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Sample records for produced highly reproducible

  1. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  2. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-14

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10,000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm(-2). The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices. PMID:24434798

  3. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10 000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm-2. The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices.

  4. Reproducible, high performance patch antenna array apparatus and method of fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2007-01-23

    A reproducible, high-performance patch antenna array apparatus includes a patch antenna array provided on a unitary dielectric substrate, and a feed network provided on the same unitary substrate and proximity coupled to the patch antenna array. The reproducibility is enhanced by using photolithographic patterning and etching to produce both the patch antenna array and the feed network.

  5. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  6. Osteoblast-specific expression of the fibrous dysplasia (FD)-causing mutation Gs?(R201C) produces a high bone mass phenotype but does not reproduce FD in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Cristina; Michienzi, Stefano; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Consiglio, Alberto Di; Cersosimo, Stefania; Spica, Emanuela; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Davis, Graham; Saggio, Isabella; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported the generation and initial characterization of the first direct model of human fibrous dysplasia (FD; OMIM #174800), obtained through the constitutive systemic expression of one of the disease-causing mutations, Gs?(R201C) , in the mouse. To define the specific pathogenetic role(s) of individual cell types within the stromal/osteogenic system in FD, we generated mice expressing Gs?(R201C) selectively in mature osteoblasts using the 2.3kb Col1a1 promoter. We show here that this results in a striking high bone mass phenotype but not in a mimicry of human FD. The high bone mass phenotype involves specifically a deforming excess of cortical bone and prolonged and ectopic cortical bone remodeling. Expression of genes characteristic of late stages of bone cell differentiation/maturation is profoundly altered as a result of expression of Gs?(R201C) in osteoblasts, and expression of the Wnt inhibitor Sost is reduced. Although high bone mass is, in fact, a feature of some types/stages of FD lesions in humans, it is marrow fibrosis, localized loss of adipocytes and hematopoietic tissue, osteomalacia, and osteolytic changes that together represent the characteristic pathological profile of FD, as well as the sources of specific morbidity. None of these features are reproduced in mice with osteoblast-specific expression of Gs?(R201C) . We further show that hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells, as well as more mature cell compartments, and adipocyte development are normal in these mice. These data demonstrate that effects of Gs? mutations underpinning FD-defining tissue changes and morbidity do not reflect the effects of the mutations on osteoblasts proper. PMID:25487351

  7. Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.

    PubMed

    Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2014-06-01

    Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

  8. Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications.

  9. Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications. PMID:25483713

  10. High resolution optics combined with high spatial reproducibility in flow

    SciTech Connect

    Eisert, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate sizing in flow using optical methods generally requires high resolution optics and specially designed flow systems. Flow systems developed by this group have following features: (a) double sheath configuration for optical index match, (b) no curved optical surface in the sensing area, (c) gradual hydrodynamic focusing over a long distance to minimize mechanical shearing, (d) precision spatial positioning of cells by reducing suspension fluid diameter to a cell diameter or less, (e) total thickness between outer surfaces of the flow chamber at the viewing area of 1.5 mm or less. Cells intersect a laser light beam focussed go circular as well as elliptical cross-sections or 1 micron or less in diameter. Cellular extinction is monitored during transit through the beam. Cell length is derived from the time for flight measurement and corrected for absolute values by continuous velocity reference using a second laser beam intersecting the cell stream at a predetermined distance. This second spot may be circular or elliptical, of a different polarization and/or frequency. Simultaneous fluorescence intensity and diameter measurements were performed on test particles using different optical geometries. The influence of the particle structure on fluorescence measurements is demonstrated where high resolution sizing is required at the same time.

  11. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the minimum daily activity requirement. The irradiation parameters that would be required to achieve these service rates are described. We believe the developed formalism will aid in the development of quality-control criteria required to ensure consistent supply of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc. PMID:25909462

  12. Reproducible Crystallite Size of Mono-Dispersed and Scalable Biologically Produced Metal-Substituted Nanometer-Sized Magnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Rawn, C.; Rondinone, A.; Love, L.; Roh, Y.; Lauf, R.; Phelps, T.

    2008-12-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that biosynthesized magnetite (biomagnetite) exhibited similar properties as chemically synthesized magnetite. To complement uses of the traditional chemically synthesized magnetite (chem-magnetite) biomagnetite must be exhibit highly reproducible sizes and be available in scalable qualities. Here we emphasize potentially advantageous properties of biomagnetite regarding size, reproducibility and scaling availability. Average crystallite size (ACS) of biomagnetites ranging from 10-100 nm was determined after varied 1) incubation times, 2) substitution of metal and lanthanide species, 3) degrees of congruent incorporation or retardation of substitution elements, 4) bacterial species with their varied ability to substitute elemental species, and 6) incubation temperature that can influence coalescence. The microbial production of biomagnetite has demonstrated capacity to make highly crystalline nanoscale particles of metal-substituted ferrites including compounds of Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and the rare earths in large quantity. Selected Zn-substituted magnetite (nominal composition of Zn0.6Fe2.4O4) has been recovered at over 1 kg (wet weight) in batches from 30 L fermentations. The massively produced extracellular magnetites were confirmed to exhibit good mono- dispersity via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM also validated highly reproducible ACS of 13.1±0.8 nm size as determined through X-ray diffraction (N=7) at a 99 % confidence level. Based on the scale-up experiments performed using the 35 L reactor, the reduction in ACS variability and shorted incubation times of several days may be attributed to increases of electron donor input, and availability of divalent ions of the substitution metal with less ferrous ions in the case of doped magnetite, or a combination of the above. While costs of commercial nanometer sized magnetite (25-50 nm) may vary from 500/kg to > 1,000/kg, microbial mass production is likely capable of producing 13-90 nm magnetite or doped magnetites at a fraction of the cost of traditional chemical synthesis. While there are numerous approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles, bacterial fermentation of magnetite or metal-substituted magnetite may represent a disruptive manufacturing technology with respect to yield, reproducibility and scalability.

  13. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the minimum daily activity requirement. The irradiation parameters that would be required to achieve these service rates are described. We believe the developed formalism will aid in the development of quality-control criteria required to ensure consistent supply of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity cyclotron-produced 99mTc.

  14. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y.; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M.; Loffredo, John T.; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

  15. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  16. Producing citizens, reproducing the "French race": immigration, demography, and pronatalism in early twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Camiscioli, E

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines how, in the context of depopulation and mass immigration, members of the French pronatalist movement advanced a policy favouring immigrants from Italy, Spain, and Poland. Because the 'demographic crisis' created a shortage of citizens as well as workers, pronatalists held that foreign workers must also be assimilable, and able to produce French offspring. While the racial difference of colonial subjects was deemed immutable, pronatalists called for the immigration of white foreigners whose less 'modern' condition promoted fecundity, traditionalism, and gender dimorphism. Evidence is drawn from demographic studies, the press of France's largest pronatalist movement, and a pronatalist advisory committee created by the Ministry of Health in 1920. PMID:18198513

  17. High-Reproducibility and High-Accuracy Method for Automated Topic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Sirer, M. Irmak; Wang, Jane X.; Acuna, Daniel; Körding, Konrad; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Much of human knowledge sits in large databases of unstructured text. Leveraging this knowledge requires algorithms that extract and record metadata on unstructured text documents. Assigning topics to documents will enable intelligent searching, statistical characterization, and meaningful classification. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is the state of the art in topic modeling. Here, we perform a systematic theoretical and numerical analysis that demonstrates that current optimization techniques for LDA often yield results that are not accurate in inferring the most suitable model parameters. Adapting approaches from community detection in networks, we propose a new algorithm that displays high reproducibility and high accuracy and also has high computational efficiency. We apply it to a large set of documents in the English Wikipedia and reveal its hierarchical structure.

  18. High Reproducibility of Histological Characterization by Whole Virtual Slide Quantification; An Example Using Carotid Plaque Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Velema, Evelyn; Vons, Kristy; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Ruijter, Hester M. den.; de Borst, Gert Jan; Moll, Frans L.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tissue biobanks are an important source for discovery and validation studies aiming for new proteins that are causally related with disease development. There is an increasing demand for accurate and reproducible histological characterization, especially for subsequent analysis and interpretation of data in association studies. We assessed reproducibility of one semiquantative and two quantitative methods for histological tissue characterization. We introduce a new automated method for whole digital slide quantification. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were used to test reproducibility. Methods 50 atherosclerotic plaques that were obtained during carotid endarterectomy were analysed. For the semiquantitative analysis, 6 different plaque characteristics were scored in categories by two independent observers, and Cohen's ? was used to test intra- and interobserver reproducibility. The computer-aided method (assessed by two independent observers) and automated method were tested on CD68 (for macrophages) and ? smooth muscle actin (for smooth muscle cells) stainings. Agreement for these two methods (done on a continuous scale) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results For the semiquantitative analysis, ? values ranged from 0.55 to 0.69 for interobserver variability, and were slightly higher for intraobserver reproducibility in both observers. The computer-aided method yielded intra- and interobserver ICCs between 0.6 and 0.9. The new automated method performed most optimal regarding reproducibility, with ICCs ranging from 0.92 to 0.97. Conclusions The analysis of performance of three methods for histological slide characterization on carotid atherosclerotic plaques showed high precision and agreement in repeated measurements for the automated method for whole digital slide quantification. We suggest that this method can fulfill the need for reproducible histological quantification. PMID:25541691

  19. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  20. Exploring copper nanostructures as highly uniform and reproducible substrates for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Volpati, D; Spada, E R; Plá Cid, C C; Sartorelli, M L; Aroca, R F; Constantino, C J L

    2015-01-21

    The unique properties of metallic nanostructures of coinage metals that can sustain localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) put them at the centre of plasmon-enhanced phenomena. The theory of plasmonic phenomena based on LSPR is well-established. However, the fabrication of plasmonic substrates, reproducibly, is still challenging for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF). In this work we describe well-ordered copper nanostructures (CuNSs), produced by electrodeposition and nanosphere lithography, as active substrates for SEF. After a detailed spectroscopic and microscopic characterization, CuNSs are successfully applied as SEF-active substrates using a well-known perylene derivative as a target molecule. The signal reproducibility from CuNS substrates was established by comparing the results against those obtained from a simply roughened Cu substrate. Under optimal conditions, signal variability is around 4%. PMID:25416536

  1. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  2. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-07-01

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  3. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched using TiO2 beads and the orbitrap mass spectrometer is operated in a sensitive mode with higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD). PMID:26584931

  4. Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Josephine B; Sword, Gregory A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-01-01

    Insect herbivores may undergo genetic divergence on their host plants through host-associated differentiation (HAD). Much of what we know about HAD involves insect species with narrow host ranges (i.e., specialists) that spend part or all their life cycle inside their hosts, and/or reproduce asexually (e.g., parthenogenetic insects), all of which are thought to facilitate HAD. However, sexually reproducing polyphagous insects can also exhibit HAD. Few sexually reproducing insects have been tested for HAD, and when they have insects from only a handful of potential host-plant populations have been tested, making it difficult to predict how common HAD is when one considers the entire species’ host range. This question is particularly relevant when considering insect pests, as host-associated populations may differ in traits relevant to their control. Here, we tested for HAD in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pest, the cotton fleahopper (CFH) (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus), a sexually reproducing, highly polyphagous hemipteran insect. A previous study detected one incidence of HAD among three of its host plants. We used Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess HAD in CFH collected from an expanded array of 13 host-plant species belonging to seven families. Overall, four genetically distinct populations were found. One genetically distinct genotype was exclusively associated with one of the host-plant species while the other three were observed across more than one host-plant species. The relatively low degree of HAD in CFH compared to the pea aphid, another hemipteran insect, stresses the likely importance of sexual recombination as a factor increasing the likelihood of HAD. PMID:26257868

  5. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  6. Consecutive Morphology Controlling Operations for Highly Reproducible Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Wei; Yue, Youfeng; Liu, Jian; Bi, Enbing; Yang, Xudong; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan

    2015-09-23

    Perovskite solar cells have shown high photovoltaic performance but suffer from low reproducibility, which is mainly caused by low uniformity of the active perovskite layer in the devices. The nonuniform perovskites further limit the fabrication of large size solar cells. In this work, we control the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 on a mesoporous TiO2 substrate by employing consecutive antisolvent dripping and solvent-vapor fumigation during spin coating of the precursor solution. The solvent-vapor treatment is found to enhance the perovskite pore filling and increase the uniformity of CH3NH3PbI3 in the porous scaffold layer but slightly decrease the uniformity of the perovskite capping layer. An additional antisolvent dripping is employed to recover the uniform perovskite capping layer. Such consecutive morphology controlling operations lead to highly uniform perovskite in both porous and capping layers. By using the optimized perovskite deposition procedure, the reproducibility of mesostructured solar cells was greatly improved such that a total of 40 devices showed an average efficiency of 15.3% with a very small standard deviation of 0.32. Moreover, a high efficiency of 14.9% was achieved on a large-size cell with a working area of 1.02 cm(2). PMID:26317144

  7. Highly reproducible absolute quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Alison S; Honeyborne, Isobella; Gutteridge, Alice; Whale, Alexandra S; Nixon, Gavin; Wilson, Philip; Jones, Gerwyn; McHugh, Timothy D; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2015-04-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) offers absolute quantification through the limiting dilution of template nucleic acid molecules and has the potential to offer high reproducibility. However, the robustness of dPCR has yet to be evaluated using complex genomes to compare different dPCR methods and platforms. We used DNA templates from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to evaluate the impact of template type, master mixes, primer pairs and, crucially, extraction methods on dPCR performance. Performance was compared between the chip (BioMark) and droplet (QX100) formats. In the absence of any external calibration, dPCR measurements were generally consistent within ?2-fold between different master mixes and primers. Template DNA integrity could influence dPCR performance: high molecular weight gDNA resulted in underperformance of one master mix, while restriction digestion of a low molecular weight sample also caused underestimation. Good concordance (?1.5-fold difference) was observed between chip and droplet formats. Platform precision was in agreement with predicted Poisson error based on partition number, but this was a minor component (<10%) of the total variance when extraction was included. dPCR offers a robust reproducible method for DNA measurement; however, as a predominant source of error, the process of DNA extraction will need to be controlled with suitable calibrators to maximize agreement between laboratories. PMID:25646934

  8. THE LHC CRYOMAGNET SUPPORTS IN GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY: A LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION WITH HIGH REPRODUCIBILITY IN PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Poncet, A.; Struik, M.; Parma, V.; Trigo, J.

    2008-03-03

    The about 1700 LHC main ring super-conducting magnets are supported within their cryostats on 4700 low heat in leak column-type supports. The supports were designed to ensure a precise and stable positioning of the heavy dipole and quadrupole magnets while keeping thermal conduction heat loads within budget. A trade-off between mechanical and thermal properties, as well as cost considerations, led to the choice of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GFRE). Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), featuring a high level of automation and control, was the manufacturing process retained to ensure the reproducibility of the performance of the supports throughout the large production.The Spanish aerospace company EADS-CASA Espacio developed the specific RTM process, and produced the total quantity of supports between 2001 and 2004.This paper describes the development and the production of the supports, and presents the production experience and the achieved performance.

  9. The LHC Cryomagnet Supports in Glass-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy A Large Scale Industrial Production with High Reproducibility in Performance

    E-print Network

    Poncet, A; Trigo, J; Parma, V

    2008-01-01

    The about 1700 LHC main ring super-conducting magnets are supported within their cryostats on 4700 low heat in leak column-type supports. The supports were designed to ensure a precise and stable positioning of the heavy dipole and quadrupole magnets while keeping thermal conduction heat loads within budget. A trade-off between mechanical and thermal properties, as well as cost considerations, led to the choice of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GFRE). Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), featuring a high level of automation and control, was the manufacturing process retained to ensure the reproducibility of the performance of the supports throughout the large production. The Spanish aerospace company EADS-CASA Espacio developed the specific RTM process, and produced the total quantity of supports between 2001 and 2004. This paper describes the development and the production of the supports, and presents the production experience and the achieved performance.

  10. A reproducible approach to high-throughput biological data acquisition and integration

    PubMed Central

    Rahnavard, Gholamali; Waldron, Levi; McIver, Lauren; Shafquat, Afrah; Franzosa, Eric A.; Miropolsky, Larissa; Sweeney, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Modern biological research requires rapid, complex, and reproducible integration of multiple experimental results generated both internally and externally (e.g., from public repositories). Although large systematic meta-analyses are among the most effective approaches both for clinical biomarker discovery and for computational inference of biomolecular mechanisms, identifying, acquiring, and integrating relevant experimental results from multiple sources for a given study can be time-consuming and error-prone. To enable efficient and reproducible integration of diverse experimental results, we developed a novel approach for standardized acquisition and analysis of high-throughput and heterogeneous biological data. This allowed, first, novel biomolecular network reconstruction in human prostate cancer, which correctly recovered and extended the NF?B signaling pathway. Next, we investigated host-microbiome interactions. In less than an hour of analysis time, the system retrieved data and integrated six germ-free murine intestinal gene expression datasets to identify the genes most influenced by the gut microbiota, which comprised a set of immune-response and carbohydrate metabolism processes. Finally, we constructed integrated functional interaction networks to compare connectivity of peptide secretion pathways in the model organisms Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26157642

  11. For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from Elsevier Ltd. Most current candidate HIV vaccines seem to produce little

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    vaccines seem to produce little protection against infection, but reduce viral load and slow the decline in CD4 lymphocyte numbers. Such disease- modifying vaccines could potentially provide important the following question: could disease-modifying HIV vaccines cause population-level perversity (ie, increase

  12. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A.; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 ?m. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. PMID:26067193

  13. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

    PubMed

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 ?m. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved. PMID:26067193

  14. Reproducibility blues.

    PubMed

    Pulverer, Bernd

    2015-11-12

    Research findings advance science only if they are significant, reliable and reproducible. Scientists and journals must publish robust data in a way that renders it optimally reproducible. Reproducibility has to be incentivized and supported by the research infrastructure but without dampening innovation. PMID:26538323

  15. Study of highly precise outdoor characterization technique for photovoltaic modules in terms of reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukabori, Akihiro; Takenouchi, Takakazu; Matsuda, Youji; Tsuno, Yuki; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In this study, novel outdoor measurements were conducted for highly precise characterization of photovoltaic (PV) modules by measuring current-voltage (I-V) curves with fast sweep speeds and module’s temperature, and with a PV sensor for reference. Fast sweep speeds suppressed the irradiance variation. As a result, smooth I-V curves were obtained and the PV parameter deviation was suppressed. The module’s temperature was measured by attaching resistive temperature detector sensors on the module’s backsheet. The PV sensor was measured synchronously with the PV module. The PV parameters including Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF were estimated after correcting the I-V curves using the IEC standards. The reproducibility of Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF relative to the outdoor fits was evaluated as 0.43, 0.58, 0.24, and 0.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that highly precise measurements are possible using a PV measurement system with the three above-mentioned features.

  16. Development of an air-knife system for highly reproducible fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microstencils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Gyu Man

    2015-08-01

    In this study, an air-knife system was developed for the automated fabrication of polymer microstencils with microscale perforated patterns. Blowing compressed N2 gas through the air knife provided a uniform laminar gas flow of high intensity suitable for perforating holes in the stencil. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencil was replicated from a master mold prepared by photolithography. When the prepolymer of PDMS was spin-coated onto the master mold, a thin layer of the prepolymer remained on top of the master's structure and consequently prevented the formation of the perforated patterns. This residual layer was easily removed by the presented air knife. The air-knife system controlled the flow rate of N2 gas and the conveying speed of the master mold; therefore, the system possessed high reproducibility compared to manual gas blowing. Its use reduced the fabrication time for perforated biocompatible polymer microstencils, allowing for their mass production via an automated system. The validity of this suggested method was proven through experiments and was evaluated by application in various fields.

