which Produces High Levels of the Emetic Toxin Cereulide

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Akira; Tori, Keizo; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Toh, Hidehiro; Agata, Norio; Yamada, Keiko; Ogasawara, Naotake; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Tohru; Kuhara, Satoru; Hattori, Masahira; Ohta, Michio

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Bacillus cereus NC7401, a representative of the strain group that causes emetic-type food poisoning. The emetic toxin, cereulide, is produced by a nonribosomal protein synthesis (NRPS) system that is encoded by a gene cluster on a large resident plasmid, pNCcld. PMID:22887669

  12. High Frequency of Histamine-Producing Bacteria in the Enological Environment and Instability of the Histidine Decarboxylase Production Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Patrick M.; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria contribute to wine transformation during malolactic fermentation. They generally improve the sensorial properties of wine, but some strains produce histamine, a toxic substance that causes health issues. Histamine-producing strains belong to species of the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. All carry an hdcA gene coding for a histidine decarboxylase that converts histidine into histamine. For this study, a method based on quantitative PCR and targeting hdcA was developed to enumerate these bacteria in wine. This method was efficient for determining populations of 1 to 107 CFU per ml. An analysis of 264 samples collected from 116 wineries of the same region during malolactic fermentation revealed that these bacteria were present in almost all wines and at important levels, exceeding 103 CFU per ml in 70% of the samples. Histamine occurred at an often important level in wines containing populations of the above-mentioned bacteria. Fifty-four colonies of histamine producers isolated from four wines were characterized at the genetic level. All were strains of Oenococcus oeni that grouped into eight strain types by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Some strains were isolated from wines collected in distant wineries. Moreover, hdcA was detected on a large and possibly unstable plasmid in these strains of O. oeni. Taken together, the results suggest that the risk of histamine production exists in almost all wines and is important when the population of histamine-producing bacteria exceeds 103 per ml. Strains of O. oeni producing histamine are frequent in wine during malolactic fermentation, but they may lose this capacity during subcultures in the laboratory. PMID:18065614

  13. Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications 

    E-print Network

    Falls, Matthew David

    2011-10-21

    highly controversial food vs. fuel debate. Because of its high abundance and relatively low cost, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative feedstock for biofuel production; however, structural features of lignocellulose limit accessibility...

  14. Educating for Anti-Racism: Producing and Reproducing Race and Power in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonn, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore some of the issues associated with teaching about race, culture, and ethnicity in a psychology program. These curriculum initiatives are part of a broader agenda of raising awareness about racialised oppression and exclusion and contributing to the development of ways of researching and practicing psychology that are…

  15. "Practical Action": Its Centrality in Producing and Reproducing the Formal Structure of School Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabraal, Liyana M. C.

    The behaviorist world view, influential in many social-science disciplines, is challenged by theories of action. With steady developments in nonbehaviorist thinking and related social-action conceptions, the study of school organizational structure can be transformed into a field centered about the dynamics of individuals' practical actions. This…

  16. Entrepreneurial Endeavors: (Re)Producing Neoliberalization through Urban Agriculture Youth Programming in Brooklyn, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Driven by social and environmental criticism of the neoliberalization of agro-food systems, urban agriculture today enjoys renewed interest throughout the United States as a primary space to engage the politics of food. Using Brooklyn, New York as a case study, I employ mixed qualitative methods to investigate the contradictions that arise in…

  17. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Sacco, Roberto; Stukalov, Alexey; van Drogen, Audrey; Planyavsky, Melanie; Hauri, Simon; Aebersold, Ruedi; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of all protein complexes of human cells under defined physiological conditions using affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a highly desirable step in the quest to understand the phenotypic effects of genomic information. However, such a challenging goal has not yet been achieved, as it requires reproducibility of the experimental workflow and high data consistency across different studies and laboratories. We systematically investigated the reproducibility of a standardized AP-MS workflow by performing a rigorous interlaboratory comparative analysis of the interactomes of 32 human kinases. We show that it is possible to achieve high interlaboratory reproducibility of this standardized workflow despite differences in mass spectrometry configurations and subtle sample preparation-related variations and that combination of independent data sets improves the approach sensitivity, resulting in even more-detailed networks. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining a high-quality map of the human protein interactome with a multilaboratory project. PMID:23455922

  18. Robust reproducible large-area molecular rectifier junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Hui-Juan; Chia, Perq-Jon; Chua, Lay-Lay; Sivaramakrishnan, Sankaran; Tang, Jie-Cong; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Chan, Hardy S. O.; Ho, Peter K. H.