  17. An attempt to reproduce high burn-up structure by ion irradiation of SIMFUEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. G.; Lunev, A. V.; Reutov, V. F.; Tenishev, A. V.; Isaenkova, M. G.; Khlunov, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Experiments in IC-100 and U-400 cyclotrons were conducted with SIMFUEL pellets (11.47 wt.% of fission products simulators) to reproduce some aspects of the long-term irradiation conditions in epithermal reactors. Pellets were irradiated with Xe16+, Xe24+ and He+ at energies ranging from 20 keV (He+) to 320 keV (Xe16+) and 1-90 MeV (Xe24+). Some samples were subsequently annealed to obtain larger grain sizes and to study defects recovery. The major microstructural changes consisted in grain sub-division observed on SEM and AFM images and change in composition registered by EPMA (pellets irradiated with 1-90 MeV Xe24+ ions at fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2). Lattice distortion and increase in dislocation density is also noted according to X-ray data. At low energies and high fluences formation of bubbles (20 keV He+ at 5.5 × 1017 cm-2) was observed. Grain sub-division exhibits full coverage of the grain body and preservation of former grain boundaries. The size of sub-grains depends on local dislocation density and changes from 200 nm to 400 nm along the irradiated surface. Beneath it the size ranges from 150 to 600 nm. Sub-grains are not observed in samples irradiated by low-energy ions even at high dislocation densities.

  18. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  19. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  20. Highly reproducible method of planar lipid bilayer reconstitution in polymethyl methacrylate microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2006-02-14

    We developed a highly reproducible method for planar lipid bilayer reconstitution using a microfluidic system made of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastic substrate. Planar lipid bilayers are formed at apertures, 100 microm in diameter, by flowing lipid solution and buffer alternately into an integrated microfluidic channel. Since the amount and distribution of the lipid solution at the aperture determines the state of the lipid bilayer, controlling them precisely is crucial. We designed the geometry of the fluidic system so that a constant amount of lipid solution is distributed at the aperture. Then, the layer of lipid solution was thinned by applying an external pressure and finally became a bilayer when a pressure of 200-400 Pa was applied. The formation process can be simultaneously monitored with optical and electrical recordings. The maximum yield for bilayer formation was 90%. Using this technique, four lipid bilayers are formed simultaneously in a single chip. Finally, a channel current through gramicidin peptide ion channels was recorded to prove the compatibility of the chip with single molecule electrophysiology. PMID:16460131

  1. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B. (Knoxville, TN); Steger, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wright, Ralph R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  2. Highly uniform and reproducible vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Chui, H.C.; Choquette, K.D.; Hammons, B.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Geib, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    We show that the uniformity of the lasing wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be as good as {plus_minus}0.3% across a entire 3 in. wafer in MOCVD growth with a similar run-to-run reproducibility.

  3. Highly sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy from hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Yang, Zhongbo; Peng, Bo; Cao, Cuong; Zhang, Chao; You, Hongjun; Xiong, Qihua; Li, Zhiyuan; Fang, Jixiang

    2014-04-16

    A hierarchical nanoparticle strategy to simultaneously gain super Raman signal amplification, high uniformity, and reproducibility is presented. Using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins, an ultrahigh sensitivity, e.g., down to 1 fM concentrations for DEHP molecule is obtained. A small standard deviation of <10% is achieved by simply dropping and evaporating sub-100 nm nanourchins onto a substrate. PMID:24449036

  4. Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves 

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

    2006-06-22

    during castration. Castration is a simple and inexpensive way producers can add value to bull calves. The downside to castration is that steer calves will be 15 to 25 pounds lighter than bull calves at weaning. This can be offset by using growth...-managed, healthy, thrifty cattle that have been dehorned, castrated and vaccinated. Producers should also evaluate other cost-effective management practices that can increase weaning weights and, ultimately, the value of calves. Health and thriftiness Data...

  5. Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J. E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao

    2014-03-21

    Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

  6. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    DOEpatents

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  7. Targets for producing high purity I-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Tellurium powder in improved targets is bombarded with a cyclotron beam to produce Xe-123. Flowing gas streams carry the Xe-123 through one cold trap which removes Xe-123 that subsequently decays to I-123. During this bombardment energy is deposited in the target material causing its temperature to rise. Some of the tellurium vaporizes and subsequently condenses on surfaces that are cooler than the vaporization temperature. Provision is made for the repeated bombardment of this condensed tellurium.

  8. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  9. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  10. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1?×?10-10?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing.

  11. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2015-01-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1?×?10(-10)?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing. PMID:25974125

  12. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1?×?10?10?M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing. PMID:25974125

  13. Inexpensive and Highly Reproducible Cloud-Based Variant Calling of 2,535 Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Carroll, Andrew; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    Population scale sequencing of whole human genomes is becoming economically feasible; however, data management and analysis remains a formidable challenge for many research groups. Large sequencing studies, like the 1000 Genomes Project, have improved our understanding of human demography and the effect of rare genetic variation in disease. Variant calling on datasets of hundreds or thousands of genomes is time-consuming, expensive, and not easily reproducible given the myriad components of a variant calling pipeline. Here, we describe a cloud-based pipeline for joint variant calling in large samples using the Real Time Genomics population caller. We deployed the population caller on the Amazon cloud with the DNAnexus platform in order to achieve low-cost variant calling. Using our pipeline, we were able to identify 68.3 million variants in 2,535 samples from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. By performing the variant calling in a parallel manner, the data was processed within 5 days at a compute cost of $7.33 per sample (a total cost of $18,590 for completed jobs and $21,805 for all jobs). Analysis of cost dependence and running time on the data size suggests that, given near linear scalability, cloud computing can be a cheap and efficient platform for analyzing even larger sequencing studies in the future. PMID:26110529

  14. Inexpensive and Highly Reproducible Cloud-Based Variant Calling of 2,535 Human Genomes.

    PubMed

    Shringarpure, Suyash S; Carroll, Andrew; De La Vega, Francisco M; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Population scale sequencing of whole human genomes is becoming economically feasible; however, data management and analysis remains a formidable challenge for many research groups. Large sequencing studies, like the 1000 Genomes Project, have improved our understanding of human demography and the effect of rare genetic variation in disease. Variant calling on datasets of hundreds or thousands of genomes is time-consuming, expensive, and not easily reproducible given the myriad components of a variant calling pipeline. Here, we describe a cloud-based pipeline for joint variant calling in large samples using the Real Time Genomics population caller. We deployed the population caller on the Amazon cloud with the DNAnexus platform in order to achieve low-cost variant calling. Using our pipeline, we were able to identify 68.3 million variants in 2,535 samples from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. By performing the variant calling in a parallel manner, the data was processed within 5 days at a compute cost of $7.33 per sample (a total cost of $18,590 for completed jobs and $21,805 for all jobs). Analysis of cost dependence and running time on the data size suggests that, given near linear scalability, cloud computing can be a cheap and efficient platform for analyzing even larger sequencing studies in the future. PMID:26110529

  15. Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-04

    A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  16. Gold nanoisland films as reproducible SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection of fungicides.

    PubMed

    Khlebtsov, Boris N; Khanadeev, Vitaly A; Panfilova, Elizaveta V; Bratashov, Daniil N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2015-04-01

    A wet-chemical approach is used to fabricate centimeter-scale gold nanoisland films (NIFs) with tunable morphology of islands and with strong electromagnetic coupling between them. The approach consists in a uniform seeding of small gold nanoparticles on a glass or silicon substrate, followed by controllable growth of the seeds into small nanoislands. A special technique for TEM sampling was developed to follow the gradual formation of larger-sized isolated nanoparticles, nanoislands of sintered overgrown seeds, and a complete gold layer with nanoscale cracks. The electromagnetic field distribution inside the fabricated NIFs was calculated by FDTD simulations applied to actual TEM images of the fabricated samples rather than to artificial models commonly used. SERS measurements with 1,4-aminothiophenol (ATP) molecules demonstrated the analytical enhancement factor about of 10(7) and the fundamental enhancement factor about of 10(8) for optimized substrates. These values were at least 1 order of magnitude higher than that for self-assembled arrays of gold nanostars and silver nanocubes. SERS spectra of independent samples demonstrated good sample-to-sample reproducibility in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the main peaks less than 20%. Additionally, Raman maps with 1 ?m increment in X-Y directions of NIFs (800 spectral spots) demonstrated good point-to-point repeatability in the intensity of the main Raman vibration modes (RSD varied from 5% to 15% for 50 randomly selected points). A real-life application of the fabricated SERS substrates is exemplified by the detection of the thiram fungicide in apple peels within the 5-250 ppb linear detection range. Specifically, the NIF-based SERS technology detected thiram on apple peel down to level of 5 ng/cm(2). PMID:25764374

  17. Reproducible Growth of High-Quality Cubic-SiC Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor electronic devices and circuits based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which devices made from conventional semiconductors cannot adequately perform. The ability of SiC-based devices to function under such extreme conditions is expected to enable significant improvements in a variety of applications and systems. These include greatly improved high-voltage switching for saving energy in public electric power distribution and electric motor drives; more powerful microwave electronic circuits for radar and communications; and sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines.

  18. AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain

    E-print Network

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    communications, ozone-layer monitoring, and gas detection. Due to their high responsivity 600 A/W , high speed been demonstrated.4,5 The UV-filtering nature of the atmospheric ozone molecules blocks the solar gain. The Al0.4Ga0.6N absorption layer was used as a multiplica- tion layer with c=276 nm. The AlxGa1-x

  19. Elusive reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Gori, Gio Batta

    2014-08-01

    Reproducibility remains a mirage for many biomedical studies because inherent experimental uncertainties generate idiosyncratic outcomes. The authentication and error rates of primary empirical data are often elusive, while multifactorial confounders beset experimental setups. Substantive methodological remedies are difficult to conceive, signifying that many biomedical studies yield more or less plausible results, depending on the attending uncertainties. Real life applications of those results remain problematic, with important exceptions for counterfactual field validations of strong experimental signals, notably for some vaccines and drugs, and for certain safety and occupational measures. It is argued that industrial, commercial and public policies and regulations could not ethically rely on unreliable biomedical results; rather, they should be rationally grounded on transparent cost-benefit tradeoffs. PMID:24882687

  20. High reproducibility of adenosine stress cardiac MR myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Mark A; Bell, Susan P; Adkisson, Douglas W; Wang, Li; Ooi, Henry; Sawyer, Douglas B; Kronenberg, Marvin W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of first-pass contrast-enhanced cardiac MR (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Single centre, tertiary care hospital. Participants 6 outpatient participants with NIDCM. Outcome Reproducibility of semiquantitative myocardial perfusion analysis by CMR. Method 6 patients with NIDCM were studied twice using first-pass of contrast transit through the left ventricular (LV) myocardium with a saturation-recovery gradient echo sequence at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia. The anterior wall was divided into endocardial (Endo) and epicardial (Epi) segments. The Myocardial Perfusion Index (MPI) was calculated as the myocardial signal augmentation rate normalised to the LV cavity rate. The Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index (MPRI) was calculated as hyperaemic/resting MPI. Results Between study 1 and 2, median MPI was similar for resting Endo (0.076 vs 0.077), hyperaemic Endo (0.143 vs 0.143), resting Epi (0.073 vs 0.074), and hyperaemic Epi (0.135 vs 0.134). Median MPRI was similar for Endo (1.84 vs 1.87) and Epi (1.90 vs 2.00). Combining Endo and Epi MPI (N=12), there was excellent agreement between Study 1 and 2 for resting MPI (r=0.998, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.998, coefficients of variation (CoV) 1.4%), hyperaemic MPI (r=0.979, ICC 0.963, CoV 3.3%) and MPRI (r=0.989, ICC 0.94, CoV 3.8%). Conclusions Resting and hyperaemic myocardial perfusion using a normalised upslope analysis during adenosine CMR is a highly reproducible technique in patients with NIDCM. Trial registration number Clinical Trials.Gov ID NCT00574119. PMID:25515841

  1. Highly controllable and reproducible ZnO nanowire arrays growth with focused ion beam and low-temperature hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Kaidi; Zhang, Jicheng; Zhou, Minjie; Tang, Yongjian; Wang, Shuxia; Cui, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    In this work, high-quality ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable degrees over size, orientation, uniformity and periodicity are fabricated on GaN substrates with focused ion beam etching and low-temperature hydrothermal method. Experimental results revealed that the patterned holes (i.e., shape, depth, size and period) have decisive impacts on the morphology of resulting arrays. Optimal conditions and ordered arrays are obtained in terms of functionality analysis for both patterned holes and hydrothermal method. A possible mechanism is proposed to interpret the growth process in and out of the pattern holes. Results show that this hybrid method exhibits good reproducibility for the fabrication of high-quality ZnO nanowire arrays with great potentials.

  2. Scheimpflug camera in the quantitative assessment of reproducibility of high-speed corneal deformation during intraocular pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert; Ambrósio, Renato; Reisdorf, Sven

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents an original analysis method of corneal deformation images from the ultra-high-speed Scheimpflug camera (Corvis ST tonometer). Particular attention was paid to deformation frequencies exceeding 100 Hz and their reproducibility in healthy subjects examined repeatedly. A total of 4200 images with a resolution of 200 × 576 pixels were recorded. The data derived from 3 consecutive measurements from 10 volunteers with normal corneas. A new image analysis algorithm, written in Matlab with the use of the Image Processing package, adaptive image filtering, morphological analysis methods and fast Fourier transform, was proposed. The following results were obtained: (1) reproducibility of the eyeball reaction in healthy subjects with precision of 10%, (2) corneal vibrations with a frequency of 369 ± 65 Hz (3) and amplitude of 7.86 ± 1.28 µm, (4) the phase shift within two parts of the cornea of the same subject of about 150°. The result of image sequence analysis for one subject and deformations with a corneal frequency response above 100 Hz. PMID:25623926

  3. Shot-to-shot reproducibility in the emission of fast highly charged metal ions from a laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Krasa, J.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Krousky, E.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Rohlena, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Wolowski, J.

    2012-02-15

    The generation of fast highly charged metal ions with the use of the sub-nanosecond Prague Asterix Laser System, operated at a fundamental wavelength of 1315 nm, is reported. Particular attention is paid to shot-to-shot reproducibility in the ion emission. Au and Pd targets were exposed to intensities up to 5 x 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. Above the laser intensity threshold of {approx}3 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} the plasma is generated in a form of irregular bursts. The maximum energy of protons constituting the leading edge of the fastest burst reaches a value up to 1 MeV. The fast ions in the following bursts have energy gradually decreasing with the increasing burst number, namely, from a value of about 0.5 MeV/charge regardless of the atomic number and mass of the ionized species.

  4. High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yu; Tao, Yuxiao; Wang, Liuyang; Wang, Biaobing; Yang, Zhenguo; Tai, Yanlong

    2013-01-01

    An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 ?? cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23537333

  5. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  6. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  7. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ruckman, Mark (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Daniel (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  8. Large-area fabrication of highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman substrate via a facile double sided tape-assisted transfer approach using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Chao; Shi, Xin; Yang, Zhongbo; Long, Yitao; Fang, Jixiang

    2014-02-01

    Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications.Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05840a

  9. Sensitivity gains, linearity, and spectral reproducibility in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional MAS NMR spectra of high dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C, 15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high-quality artifact-free datasets. PMID:24752819

  10. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    SciTech Connect

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2014-04-22

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  11. Quantitative Analysis with the Cameca Sxfive fe at High Lateral Resolution and High Reproducibility. Applications to Geochronology and Mineralogy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrke, Hans-Ulrich; Hombourger, Chrystel; Outrequin, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Schottky emitter and its implementation as electron source in Electron Microprobe has significantly improved the characterization of materials in earth sciences and in metallurgy. The strength of an Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is the ability to accurately measure and quantify element in traces at few 10's ppm level. The Field Emission (FE) Source allows trace element analysis with high beam currents thanks to the high brightness of the source and the excellent stability of the beam current, trading off spatial resolution. Of course, accuracy of major element quantification is maintained with a FE source. As X-rays are generated from a much larger diameter than the diameter of the incident electron beam, it is advised to work at low voltage and low beam current in order to take full advantage of the small spot sizes achievable with a Field Emission Source. Thus, the analytical resolution is not limited anymore by the beam diameter but only by the diameter of the X-ray emission volume. One of the advantages of the FE Source is to obtain fine focused electron beam at low beam voltage (?10 keV) while maintaining high and stable beam current. In these experimental conditions, the penetration depth of the primary electrons and thus the interaction volume- in which electrons are scattered and generate X-rays- decreases to sub-?m scale (compared to micron scale of the traditional Electron Microprobe at 15 or 20 keV). Thanks to WDS spectrometers with sub 10eV energy resolution, accurate quantitative analysis can be achieved even on sub micron phases at low beam energy and high lateral resolution using L- and M-Lines for heavy elements. This will be illustrated, in a first example, by measuring different areas in a Monazite grain. U, Pb and Th are quantitatively analyzed with high precision in order to characterize age domains. PIC PIC In the above example, several generations of monazite growth are represented in the quantified high-resolution X-ray maps. Of foremost interest is the high Y rim and fracture filling monazite (ca. ~1800 Ma) which has penetrated much older monazite (ca. ~2400 Ma). (Monazite from Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canadian Artic) In a second example, quantification of small refractory phases (hibonite, grossite, perovskite, ...) formed by gas condensation in the solar nebula will be presented. Paris Meteorite is a stone classified by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle as a CM chondrite. It contains chondrules and Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI). These latter are materials formed at nearly the same time as the solar system i.e. 4.56 billion years ago. PIC PIC

  12. Reproducible Preparation of Au/TS-1 with High Reaction Rate for Gas Phase Epoxidation of Propylene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. S.; Stach E.; Akatay, M.C.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, N.

    2012-03-01

    A refined and reliable synthesis procedure for Au/TS-1(Si/Ti molar ratio {approx}100) with high reaction rate for the direct gas phase epoxidation of propylene has been developed by studying the effects of pH of the gold slurry solution, mixing time, and preparation temperature for deposition precipitation (DP) of Au on TS-1 supports. Au/TS-1 catalysts prepared at optimal DP conditions (pH {approx} 7.3, mixing for 9.5 h, room temperature) showed an average PO rate {approx} 160 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} kg{sub Cat}{sup -1} at 200 C at 1 atm. A reproducibility better than {+-}10% was demonstrated by nine independent samples prepared at the same conditions. These are the highest rates yet reported at 200 C. No visible gold particles were observed by the HRTEM analysis in the fresh Au/TS-1 with gold loading up to {approx}0.1 wt%, indicating that the gold species were smaller than 1 nm. Additionally, the rate per gram of Au and the catalyst stability increased as the Au loading decreased, giving a maximum value of 500 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} g{sub Au}{sup -1}, and Si/Ti molar ratios of {approx}100 gave the highest rates.

  13. Large-area fabrication of highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman substrate via a facile double sided tape-assisted transfer approach using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Chao; Shi, Xin; Yang, Zhongbo; Long, Yitao; Fang, Jixiang

    2014-03-01

    Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of "hot spots" exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10(-8) M and 1 × 10(-10) M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10(-8) M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications. PMID:24463635

  14. Nanoemulsions produced by rotor-stator high speed stirring.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Patrik; Keck, Cornelia M

    2015-03-30

    Nanoemulsions were produced by high speed stirring using an ART MICCRA D27 rotor-stator system. Nanoemulsions with a droplet size of 135 nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. The emulsions are physically stable for at least three months. Optimized production parameters are a stirring speed of 36,000 rpm (maximum speed) and a production time of 5 min. A further reduction in processing time might be possible with a rotor with ultrafine slit size, i.e., 0.5 mm. The droplet size of the emulsion produced by high speed stirring is slightly larger than droplet sizes obtained by high pressure homogenization. However, the differences in size can be expected to have no influence on the in vivo efficacy of the emulsions. Thus, high speed stirring was found to be a highly effective method for the production of nanoemulsions. The process is fast, cost-effective and can be used for large scale production. PMID:25532442

  15. Can Population III Stars at High Redshifts produce GRB's?

    E-print Network

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-08-24

    Gamma ray bursts are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe, consisting of flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours. There have been attempts to observe gamma ray bursts, for example, from population III stars of about 500 solar mass at high redshifts. Here we argue that collapse of such high mass stars does not lead to gamma ray burst as their core collapse temperatures are not sufficient to produce gamma rays, leading to GRBs.