    2008-06-01

    Stable rectifying molecular junctions have been obtained by sandwiching self-assembled monolayer films containing "push-pull" donor-?-acceptor (D-?-A) moieties between Au and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes. These D-?-A moieties possess moderate molecular dipoles, but assemble into films with nearly zero dipole moment due to adoption of high average tilt angles. Nevertheless reproducible and well-behaved rectifications (ratio up to 3.3) in the expected polarity were obtained. At low biases, the current-voltage characteristics follow Simmon's tunneling theory with reasonable barrier heights and an effective tunnel mass of ˜0.5me. This suggests that asymmetric tunneling, and not carrier injection, is the origin of the rectification.

  19. Milk production correlates negatively with plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. López-Gatius; J. M. Garbayo; P. Santolaria; J Yániz; A. Ayad; N. M. de Sousa; J. F. Beckers

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to establish possible factors affecting plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during early pregnancy in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses. Blood samples were obtained on days 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of gestation from 80 lactating cows in two herds carrying live fetuses. Radioimmunoassay systems were used to determine PAG (RIA-497 and RIA-706) and

  20. Effect of high pressure impact on the survival of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli ('Big Six' and 0157) in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a safe and effective technology for improving food safety while maintaining food quality attributes. Non-O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls, and the USDA Food Safety Ins...

  1. A Genomic Island, Termed High-Pathogenicity Island, Is Present in Certain Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Clonal Lineages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. KARCH; S. SCHUBERT; D. ZHANG; W. ZHANG; H. SCHMIDT; T. OLSCHLAGER; J. HACKER

    1999-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. In this study, we tested 206 STEC strains isolated from patients for potential virulence genes including stx, eae, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli hly. In addition, all strains were examined for the presence of another genetic element, the high-pathogenicity island (HPI). The HPI was first described in

  2. Practical Ideas to Address High Feed and Production Costs Pork producers are facing a period of rapidly increasing feed and production costs. The

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    1 Practical Ideas to Address High Feed and Production Costs Pork producers are facing a period of rapidly increasing feed and production costs. The following management tips and resources have been. Many of these tips and many other suggestions for reducing feed costs and increasing efficiencies

  3. Integration of functionality into polymer-based microfluidic devices produced by high-volume micro-moulding techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usama M. Attia; Jeffrey R. Alcock

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic devices with integrated functional elements have gained increasing attention in recent years. Many prototypes\\u000a covering a wide range of applications have been fabricated and tested, especially in the fields of chemical and biomedical\\u000a sciences. Nevertheless, integrated microfluidic devices are still far from being widely used as cost-efficient commercial\\u000a products, often because they are produced by fabrication methods that are

  4. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Au nanotubes and their sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.

    PubMed

    Tee, Si Yin; Ye, Enyi; Pan, Pei Hua; Lee, Coryl Jing Jun; Hui, Hui Kim; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Koh, Leng Duei; Dong, Zhili; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-06-18

    Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu(+)-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au(3+) at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose. PMID:26061696

  5. High-repetition-rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier producing 1-J, sub-100-fs pulses

    E-print Network

    Keller, Ursula

    a high-repetition-rate, femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA). Its seed signal. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, "High repetition rate fiber amplifier pumped sub-20 fs optical parametric, G. H. C. New, and K. Osvay, "Analysis and optimization of optical parametric chirped pulse

  6. Start broadened profiles with self-consistent radiation transfer and atomic kinetics in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.L.; Comly, J.C.; La Gattuta, J.K.; Kilcrease, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    Spectral line shapes and line strengths have long been used to diagnose plasma temperatures and densities. In dense plasmas, the additional broadening due to Stark effects give additional information about the plasma density. We present calculations that are self-consistent in that the radiation fields of the line transitions and the atomic kinetics are iterated to convergence. Examples are given for simple plasmas with temperature gradients, density gradients, and velocity fields. Then a more complex example of a laser produced plasma is presented.

  7. Start broadened profiles with self-consistent radiation transfer and atomic kinetics in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.L.; Comly, J.C.; La Gattuta, J.K.; Kilcrease, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Spectral line shapes and line strengths have long been used to diagnose plasma temperatures and densities. In dense plasmas, the additional broadening due to Stark effects give additional information about the plasma density. We present calculations that are self-consistent in that the radiation fields of the line transitions and the atomic kinetics are iterated to convergence. Examples are given for simple plasmas with temperature gradients, density gradients, and velocity fields. Then a more complex example of a laser produced plasma is presented.