  16. Highly reproducible SERS substrate based on polarization-free Ag nanoparticles decorated SiO2/Si core-shell nanowires array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Jian-An; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    SiO2/Si core-shell nanowires array coated with gap-rich silver nanoparticles were demonstrated as a highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. SERS detection of a relative standard deviation of 8% for 10-4 M R6G with a spot size of ˜2 ?m and 900 spots over an area of 150 × 150 ?m2 was reported. The high reproducibility is ascribed to the polarization-independent electrical field distribution among three-dimensional nanowire structure with an optimized thickness of SiO2 shell layer.

  17. Novel methacrylated diamondoid to produce high-refractive index polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tadashi; Lin, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Frank G.; Carlson, Bob; Sciamanna, Steven

    2010-03-01

    A novel, high-refractive index, methacrylic monomer was produced by incorporating 1-diamantane-carboxylic acid (1-D2-CA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The resulting monomer was gently polymerized with organic peroxide, and was formed transparent polymer thin film. Physicochemical and optical properties were compared with isobornyl methacrylate (IBoMA) homo-polymer film. 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer reveals that the refractive index is 1.56, and the softening temperature is 107.8 °C. High thermal stability and high-refractive index of 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer indicate the potential use in optical applications.

  18. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  19. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  20. Perovskite-based hybrid solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency with high reproducibility using a thin film sandwich approach.

    PubMed

    Conings, Bert; Baeten, Linny; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; D'Haen, Jan; Manca, Jean; Boyen, Hans-Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Organometal halide perovskites have tremendous potential as light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. In this work we demonstrate hybrid solar cells based on the mixed perovskite CH3 NH3 PbI2 Cl in a thin film sandwich structure, with unprecedented reproducibility and generating efficiencies up to 10.8%. The successfulness of our approach is corroborated by the experimental electronic structure determination of this perovskite. PMID:24338932

  1. Very high coercivity magnetic stripes produced by particle rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, R.B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a current research program at Sandia National Laboratories whereby magnetic stripes are produced through the use of a new particle rotation technology. This new process allows the stripes to be produced in bulk and then held in a latent state so that they may be encoded at a later date. Since particle rotation is less dependent on the type of magnetic particle used, very high coercivity particles could provide a way to increase both magnetic tamper-resistance and accidental erasure protection. This research was initially funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguard and Security as a portion of their Science and Technology Base Development, Advanced Security Concepts program. Current program funding is being provided by Sandia National Laboratories as part of their Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  4. High- and low-temperature-stable thermal composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    SciTech Connect

    Halcomb, D.L.; Mohler, J.H.

    1990-03-29

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  5. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    SciTech Connect

    Halcomb, D.L.; Mohler, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high pressure and high-velocity gases. It comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  6. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    SciTech Connect

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  7. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  8. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Mercury Speciation in Highly Contaminated Soils from Chlor-Alkali Plants Usin...

    E-print Network

    Aubertin, Michel

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner

  9. Isolation of thermophilic L-lactic acid producing bacteria showing homo-fermentative manner under high aeration condition.

    PubMed

    Tongpim, Saowanit; Meidong, Ratchanu; Poudel, Pramod; Yoshino, Satoshi; Okugawa, Yuki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Sakai, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    By applying non-sterile open fermentation of food waste, various thermotolerant l-lactic acid-producing bacteria were isolated and identified. The predominant bacterial isolates showing higher accumulation of l-lactic acid belong to 3 groups of Bacillus coagulans, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. B. coagulans strains M21 and M36 produced high amounts of l-lactic acid of high optical purity and lactic acid selectivity in model kitchen refuse medium and glucose-yeast extract-peptone medium. Other thermotolerant isolates resembling to Bacillus humi, B. ruris, B. subtilis, B. niacini and B. soli were also identified. These bacteria produced low amounts of l-lactic acid of more than 99% optical purity. All isolated strains showed the highest growth rate at temperatures around 55-60°C. They showed unique responses to various oxygen supply conditions. The majority of isolates produced l-lactic acid at a low overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa); however, acetic acid was produced instead of l-lactic acid at a high KLa. B. coagulans M21 was the only strain that produced high, consistent, and reproducible amounts of optically pure l-lactic acid (>99% optical purity) under high and low KLa conditions in a homo-fermentative manner. PMID:24119530

  10. Adapting to blur produced by ocular high-order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Sawides, Lucie; de Gracia, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Webster, Michael; Marcos, Susana

    2011-01-01

    The perceived focus of an image can be strongly biased by prior adaptation to a blurred or sharpened image. We examined whether these adaptation effects can occur for the natural patterns of retinal image blur produced by high-order aberrations (HOAs) in the optics of the eye. Focus judgments were measured for 4 subjects to estimate in a forced choice procedure (sharp/blurred) their neutral point after adaptation to different levels of blur produced by scaled increases or decreases in their HOAs. The optical blur was simulated by convolution of the PSFs from the 4 different HOA patterns, with Zernike coefficients (excluding tilt, defocus, and astigmatism) multiplied by a factor between 0 (diffraction limited) and 2 (double amount of natural blur). Observers viewed the images through an Adaptive Optics system that corrected their aberrations and made settings under neutral adaptation to a gray field or after adapting to 5 different blur levels. All subjects adapted to changes in the level of blur imposed by HOA regardless of which observer’s HOA was used to generate the stimuli, with the perceived neutral point proportional to the amount of blur in the adapting image. PMID:21712375

  11. Effects produced by iodine irradiation on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lazanu, S.; Slav, A.; Lepadatu, A.-M.; Stavarache, I.; Palade, C.; Iordache, G.; Ciurea, M. L.

    2012-12-10

    The effects of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -26+}I{sup 127} ions of 28 MeV kinetic energy on high resistivity (100) Si were studied. The profile of primary defects was simulated. The defects produced by irradiation which act as traps were investigated. Thermally stimulated current measurements without externally applied bias were used, and for this the traps were charged by illuminating samples with 1000, 800, and 400 nm wavelengths. The discharge currents were recorded and modeled, and therefore the parameters of the traps were determined. The presence of I ions, heavier than Si, stopped into the target was modeled as a temperature independent electric field.

  12. Highly reproducible SERS detection in sequential injection analysis: real time preparation and application of photo-reduced silver substrate in a moving flow-cell.

    PubMed

    El-Zahry, Marwa R; Genner, Andreas; Refaat, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Horria A; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports an improved way for performing highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering of different analytes using an automated flow system. The method uses a confocal Raman microscope to prepare SERS active silver spots on the window of a flow cell by photo-reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of citrate. Placement of the flow cell on an automated x and y stages of the Raman microscope allows to prepare a fresh spot for every new measurement. This procedure thus efficiently avoids any carry over effects which might result from adsorption of the analyte on the SERS active material and enables highly reproducible SERS measurements. For reproducible liquid handling the used sequential injection analysis system as well as the Raman microscope was operated by the flexible LabVIEW based software ATLAS developed in our group. Quantitative aspects were investigated using Cu(PAR)2 as a model analyte. Concentration down to 5×10(-6) M provided clear SERS spectra, a linear concentration dependence of the SERS intensities at 1333 cm(-1) was obtained from 5×10(-5) to 1×10(-3) with a correlation coefficient r=0.999. The coefficient of variation of the method Vxo was found to be 5.6% and the calculated limit of detection 1.7×10(-5) M. The results demonstrate the potential of SERS spectroscopy to be used as a molecular specific detector in aqueous flow systems. PMID:24148503

  13. Quartz-Seq: a highly reproducible and sensitive single-cell RNA sequencing method, reveals non-genetic gene-expression heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Development of a highly reproducible and sensitive single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) method would facilitate the understanding of the biological roles and underlying mechanisms of non-genetic cellular heterogeneity. In this study, we report a novel single-cell RNA-seq method called Quartz-Seq that has a simpler protocol and higher reproducibility and sensitivity than existing methods. We show that single-cell Quartz-Seq can quantitatively detect various kinds of non-genetic cellular heterogeneity, and can detect different cell types and different cell-cycle phases of a single cell type. Moreover, this method can comprehensively reveal gene-expression heterogeneity between single cells of the same cell type in the same cell-cycle phase. PMID:23594475

  14. Development of transfection and high-producer screening protocols for the CHOK1SV cell system.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz Edmonds, M Celina; Tellers, Melanie; Chan, Christine; Salmon, Peter; Robinson, David K; Markusen, Julia

    2006-10-01

    To date, the FDA has approved 18 monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapeutic drugs with targets ranging from asthma and rheumatoid arthritis to leukemia. Many of these approved products are produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) making CHO a significant and relevant host system. We studied the applicability of CHOK1SV cells as a potential host cell line for MAb production in terms of timelines, achievable titers, transfectant stability, and reproducibility. CHOK1SV, developed by Lonza Biologics, is a suspension, protein-free-adapted CHOK1-derivative utilizing the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene expression system. CHOK1SV expresses the GS enzyme endogenously; thus, positive transfectants were obtained under the dual selection of methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and glutamine-free media. We examined outgrowth efficiencies, specific productivities, and achievable batch titers of three different IgG MAbs transfected into CHOK1SV. Reducing the MSX concentration in the initial selection medium resulted in a decreased incubation time required for transfectant colonies to appear. Specific productivities of "high-producers" ranged between 11 and 49 pg/c/d with batch titers ranging from 105 to 519 mg/L. Transfectant stability and the effects of MSX also were investigated, which indicated that the addition of MSX was necessary to maintain stable MAb production. Cell growth was stable regardless of MSX concentration. PMID:17172663

  15. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  16. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)). PMID:21902048

  17. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  18. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  19. Highly Multiplexed and Reproducible Ion-Current-Based Strategy for Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomics and the Application to Protein Expression Dynamics Induced by Methylprednisolone in 60 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5–66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%–6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1–9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-?m particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define “quantifiable proteins”. A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where the analysis of numerous biological replicates is crucial. PMID:25072516

  20. Highly multiplexed and reproducible ion-current-based strategy for large-scale quantitative proteomics and the application to protein expression dynamics induced by methylprednisolone in 60 rats.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiaomeng; Duan, Xiaotao; DuBois, Debra C; Almon, Richard R; Jusko, William J; Qu, Jun

    2014-08-19

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5-66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%-6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1-9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-?m particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define "quantifiable proteins". A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where the analysis of numerous biological replicates is crucial. PMID:25072516

  1. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The thermal efficiency is better than 67% operating at full load. This fuel processor has been integrated with a 5-kW fuel cell producing electricity and hot water.

  2. fMRI changes over time and reproducibility in unmedicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Whalley, H. C.; Gountouna, V-E.; Hall, J.; McIntosh, A. M.; Simonotto, E.; Job, D. E.; Owens, D. G. C.; Johnstone, E. C.; Lawrie, S. M.

    if there were any progressive functional changes in high-risk subjects versus controls reflecting inheritance of the schizophrenic trait, and (iii) to examine changes over time in relation to fluctuating positive psychotic symptoms (i.e. state effects). Method...

  3. Producing high-grade nickel sulfate with solvent displacement crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldoveanu, Georgiana A.; Demopoulos, George P.

    2002-01-01

    Solvent displacement crystallization entails the addition of water-miscible organic solvents to aqueous metalliferous solutions to cause salt crystallization. In this work, isopropanol is used to produce well-grown and relatively pure nickel-sulfate hexahydrate crystals from industrial de-copperized electrolyte. By proper selection of the organic-to-aqueous ratio, the method of solvent addition and seeding/product recycling, nickel-sulfate crystals were produced with at least an order of magnitude higher purity than the ones conventionally produced by evaporative crystallization. The processing and product quality advantages of integrating solvent displacement crystallization with electrolyte purification in a copper refinery context are discussed.

  4. Solar-Power System Produces High-Pressure Steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Combination of three multistaged solar collectors produces highpressure steam for large-scale continuously operating turbines for generating mechanical or electrical energy. Superheated water vapor drives turbines, attaining an overall system efficiency about 22 percent.

  5. Highly uniform and reproducible visible to near-infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by MOVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Choquette, K.D.; Hammons, B.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present the growth and characterization of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) from visible to near-infrared wavelength grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include the control on growth rate and composition using an in situ normal-incidence reflectometer, optimization of ultra-high material uniformity, and comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire Al composition range. They will also demonstrate the recent achievements of selectively-oxidized VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous-wave demonstration of all-AlGaAs 700-nm red VCSELs, high-performance n-side up 850-nm VCSELs, and low threshold current and low-threshold voltage 1.06 {micro}m VCSELs using InGaAs/GaAsP strain-compensated quantum wells.

  6. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  7. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1?g/cm{sup ?3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam–solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  8. Picking vanished proteins from the void: how to collect and ship/share extremely dilute proteins in a reproducible and highly efficient manner.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Florian; Bartel, Jürgen; Büttner, Knut; Hecker, Michael; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte

    2014-08-01

    Successful proteome analyses of highly dilute samples are strongly dependent on optimized workflows considering especially sample preparation prior to highly sensitive mass spectrometric analysis. Various methods are available for enrichment of proteome samples, each characterized by specific advantages and disadvantages limiting their general application as a method of choice. Here we suggest an optimized universal protocol ensuring reproducibility and effective enrichment of dilute samples by commercial affinity beads. By comparably assessing the performance of the new protocol with selected standard enrichment techniques, we show the seamless application of the enrichment in common mass spectrometry based proteomic workflows. Further, novel applications are suggested including a facile storage and shipping of desiccated, trapped proteome samples at ambient temperatures and usage of the affinity beads for gel-free proteomic approaches. PMID:24987932

  9. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  10. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  11. Molecular Crowding of Collagen: A Pathway to Produce Highly-Organized Collagenous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn N.; Paten, Jeffrey. A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale organizational control of structure not only makes de novo tissue engineering a possibility, but also suggests a clearer pathway to organization for fibroblasts than direct matrix printing. PMID:22846420

  12. FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J.; Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    2010-08-10

    Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

  13. Improved Astronomical Image Reproducing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Young-Beom

    1993-12-01

    Astronomical plates have a very large density range(dynamical range). Many exposed astronomical photographic plates do not provide detailed structures for very high densities, and some include hidden images for very low densities. The former can be fixed through 'Unsharp Masking' technique and the latter through 'Image Amplification' technique. Besides, we can find intrinsic colors of celestial bodies through 'Tri Color Composition' technique. Images of several plates which were observed from Sobaek Observatory with 61cm telescope are reproduced by the three kinds of image reproducing techniques. As reproduced image examples, we display an Orion nebula and a waxing crescent moon images through unsharp masking technique and an M81 image through image amplification technique. An Orion nebula and a Dumbbell nebula images are also given as results of tri color composition technique.

  14. Highly-reproducible Raman scattering of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag for methylamphetamine detection under near-infrared laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongmei; Liu, Honglin; Han, Zhenzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2015-08-01

    This study reported the significantly improved Raman enhancement ability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by decorating them on single NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 core-shell particles (UC@SiO2@Ag) under a 785 nm excitation. The optimal thickness of the silica shell can be easily obtained by adjusting the amounts of TEOS, which is the crucial element to balance the upconversion and the formation of a hot spot by Ag NP aggregation. This substrate revealed highly reproducible properties, which is crucial to the practical application of SERS technology. This substrate exhibited an excellent sensitivity for methylamphetamine detection under near-infrared excitation. The advantages of NIR excitation in our SERS sensing open up a new application field of UC-noble metal composites, and also promise a new research direction for the synthesis and applications of SERS-active nanostructures. PMID:26090604

  15. Producing Sugarbeets with High Yeild and Quality in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Winter, Steven; Rush, Charles

    1995-01-01

    for six harvest dates at Bushland. Relative crop Harvest date Root yield Sugar value tons/acre 0/o % September 1 23.8 13.50 59 September 15 26.2 14.25 71 September 29 28.1 14.88 82 October 13 29.0 15.43 89 October 27 29.9 15.83 96 November 9 30... with sulfur. While copper or tin fungicides are needed for leaf spot. Producers should consult their fieldmen for current recommendations. With both diseases, the spray materials need to be in place before infec tion occurs. Therefore, spraying must...

  16. High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-11-25

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  17. High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-01-21

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  18. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  19. Comparison of methods of producing very highly stripped uranium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1983-10-01

    A comparison is made between the production of high intensity beams of helium-like uranium ions, U/sup 90 +/, by conventional and exotic ion sources, and by the foil stripping of highly accelerated ions output from the Bevalac. The parameter requirements are specified and compared to the parameters achievable by present day ion source technology. The EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source) comes closest to satisfying the necessary parameters, and this possibility is considered in some detail. We conclude that existing and near-future ion source technology does not provide a means of production of high intensity U/sup 90 +/ beams. Foil stripping of lower charge state species that have been accelerated through the Bevalac provides a convenient approach.

  20. Properties of high nitrogen steels produced by high pressure gas atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, John S.

    2000-10-01

    The production of metal powder by gas atomization typically combines melting at ambient pressure and atomization through high pressure gas jet nozzles into an atomization chamber, also at ambient pressure. To achieve high nitrogen contents, a series of Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni steels were melted under nitrogen pressures of 150 psi and atomized with nitrogen gas into an atomizing chamber held at 100 psi. A small scale atomizing unit (charge size 300 lbs) was modified to achieve the desired production characteristics. High nitrogen steels produced by high pressure gas atomization exceeded the atmospheric solubility limit of nitrogen by as much as 500% and nitrogen contents between 0.5 to 1.3 wt. pct. was achieved. Three Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni alloys each different nitrogen contents were atomized and consolidated by hot-extrusion. The microstructure and tensile properties were evaluate and correlated to conditions during atomization, extrusion and final nitrogen content.

  1. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, S; Pirali, O; Roy, P; Lampin, J-F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2015-01-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1?THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846?kHz, a linewidth of about 200?Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10(-10) and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile. PMID:26190043

  2. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, S.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Lampin, J.-F.; Ducournau, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-01-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1?THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846?kHz, a linewidth of about 200?Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10?10 and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile. PMID:26190043

  3. Nanostructured high valence silver oxide produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellasega, D.; Facibeni, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Russo, V.; Conti, C.; Ducati, C.; Casari, C. S.; Li Bassi, A.; Bottani, C. E.

    2009-03-01

    Among silver oxides, Ag 4O 4, i.e. high valence Ag(I)Ag(III) oxide, is interesting for applications in high energy batteries and for the development of antimicrobial coatings. We here show that ns UV pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen containing atmosphere allows the synthesis of pure Ag 4O 4 nanocrystalline thin films, permitting at the same time to control the morphology of the material at the sub-micrometer scale. Ag 4O 4 films with a crystalline domain size of the order of tens of nm can be deposited provided the deposition pressure is above a threshold (roughly 4 Pa pure O 2 or 20 Pa synthetic air). The formation of this particular high valence silver oxide is explained in terms of the reactions occurring during the expansion of the ablated species in the reactive atmosphere. In particular, expansion of the PLD plasma plume is accompanied by formation of low stability Ag-O dimers and atomic oxygen, providing reactive species at the substrate where the film grows. Evidence of reactive collisions in the expanding ablation plume is obtained by analysis of the plume visible shape in inert and reactive atmospheres. In addition, we show how the dimensionless deposition parameter L, relating the target-to-substrate distance to the ablation plume maximum expansion length, can be used to classify different growth regimes. It is thus possible to vary the stoichiometry and the morphology of the films, from compact and columnar to foam-like, by controlling both the gas pressure and the target-to-substrate distance.

  4. Method of producing high T(subc) superconducting NBN films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (inventor); Lamb, James L. (inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (inventor); Khanna, Satish K. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of niobium nitride with high superconducting temperature (T sub c) of 15.7 K are deposited on substrates held at room temperature (approx 90 C) by heat sink throughout the sputtering process. Films deposited at P sub Ar 12.9 + or - 0.2 mTorr exhibit higher T sub c with increasing P sub N2,I with the highest T sub c achieved at P sub n2,I= 3.7 + or - 0.2 mTorr and total sputtering pressure P sub tot = 16.6 + or - 0.4. Further increase of N2 injection starts decreasing T sub c.