  8. Spaceborne telescopes on a budget: paradigms for producing high-reliability telescopes, scanners, and EO assemblies using heritage building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Tony; Schwalm, Mark

    2011-06-01

    By starting with established and flown hardware (high Technology Readiness Level (TRL)), and implementing a concurrent engineering environment and seamless team, a mission architect can achieve high reliability and high performance while operating under constrained cost and short implementation schedule. We will describe methods, including those used by the telescope team on the recent Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, to manage cost and realize aggressive schedules. These lessons may be evoked for telescopes addressing defense, security and sensing, as well as those for NASA science.

  9. A silicon retina that reproduces signals in the optic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Boahen, Kwabena

    2006-12-01

    Prosthetic devices may someday be used to treat lesions of the central nervous system. Similar to neural circuits, these prosthetic devices should adapt their properties over time, independent of external control. Here we describe an artificial retina, constructed in silicon using single-transistor synaptic primitives, with two forms of locally controlled adaptation: luminance adaptation and contrast gain control. Both forms of adaptation rely on local modulation of synaptic strength, thus meeting the criteria of internal control. Our device is the first to reproduce the responses of the four major ganglion cell types that drive visual cortex, producing 3600 spiking outputs in total. We demonstrate how the responses of our device's ganglion cells compare to those measured from the mammalian retina. Replicating the retina's synaptic organization in our chip made it possible to perform these computations using a hundred times less energy than a microprocessor—and to match the mammalian retina in size and weight. With this level of efficiency and autonomy, it is now possible to develop fully implantable intraocular prostheses.

  10. Reproducibility and Respiratory Function Correlates of Exhaled Breath Fingerprint in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Petriaggi, Massimo; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; Arnaldo; D'Amico

    2012-01-01

    Background The electronic nose (e nose) provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. Objectives To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. Method 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls) over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. Measurements and Main Results VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1–3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001)), but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. Conclusions VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1–3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns. PMID:23077492

  11. Using MF-NF-RO train to produce low salt and high nutrient value recycled water for agricultural irrigation.

    PubMed

    Zou, L; Sanciolo, P; Leslie, G

    2008-01-01

    The project investigated and demonstrated that using a selective nanofiltration (NF) membrane and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane in sequence can produce recycled water with useful levels of nutrient ions, and lower the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) to minimise soil salinity. The recovery of nutrient and useful ions from the wastewater makes NF-RO treated recycled water an attractive option for agricultural irrigation. It was found that the addition of polyacrylic acid (PAA) significantly increased the rejection of divalent ions by SR2 NF element, and kept the sodium rejection largely unchanged. This effect enhanced the enrichment of divalent ions in the NF rejects, and allowed sodium ions to pass to the RO stage. The product water included NF reject and the RO permeate. Overall, the MF-NF-RO train with a PAA aided NF pre-treatment can produce a product water fit for agriculture irrigation purpose, and reduce the scaling on the RO membrane due to calcium ions which are removed by NF, leading to the higher RO recovery. This approach achieved overall higher water production with less waste for disposal. PMID:19029726

  12. Reproducibility of pre-syncopal responses to repeated orthostatic challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Grasser, Erik; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    Aims: To study individual patterns of hemodynamic adjustments in subjects reaching orthostatically induced presyncope and to observe whether these are reproducible across three runs. Procedures and methods: 10 healthy young males were subjected to extreme cardiovascular stress three times: Graded orthostatic stress (GOS), consisting of head-up tilt combined with lower body negative pressure, was used to achieve a pre-syncopal end-point. All test runs were separated by two week intervals. Orthostatic effects on cardiac and vascular function were continuously monitored and standing times noted. Results: Across the group, heart rate (HR) increased 112 percent, while mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 15 percent, pulse pressure by 36 percent, and stroke volume index by 51 percent on average from supine control to presyncope. Repetitions of the orthostatic protocols did not influence standing times of test persons from the 1st to the 3rd trial (15 plus minus 6 to 17 plus minus 7 min). Some individuals responded either with an increase in HR only, while the others with combined HR and total peripheral resistance increase, albeit shortly, and this individual specifc pattern was observed across the three runs of combined GOS. Conclusion: Strategies for maintaining blood pressure in response to central hypovolemia in subjects induced by orthostatic stress are different between subjects. However, the same individual specific hemodynamic mechanism is employed each time to maintain the blood pressure when reconfronted by this stress. Individual patterns of hemodynamic adjustments to orthostatic stress are highly reproducible when these subjects reach pre-syncope three times.

  13. Transfers of user process innovations to process equipment producers: A study of Dutch high-tech firms

    E-print Network

    de Jong, Jeroen P. J.

    A detailed survey of 498 high technology small and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty-four percent of these firms reported developing entirely ...

  14. High-Performance Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors on Non-Alkali Glass Produced Using Continuous Wave Laser Lateral Crystallization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akito Hara; Fumiyo Takeuchi; Michiko Takei; Katsuyuki Suga; Kenichi Yoshino; Mitsuru Chida; Yasuyuki Sano; Nobuo Sasaki

    2002-01-01

    We have developed high-performance polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a field-effect mobility of 566 cm2\\/V\\\\cdots for n-channel TFT and 200 cm2\\/V\\\\cdots for p-channel TFT on 300 mm× 300 mm non-alkali glass substrate. The TFTs were developed using a stable diode pumped solid state (DPSS) continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization (CLC) method at a temperature below 450°C. The high

  15. Reproducibility of the knee signature system.

    PubMed

    Riederman, R; Wroble, R R; Grood, E S; VanGinkel, L; Shaffer, B L

    1991-01-01

    To assess trial-to-trial, installation-to-installation, and day-to-day effects of the Knee Signature System, we studied anterior/posterior translation measurements in six normal subjects. The protocol consisted of testing both knees on 6 days with three installations per day and three trials per installation. We recorded anterior, posterior, and total anterior/posterior translation at +/- 20 and +/- 40 pounds of force at 30 degrees of flexion. Additionally, after measuring anterior/posterior translation during passive knee extension, active extension, and active extension with 15 pounds of weight at the ankle, we calculated the difference in anterior translation at 30 degrees of flexion between each of these three conditions. We analyzed the size of the effects and computed 90% confidence limits using analysis of variance. Means and 90% confidence limits for total anterior/posterior translation measured at +/- 20 pounds of force were: right knee, 6.8 +/- 2.3; left knee, 8.2 +/- 2.0; and right/left difference, 1.5 +/- 2.7 mm. Left knee translation means were significantly greater than right knee means in all tests. Day-to-day effects, while statistically significant for right and left knee measurements, showed no significant effects for right/left differences. Trial-to-trial and installation-to-installation effects were not significant for any parameter. Right/left differences during knee extension testing were smaller than for the stress test, measuring 0.1 mm or less, but confidence limits were larger, being +/- 3.7 mm for active extension-passive knee extension, +/- 1.5 mm for 15 pounds of weight at the ankle-active extension, and +/- 4.6 mm for 15 pounds of weight at the ankle-passive knee extension. Active extension produced 6.3 mm more anterior translation at 30 degrees of flexion than passive extension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1781508

  16. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Fibre-Based Nanogenerator Synthesized by Electrospinning Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno; Huda, Sholiehul; Arifin, Zainal; Hadi, Syamsul; Lullus Lambang, Raymundus

    2014-06-01

    Zinc oxide fibres-based nanogenerators synthesized easily by electrospinning machine are promising to harvest electricity from mechanical energy. However, the repeatability and reproducibility were two major factors needed to be investigated to minimize product failure and to determine the feasibility of mass production of nanogenerators. The green fibres of zinc oxide were produced by electrospinning machine of zinc acetate and polyvinyl alcohol solution at a flow rate of 4 ?L/min followed by sintering at temperature 550°C with heating rate 240°C/h. Each 10 nanogenerators was tested by three trained operators with three times of repetition at compressive load 0.5 kg. The nanogenerators revealed the maximum output voltage ranging from 203 to 217 mV. The value of repeatability and reproducibility of nanogenerators was approximately 24.29% showing that nanogenerators were still acceptable to be mass-produced. The relatively low reproducibility was mainly due to the operators, so that the checklist needed to be made easier and simpler for all the variables affecting to the quality of the fibres. Reducing the value of the repeatability and reproducibility is interesting to study further by creating a rotating collector so that the thickness and orientation of fibres can be arranged better.