  5. Cheap imports next ordeal for Europe's high-cost producers

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-03

    About one-third of Europe's 34 cracker and downstream units lost money in the final quarter of 1992, says Chem Systems (London). Average return on capital employed is negative - at the same level as in the gloomy days of the early 1980s - yet average operating rates are 80% now, compared with 65% a decade ago. Margins at what Chem Systems calls leader cracks (naphtha-based units that use good modern practices) are DM42/m.t. ethylene, DM100/m.t. less than they were in 1991. The consultant firm's recent report, European Petrochemical Strategy in the 1990s, suggests closure of 5%-10% of high-cost production. But, Chem Systems director Roger Longley states: We are not advocating wholesale closure. There are a small number (of plants) where additional investment would not payback that would be economical to shut. Cost reduction through mergers and acquisitions and operational changes is much more important, especially from an international aspect, Longley says. One thing people do not fully appreciate is that Europe is a high-cost region for petrochemical production, he adds. Traditionally, Europe exports 5% of its ethylene output, now it needs to tolerate cheap imports.

  6. Process for producing a high emittance coating and resulting article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Huong G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Dudley L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Process for anodizing aluminum or its alloys to obtain a surface particularly having high infrared emittance by anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate surface in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution at elevated temperature and by a step-wise current density procedure, followed by sealing the resulting anodized surface. In a preferred embodiment the aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate is first alkaline cleaned and then chemically brightened in an acid bath The resulting cleaned substrate is anodized in a 15% by weight sulfuric acid bath maintained at a temperature of 30.degree. C. Anodizing is carried out by a step-wise current density procedure at 19 amperes per square ft. (ASF) for 20 minutes, 15 ASF for 20 minutes and 10 ASF for 20 minutes. After anodizing the sample is sealed by immersion in water at 200.degree. F. and then air dried. The resulting coating has a high infrared emissivity of about 0.92 and a solar absorptivity of about 0.2, for a 5657 aluminum alloy, and a relatively thick anodic coating of about 1 mil.

  7. Highly transparent and reproducible nanocrystalline ZnO and AZO thin films grown by room temperature pulsed-laser deposition on flexible Zeonor plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguva, Saikumar; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McGlynn, Enda; Mosnier, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    Zeonor plastics are highly versatile due to exceptional optical and mechanical properties which make them the choice material in many novel applications. For potential use in flexible transparent optoelectronic applications, we have investigated Zeonor plastics as flexible substrates for the deposition of highly transparent ZnO and AZO thin films. Films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature in oxygen ambient pressures of 75, 150 and 300 mTorr. The growth rate, surface morphology, hydrophobicity and the structural, optical and electrical properties of as-grown films with thicknesses ˜65-420 nm were recorded for the three oxygen pressures. The growth rates were found to be highly linear both as a function of film thickness and oxygen pressure, indicating high reproducibility. All the films were optically smooth, hydrophobic and nanostructured with lateral grain shapes of ˜150 nm wide. This was found compatible with the deposition of condensed nanoclusters, formed in the ablation plume, on a cold and amorphous substrate. Films were nanocrystalline (wurtzite structure), c-axis oriented, with average crystallite size ˜22 nm for ZnO and ˜16 nm for AZO. In-plane compressive stress values of 2-3 GPa for ZnO films and 0.5 GPa for AZO films were found. Films also displayed high transmission greater than 95% in some cases, in the 400-800 nm wavelength range. The low temperature photoluminescence spectra of all the ZnO and AZO films showed intense near band edge emission. A considerable spread from semi-insulating to n-type conductive was observed for the films, with resistivity ˜103 ? cm and Hall mobility in 4-14 cm2 V-1 s-1 range, showing marked dependences on film thickness and oxygen pressure. Applications in the fields of microfluidic devices and flexible electronics for these ZnO and AZO films are suggested.

  8. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  9. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  10. Quantification of [(11)C]PIB PET for imaging myelin in the human brain: a test-retest reproducibility study in high-resolution research tomography.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Bodini, Benedetta; García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Battaglini, Marco; Bongarzone, Salvatore; Comtat, Claude; Bottlaender, Michel; Stankoff, Bruno; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2015-11-01

    An accurate in vivo measure of myelin content is essential to deepen our insight into the mechanisms underlying demyelinating and dysmyelinating neurological disorders, and to evaluate the effects of emerging remyelinating treatments. Recently [(11)C]PIB, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer originally conceived as a beta-amyloid marker, has been shown to be sensitive to myelin changes in preclinical models and humans. In this work, we propose a reference-region methodology for the voxelwise quantification of brain white-matter (WM) binding for [(11)C]PIB. This methodology consists of a supervised procedure for the automatic extraction of a reference region and the application of the Logan graphical method to generate distribution volume ratio (DVR) maps. This approach was assessed on a test-retest group of 10 healthy volunteers using a high-resolution PET tomograph. The [(11)C]PIB PET tracer binding was shown to be up to 23% higher in WM compared with gray matter, depending on the image reconstruction. The DVR estimates were characterized by high reliability (outliers <1%) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.95). [(11)C]PIB parametric maps were also found to be significantly correlated (R(2)>0.50) to mRNA expressions of the most represented proteins in the myelin sheath. On the contrary, no correlation was found between [(11)C]PIB imaging and nonmyelin-associated proteins. PMID:26058700

  11. An in vitro biofilm model system maintaining a highly reproducible species and metabolic diversity approaching that of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our knowledge of microbial diversity in the human oral cavity has vastly expanded during the last two decades of research. However, much of what is known about the behavior of oral species to date derives from pure culture approaches and the studies combining several cultivated species, which likely does not fully reflect their function in complex microbial communities. It has been shown in studies with a limited number of cultivated species that early oral biofilm development occurs in a successional manner and that continuous low pH can lead to an enrichment of aciduric species. Observations that in vitro grown plaque biofilm microcosms can maintain similar pH profiles in response to carbohydrate addition as plaque in vivo suggests a complex microbial community can be established in the laboratory. In light of this, our primary goal was to develop a robust in vitro biofilm-model system from a pooled saliva inoculum in order to study the stability, reproducibility, and development of the oral microbiome, and its dynamic response to environmental changes from the community to the molecular level. Results Comparative metagenomic analyses confirmed a high similarity of metabolic potential in biofilms to recently available oral metagenomes from healthy subjects as part of the Human Microbiome Project. A time-series metagenomic analysis of the taxonomic community composition in biofilms revealed that the proportions of major species at 3 hours of growth are maintained during 48 hours of biofilm development. By employing deep pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate this biofilm model with regards to bacterial taxonomic diversity, we show a high reproducibility of the taxonomic carriage and proportions between: 1) individual biofilm samples; 2) biofilm batches grown at different dates; 3) DNA extraction techniques and 4) research laboratories. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that we now have the capability to grow stable oral microbial in vitro biofilms containing more than one hundred operational taxonomic units (OTU) which represent 60-80% of the original inoculum OTU richness. Previously uncultivated Human Oral Taxa (HOT) were identified in the biofilms and contributed to approximately one-third of the totally captured 16S rRNA gene diversity. To our knowledge, this represents the highest oral bacterial diversity reported for an in vitro model system so far. This robust model will help investigate currently uncultivated species and the known virulence properties for many oral pathogens not solely restricted to pure culture systems, but within multi-species biofilms. PMID:24451062

  12. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Electrical Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using a Single Free-Standing, Thermally Controlled Piezoresistive Microcantilever for Highly Reproducible and Accurate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 ?g/mL to 200 ?g/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 ?g/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays. PMID:23899933

  14. Ambient occlusion as stylistic means. To produce a dynamic and accentuated rendering, an ambient occlusion map (left) is used for modulating the detail watercolor layer (middle left), shaping the ambient watercolor layer to reproduce the dull portions wit

    E-print Network

    Deussen, Oliver

    in watercolor paintings illumination effects are achieved by variations of tone and saturation. To provide occlusion map (left) is used for modulating the detail watercolor layer (middle left), shaping the ambient watercolor layer to reproduce the dull portions with a contrasting, secondary color, e.g. a dark blue

  15. Applying a highly specific and reproducible cDNA RDA method to clone garlic up-regulated genes in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Lu, You-Yong

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To develop and optimize cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA RDA) method and to identify and clone garlic up-regulated genes in human gastric cancer (HGC) cells. METHODS: We performed cDNA RDA method by using abundant double-stranded cDNA messages provided by two self-constructed cDNA libraries (Allitridi-treated and paternal HGC cell line BGC823 cells cDNA libraries respectively). BamH I and Xho I restriction sites harbored in the library vector were used to select representations. Northern and Slot blots analyses were employed to identify the obtained difference products. RESULTS: Fragments released from the cDNA library vector after restriction endonuclease digestion acted as good marker indicating the appropriate digestion degree for library DNA. Two novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and a recombinant gene were obtained. Slot blots result showed a 8-fold increase of glia-derived nexin/protease nexin 1 (GDN/PN1) gene expression level and 4-fold increase of hepatitis B virus x-interacting protein (XIP) mRNA level in BGC823 cells after Allitridi treatment for 72 h. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of GDN/PN1 and XIP mRNAs induced by Allitridi provide valuable molecular evidence for elucidating the garlic's efficacies against neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Isolation of a recombinant gene and two novel ESTs further show cDNA RDA based on cDNA libraries to be a powerful method with high specificity and reproducibility in cloning differentially expressed genes. PMID:11925594

  16. Reproducible research in palaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurcock, Pontus; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The reproducibility of research findings is attracting increasing attention across all scientific disciplines. In palaeomagnetism as elsewhere, computer-based analysis techniques are becoming more commonplace, complex, and diverse. Analyses can often be difficult to reproduce from scratch, both for the original researchers and for others seeking to build on the work. We present a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program designed to make reproducibility easier. Part of the problem is the divide between interactive and scripted (batch) analysis programs. An interactive desktop program with a graphical interface is a powerful tool for exploring data and iteratively refining analyses, but usually cannot operate without human interaction. This makes it impossible to re-run an analysis automatically, or to integrate it into a larger automated scientific workflow - for example, a script to generate figures and tables for a paper. In some cases the parameters of the analysis process itself are not saved explicitly, making it hard to repeat or improve the analysis even with human interaction. Conversely, non-interactive batch tools can be controlled by pre-written scripts and configuration files, allowing an analysis to be 'replayed' automatically from the raw data. However, this advantage comes at the expense of exploratory capability: iteratively improving an analysis entails a time-consuming cycle of editing scripts, running them, and viewing the output. Batch tools also tend to require more computer expertise from their users. PuffinPlot is a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program which aims to bridge this gap. First released in 2012, it offers both an interactive, user-friendly desktop interface and a batch scripting interface, both making use of the same core library of palaeomagnetic functions. We present new improvements to the program that help to integrate the interactive and batch approaches, allowing an analysis to be interactively explored and refined, then saved as a self-contained configuration which can be re-run without human interaction. PuffinPlot can thus be used as a component of a larger scientific workflow, integrated with workflow management tools such as Kepler, without compromising its capabilities as an exploratory tool. Since both PuffinPlot and the platform it runs on (Java) are Free/Open Source software, even the most fundamental components of an analysis can be verified and reproduced.

  17. Oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent nanomaterials produced from high-density polyethylene films by local solvent-crazing.

    PubMed

    Toncelli, Claudio; Arzhakova, Olga V; Dolgova, Alla; Volynskii, Aleksandr L; Bakeev, Nikolai F; Kerry, Joe P; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2014-02-01

    Discrete solid-state phosphorescent oxygen sensors produced by local solvent-crazing of high density polyethylene films are described. The simple spotting of dye solution followed by tensile drawing of the polymer substrate provides uniform nanostructures with good spatial control, effective encapsulation of dye molecules, and quenchability by O2. The dye-polymer composite sensors prepared using toluene as a solvent and stabilized by annealing at high temperature, show moderate optical signals, near-optimal sensitivity to O2 (RSD at 21 KPa 1.9%), and reproducible phosphorescence lifetime readings. Calibration experiments performed over 0-25 kPa O2 and 10-30 °C temperatures ranges reveal linear Stern-Volmer plots and temperature dependences and minimal effect of humidity on sensor calibration. The high degree of lateral and in-depth homogeneity of these O2-sensitive materials was confirmed by high-resolution atomic force and wide-field optical microscopy, including 2D and 3D phosphorescence lifetime imaging. PMID:24422456

  18. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    E-print Network

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a)~enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b)~variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c)~distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present s...

  19. High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a

    E-print Network

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a , Jie GPa, much higher than the carbon nanotube fibers spun by other tech- niques. The tensile modulus, electrical, and thermal properties [12­14]. To produce a carbon nanotube nano-fiber, one method

  20. Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,

    E-print Network

    Basu, Amar S.

    Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae-producing algae of interest in 2nd generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

  1. Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high-diversity plant communities

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    bacteria, the Streptomyces possess particularly strong antagonistic activities and inhibit diverse plant the potential of soil Streptomyces to antagonize plant pathogens, using an in vitro plate assay with indicatorPlant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high

  2. Time-Resolved Analysis of High-Power-Laser Produced Plasma Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Malka, V.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2006-04-07

    We consider the results of an experimental investigation of the temporal evolution of plasmas produced by high power laser irradiation of various materials. The experiment was done at the LULI Laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris). A comparative analysis is presented.

  3. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-01

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs. PMID:23885720

  4. Experimental challenges to reproduce seismic fault motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation briefly reviews scientific and technical development in the studies of intermediate to high-velocity frictional properties of faults and summarizes remaining technical challenges to reproduce nucleation to growth processes of large earthquakes in laboratory. Nearly 10 high-velocity or low to high-velocity friction apparatuses have been built in the last several years in the world and it has become possible now to produce sub-plate velocity to seismic slip rate in a single machine. Despite spreading of high-velocity friction studies, reproducing seismic fault motion at high P and T conditions to cover the entire seismogenic zone is still a big challenge. Previous studies focused on (1) frictional melting, (2) thermal pressurization, and (3) high-velocity gouge behavior without frictional melting. Frictional melting process was solved as a Stefan problem with very good agreement with experimental results. Thermal pressurization has been solved theoretically based on measured transport properties and has been included successfully in the modeling of earthquake generation. High-velocity gouge experiments in the last several years have revealed that a wide variety of gouges exhibit dramatic weakening at high velocities (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Most gouge experiments were done under dry conditions partly to separate gouge friction from the involvement of thermal pressurization. However, recent studies demonstrated that dehydration or degassing due to mineral decomposition can occur during seismic fault motion. Those results not only provided a new view of looking at natural fault zones in search of geological evidence of seismic fault motion, but also indicated that thermal pressurization and gouge weakening can occur simultaneously even in initially dry gouge. Thus experiments with controlled pore pressure are needed. I have struggled to make a pressure vessel for wet high-velocity experiments in the last several years. A technical difficulty was how to absorb hydrodynamic shock due to abrupt fault motion in the vessel, and this was overcome by pressurizing water in the vessel, acting as pore fluid, using pressurized gas (in other words using gas as a cushion). I will report preliminary experimental results on high-velocity rock-on-rock friction under pore-water pressure. Other technical challenges are (i) how to produce step-change in velocity to see if the framework of rate-and-state friction law holds in high-velocity regime, (ii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments in hydrothermal conditions to study frictional properties relevant to slow slip and low-frequency tremors, and (iii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments at high normal stresses. The first task became possible with a low to high-velocity apparatus in Beijing and a few other machines, and I will show some preliminary results. There is no fundamental difficulty in (ii) since O-ring is enough to seal piston rotating at a high speed. However, (iii) will be the hardest because of severe thermal fracturing of host rocks that limits the axial stress. Use of aluminum sleeve made it possible to apply the normal stress to about 30 MPa, but new device and a high motor power is needed to go higher normal stress.

  5. Unexplored Brazilian oceanic island host high salt tolerant biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Pylro, Victor Satler; Fernandes, Pericles Leonardo; Barcelos, Gisele Souza; Kalks, Karlos Henrique Martins; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to isolate biosurfactant-producing bacteria in high salt conditions from uncontaminated soils on the Brazilian oceanic island, Trindade. Blood agar medium was used for the isolation of presumptive biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Confirmation and measurements of biosurfactant production were made using an oil-spreading method. The isolates were identified by fatty acid profiles and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A total of 14 isolates obtained from the 12 soil samples were found to produce biosurfactants. Among them, two isolates stood out as being able to produce biosurfactant that is increasingly active in solutions containing up to 175 g L(-1) NaCl. These high salt tolerant biosurfactant producers are affiliated to different species of the genus Bacillus. Soil organic matter showed positive correlation with the number of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from our different sampling sites. The applied approach successfully recovered and identified biosurfactant-producing bacteria from non-contaminated soils. Due to the elevated salt tolerance, as well as their capacity to produce biosurfactants, these isolates are promising for environmental biotechnological applications, especially in the oil production chain. PMID:25701018

  6. The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite

  7. Highly uniform and reproducible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy with in-situ reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Choquette, K.D.; Hammons, B.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Geib, K.M.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-10-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Excellent uniformity of Fabry-Perot cavity wavelength for VCSEL materials of {+-}0.2% across a 3-in diameter wafer was achieved. This results in excellent uniformity of the lasing wavelength and threshold current of VCSEL devices. Employing pregrowth calibrations on growth rates periodically with an in situ reflectometer, the authors obtained a run-to-run wavelength reproducibility for 770- and 850-nm VCSELs of {+-}0.3% over the course of more than a hundred runs.

  8. Tunable and highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates made from large-scale nanoparticle arrays based on periodically poled LiNbO3 templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Kitamura, Kenji; Yu, Qiuming; Xu, Jiajie; Osada, Minoru; Takahiro, Nagata; Li, Jiangyu; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-01

    This work describes novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on ferroelectric periodically poled LiNbO3 templates. The templates comprise silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the size and position of which are tailored by ferroelectric lithography. The substrate has uniform and large sampling areas that show SERS effective with excellent signal reproducibility, for which the fabrication protocol is advantageous in its simplicity. We demonstrate ferroelectric-based SERS substrates with particle sizes ranging from 30 to 70 nm and present tunable SERS effect from Raman active 4-mercaptopyridine molecules attached to AgNPs when excited by a laser source at 514 nm.

  9. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  10. Highly Efficient, Color-Reproducible Full-Color Electroluminescent Devices Based on Red/Green/Blue Quantum Dot-Mixed Multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Heon; Han, Chang-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Don; Ko, Heejoo; Lee, Changho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Yang, Heesun

    2015-11-24

    Over the past few years the performance of colloidal quantum dot-light-emitting diode (QLED) has been progressively improved. However, most of QLED work has been fulfilled in the form of monochromatic device, while full-color-enabling white QLED still remains nearly unexplored. Using red, green, and blue quantum dots (QDs), herein, we fabricate bichromatic and trichromatic QLEDs through sequential solution-processed deposition of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) (PVK) hole transport layer, two or three types of QDs-mixed multilayer, and ZnO nanoparticle electron transport layer. The relative electroluminescent (EL) spectral ratios of constituent QDs in the above multicolored devices are found to inevitably vary with applied bias, leading to the common observation of an increasing contribution of a higher-band gap QD EL over low-band gap one at a higher voltage. The white EL from a trichromatic device is resolved into its primary colors through combining with color filters, producing an exceptional color gamut of 126% relative to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) color space that a state-of-the-art full-color organic LED counterpart cannot attain. Our trichromatic white QLED also displays the record-high EL performance such as the peak values of 23?352 cd/m(2) in luminance, 21.8 cd/A in current efficiency, and 10.9% in external quantum efficiency. PMID:26435403

  11. The complete genome sequence of a high pristinamycin-producing strain Streptomyces pristinaespiralis HCCB10218.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinzhong; Yang, Junjie; Li, Lei; Ruan, Lijun; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Guosong; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Weihong; Ge, Mei; Lu, Yinhua

    2015-11-20

    Streptomyces pristinaespiralis produces the streptogramin-like antibiotic pristinamycin, which is a mixture of two structurally different components: pristinamycin I (PI) and pristinamycin II (PII). Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of a high pristinamycin-producing strain HCCB10218 (8.5Mb) obtained by using PacBio RSII combined with Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. The genome sequence presented here provides clues for the mechanism underlying the higher pristinamycin production of HCCB10218. PMID:26376468

  12. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  13. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hayato; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18??m was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  14. Reproducibility in a multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bellofatto, Ralph A; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M; Haring, Rudolf A; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V; Liebsch, Thomas A; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-11-26

    Fixing a problem is usually greatly aided if the problem is reproducible. To ensure reproducibility of a multiprocessor system, the following aspects are proposed; a deterministic system start state, a single system clock, phase alignment of clocks in the system, system-wide synchronization events, reproducible execution of system components, deterministic chip interfaces, zero-impact communication with the system, precise stop of the system and a scan of the system state.