  17. Ultrasonic treatment for improved solution properties of a high-molecular weight exopolysaccharide produced by a medicinal fungus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Mei; Cheung, Yi-Ching; Leung, Po-Hong; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2010-07-01

    High-power ultrasound (20 kHz) was applied to modify the physicochemical properties of a high-molecular weight (MW) exopolysaccharide (EPS) from mycelial culture of a medicinal fungus. At 35 W/cm(2) or higher ultrasound power, the apparent and intrinsic viscosities of EPS solution dropped by nearly 85% within 10 min, and the water solubility was increased by more than fourfold. The ultrasonic treatment led to a notable reduction of the maximum MW and a more uniform MW distribution, but no significant change in the primary structure of the EPS molecules. In contrast, the intrinsic viscosity of EPS was reduced by only 20% in 1.0M sulfuric acid at 50 degrees C for 9h. Ultrasound was proven an effective and favorable means for improving the solution properties of high-MW bioactive polysaccharides in mild conditions. PMID:20171885

  18. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that fatty acids derived from a diet high in saturated fat may negatively affect endothelial function more significantly than a diet high in unsaturated fat; nevertheless, the effects of the long-term ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function have been poorly studied. Methods To examine the chronic effects of monounsaturated (e.g., extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)) or saturated (e.g., margarine (M)) fatty acid-rich diets on the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in rats, three groups of rats were fed control, high-EVOO or high-M diets for 20 weeks. Body weight, energy consumption, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and in vitro vascular reactivity with and without metformin were assessed during the study period. Results Both high-fat diets produced obesity and insulin resistance. EVOO-fed rats showed smaller increases in total cholesterol and arterial lipid peroxidation when compared with M-fed rats. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was not modified, but the vasodilating effect of carbachol was especially reduced in the M-fed rats compared with the EVOO-fed or control groups. Metformin addition to the incubation media decreased the vascular response to phenylephrine; decrease that was lower in rats fed with both high fat diets, and increased the carbachol and nitroprusside effects, but the metformin-enhanced response to carbachol was lower in the M group. Conclusions Our results suggest that feeding rats with high quantities of EVOO, despite producing obesity and insulin resistance, produces low levels of circulating cholesterol and arterial lipoperoxidation compared to M fed rats and shows a preserved endothelial response to carbachol, effect that is significantly enhanced by metformin only in rats fed with control and EVOO diets. PMID:24330822

  19. An Open Science and Reproducible Research Primer for Landscape Ecologists

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years many funding agencies, some publishers, and even the United States government have enacted policies that encourage open science and strive for reproducibility; however, the knowledge and skills to implement open science and enable reproducible research are not yet...

  20. Radiometric Measurements of the Microwave Emissivity of Reproducible Breaking Waves

    E-print Network

    Reising, Steven C.

    Radiometric Measurements of the Microwave Emissivity of Reproducible Breaking Waves Sharmila measurements of breaking waves on the open ocean showed that the emission due to wave breaking varies measurements on the open ocean. Therefore, the authors conducted a wave basin experiment in which reproducible

  1. Capacity of reproducing kernel spaces in learning theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding-xuan Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The capacity of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) plays an essential role in the analysis of learning theory. Covering numbers and packing numbers of balls of these reproducing kernel spaces are important measurements of this capacity. We first present lower bound estimates for the packing numbers by means of nodal functions. Then we show that if a Mercer kernel is

  2. High quality 99mTc obtained from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) using accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Special Group for Generation Technology using Accelerator Neutrons Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    99m Tc, the daughter nuclide of 99Mo, is widely used for medical diagnosis. In Japan, about 0.9 million diagnostic procedures are carried out using 99mTc. 99Mo has been mostly produced using 235U in research reactors. Because of recent shortages of 99Mo, a variety of alternative production methods of 99Mo or 99mTc were proposed. We proposed to produce 99Mo by 100Mo(n,2 n) using neutrons from an accelerator. The route is characterized to produce a large quantity of high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive wastes, since the cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction at 11 < En < 18 MeV is large, and the cross sections of the (n?) , (nn ' p) , and (np) reactions on 100Mo are quite small. Intense neutrons are available because of recent progresses of accelerator and target technologies. In the talk, we show our recent experimental results to obtain 99mTc with high-quality using 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) .

  3. Four psychrotolerant species with high chemical diversity consistently producing cycloaspeptide A, Penicillium jamesonlandense sp. nov., Penicillium ribium sp. nov., Penicillium soppii and Penicillium lanosum.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Dalsgaard, Petur W; Seifert, Keith A; Louis-Seize, Gerry; Lyhne, E K; Jarvis, Bruce B; Fettinger, James C; Overy, David P

    2006-06-01

    Penicillium jamesonlandense is a novel species from Greenland that grows exceptionally slowly at 25 degrees C and has an optimum temperature for growth of 17-18 degrees C. The novel species is more psychrotolerant than any other Penicillium species described to date. Isolates of this novel species produce a range of secondary metabolites with a high chemical diversity, represented by kojic acid, penicillic acid, griseofulvin, pseurotin, chrysogine, tryptoquivalins and cycloaspeptide. Penicillium ribium, another novel psychrotolerant species from the Rocky Mountains, Wyoming, USA, produces asperfuran, kojic acid and cycloaspeptide. Originally reported from an unidentified Aspergillus species isolated from Nepal, cycloaspeptide A is reported here for the first time from the two novel Penicillium species and two known psychrotolerant species with high chemical diversity, Penicillium soppii and Penicillium lanosum. All species, except P. ribium, produce a combination of cycloaspeptide and griseofulvin. However, P. ribium (3/5 strains) produced the precursor to griseofulvin, norlichexanthone. The type strain of Penicillium jamesonlandense sp. nov. is DAOM 234087(T) (=IBT 21984(T) = IBT 24411(T) = CBS 102888(T)) and the type strain of Penicillium ribium sp. nov. is DAOM 234091(T) (=IBT 16537(T) = IBT 24431(T)). PMID:16738124

  4. Relationship of Dietary Crude Protein to Composition of Uterine Secretions and Blood in High-Producing Postpartum Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen R. Jordan; Thomas E. Chapman; Donald W. Holtan; Lloyd V. Swanson

    1983-01-01

    Effects of dietary crude protein on constituents of plasma and uterine secretions were examined at various stages of the estrous cycle of high pro- ducing Holstein cows. Eighteen cows were assigned randomly to isocalorie diets (74% total digestible nutrients) containing either 12 or 23% crude protein (dry matter) on day 40 postpartum. Uterine secretion and coccygeal blood samples were collected

  5. A new strain of Streptomyces avermitilis produces high yield of oligomycin A with potent anti-tumor activity on human cancer cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuping; Wen, Ying; Li, Meng; Chen, Zhi; Guo, Jia; Song, Yuan; Li, Jilun

    2009-01-01

    A new actinomycete strain, isolated from soil in China, strongly inhibited in vitro proliferation of human hepatoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and colonic carcinoma cell lines. The strain, designated L033, was identified as a strain of Streptomyces avermitilis based on cultural property, morphology, carbon source utilization, 16s rRNA gene analysis, and DNA-DNA relatedness studies. The anticancer component from L033 was purified to homogeneity by preparative positive-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and crystallization. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric analysis showed that this compound had the same structure as oligomycin A. Different with other reported naturally occurring strains of S. avermitilis, L033 produced high quantity of oligomycin A (maximal 1,461 microg/ml). Therefore, L033 was considered of great potential as an industrial oligomycin-A-producing strain. PMID:18810431

  6. Behavioral and cognitive effects produced by electrical stimulation in the medial prefrontal cortex: an experimental model for high cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Penna, A M; Lee, S Y; Scheidegger da Silva, L; Oliveira, R W; de Freitas Gomes, C; Nakamura-PalaciosEM

    1998-11-01

    An electrical stimulation (ES) session with ten 30-second trains of sine-wave stimuli (30-100 microA, 60 Hz) separated by 30-second intervals was conducted daily in rats with electrodes implanted in the left or right or in both sides of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC; B = + 2 mmA, + or -0.6 unilateral or 1 mmL bilateral, + 2.7 mmV). The unilateral and bilateral ES in the medial PFC produced abnormal behaviors such as circling spying, body stretching and immobility, and did not affect either the acquisition or the performance of delayed tasks in the 8-arm radial maze conducted 8-10 h after the ES session. However, animals that showed convulsions when the bilateral ES was applied in the medial PFC showed significant deficits in spatial learning and in the performance of short-term (5-second delay) and long-term (1-hour delay) working memory. The behavioral and cognitive effects induced by repeated episodic ES in the medial PFC provide an experimental model to study the effects of increased cortical activation on cognitive processes. PMID:9813464

  7. Shift and width of the Balmer series H? line at high electron density in a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielkopf, John F.; Allard, Nicole F.