  15. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr. William R.; Geller, Clint B.

    1997-12-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.

  16. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Geller, C.B.

    1999-02-09

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume (ca. 1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum. 10 figs.

  17. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, Robert (Finleyville, PA); Buckman, Jr., R. William (Pittsburgh, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2-4% by volume (.about.1-4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T.sub.m of molybdenum.

  18. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1998-06-23

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

  19. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  20. Method for producing through extrusion an anisotropic magnet with high energy product

    DOEpatents

    Chandhok, Vijay K.

    2004-09-07

    A method for producing an anisotropic magnet with high energy product through extrusion and, more specifically, by placing a particle charge of a composition from the which magnet is to be produced in a noncircular container, heating the container and particle charge and extruding the container and particle charge through a noncircular extrusion die in such a manner that one of the cross-sectional axes or dimension of the container and particle charge is held substantially constant during the extrusion to compact the particle charge to substantially full density by mechanical deformation produced during the extrusion to achieve a magnet with anisotropic magnetic properties along the axes or dimension thereof and, more specifically, a high energy product along the transverse of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the extruded magnet.

  1. Vitra-violet process for producing flame resistant polyamides and products produced thereby. [protective clothing for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.; Stringham, R. S. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    Aromatic polyamides with improved nonflammability characteristics are produced by contacting a polyamide substrate with a gaseous medium comprising a minor amount of a haloolefinic material and an inert diluent in the presence of light having sufficient energy to effect chemical addition of the haloolefin to the polyamide substrate.

  2. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  3. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  4. How Does Bennett Woods Elementary School Produce Such High Reading and Writing Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Mohan, Lindsey; Raphael, Lisa M.; Fingeret, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a grounded theory about how a school serving relatively advantaged children produces high reading and writing achievement compared with schools serving similar populations of students. The school's faculty is reading and writing focused, and students experience many books as they receive explicit, demanding instruction (i.e.,…

  5. Time-Resolved Analysis of High-Power-Laser Produced Plasma Expansion in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Malka, V.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2005-05-16

    Here we consider the results of an experimental investigation of the temporal evolution of plasmas produced by high power laser irradiation of various types of target materials. The experiment was performed at the LULI Laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris). We have developed a method to analyze time-resolved streak-camera images and analyzed a number of results obtained with various materials.

  6. An Enzymatic Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Cytidine-Producing Microbial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Liu, Yongfei; Zu, Xin; Li, Ning; Li, Feiran; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine is an industrially useful precursor for the production of antiviral compounds and a variety of industrial compounds. Interest in the microbial production of cytidine has grown recently and high-throughput screening of cytidine over-producers is an important approach in large-scale industrial production using microorganisms. An enzymatic assay for cytidine was developed combining cytidine deaminase (CDA) and indophenol method. CDA catalyzes the cleavage of cytidine to uridine and NH3, the latter of which can be accurately determined using the indophenol method. The assay was performed in 96-well plates and had a linear detection range of cytidine of 0.058 - 10 mM. This assay was used to determine the amount of cytidine in fermentation flasks and the results were compared with that of High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The detection range of the CDA method is not as wide as that of the HPLC, furthermore the correlation factor of CDA method is not as high as that of HPLC. However, it was suitable for the detection of large numbers of crude samples and was applied to high-throughput screening for high cytidine-producing strains using 96-well deep-hole culture plates. This assay was proved to be simple, accurate, specific and suitable for cytidine detection and high-throughput screening of cytidine-producing strains in large numbers of samples (96 well or more). PMID:25816248

  7. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. This invention has applications to breeding blankets for fusion reactors as well as to alkali metal thermal to electric converters.

  8. Financial effects of the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks on the Turkish broiler producers.

    PubMed

    Aral, Y; Yalcin, C; Cevger, Y; Sipahi, C; Sariozkan, S

    2010-05-01

    This research aimed at assessing the financial effects of the 2005 to 2006 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks on Turkish broiler enterprises. The data were obtained from an interview survey carried out in 499 enterprises randomly selected from 14 provinces that accounted for 79% of the national broiler production. The research revealed that the contracted broiler producers lost on average 1.38 cycles of production and their management fee reduced by 14.7% in 8 mo after the outbreaks. As a result, the broiler production and the enterprise income declined by 34.8 and 44.3%, respectively. The bank loan of the producers rose by 161%. A total of 93% of the producers did not do any other supplementary work during the idle production period in spite of the fact that broiler production was the only business of 36% of them. Furthermore, more than half of the producers (56%) stated that they were considering expanding their business, but suspended this idea due to the outbreak. Approximately 87% of the producers increased the biosecurity measures after the outbreaks. The nationwide effects of the avian influenza outbreaks on the contracted broilers farms were estimated to be US$100.8 million (US$7,967/broiler house). The futures of the contracted broiler producers are fully dependent upon those of the integrated firms. Any negative effects on the latter appeared to be transferred directly to the former. However, the government neglected the integrated firms in the avian influenza compensation programs. PMID:20371863

  9. Zwitterionic Antifouling Coatings for the Purification of High-Salinity Shale Gas Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Goktekin, Esma; Gleason, Karen K

    2015-11-01

    Fouling refers to the undesirable attachment of organic molecules and microorganisms to submerged surfaces. It is an obstacle to the purification of shale gas produced water and is currently without an effective solution due to the highly contaminated nature of produced water. Here, we demonstrate the direct vapor application of a robust zwitterionic coating to a variety of substrates. The coating remains unprecedentedly hydrophilic, smooth, and effectively antifouling in extremely high salinity solutions (with salt concentration of 200?000 ppm). The fouling resistance is assessed rapidly and quantitatively with a molecular force spectroscopy-based method and corroborated using quartz crystal microbalance system with dissipation monitoring. Grazing angle attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared is used in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to lend insight into the underlying mechanism for the exceptional stability and effectiveness of the zwitterionic coating under high-salinity conditions. A unique coating architecture, where the surface is concentrated with mobile zwitterionic moieties while the bulk is cross-linked to enhance coating durability, was discovered to be the origin of its stable fouling resistance under high salinity. Combined with previously reported exceptional stability in highly oxidative environments and strong fouling resistance to oil and grease, the zwitterionic surface here has the potential to enable low-cost, membrane-based techniques for the purification of produced water and to eventually balance the favorable economics and the concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing industry. PMID:26449686

  10. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  11. High l state population in O sup 7+ produced in ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemmler, J. ); Bourgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C.O. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-01-01

    The high {ell}-state population of fast ions excited in ion-solid interactions is very different from {ell}-state populations produced under single collision conditions. A study of the population dynamics of electronic excitation and transport within the framework of a classical transport theory for O{sup 2+} (2 MeV/u) ions traversing carbon foils shows food agreement with experimental results from delayed photon emission spectroscopy. We investigate the dependence of the characteristic exponent for the power-law decay of delayed Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} radiation on the initial n,{ell} distribution. From our simulations we find evidence that the very high {ell}-state populations produced in ion-solid collision are the consequence of a high-{ell} state diffusion under the influence of multiple inelastic and elastic collisions in the bulk of the solid. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  12. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

  13. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Lankford, Jr., James (San Antonio, TX)

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  14. High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

  15. Assessing the reproducibility of discriminant function analyses

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Rose L.; Albert, Arianne Y.K.; Renaut, Sebastien; Rennison, Diana J.; Bock, Dan G.

    2015-01-01

    Data are the foundation of empirical research, yet all too often the datasets underlying published papers are unavailable, incorrect, or poorly curated. This is a serious issue, because future researchers are then unable to validate published results or reuse data to explore new ideas and hypotheses. Even if data files are securely stored and accessible, they must also be accompanied by accurate labels and identifiers. To assess how often problems with metadata or data curation affect the reproducibility of published results, we attempted to reproduce Discriminant Function Analyses (DFAs) from the field of organismal biology. DFA is a commonly used statistical analysis that has changed little since its inception almost eight decades ago, and therefore provides an opportunity to test reproducibility among datasets of varying ages. Out of 100 papers we initially surveyed, fourteen were excluded because they did not present the common types of quantitative result from their DFA or gave insufficient details of their DFA. Of the remaining 86 datasets, there were 15 cases for which we were unable to confidently relate the dataset we received to the one used in the published analysis. The reasons ranged from incomprehensible or absent variable labels, the DFA being performed on an unspecified subset of the data, or the dataset we received being incomplete. We focused on reproducing three common summary statistics from DFAs: the percent variance explained, the percentage correctly assigned and the largest discriminant function coefficient. The reproducibility of the first two was fairly high (20 of 26, and 44 of 60 datasets, respectively), whereas our success rate with the discriminant function coefficients was lower (15 of 26 datasets). When considering all three summary statistics, we were able to completely reproduce 46 (65%) of 71 datasets. While our results show that a majority of studies are reproducible, they highlight the fact that many studies still are not the carefully curated research that the scientific community and public expects. PMID:26290793

  16. Reproducible network benchmarks with coNCEPTUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Pakin, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    A cornerstone of scientific progress is the ability to reproduce experimental results. However, in the context of network benchmarking, system complexity impedes a researcher's attempts to record all of the information needed to exactly reconstruct a network-benchmarking experiment. Without this information, results may be misinterpreted and are unlikely to be reproducible. This paper presents a tool called CONCEPTUAL which simplifies most aspects of recording and presenting network performance data. CONCEPTUAL includes two core components: (1) a compiler for a high-level, domain-specific programming language that makes it possible to specify arbitrary communication patterns tersely but precisely and (2) a complementary run-time library that obviates the need for writing (and debugging) all of the mundane but necessary routines needed for benchmarking, such as those that calibrate timers, compute statistics, or output log files. The result is that CONCEPTUAL makes it easy to present network-performance data in a form that promotes reproducibility.

  17. Miniature whirlwinds produced in the laboratory by high-voltage electrical discharges.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R T; Vonnegut, B

    1970-06-12

    Laboratory experiments showed that under certain conditions of vorticity the electrical heatinig produced by a high-voltage discharge at atmospheric pressure can cause the formation of a miniature tornado-like vortex. Once it forms, this vortex stabilizes the electrical discharge along its axis and changes its character from that of a spark to high-pressure variety of a glow discharge. Electrical and dynamic parameters were measured. By relating observations and measurements made in these experiments to previous work and to analogous situations in nature, it is concluded that the heating produced by electrical discharges in a large storm may play a significant role in forming and maintaining natural tornadoes. PMID:17731044

  18. Method to Produce Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection System Resistant to High Aeroacoustic Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Calamito, Dominic P. (Inventor); Jong, Anthony (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of producing a three dimensional angle interlock ceramic fiber which is stable to high aeroacoustic noise of about 170 decibels and to high temperatures of about 2500 F is disclosed. The method uses multiple separate strands of a ceramic fiber or ceramic tow suitable for weaving having multiple warp fibers and multiple fill fibers woven with a modified fly-shuttle loom or rapier shuttleless loom which has nip rolls, a modified fabric advancement mechanism and at least eight harnesses in connection with a Dobby pattern chain utilizing sufficient heddles for each warp fiber and a reed which accommodates at least 168 ends per inch. The method produces a multilayered top fabric, rib fabric and single-layered bottom fabric.

  19. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  20. High Spatial Resolution Laser Cavity Extinction and Laser Induced Incandescence in Low Soot Producing Flames

    E-print Network

    Tian, B.; Gao, Y.; Balusamy, S.; Hochgreb, Simone

    2015-06-26

    measurements and (c) are relatively simple 6 B. Tian et al. and inexpensive to set up. Thus they have been used to monitor unsteady soot formation in diesel engines during the cycle [21–23], as well as in heavily sooting flames [24], requiring only continuous... myjournal manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) High Spatial Resolution Laser Cavity Extinction and Laser Induced Incandescence in Low Soot Producing Flames B. Tian, Y. Gao, S. Balusamy, S. Hochgreb Department of Engineering, University...

  1. Polydiacetylene-Based High-Throughput Screen for Surfactin Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyan; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional mutation is still an attractive approach for strain improvement, it is tedious, time-consuming, and inefficient to screen for surfactin producing strains. To overcome this, we developed a high-throughput screening method for surfactin producing mutants by applying polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles as sensors with visible chromatic change from blue to red, detected as colorimetric response (CR%) signal, which can even semi-quantify the yields of surfactin. Bacillus subtilis 723 was used as parent strain and multiply mutated with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Mutants were cultured in MicroFlask by Duetz (24 square deepwell plates, Applikon Biotechnology) and surfactin titers were tested in 96-well plates with PDA vesicles. Mutants with surfactin titers above150 mg/L (CR% value above 26%) were selected as high-yield strains and further quantified by HPLC. By integrating MicroFlask cultivation and the PDA vesicles detection, we screened 27,000 mutants and found 37 high-yield strains. From these, one mutant produced 473.6 mg/L surfactin (including 353.1 mg/L C15 surfactin), which was 5.4-fold than that of the parent strain. This method is efficient, cost-effective and provides wider application in screening for various surfactants. PMID:24498439

  2. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  3. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  4. Simulations of high power laser-produced multi-keV X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ji; Chen, Bolun; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Li

    2015-05-01

    Multi-keV x-ray source produced by high power laser interaction with solid metal target are widely used in high energy density physics research. This work proposed a numerical simulation method for designing the laser plasma X-ray source. The simulation was conducted using a collisional-radiative spectral code combined with one-dimension hydrodynamics code. Quite good agreement was found between the simulations and the experimental results. This work indicates that it is possible to apply this method in x-ray source optimizing.

  5. Neutrinos produced by ultrahigh-energy photons at high red shift

    E-print Network

    Alexander Kusenko; Marieke Postma

    2000-12-25

    Some of the proposed explanations for the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays invoke new sources of energetic photons (e.g., topological defects, relic particles, etc.). At high red shift, when the cosmic microwave background has a higher temperature but the radio background is low, the ultrahigh-energy photons can generate neutrinos through pair-production of muons and pions. Neutrinos produced at high red shift by slowly evolving sources can be detected. Rapidly evolving sources of photons can be ruled out based on the existing upper limit on the neutrino flux.

  6. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis (chungkookjang), a poly-gamma-glutamate producer with high genetic competence.

    PubMed

    Ashiuchi, M; Kamei, T; Baek, D H; Shin, S Y; Sung, M H; Soda, K; Yagi, T; Misono, H

    2001-12-01

    A bacterium with high poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA) productivity was isolated from the traditional Korean seasoning, Chung-Kook-Jang. This bacterium could be classified as a Bacillus subtilis, but sporulation in culture was infrequent in the absence of Mn2+. It was judged to be a variety of B. subtilis and designated B. subtilis (chungkookjang). L-Glutamate significantly induced PGA production, and highly elongated PGAs were synthesized. The volumetric yield reached 13.5 mg ml(-1) in the presence of 2% L-glutamate. The D-glutamate content was over 50% in every PGA produced under the conditions used. During PGA production, glutamate racemase activity was found in the cells, suggesting that the enzyme is involved in the D-glutamate supply. Molecular sizes of PGAs were changed by the salt concentration in the medium; PGAs with comparatively low molecular masses were produced in culture media containing high concentrations of NaCl. B. subtilis (chungkookjang) harbors no plasmid and is the first B. subtilis strain reported with both naturally high PGA productivity and high genetic competence. PMID:11778891

  7. High ambient temperature reduces rate of body-weight loss produced by wheel running.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Emilio; Baysari, Melissa T; Carrera, Olaia; Whitford, Thomas J; Boakes, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the effect of ambient temperature (AT) on the relationship between activity and weight loss. Compared with a neutral AT of 21 degrees C, high ATs of 27-29 degrees C produced a slower rate of weight loss in rats given 1.5-hr food access and 22.5-hr running-wheel access in a standard activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure (Experiments 1 and 2). The high AT did not affect food intake or wheel running in Experiment 1, but did reduce running in Experiment 2. Switching from neutral to high AT had only a transient effect on weight loss when wheel access was maintained (Experiment 2) but resulted in less weight loss when wheel access was prevented (Experiment 3). Giving rats only 3 hr of wheel access each day at a neutral AT also produced substantial weight loss, but less if for the rest of each day they were maintained at a high AT (Experiment 4). PMID:16769620

  8. Estimating high mosquito-producing rice fields using spectral and spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Washino, R. K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Salute, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The cultivation of irrigated rice provides ideal larval habitat for a number of anopheline vectors of malaria throughout the world. Anopheles freeborni, a potential vector of human malaria, is associated with the nearly 240,000 hectares of irrigated rice grown annually in Northern and Central California; therefore, this species can serve as a model for the study of rice field anopheline population dynamics. Analysis of field data revealed that rice fields with early season canopy development, that are located near bloodmeal sources (i.e., pastures with livestock) were more likely to produce anopheline larvae than fields with less developed canopies located further from pastures. Remote sensing reflectance measurements of early-season canopy development and geographic information system (GIS) measurements of distanes between rice fields and pastures with livestock were combined to distinguish between high and low mosquito-producing rice fields. Using spectral and distance measures in either a discriminant or Bayesian analysis, the identification of high mosquito-producing fields was made with 85 percent accuracy nearly two months before anopheline larval populations peaked. Since omission errors were also minimized by these approaches, they could provide a new basis for directing abatement techniques for the control of malaria vectors.

  9. High Contrast Internal and External Coronagraph Masks Produced by Various Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Wilson, Daniel; White, Victor; Muller, Richard; Dickie, Matthew; Yee, Karl; Ruiz, Ronald; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric; Kern, Brian; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Masks for high contrast internal and external coronagraphic imaging require a variety of masks depending on different architectures to suppress star light. Various fabrication technologies are required to address a wide range of needs including gradient amplitude transmission, tunable phase profiles, ultra-low reflectivity, precise small scale features, and low-chromaticity. We present the approaches employed at JPL to produce pupil plane and image plane coronagraph masks, and lab-scale external occulter type masks by various techniques including electron beam, ion beam, deep reactive ion etching, and black silicon technologies with illustrative examples of each. Further development is in progress to produce circular masks of various kinds for obscured aperture telescopes.

  10. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  11. Thin film interface stresses produced by high amplitude laser generated surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Bradley; Liou, Hong-Cin; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-10-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have been explored for nondestructive metrology of thin film elastic properties and thickness due to confinement of their energy within a shallow depth from a material surface. In this paper, we study the dynamic interfacial stresses produced by high amplitude SAWs generated by a strongly ablative source in a thin film-substrate system, with the goal of investigating the possibility of inducing thin film delamination at high loading rates. For modeling purposes, we represent the mechanical loading resulting from the pulsed laser-sample interaction in the ablative regime by an equivalent compressive surface load, and the resulting stresses and particle velocities induced by the generated SAWs are calculated using a linear finite element model. We explore the numerical model to study the dependence of the film-substrate interface tractions on the ratio of the film thickness and SAW wavelength for a soft film on a stiff substrate. Furthermore, by matching the numerical results obtained from the finite element model with experimental results, we are able to predict the dynamic interfacial stresses for a copper film on a fused silica substrate produced by SAWs excited by a high power pulsed laser line source. This study has implications for exploring SAWs in the characterization of interfacial failure in thin-film substrate systems.