    2014-08-01

    Time-resolved profiles of the Balmer series H? line emitted by a laser-produced hydrogen plasma have been measured to determine the shift and width for electron densities from below 1018 to above 1020 cm-3 at an average temperature of 28000 K. Fits of the profiles that allow for self-absorption in the plasma yield shifts and widths that are consistent with experiments on lower density and cooler gas-liner pinch plasmas. The width scales as N_{e}^{0.70+/- 0.03} and the shift as N_{e}^{0.92+/- 0.03} between 8.7\\times {{10}^{17}} and 1.4\\times {{10}^{20}} cm-3. H? shifts monotonically and nearly linearly to the red with increasing density under the reported conditions. A comparison to theory calculations using exact potentials for H_{2}^{+} shows that an intrinsic asymmetry becomes significant only in the upper limit of this range when a satellite develops in the far red wing.

  8. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on solvent-free electrolytes produced from eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu; Cao, Yiming; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Renzhi; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Low-cost excitonic solar cells based on organic optoelectronic materials are receiving an ever-increasing amount of attention as potential alternatives to traditional inorganic photovoltaic devices. In this rapidly developing field, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has achieved so far the highest validated efficiency of 11.1% (ref. 2) and remarkable stability. However, the cells with the best performance use volatile solvents in their electrolytes, which may be prohibitive for outdoor solar panels in view of the need for robust encapsulation. Solvent-free room-temperature ionic liquids have been pursued as an attractive solution to this dilemma, and device efficiencies of over 7% were achieved by using some low-viscosity formulations containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate, selenocyanate, tricyanomethide or tetracyanoborate. Unfortunately, apart from tetracyanoborate, all of these low-viscosity melts proved to be unstable under prolonged thermal stress and light soaking. Here, we introduce the concept of using eutectic melts to produce solvent-free liquid redox electrolytes. Using a ternary melt in conjunction with a nanocrystalline titania film and the amphiphilic heteroleptic ruthenium complex Z907Na (ref. 10) as a sensitizer, we reach excellent stability and an unprecedented efficiency of 8.2% under air-mass 1.5 global illumination. Our results are of importance to realize large-scale outdoor applications of mesoscopic DSCs.

  9. Test-retest reproducibility for regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)]|[VAMC, Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism as assessed with PET and FDG in response to acute administration of benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men were scanned with positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: prior to placebo and prior to lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 weeks later to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained for the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased whole brain metabolism and the magnitude as well as the regional pattern of the changes was comparable for both studies (12.3 {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7 {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were largest in thalamus (22.2 {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures ROI/global were highly reproducible both for drug as well as replication condition. This is the first study to measure test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic response to a pharmacological challenge. While the global and regional absolute metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam was highly reproducible.

  10. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Mehmet; Duran, Hikmet; Turk, Adem; Mollamehmetoglu, Suleyman; Kalkisim, Ahmet; Erdol, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL) power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ). Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2) and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999) were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2) and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all). Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned. PMID:25136453

  11. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents.

    PubMed

    Kola, Mehmet; Duran, Hikmet; Turk, Adem; Mollamehmetoglu, Suleyman; Kalkisim, Ahmet; Erdol, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL) power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ). Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2) and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999) were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2) and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all). Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned. PMID:25136453

  12. Reproducible Automated Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reproducible, comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment is essential for studying phosphorylation-regulated processes. Here, we describe the application of hyper-porous magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC microspheres for uniform automated phosphopeptide enrichment. Combining magnetic microspheres with a magnetic particle-handling robot enables rapid (45 min), reproducible (r2 ? 0.80) and high-fidelity (>90% purity) phosphopeptide purification in a 96-well format. Automated phosphopeptide enrichment demonstrates reproducible synthetic phosphopeptide recovery across 2 orders of magnitude, “well-to-well” quantitative reproducibility indistinguishable to internal SILAC standards, and robust “plate-to-plate” reproducibility across 5 days of independent enrichments. As a result, automated phosphopeptide enrichment enables statistical analysis of label-free phosphoproteomic samples in a high-throughput manner. This technique uses commercially available, off-the-shelf components and can be easily adopted by any laboratory interested in phosphoproteomic analysis. We provide a free downloadable automated phosphopeptide enrichment program to facilitate uniform interlaboratory collaboration and exchange of phosphoproteomic data sets. PMID:25233145

  13. Successful Use of Remote Engineering Technology to Upgrade Electrical Power Supplies to a Plant Producing Vitrified Highly Active Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Harken, J.P. [Nexia Solutions Ltd, Workington, Cumbria CA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a remote handling intervention project on the Sellafield site in the UK that successfully replaced a critical part of a critical plant in a highly radioactive and contaminated cell. The aim of the project was to replace the existing design of electrical power supplies inside the plant that vitrifies high level liquid waste with a new improved design. The project designed and built a hydraulic manipulator and associated work-heads and tooling to be deployed in cell to remotely replace the power supplies. As part of this replacement process, the project also designed and built a drilling rig to remotely drill holes through the cell wall suitable for the new design of electrical power supplies. (authors)