  12. Well-organized raspberry-like Ag@Cu bimetal nanoparticles for highly reliable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Chen, Dongchang; Li, Xiaxi; Yoo, Seungmin; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Park, Soojin; Liu, Meilin

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ideally suited for probing and mapping surface species and incipient phases on fuel cell electrodes because of its high sensitivity and surface-selectivity, potentially offering insights into the mechanisms of chemical and energy transformation processes. In particular, bimetal nanostructures of coinage metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) have attracted much attention as SERS-active agents due to their distinctive electromagnetic field enhancements originated from surface plasmon resonance. Here we report excellent SERS-active, raspberry-like nanostructures composed of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle core decorated with smaller copper (Cu) nanoparticles, which displayed enhanced and broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra. These unique Ag@Cu raspberry nanostructures enable us to use blue, green, and red light as the excitation laser source for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a large enhancement factor (EF). A highly reliable SERS effect was demonstrated using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules and a thin film of gadolinium doped ceria.Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ideally suited for probing and mapping surface species and incipient phases on fuel cell electrodes because of its high sensitivity and surface-selectivity, potentially offering insights into the mechanisms of chemical and energy transformation processes. In particular, bimetal nanostructures of coinage metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) have attracted much attention as SERS-active agents due to their distinctive electromagnetic field enhancements originated from surface plasmon resonance. Here we report excellent SERS-active, raspberry-like nanostructures composed of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle core decorated with smaller copper (Cu) nanoparticles, which displayed enhanced and broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra. These unique Ag@Cu raspberry nanostructures enable us to use blue, green, and red light as the excitation laser source for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a large enhancement factor (EF). A highly reliable SERS effect was demonstrated using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules and a thin film of gadolinium doped ceria. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03363e

  13. A Highly Accurate Stress Measurement System for Producing Precise X-Ray Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Une, Atsunobu; Okada, Ikuo; Shinohara, Shinji; Nakayama, Yasuo; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1995-12-01

    A new system that measures stress in film deposited on Si wafers has been developed to produce highly accurate X-ray masks. The system consists of very rigid air sliders, an electrostatic sensor, and a soft-handling wafer chuck. With the system, wafer warp is precisely measured before and after film deposition, and the stress distribution is calculated from those measurements. Wafer warps can be measured with a repeatability of a few nanometers by this system. The stress distribution of absorber film on 2-mm-thick Si wafers can be determined with an accuracy of ±5 MPa. The stress distribution agrees well with the pattern position shifts in the membrane.

  14. Automation of labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced 188Re.

    PubMed

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valérie; Noiret, Nicolas; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Clément, Bruno; Garin, Etienne

    2011-02-01

    This work describes optimisation of the kit formulation for labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced rhenium-188. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was 92.52±2.3% and extraction yield was 98.56±1.2%. The synthesis has been automated with a TADDEO module (Comecer) giving a mean final yield of 52.68±9.6%, and reducing radiation burden to the radiochemist by 80%. Radiolabelled Lipiodol ((188)Re-SSS/Lipiodol) is stable for at least 7 days (RCP=91.07±0.9%). PMID:21106381

  15. Biomedical sensors and imaging applications through nanoparticles produced with high energy ball-milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Olena; Garbovskiy, Yuriy; Glushchenko, Anatoliy

    2014-03-01

    High energy ball milling allows: i) one step production of surface functionalized nanoparticles, and ii) tuning the nanoparticle properties by changing milling time. Nanoparticles that are ferroelectric can be used as second harmonic generating probes; semiconductor nanoparticles act as quantum dots. Also, nanoparticles produced by our method can be bio-conjugated with antibodies, peptides, etc. We outline potential biomedical imaging applications of such nanoparticles and show preliminary experimental results of probing living cell cultures (such as yeast and mammalian RBL cells) using these ball-milled nanoparticles colloids. This work was supported by UCCS-BioFrontiers.

  16. Well-organized raspberry-like Ag@Cu bimetal nanoparticles for highly reliable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Chen, Dongchang; Li, Xiaxi; Yoo, Seungmin; Bottomley, Lawrence A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Park, Soojin; Liu, Meilin

    2013-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ideally suited for probing and mapping surface species and incipient phases on fuel cell electrodes because of its high sensitivity and surface-selectivity, potentially offering insights into the mechanisms of chemical and energy transformation processes. In particular, bimetal nanostructures of coinage metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) have attracted much attention as SERS-active agents due to their distinctive electromagnetic field enhancements originated from surface plasmon resonance. Here we report excellent SERS-active, raspberry-like nanostructures composed of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle core decorated with smaller copper (Cu) nanoparticles, which displayed enhanced and broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra. These unique Ag@Cu raspberry nanostructures enable us to use blue, green, and red light as the excitation laser source for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a large enhancement factor (EF). A highly reliable SERS effect was demonstrated using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules and a thin film of gadolinium doped ceria. PMID:24126702

  17. Cloning and characterization of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from the highly branched isoprenoid producing diatom Rhizosolenia setigera

    PubMed Central

    Ferriols, Victor Marco Emmanuel N.; Yaginuma, Ryoko; Adachi, Masao; Takada, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Okada, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The diatom Rhizosolenia setigera Brightwell produces highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) hydrocarbons that are ubiquitously present in marine environments. The hydrocarbon composition of R. setigera varies between C25 and C30 HBIs depending on the life cycle stage with regard to auxosporulation. To better understand how these hydrocarbons are biosynthesized, we characterized the farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase (FPPS) enzyme of R. setigera. An isolated 1465-bp cDNA clone contained an open reading frame spanning 1299-bp encoding a protein with 432 amino acid residues. Expression of the RsFPPS cDNA coding region in Escherichia coli produced a protein that exhibited FPPS activity in vitro. A reduction in HBI content from diatoms treated with an FPPS inhibitor, risedronate, suggested that RsFPPS supplies precursors for HBI biosynthesis. Product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry also revealed that RsFPPS produced small amounts of the cis-isomers of geranyl pyrophosphate and FPP, candidate precursors for the cis-isomers of HBIs previously characterized. Furthermore, RsFPPS gene expression at various life stages of R. setigera in relation to auxosporulation were also analyzed. Herein, we present data on the possible role of RsFPPS in HBI biosynthesis, and it is to our knowledge the first instance that an FPPS was cloned and characterized from a diatom. PMID:25996801

  18. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.

    PubMed

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-09-23

    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar ? phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar ? phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 ?A peak short-circuit current output. PMID:25133594

  19. The microbiota of high-moisture mozzarella cheese produced with different acidification methods.

    PubMed

    Guidone, Angela; Zotta, Teresa; Matera, Attilio; Ricciardi, Annamaria; De Filippis, Francesca; Ercolini, Danilo; Parente, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of high-moisture Mozzarella cheese made from cow's milk and produced with different acidification methods was evaluated at the end of refrigerated storage by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The cheeses were clearly separated on the basis of the acidification methods. Cheeses produced with the addition of starters were dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, but a variety of lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms appeared at low levels (0.01-1%). Cheeses produced by direct addition of citric acid were dominated by a diverse microbiota, including both lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic ?-proteobacteria. For five brands the acidification system was not declared on the label: the microbiota was dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus) but a variety of other subdominant lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae were present, with a diversity comparable or higher to cheeses produced by direct acid addition. This led to the conclusion that undefined starters were used for acidification. Both ordination methods and network analysis were used for the representation of beta-diversity: matrix cluster analysis, principal coordinate analysis and OTU networks uncovered different aspects of the microbial community structure. For three cheese brands both biological replicates (cheeses from different lots) and technical replicates (replicate cheeses from the same lot) were analyzed. Repeatability was acceptable for OTUs appearing at frequencies >1%, but was low otherwise. A linear mixed model showed that the starter system was responsible for most differences related to dairies, while difference due to psychrotrophic contaminants was more related to lot-to-lot variability. PMID:26384211

  20. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.A.; Blanc, E.

    1997-03-01

    The presence of ionization associated with high-altitude discharges has been detected using an HF radar operating at 2.2, 2.5, and 2.8 MHz. On several occasions, oblique echoes lasting several hundred ms at night and 1{r_arrow}10s during the day were observed. The echoes turned on in several interpulse times of 70 ms and were generally correlated with strong lightning activity prior to onset. The angles of arrival of sferics detected at three goniometer stations were used to determine the distance to thunderstorms. The data are consistent with specular reflections from columns of ionization produced at 55{endash}65 km altitude and having minimum electron densities of 6{times}10{sup 4}{endash}10{sup 5}cm{sup {minus}3}. The source of the ionization is believed to be high-altitude discharges.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  1. High-temperature plasma produced on a free liquid surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Roman V; Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Mikheev, Pavel M; Savel'ev, Andrei B; Uryupina, D S

    2004-02-28

    The plasma formed by femtosecond laser radiation with an intensity higher than 10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} at the free surface of a liquid (VM-1 vacuum oil) in vacuum has parameters which are similar to the parameters of the high-temperature plasma produced at the surface of a solid target. The hot-electron temperature (derived from X-ray and ion time-of-flight measurements) is 6 {+-} 3 keV for the VM-1 oil target and 4 {+-} 1 keV for a crystal silicon target. The optical diagnostics of the relaxation of the liquid target surface revealed that the limiting laser pulse-repetition rate whereby the interaction takes place with the unperturbed liquid surface may be as high as 10 Hz. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  2. Producing vapor grown carbon fibers with high sulfur coal without SO{sub 2} emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Alig, R.L.; Lake, M.L.; Guth, J.R.; Burton, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a unique process that produces a highly graphitic, vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) from the gas phase in pound quantities. Past vapor grown carbon fiber progress has stagnated because the iron catalyst did not grow filaments profusely enough to make a practical continuous reactor. It has been found that by adding H{sub 2}S at an equimolar level with the iron catalyst, the filament formation vastly increases. Coal is desirable as a sulfur source, for it eliminates the need for handling toxic H{sub 2}S, and it is a very low cost hydrocarbon supply for the process. We show that Ohio, high-sulfur coal containing 2.5 to 4.6% sulfur accomplishes both tasks. Furthermore, there is evidence that the sulfur from the coal remains with the carbon fiber catalyst during the reaction and does not exhaust as SO{sub 2} into the atmosphere.

  3. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-10-06

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production.

  4. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19?}cm{sup –3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  5. Variability in High-Energy Photon Bursts Produced by Lightning Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity. They have been discovered by Fishman et al. [Science, 264, 1313, 1994] using BATSE detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory originally launched to perform observations of celestial gamma-ray sources. These events have also been detected by the RHESSI [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], AGILE [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010], and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010]. Moreover, measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intra-cloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g, Lu et al., JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Photon spectra corresponding to relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) in large-scale thunderstorm electric fields usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. However, it has been suggested that high-potential +IC lightning leaders could produce a sufficient number of energetic electrons to explain TGFs [Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011], and Xu et al. [GRL, 39, L08801, 2012] have shown that this mechanism could explain the TGF spectrum for lightning potentials higher than 100 MV. In addition to TGFs, X-ray bursts are produced by negative cloud-to-ground (-CGs) lightning leaders in association with stepping processes and are observed from the ground [Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L01803, 2005]. In this work, we will investigate the variation of photon spectra and photon fluences with respect to the electrical properties of the causative lightning discharge in a unified fashion for TGFs and CG-lightning-produced X-ray bursts. We will show how the lightning-produced X-ray spectrum converges toward the RREA spectrum for very high potential drops in the vicinity of the lightning leader tip, and demonstrate why only the most energetic TGFs can be detected from low-orbit satellites.

  6. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M.; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P. S.; Lindbäck, Toril

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ?734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ?734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ?734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ?734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak. PMID:25692100

  7. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  8. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

  9. Prevalence and Characterization of High Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Gulf of Mexico Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bowers, John C; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in detection and enumeration of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) have created powerful molecular-based tools to better understand the presence of spoilage bacteria and conditions, resulting in increased risk of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. We examined 235 scombrotoxin-forming fish from the Gulf of Mexico for the presence of high HPB. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was the most prevalent HPB (49%), followed by Morganella morganii (14%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), and Raoultella planticola (3%). The growth characteristics and histamine production capabilities of the two most prevalent HPB were further examined. M. morganii and P. damselae had optimum growth at 35°C and 30 to 35°C and 0 to 2% and 1 to 3% NaCl, respectively. P. damselae produced significantly (P < 0.001) higher histamine than M. morganii in inoculated mahimahi and Spanish mackerel incubated at 30°C for 24 h, but histamine production was not significantly different between the two HPB in inoculated tuna, possibly due to differences in muscle composition and salt content. Results in this study showed that P. damselae was the most prevalent high HPB in Gulf of Mexico fish. In addition, previously reported results using the traditional Niven's method may underreport the prevalence of P. damselae. Molecular-based methods should be used in addition to culture-based methods to enhance detection and enumeration of HPB. PMID:26197285

  10. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

  11. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  12. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Carasso, Alfred S.

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing1 of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology.

  13. Diagnostic Reproducibility of Hydatidiform Moles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna V.; Kurman, Robert J.; Li, Fanghong Rose; Maambo, Emily C.; Murphy, Kathleen M.; DeScipio, Cheryl; Thompson, Carol B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.

    2015-01-01

    Distinction of hydatidiform moles from nonmolar specimens (NMs) and subclassification of hydatidiform moles as complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies; however, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. Molecular genotyping can distinguish these entities by discerning androgenetic diploidy, diandric triploidy, and biparental diploidy to diagnose CHMs, PHMs, and NMs, respectively. Eighty genotyped cases (27 CHMs, 27 PHMs, 26 NMs) were selected from a series of 200 potentially molar specimens previously diagnosed using p57 immunohistochemistry and genotyping. Cases were classified by 6 pathologists (3 faculty level gynecologic pathologists and 3 fellows) on the basis of morphology, masked to p57 immunostaining and genotyping results, into 1 of 3 categories (CHM, PHM, or NM) during 2 diagnostic rounds; a third round incorporating p57 immunostaining results was also conducted. Consensus diagnoses (those rendered by 2 of 3 pathologists in each group) were also determined. Performance of experienced gynecologic pathologists versus fellow pathologists was compared, using genotyping results as the gold standard. Correct classification of CHMs ranged from 59% to 100%; there were no statistically significant differences in performance of faculty versus fellows in any round (P-values of 0.13, 0.67, and 0.54 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of PHMs ranged from 26% to 93%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty versus fellows in each round (P-values of 0.04, <0.01, and <0.01 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of NMs ranged from 31% to 92%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty only in round 2 (P-values of 1.0, <0.01, and 0.61 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of all cases combined ranged from 51% to 75% by morphology and 70% to 80% with p57, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty only in round 2 (P-values of 0.69, <0.01, and 0.15 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). p57 immunostaining significantly improved recognition of CHMs (P<0.01) and had high reproducibility (?=0.93 to 0.96) but had no impact on distinction of PHMs and NMs. Genotyping provides a definitive diagnosis for the ~25% to 50% of cases that are misclassified by morphology, especially those that are also unresolved by p57 immunostaining. PMID:22992698

  14. New supercharging reagents produce highly charged protein ions in native mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Going, Catherine C; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R

    2015-10-12

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which these proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods. PMID:26421324

  15. New Supercharging Reagents Produce Highly Charged Protein Ions in Native Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Going, Catherine C.; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods. PMID:26421324

  16. Design of a trans protease lentiviral packaging system that produces high titer virus

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Karen A; Ao, Zhujun; Cohen, Éric A; Leboulch, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Background The structural and enzymatic proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are initially generated as two long polyproteins encoded from overlapping reading frames, one producing the structural proteins (Gag) and the second producing both structural and enzymatic proteins (Gag-Pol). The Gag to Gag-Pol ratio is critical for the proper assembly and maturation of viral particles. To minimize the risk of producing a replication competent lentivirus (RCL), we developed a "super-split" lentiviral packaging system in which Gag was separated from Pol with minimal loss of transducibility by supplying protease (PR) in trans independently of both Gag and Pol. Results In developing this "super-split" packaging system, we incorporated several new safety features that include removing the Gag/Gag-Pol frameshift, splitting the Gag, PR, and reverse transcriptase/integrase (RT/IN) functions onto separate plasmids, and greatly reducing the nucleotide sequence overlap between vector and Gag and between Gag and Pol. As part of the construction of this novel system, we used a truncated form of the accessory protein Vpr, which binds the P6 region of Gag, as a vehicle to deliver both PR and RT/IN as fusion proteins to the site of viral assembly and budding. We also replaced wt PR with a slightly less active T26S PR mutant in an effort to prevent premature processing and cytoxicity associated with wt PR. This novel "super-split" packaging system yielded lentiviral titers comparable to those generated by conventional lentiviral packaging where Gag-Pol is supplied intact (1.0 × 106 TU/ml, unconcentrated). Conclusion Here, we were able to create a true "split-function" lentiviral packaging system that has the potential to be used for gene therapy applications. This novel system incorporates many new safety features while maintaining high titers. In addition, because PR is supplied in trans, this unique system may also provide opportunities to examine viral protein processing and maturation. PMID:18163907

  17. Methods for Producing High-Performance Silicon Carbide Fibers, Architectural Preforms, and High-Temperature Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing architectural preforms and high-temperature composite structures containing high-strength ceramic fibers with reduced preforming stresses within each fiber, with an in-situ grown coating on each fiber surface, with reduced boron within the bulk of each fiber, and with improved tensile creep and rupture resistance properties tier each fiber. The methods include the steps of preparing an original sample of a preform formed from a pre-selected high-strength silicon carbide ceramic fiber type, placing the original sample in a processing furnace under a pre-selected preforming stress state and thermally treating the sample in the processing furnace at a pre-selected processing temperature and hold time in a processing gas having a pre-selected composition, pressure, and flow rate. For the high-temperature composite structures, the method includes additional steps of depositing a thin interphase coating on the surface of each fiber and forming a ceramic or carbon-based matrix within the sample.

  18. A Physical Activity Questionnaire: Reproducibility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E.; Vera, Jose A.; Perez, Wilson; Thalabard, Jean-Christophe; Rieu, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the Quantification de L’Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE) supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE) on Bogotá’s schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97); by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97); 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99); 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98). The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66) (p<0.01); by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87), 0.76 (0.78) and 0.88 (0.80) respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake. Key pointsThe presence of a supervisor, the limited size of the group with the possibility of answering to their questions could explain the high reproducibility for this questionnaire.No study in the literature had directly addressed the issue of estimating a yearly average PA including school and vacation period.A two step procedure, in the population of schoolchildren of Bogotá, gives confidence in the use of the QAPACE questionnaire in a large epidemiological survey in related populations. PMID:24149485

  19. Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

  20. Mutation breeding of acetoin high producing Bacillus subtilis blocked in 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Rongzhen; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Meijuan; Li, Huazhong; Xu, Zhenghong; Rao, Zhiming

    2013-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants were obtained after the wild strain JNA 3-10 was mutagenized by UV irradiation coupled with diethyl sulfate. A visual filter assay was employed for the qualitative identification of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH) blocked B. subtilis. Selected mutants were tested for the activities of acetoin reductase (AR) and BDH. According to further batch fermentation, one mutant named JNA-UD-6 that produced 24.3 % more acetoin than JNA 3-10 with the corresponding byproducts of 2,3-butanediol decreased by 39.8 % was isolated. A nonsense mutation (p.Tyr118X) that precluded the synthesis of a full-length functional AR/BDH within the bdhA gene of JNA-UD-6 was detected. Acetoin production of JNA-UD-6 was further improved to about 53.9 g/L in a 5-L fermentor with 150 g/L glucose consumed. However,a small amount of 2,3-butanediol was found in late phase of JNA-UD-6 fermentation, and it was due to the existence of a putative gene that encoding a minor AR. This work proved a strategy to efficiently breeding an acetoin high producing strain by traditional mutation methods. PMID:23549901

  1. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, B.; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-01

    Experiments on the Titan laser (˜150 J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 1020 W cm-2) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2 MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5 MeV and 4 MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  2. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  3. Properties of High Volume Fraction Fly Ash/Al Alloy Composites Produced by Infiltration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouras, D. T.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Skolianos, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, pressure infiltration is employed to synthesize aluminum alloy 7075-fly ash composites. The microstructure and chemical composition of the fly ash and the produced composite material was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as x-ray diffraction. Several properties of the produced composite material were examined and evaluated including macro-hardness, wear, thermal expansion, and corrosion behavior. The wear characteristics of the composite, in the as-cast conditions, were studied by dry sliding wear tests. The corrosion behavior of composite material was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The composite specimens exhibit a homogeneous distribution of fly ash particles and present enhanced hardness values, compared to the matrix material. The high volume fraction of the fly ash reinforcement (>40%) in the composite material led to increased wear rates, attributed to the fragmentation of the fly ash particles. However, the presence of fly ash particles in the Al alloy matrix considerably decreased the coefficiency of thermal expansion, while resulting in an altered corrosion mechanism of the composite material with respect to the matrix alloy.

  4. Characterization of Detonation Soot Produced During Steady and Overdriven Conditions for Three High Explosive Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlesak, David; Amato, Ronald; Dattelbaum, Dana; Firestone, Millicent; Gustavsen, Richard; Huber, Rachel; Ringstrand, Bryan

    2015-06-01

    The detonation of high explosives (HE) produces a dense fluid of molecular gases and solid carbon. The solid detonation carbon contains various carbon allotropes such as detonation nanodiamonds, ``onion-like'' carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon, with the formation of the different forms dependent upon pressure, temperature and the environmental conditions of the detonation. We have collected solid carbon residues from controlled detonations of three HE formulations (Composition B-3, PBX 9501, and PBX 9502). Soot was collected from experiments designed to produce both steady and overdriven conditions, and from detonations in both an ambient (air) atmosphere and in an inert Ar atmosphere. Structural studies to glean the features of the solid carbon products have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and X-Ray Pair Distribution Function measurements (PDF). Bulk soot was also analyzed for elemental and isotopic compositions. We will discuss differences in the structure and composition of the detonation carbon as a function of formulation, detonation conditions, and the surrounding atmosphere.

  5. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocaña, J. L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-11-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  6. Generation of high-yield insulin producing cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Pourpak, Zahra; Allahverdi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of ? cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). This specific stepwise protocol induced differentiation of hMSCs into definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic endocrine cells that expressed of sox17, foxa2, pdx1, ngn3, nkx2.2, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glut2 transcripts respectively. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed protein expression of the above mentioned genes. Western blot analysis discriminated insulin from proinsulin in the final differentiated cells. In derived insulin producing cells (IPCs), secreted insulin and C-peptide was in a glucose dependent manner. We have developed a protocol that generates effective high-yield human IPCs from hBM-MSCs in vitro. These finding suggest that functional IPCs generated by this procedure can be used as a cell-based approach for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:24718781

  7. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  8. High speed sliding of axonemal microtubules produced by outer arm dynein.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Satir, Peter

    2005-02-01

    To study dynein arm activity at high temporal resolution, axonemal sliding was measured field by field for wild type and dynein arm mutants of Tetrahymena thermophila. For wt SB255 cells, when the rate of data acquisition was 60 fps, about 5x greater than previously published observations, sliding was observed to be discontinuous with very high velocity sliding (average 196 microm/sec) for a few msec (1 or 2 fields) followed by a pause of several fields. The sliding velocities measured were an order of magnitude greater than rates previously measured by video analysis. However, when the data were analyzed at 12 fps for the same axonemes, consistent with previous observations, sliding was linear as the axonemes extended several times their original length with an average velocity of approximately 10 microm/sec. The pauses or stops occurred at approximately 200 and 300% of the initial length, suggesting that dynein arms on one axonemal doublet were initially active to the limit of extension, and then the arms on the next doublet became activated. In contrast, in a mutant where OADs are missing, sliding observed at 60 fps was continuous and slow (5 microm/sec), as opposed to the discontinuous high-velocity sliding of SB255 and of the mutant at the permissive temperature where OADs are present. High-velocity step-wise sliding was also present in axonemes from an inner arm dynein mutant (KO6). These results indicate that the high-speed discontinuous pattern of sliding is produced by the mechanochemical activity of outer arm dynein. The rate of sliding is consistent with a low duty ratio of the outer arm dynein and with the operation of each arm along a doublet once per beat. PMID:15605357

  9. Transport of aurorally produced N/2D/ by winds in the high latitude thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional model is developed for describing the meridional circulation of thermospheric odd nitrogen species produced in the auroral zone. The model is based on a previous model by Roble and Gary (1979) extended to upper altitude transport of the nitrogen species. Assumptions made include the existence of a steady neutral wind flowing from low to high latitudes, and an initial background due to scattered Lyman-beta and nightglow emissions. The aurora is also assumed as steady, along with a constant ion production. Predictions made using the model are compared with observations with the Atmosphere Explorer C spacecraft and rocket sounding measurements of the 5200 A distribution near the day-side polar cusp. The model requires thermospheric winds of 100-200 m/sec, flowing from day to nightside. Convective velocities near 1000 m/sec were detected by the Explorer spacecraft, as well as a day-to-nightside flow at the cusp.

  10. [The breeding of high glutathione-producing strain and optimization of culture condition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; He, Xiuping; Wang, Yaqin; Liu, Chunxiu; Kong, Yingjun; Zhang, Borun

    2003-02-01

    High glutathione-producing strain ZJF-71 was constructed by primary screening,isolation of haploid, mutagenesis and protoplasts fusion. The yield of glutathione of the fusant ZJF-71 is 1.59 and 1.42 times that of the parental strains Y64 and Y247, respectively. The factors that affected the biomass and glutathione content of the fusant ZJF-71 were also tested. The highest level of glutathione was obtained in 32 h at 30 degrees C and 200 r/min, when 30 mL of culture in 250- mL shake flasks was incubated in fermentation medium which contained (w/v): 6% cane sugar, 1% peptone, 1% yeast extract, and 2mmol/L cysteine. Glutathione yield under the optimal fermentation condition showed a 2.8-fold improvement over that of the initial condition. The fusant ZJF-71 is stable in genetic by analysis of genetic stability. PMID:16276878

  11. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  12. Characterization of high molecular weight dextran produced by Weissella cibaria CMGDEX3.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rifat Z; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Arman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2012-09-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria CMGDEX3 was isolated from cabbage on sucrose containing De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar. Dextransucrase activity and dextran yield was found to be 7.1 DSU ml(-1) and 2.4 g dl(-1), respectively. The structural characterization of purified EPS determined by FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that W. cibaria CMGDEX3 synthesized a linear dextran that predominately had ? (1?6) glycosidic linkages with only a few (3.4%) ? (1?3) linked branches. Molecular mass determination showed that it was a high molecular weight dextran of an average >2,000,000 Da. According to our knowledge this is the first report on isolation of dextran synthesizing Weissella genus from Pakistan. PMID:24751063

  13. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  14. Initiation of vacuum insulator surface high-voltage flashover with electrons produced by laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Leopold, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, experiments are described in which cylindrical vacuum insulator samples and samples inclined at 45° relative to the cathode were stressed by microsecond timescale high-voltage pulses and illuminated by focused UV laser beam pulses. In these experiments, we were able to distinguish between flashover initiated by the laser producing only photo-electrons and when plasma is formed. It was shown that flashover is predominantly initiated near the cathode triple junction. Even dense plasma formed near the anode triple junction does not necessarily lead to vacuum surface flashover. The experimental results directly confirm our conjecture that insulator surface breakdown can be avoided by preventing its initiation [J. G. Leopold et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 060401 (2007)] and complement our previous experimental results [J. Z. Gleizer et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 21, 2394 (2014) and J. Z. Gleizer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 073301 (2015)].

  15. Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, P. . E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; De Marco, P.P.

    2007-03-15

    The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 deg. C for 2 h and an ageing treatment at 220 deg. C for 4 h. The heat treatment resulted in a significant increase in the fatigue properties of the HPDC material, while no significance influence of heat treatment was recorded in the FSP condition. The morphology of fracture surfaces was examined by employing a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM)

  16. Ultrafine grained high density manganese zinc ferrite produced using polyol process assisted by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudisson, T.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Valenzuela, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the polyol process and their consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique at relatively low temperature and short time, namely 500 °C for 10 min. NPs were obtained as perfectly epitaxied aggregated nanoclusters forming a kind of spherical pseudo-single-crystals of about 40 nm in size. The results on NPs consolidation by SPS underlined the importance of this clustering on the grain growth mechanism. Grain growth proceeds by coalescing nanocrystalline aggregates into single grain of almost the same average size, thus leading to a high density ceramic. Due to magnetic exchange interactions between grains, the produced ceramic does not exhibit thermal relaxation whereas their precursor polyol-made NPs are superparamagnetic.

  17. Micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie

    2013-09-10

    The present invention relates to micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams. In one embodiment, the micro-cone target includes a substantially cone-shaped body including an outer surface, an inner surface, a generally flat and round, open-ended base, and a tip defining an apex. The cone-shaped body tapers along its length from the generally flat and round, open-ended base to the tip defining the apex. In addition, the outer surface and the inner surface connect the base to the tip, and the tip curves inwardly to define an outer surface that is concave, which is bounded by a rim formed at a juncture where the outer surface meets the tip.

  18. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark R; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-07-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts-spatially close chromosomal loci-which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically-the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a means for comparing 3D reconstruction solutions so that we can discern between local and global optima by contrasting solutions under perturbed inputs. PMID:24519450

  19. [Construction of high sulphite-producing industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Qu, Na; He, Xiu-ping; Guo, Xue-na; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Bo-run

    2006-02-01

    In the process of beer storage and transportation, off-flavor can be produced for oxidation of beer. Sulphite is important for stabilizing the beer flavor because of its antioxidant activity. However, the low level of sulphite synthesized by the brewing yeast is not enough to stabilize beer flavor. Three enzymes involve sulphite biosynthesis in yeast. One of them, APS kinase (encoded by MET14) plays important role in the process of sulphite formation. In order to construct high sulphite-producing brewing yeast strain for beer production, MET14 gene was cloned and overexpressed in industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Primer 1 (5'-TGTGAATTCCTGTACACCAATGGCTACT-3', EcoR I) and primer 2 (5'-TATAAGCTTGATGA GGTGGATGAAGACG-3', HindIII) were designed according to the MET14 sequence in GenBank. A 1.1kb DNA fragment containing the open reading frame and terminator of MET14 gene was amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSF-5 by PCR, and inserted into YEp352 to generate recombinant plasmid pMET14. To express MET14 gene properly in S. cerevisiae, the recombinant expression plasmids pPM with URA3 gene as the selection marker and pCPM with URA3 gene and copper resistance gene as the selection marker for yeast transformation were constructed. In plasmid pPM, the PGK1 promoter from plasmid pVC727 was fused with the MET14 gene from pMET14, and the expression cassette was inserted into the plasmid YEp352. The dominant selection marker, copper-resistance gene expression cassette CUP1-MTI was inserted in plasmid pPM to result in pCPM. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that plasmids pPM and pCPM were constructed correctly. The laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae YS58 with ura3, trp1, leu2, his4 auxotroph was transformed with plasmid pPM. Yeast transformants were screened on synthetic minimal medium (SD) containing leucine, histidine and tryptophan. The sulphite production of the transformants carrying pPM was 2 fold of that in the control strain YS58, which showed that the MET14 gene on plasmid pPM was expressed functionally in YS58. The industrial brewing yeast strain YSF-38 was transformed with the plasmid pCPM and yeast transformants were selected on YEPD medium containing 4mmol/L copper sulphate. The recombinant strain carrying pCPM showed a 3.2-fold increase in sulphite production when compared to the host strain YSF-38 under laboratory culture conditions. Flask fermentation under brewing-like conditions was performed in Tsingtao Beer Brewery. The sulphite production of the recombinant strain began to be higher than that of the host strain YSF-38 at the fourth day and reached the maximum at the eighth day. At the end of fermentation, the sulphite produced by recombinant strain is 1.4 fold of that in the host strain. The overexpression of MET14 gene in both laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae increases the sulphite formation. It is the first time to construct high sulphite-producing industrial strain by functional expression of MET14 in S. cerevisiae. Such study provides the foundation for construction of an excellent brewing yeast strain that can produce proper sulphite and can be used in commercial beer production. PMID:16579462

  20. Development of high-emittance scales on thoriated nickel-chromium-aluminum-base alloys. [produced by high temperature oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, I. G.; Wilcox, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The surface regions of a DSNiCrAl alloy have been doped, by a pack diffusion process, with small amounts of Mn, Fe, or Co, and the effect of these dopants on the total normal emissivity of the scales produced by subsequent high temperature oxidation has been measured. While all three elements lead to a modest increase in emissivity, (up to 23% greater than the undoped alloy) only the change caused by manganese is thermally stable. However, this increased emissivity is within 85 percent of that of TDNiCr oxidized to form a chromia scale. The maganese-doped alloy is some 50 percent weaker than undoped DSNiCrAl after the doping treatment, and approximately 30 percent weaker after oxidation.

  1. Extended Eden model reproduces growth of an acellular slime mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Geri; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Meakin, Paul

    1999-11-01

    A stochastic growth model was used to simulate the growth of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum on substrates where the nutrients were confined in separate drops. Growth of Physarum on such substrates was previously studied experimentally and found to produce a range of different growth patterns [Phys. Rev. E 57, 941 (1998)]. The model represented the aging of cluster sites and differed from the original Eden model in that the occupation probability of perimeter sites depended on the time of occupation of adjacent cluster sites. This feature led to a bias in the selection of growth directions. A moderate degree of persistence was found to be crucial to reproduce the biological growth patterns under various conditions. Persistence in growth combined quick propagation in heterogeneous environments with a high probability of locating sources of nutrients.

  2. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviours of Valve Seat Inserts Produced from High Chromium White Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyon, Ali; Özyürek, Dursun; Günay, Mustafa; Aztekin, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In this present study, wear behaviours of high chromium white iron valve seat inserts and tappets used in the automotive sector were investigated. Wear behaviours of three different rates of high chromium white cast irons (containing 10, 12 and 14% chromium) were examined under heavy service conditions. For that purpose, the produced valve seat inserts were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness measurements. They were tested at a sliding speed of 1 ms-1, under 120 N load and for six different sliding distances (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 m) by using a standard wear apparatus (pin-on-disk type). The result showed that as the amount of Cr increased in the alloys, their hardness decreased. The decrease in the hardness were considered to be as the result of transformation of M7C3 carbides into M23C6 carbides in the structure. This decrease in hardness with increasing chromium content also increased the weight loss. Thus, it was determined that the white iron with 14% Cr (which had a greater amount of M23C6 carbides) was subjected to the highest wear.

  3. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  4. Use of high-boiling alcohols to produce shale oil from Green River shale

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, J.F.; Blanche, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of experiments in which Green River shale was treated with mono-, di-, or trifunctional alcohols in an attempt to produce high oil yields under lower pressure treatment conditions. The experiment using 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol) and water resulted in a yield of 81 weight percent based on recovered liquid organic matter, a yield equivalent ro 124% of Fischer assay. The experiments using other di- and trifunctional alcohols were not successful in recovering large amounts of oil from the shale. The 1, 2-ethanediol experiments suggests that it may be possible to recover oil from shale in yields much higher than those of conventional retorting precesses at pressures well below supercritical methanol-water. Solvents with boiling points up to 200C, such as n-octanol boiling at 194C and 1,2-ethanediol boiling at 198C, can be removed from liquid product using rotary evaporation under reduced pressure. Higher-boiling alcohols such as glycerin and diethylene glycol would probably not be satisfactory solvents even if recoveries were high because of complicated separation requirements. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Supercritical CO2 Processing: A Novel Method for Producing Highly Dispersed Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Steven; Gulari, Esin; Kannan, Rangaramanujam

    2006-03-01

    The key challenges in producing high performance nanocomposites are separation of the layered filler into individual platelets, preservation of large aspect ratios and promotion of polymer-filler interactions. By exploiting the ability of scCO2 to diffuse into the layered filler and solvate/swell polymers we have been able to disperse the nanoclay and facilitate polymer-clay interactions even with Na^+ montmorillonite. Nanocomposites are prepared by processing the pristine nanoclay and compounding it with an appropriate polymer or processing clay/polymer simultaneously. SEM and WAXD results show significant clay layer separation and preservation of platelet aspect ratios. A high degree of dispersion is also observed in TEM images of these nanocomposites. The facilitation of polymer-clay interactions during the scCO2 process results in higher glass transition temperatures and improved dynamic moduli for these systems. For example, a 5wt% 93A/PS nanocomposite has a 10 degree increase in Tg and G' becomes nearly independent of frequency at low shear rates where it demonstrates an order of magnitude increase.

  6. High energy, low energy spread electron bunches produced via colliding pulse injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Matlis, N. H.; Steinke, S.; Bruhwiler, D.; Chen, M.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Nakamura, K.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-10-01

    Injection into a high gradient laser-plasma accelerator can becontrolled by using the beat between ``colliding'' laser pulses to kick electrons at a specified location into a plasma wave which was operated below the threshold for self injection. The experiments used control over the laser optical mode and plasma profile to extend the acceleration distance in a gas jet target. This allowed acceleration of electrons to above 200 MeV using the 10 TW LOASIS laser. Colliding pulse injection into this high energy structure was used to control bunch quality, producing bunches with energy spreads below 1.5% FWHM and divergences of 1.5 mrad FWHM. With injection location fixed by the colliding pulses, beam energy was controlled by plasma density and by target location with respect to the collision. Dependence of injector performance on laser and plasma parameters were characterized in coordination with simulations. Separate experiments recently demonstrated 0.1 mm-mrad emittance from self injected LPAs using betatron radiation, and comparison with present divergence and energy data indicate that these bunches may also be of very low emittance.