  14. High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry: an investigation of leucine enkephalin ions produced by electrospray ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Guevremont; Randy W. Purves

    1999-01-01

    High field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) provides atmospheric pressure, room temperature, low-resolution\\u000a separation of gas-phase ions. The FAIMS analyzer acts as an ion filter that can continuously transmit one type of ion, independent\\u000a of m\\/z. The combination of FAIMS with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (ESI-FAIMS-MS) is a powerful technique and is\\u000a used in this study to investigate

  15. Very high upper critical fields in MgB2 produced by selective tuning of impurity scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gurevich; S. Patnaik; V. Braccini; K. H. Kim; C. Mielke; X. Song; L. D. Cooley; S. D. Bu; D. M. Kim; J. H. Choi; L. J. Belenky; J. Giencke; M. K. Lee; W. Tian; X. Q. Pan; A. Siri; E. E. Hellstrom; C. B. Eom; D. C. Larbalestier

    2004-01-01

    We report a significant enhancement of the upper critical field Hc2 of different MgB2 samples alloyed with nonmagnetic impurities. By studying films and bulk polycrystals with different resistivities rgr, we show a clear trend of an increase in Hc2 as rgr increases. One particular high resistivity film had a zero-temperature Hc2(0) well above the Hc2 values of competing non-cuprate superconductors

  16. A preliminary communication on an inexpensive mass-produced high-dose polymeric dosimeter based on optically-stimulated luminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L McLaughlin; S. D Miller; M. C Saylor; A Kovacs; L Wojnarovits

    1999-01-01

    Polymeric thin films (0.5, 0.42, 0.25 and 0.08 mm thicknesses), containing a microcrystalline dispersion of a proprietary optically stimulated fluor in a plastic matrix, have been developed to measure and image high doses, using a simple, inexpensive table-top fluorimeter dedicated to a fast repetitive readout for large-scale routine dosimetry. The useable absorbed dose range of the system is 5×101 to 2×105

  17. Transition of High Power SiC MESFETs from 2-inch to 3-inch Production for Improved Cost and Producibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Milligan; S. T. Allen; J. J. Sumakeris; A. R. Powell; J. R. Jenny; J. W. Palmour

    Significant progress has been made in the development of 3-inch High Purity Semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC substrates and associated SiC epitaxy. Micropipe densities as low as 4.7 cm-2 have been demonstrated for 3-inch HPSI substrates and SiC epitaxy with excellent intra-wafer sheet resistance uniformity (1.4%) has been demonstrated. SiC MESFETs fabricated on 2-inch wafers to baseline our manufacturing process prior to

  18. Time Evolution of Properties of SCC Mixtures Produced Using Crushed Limestone Aggregate and High Content of Limestone Filler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov; David Duh; Vlatko Bosiljkov; Roko Zarnic

    \\u000a The paper deals with time-dependent increase of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity\\u000a as well as with compressive stress-strain curves of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made with crushed limestone aggregate and\\u000a high content of limestone filler. The characteristics under consideration were tested at the ages of 1, 3, 7, 28, 180, 360\\u000a and 720 days. Time evolution of

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Based Reevaluation of Disaccharides Produced upon Incubation of Sugarcane Vacuoles with UDP-Glucose 1

    PubMed Central

    Maretzki, Andrew; Thom, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    A reanalysis of products formed after short-term incubation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid cv H50-7209) vacuole preparations with uridine diphosphate [14C]glucose was performed. The results indicated that the ethanol-soluble substance previously identified as sucrose did not elute with sucrose when subjected to high performance liquid chromatography but had the same retention time as a disaccharide tentatively identified as laminaribiose. PMID:16666293

  20. Effect of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on microbial growth and sensorial qualities of fresh-cut produce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbeth Jacxsens; Frank Devlieghere; Caroline Van der Steen; Johan Debevere

    2001-01-01

    The application of High Oxygen Atmospheres (HOA) (i.e. >70% O2) for packaging ready-to-eat vegetables was evaluated as an alternative technique for low O2 Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere (EMA) packaging (3% O2–5% CO2–balance N2) for respiring products. Comparative experiments between both techniques were performed in-vitro and in-vivo. Typical spoilage causing microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Candida lambica), the moulds Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus flavus and