  7. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  8. A high-fat plus fructose diet produces a vascular prostanoid alterations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Peredo, H A; Lee, H; Donoso, A S; Andrade, V; Sánchez Eluchans, N; Puyó, A M

    2015-04-01

    In the rat, a high-fat (HF) plus fructose (F) diet produces cardiovascular and metabolic alterations that resemble human metabolic syndrome. Prostanoids (PR), cyclo-oxygenase-derived arachidonic acid metabolites, have vasoactive properties and mediate inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of a HF+F diet on blood pressure (BP), metabolic parameters and mesenteric vascular bed PR production in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups were studied over 9 weeks (n = 6 each): control (C), standard diet (SD) and tap water to drink; F+SD and 10% w/v F solution to drink; HF 50% (w/w) bovine fat added to SD and tap water; and HFF, both treatments. PR were determined by HPLC. Blood pressure was elevated in all experimental groups. Triglyceridaemia, insulinaemia and HOMA-IR were increased in the F and HF groups. HF+F animals showed elevated glycaemia, insulinaemia, HOMA-IR and triglyceridaemia. F decreased the vasodilator prostanoids PGI2 and PGE2 in the mesenteric vascular bed. Body weight was not significantly altered. In HFF, production of PGE2 , PGF2 alpha and TXB2 was elevated. The increased BP in HF and HFF could be partly attributed to the imbalance in vascular PR production towards vasoconstrictors. On the other hand, this dietary modification could induce inflammation, which would explain the elevation of PGE2 . In the F group, hypertension could be related to decreased vasodilator PRs. The simultaneous administration of HF and F in the rat produces deleterious effects greater than observed when treatments are applied separately. PMID:25761783

  9. Multiple Species of Trichosporon Produce Biofilms Highly Resistant to Triazoles and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Iturrieta-González, Isabel Antonieta; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Bizerra, Fernando César; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon spp. have increased considerably in recent years, especially in neutropenic and critically ill patients using catheters and antibiotics. The genus presents limited sensitivity to different antifungal agents, but triazoles are the first choice for treatment. Here, we investigated the biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility to triazoles and amphotericin B of 54 Trichosporon spp. isolates obtained from blood samples (19), urine (20) and superficial mycosis (15). All isolates and 7 reference strains were identified by sequence analysis and phylogenetic inferences of the IGS1 region of the rDNA. Biofilms were grown on 96-well plates and quantitation was performed using crystal violet staining, complemented with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Susceptibility tests for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B were processed using the microdilution broth method (CLSI) for planktonic cells and XTT reduction assay for biofilm-forming cells. Our results showed that T. asahii was the most frequent species identified (66.7%), followed by T. faecale (11.1%), T. asteroides (9.3%), T. inkin (7.4%), T. dermatis (3.7%) and one T. coremiiforme (1.8%). We identified 4 genotypes within T. asahii isolates (G1, G3, G4 and G5) and 2 genotypes within T. faecale (G1 and G3). All species exhibited high adhesion and biofilm formation capabilities, mainly T. inkin, T. asteroides and T. faecale. Microscopy images of high biofilm-producing isolates showed that T. asahii presented mainly hyphae and arthroconidia, whereas T. asteroides exhibited mainly short arthroconidia and few filaments. Voriconazole exhibited the best in vitro activity against all species tested. Biofilm-forming cells of isolates and reference strains were highly resistant to all antifungals tested. We concluded that levels of biofilm formation by Trichosporon spp. were similar or even greater than those described for the Candida genus. Biofilm-forming cells were at least 1,000 times more resistant to antifungals than planktonic cells, especially to voriconazole. PMID:25360765

  10. Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses

    E-print Network

    Limpouch, Jiri

    Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

  11. Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements in Malignant Breast Masses

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mijung; Yun, Bo La; Ahn, Hye Shin; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in malignant breast masses, and to determine the influence of mammographic parenchymal density on this reproducibility. Sixty-six patients with magnetic resonance findings of the mass were included. Two breast radiologists measured the ADC of the malignant breast mass and the same area on the contralateral normal breast in each patient twice. The effects of mammographic parenchymal density, histology, and lesion size on reproducibility were also assessed. There was no significant difference in the mean ADC between repeated measurements in malignant breast masses and normal breast tissue. The overall reproducibility of ADC measurements was good in both. The 95% limits of agreement for repeated ADCs were approximately 30.2%-33.4% of the mean. ADC measurements in malignant breast masses were highly reproducible irrespective of mass size, histologic subtype, or coexistence of microcalcifications; however, the measurements tended to be less reproducible in malignant breast masses with extremely dense parenchymal backgrounds. ADC measurements in malignant breast masses are highly reproducible; however, mammographic parenchymal density can potentially influence this reproducibility. PMID:26539016

  12. Highly Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells with Average Efficiency of 18.3% and Best Efficiency of 19.7% Fabricated via Lewis Base Adduct of Lead(II) Iodide.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Namyoung; Son, Dae-Yong; Jang, In-Hyuk; Kang, Seong Min; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-15

    High efficiency perovskite solar cells were fabricated reproducibly via Lewis base adduct of lead(II) iodide. PbI2 was dissolved in N,N-dimethyformamide with equimolar N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and CH3NH3I. Stretching vibration of S?O appeared at 1045 cm(-1) for bare DMSO, which was shifted to 1020 and 1015 cm(-1) upon reacting DMSO with PbI2 and PbI2 + CH3NH3I, respectively, indicative of forming the adduct of PbI2·DMSO and CH3NH3I·PbI2·DMSO due to interaction between Lewis base DMSO and/or iodide (I(-)) and Lewis acid PbI2. Spin-coating of a DMF solution containing PbI2, CH3NH3I, and DMSO (1:1:1 mol %) formed a transparent adduct film, which was converted to a dark brown film upon heating at low temperature of 65 °C for 1 min due to removal of the volatile DMSO from the adduct. The adduct-induced CH3NH3PbI3 exhibited high charge extraction characteristics with hole mobility as high as 3.9 × 10(-3) cm(2)/(V s) and slow recombination rate. Average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.3% was achieved from 41 cells and the best PCE of 19.7% was attained via adduct approach. PMID:26125203

  13. Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yong W.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

  14. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform

    PubMed Central

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  15. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  16. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  17. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ?100??s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1??m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461??s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  18. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2009-07-15

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.

  19. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Stesmans, A.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ˜100 ?s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 ?m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 ?s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  20. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil- and natural gas-producing region of the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional-scale air quality model (WRF-Chem) to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high-resolution meteorological simulations are able qualitatively to reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and the accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on estimates of methane (CH4) emissions derived from in situ aircraft measurements and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than in the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. The model simulation using the top-down emission case captures the buildup and afternoon peaks observed during high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive within the UB. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. The model analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover.

  1. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  2. Direct Detection of NO Produced by High-Temperature Surface-Catalyzed Atom Recombination

    E-print Network

    Martín, Pino

    reaction. The absolute number densities of surface-produced NO were determined from separate calibration (CFD) predictions of aerothermal heating. Most CFD heating computations neglect the possibility

  3. Medium- and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Nenci, Fabio; Cinquepalmi, Massimo; Chita, Giuseppe

    1998-07-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For the other ones, operating to high pressure range, generally the two components of the transducers are both threaded only and threaded and then circularly welded by micro TIG for the other higher range, till to 1000 bar. In this work the products, operating on the approximately equals 30 divided by 200 bar, are considered. These, when assembled on industrial plants, as an outcome of a non-correct operating sequence, give a 'shifted' electrical signal. This is due to a shift of the 'zero electrical signal' that unbalances the electrical bridge - thin layer sensor - that is the sensitive part of the product. Moreover, for the same problem, often some mechanical settlings of the transducer happen during the first pressure semi-components, with an increasing of the product manufacturing costs. In light of all this, the above referred, in this work the whole transducer has been re-designed according to the specific laser welding technology requirements. On the new product no threaded parts exist but only a circular laser welding with a full penetration depth about 2.5 divided by 3 mm high. Three different alloys have been tested according to the applications and the mechanical properties requested to the transducer. By using a 1.5 KW CO2 laser system many different working parameters have been evaluated for correlating laser parameters to the penetration depths, crown wides, interaction laser-materia times, mechanical and metallurgical properties. Moreover during the laser welding process the measurements of the maximum temperature, reached by the transducer top, has been read and recorded. At least some transducers, before the usual destructive testings, have been undertaken to many pressure test cycles to verify any pressure drops, the transducer sealing and the total quality of the new product.

  4. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  5. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  6. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13??g?mL?1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  7. Improving produce safety by stabilizing chlorine in washing solutions with high organic loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for technologies to protect our nation’s food supply and support sustained growth of the produce industry has never been more urgent. The produce industry currently faces a major potential food safety problem, since the chlorine needed to prevent pathogen survival is depleted during commer...

  8. Determination of phosphorus using high-resolution diphosphorus molecular absorption spectra produced in the graphite furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Okruss, Michael; Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular absorption of diphosphorus was produced in a graphite furnace and evaluated in view of its suitability for phosphorus determination. Measurements were performed with two different high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometers. The first system is a newly in-house developed simultaneous broad-range spectrograph, which was mainly used for recording overview absorption spectra of P2 between 193 nm and 245 nm. The region covers the main part of the C 1?u+ ? X 1?g+ electronic transition and shows a complex structure with many vibrational bands, each consisting of a multitude of sharp rotational lines. With the help of molecular data available for P2, an assignment of the vibrational bands was possible and the rotational structure could be compared with simulated spectra. The second system is a commercial sequential continuum source spectrometer, which was used for the basic analytical measurements. The P2 rotational line at 204.205 nm was selected and systematically evaluated with regard to phosphorus determination. The conditions for P2 generation were optimized and it was found that the combination of a ZrC modified graphite tube and borate as a chemical modifier were essential for a good production of P2. Serious interferences were found in the case of nitrate and sulfuric acid, although the nitrate interference can be eliminated by a higher pyrolysis temperature. The reliability of the method was proved by analysis of certified samples. Using standard tubes, a characteristic mass of 10 ng and a limit of detection of 7 ng were found. The values could further be improved by a factor of ten using a miniaturized tube with an internal diameter of 2 mm. Compared to the conventional method based on the phosphorus absorption line at 213.618 nm, the advantages of using P2 are the gentle temperature conditions and the potential of performing a simultaneous multi-line evaluation to further improve the limit of detection.

  9. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to enhance crappie recruitment should consider the enhancement and preservation of backwaters.

  10. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  11. Tackling reproducibility in academic preclinical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Frye, Stephen V; Arkin, Michelle R; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Conn, P Jeffrey; Glicksman, Marcie A; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Slusher, Barbara S

    2015-11-01

    The reproducibility of biomedical research on novel drug targets has become suspect. Here, we highlight how drug discovery centres embedded in academic institutions, but with a translational imperative, can help address this reproducibility crisis. PMID:26388229

  12. Development of a high-titer retrovirus producer cell line capable of gene transfer into rhesus monkey hematopoietic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, D.M.; McDonagh, K.T.; Brandt, S.J.; Ney, P.A.; Agricola, B.; Byrne, E.; Nienhuis, A.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells has been difficult to achieve in large-animal models. The authors have developed an amphotropic producer clone that generates >10{sup 10} recombinant retroviral particles (colony-forming units) per ml of culture medium. Autologous rhesus monkey bone marrow cells were cocultured with either high or low titer producer clones for 4-6 days and reinfused into sublethally irradiated animals. The proviral genome was detected in blood and bone-marrow cells from all three animals reconstituted with cells cocultured with the high-titer producer cells. In contrast, three animals reconstituted with bone marrow cocultured with the low-titer producer clone exhibited no evidence of gene transfer.

  13. Viability of seed produced on highly sodic coal-mine spoils. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.Z.; McDonough, W.T.; Farmer, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    An adapted plant species must not only grow on a particular site, but also produce viable seeds capable of germination and establishment on the site. Ten species of rangeland grasses had been successfully used to revegetate sodic mine spoils at the Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana. However, the effect of the sodic spoils on seed viability, and hence the potential for regeneration, was unknown. Seeds produced by these plants were tested for viability and germination.

  14. Five selfish reasons to work reproducibly.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Florian

    2015-01-01

    And so, my fellow scientists: ask not what you can do for reproducibility; ask what reproducibility can do for you! Here, I present five reasons why working reproducibly pays off in the long run and is in the self-interest of every ambitious, career-oriented scientist. PMID:26646147

  15. Temporal Narrowing of Neutrons Produced by High-Intensity Short-Pulse Lasers.

    PubMed

    Higginson, D P; Vassura, L; Gugiu, M M; Antici, P; Borghesi, M; Brauckmann, S; Diouf, C; Green, A; Palumbo, L; Petrascu, H; Sofia, S; Stardubtsev, M; Willi, O; Kar, S; Negoita, F; Fuchs, J

    2015-07-31

    The production of neutron beams having short temporal duration is studied using ultraintense laser pulses. Laser-accelerated protons are spectrally filtered using a laser-triggered microlens to produce a short duration neutron pulse via nuclear reactions induced in a converter material (LiF). This produces a ?3??ns duration neutron pulse with 10(4)??n/MeV/sr/shot at 0.56 m from the laser-irradiated proton source. The large spatial separation between the neutron production and the proton source allows for shielding from the copious and undesirable radiation resulting from the laser-plasma interaction. This neutron pulse compares favorably to the duration of conventional accelerator sources and should scale up with, present and future, higher energy laser facilities to produce brighter and shorter neutron beams for ultrafast probing of dense materials. PMID:26274423

  16. Temporal Narrowing of Neutrons Produced by High-Intensity Short-Pulse Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, D. P.; Vassura, L.; Gugiu, M. M.; Antici, P.; Borghesi, M.; Brauckmann, S.; Diouf, C.; Green, A.; Palumbo, L.; Petrascu, H.; Sofia, S.; Stardubtsev, M.; Willi, O.; Kar, S.; Negoita, F.; Fuchs, J.

    2015-07-01

    The production of neutron beams having short temporal duration is studied using ultraintense laser pulses. Laser-accelerated protons are spectrally filtered using a laser-triggered microlens to produce a short duration neutron pulse via nuclear reactions induced in a converter material (LiF). This produces a ˜3 ns duration neutron pulse with 104 n /MeV /sr /shot at 0.56 m from the laser-irradiated proton source. The large spatial separation between the neutron production and the proton source allows for shielding from the copious and undesirable radiation resulting from the laser-plasma interaction. This neutron pulse compares favorably to the duration of conventional accelerator sources and should scale up with, present and future, higher energy laser facilities to produce brighter and shorter neutron beams for ultrafast probing of dense materials.

  17. Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

  18. New Approach to Increasing Rice Lodging Resistance and Biomass Yield Through the Use of High Gibberellin Producing Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass. PMID:24586255

  19. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  20. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

  1. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea to produce natural superabsorbent gels. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) reveal chemical changes from the reaction. Temperatures above 120°C and dry conditions create the op...

  2. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

    2014-08-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution meteorological simulations are able to qualitatively reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on the previously derived estimates of methane (CH4) emissions and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. WRF-Chem simulations using the two emission data sets resulted in significant differences for concentrations of most gas-phase species. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. Comparison of simulations using the two emission data sets reveals that the top-down case captures the high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation case using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that the UB O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. We also present modeling results for winter of 2012, when high O3 levels were not observed in the UB. The air quality model together with the top-down emission framework presented here may help to address the emerging science and policy related questions surrounding the environmental impact of oil and NG drilling in western US.

  3. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of ?-linolenic acid (GLA); however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11) isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w) cell dry weight (CDW). We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w) lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains. PMID:26046932

  4. A Rubber-Modified Thermoplastic where the Morphology Produced by Phase-Separation Induced by Polymerization Disappears at High Conversions

    E-print Network

    E. R. Soule; G. E. Elicabe; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21

    An unexpected experimental finding is reported where the primary morphology developed during polymerization-induced phase separation in a rubber-modified thermoplastic disappears at high conversions. This process was evidenced by light scattering (LS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a particular composition of solutions of polyisobutylene oligomers (PIB) in isobornylmethacrylate (IBoMA), during the free-radical polymerization of the monomer. The primary phase separation produced a dispersion of domains rich in PIB containing significant amounts of the monomer (IBoMA). Polymerization of the monomer in these domains occurred at high overall conversions producing the filling of dispersed domains with a PIBoMA-PIB blend. Under these conditions the final material had the appearance of a homogeneous blend. The process might be adapted to produce new types of rubber-modified thermoplastics where rubber particles are replaced by rubber-rich domains that do not exhibit definite boundaries. Keywords:

  5. Mineral-produced high-pressure striae and clay polish: Key evidence for nonballistic transport of ejecta from Ries crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Recently discovered mineral-produced, deeply incised striae and mirror-like polish on broken surfaces of limestone fragments from the sedimentary ejecta of the Ries impact crater of southern Germany are described. The striae and polish were produced under high confining pressures during high-velocity nonballistic transport of the ejecta mass within the time span of the cratering event (measured in terms of seconds). The striae on these fragments were produced by scouring by small mineral grains embedded in the surrounding clay matrix, and the polish was formed under the same condition, by movements of relatively fragment-free clay against the fragment surfaces. The occurrence of these striae and polish is key evidence for estimating the distribution and determining the relative importance of nonballistic and ballistic transport of ejecta from the shallow Ries stony meteorite impact crater.

  6. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yongli

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaAS(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia, or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid to form the desired compound or a precursor that can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities, and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE systems. Ongoing research using the same apparatus suggests that photon or electron irradiation could be used to promote the reactions needed to produce the intended material.

  7. Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, Andrea B.; Warrick, Louise H.

    2008-05-01

    Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

  8. Fish Offal Recycling by the Black Soldier Fly Produces a Foodstuff High in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    Fish Offal Recycling by the Black Soldier Fly Produces a Foodstuff High in Omega-3 Fatty Acids.--The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, has the potential to reduce animal waste on livestock facilities dependent on their diet. Data from this study suggest that black soldier fly prepupae incorporate a

  9. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2009-11-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4" diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties.

  10. Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic Activity Accomplishments #12;Reproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticReproducible Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in Reusable BioMEMSActivity in Reusable BioMEMS Accomplishment Pro-tagged Pfs enzymes are spatially assembled

  11. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    PubMed

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. PMID:26315443

  12. Data reproducibility from an inertial kinetic exercise machine.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Kucera, Sam C; Hari, Parmeswar K; Mc Lagan, Jessica R; Olson, Nathan M; Shepherd, Catherine M; Marshall, Mallory R

    2010-11-01

    An inertial kinetic exercise (IKE, Oconomowoc, WI, USA) machine was created that permits high-velocity workouts suited for injury rehabilitation and speed development in athletes. In addition, its design does not entail the movement of resistance against Earth's gravitational pull. Thus, the design and operation associated with the IKE may be incorporated into novel environments such as space flight. Yet before it can be used for such reasons, IKE data reproducibility must first be ascertained, which serves as the present study's purpose. Methods to assess data reproducibility required subjects (n = 42) to perform 2 IKE elbow flexor trials, each comprising two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest. Preceded by a familiarization session on the IKE, subjects were instructed to perform high-speed elbow flexor trial repetitions in good form. Instrumentation entailed an accelerometer and a computer interfaced with software. Maximum and average forces (MF, AF), as well as work (W), were examined for reproducibility with several test-retest measures. Results showed high reproducibility, yet intertrial variability was greater due in part to the length of time between exercise sessions. It was concluded that MF reproducibility was inherently less partly due to the nature of the variable, which entailed a single instantaneous expression over each 60-second set. In contrast, AF and W denoted a cumulative, and thus better overall, representation of total exercise performance. Based on our high reproducibility values, present IKE instrumentation methods appear to be appropriate. Practical applications suggest that coaches and therapists may want to employ an IKE as instrumented in the present study to derive reproducible performance data on people who may use the device under their supervision. PMID:20168257

  13. Reproducing or Challenging Power in the Questions We Ask and the Methods We Use: A Framework for Activist Research in Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2006-01-01

    Many have argued that educational research does little to change (and may actually reproduce) the social-structural inequalities shaping the quality of high-poverty urban schools. Building from this premise, this paper asks: How can university-based scholars of urban education do research that encourages, produces, or informs change in urban…

  14. Highly Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Produced by Sewing Textile Electrodes on Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices. PMID:24957920

  15. Observation of Dust Stream Formation Produced by Low Current, High Voltage Cathode Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Macro-particle acceleration driven by low current, high voltage cathode spots has been investigated. The phenomenon was observed to occur when nanometer and micrometer-sized particles in the presence of a discharge plasma were exposed to a high voltage pulse. The negative voltage pulse initiates the formation of multiple, high voltage, low current cathode spots which provides the mechanism of actual acceleration of the charged dust particles. Dust streams generated by this process were detected using laser scattering techniques. The particle impact craters observed at the surface of downstream witness badges were documented using SEM and light microscopy.

  16. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  17. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  18. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high ?-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including ?-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84?±?1.12, 48.02?±?2.53, and 30.10?±?1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more ?-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field. PMID:25129039

  19. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  20. Measuring user innovation in Dutch high tech SMEs: Frequency, nature and transfer to producers

    E-print Network

    de Jong, Jeroen P.J.

    2009-02-27

    A detailed survey of 498 “high tech” SMEs in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty four percent of these relatively small firms reported developing entirely novel process ...

  1. On The Reproducibility of Seasonal Land-surface Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J

    2004-10-22

    The sensitivity of the continental seasonal climate to initial conditions is estimated from an ensemble of decadal simulations of an atmospheric general circulation model with the same specifications of radiative forcings and monthly ocean boundary conditions, but with different initial states of atmosphere and land. As measures of the ''reproducibility'' of continental climate for different initial conditions, spatio-temporal correlations are computed across paired realizations of eleven model land-surface variables in which the seasonal cycle is either included or excluded--the former case being pertinent to climate simulation, and the latter to seasonal anomaly prediction. It is found that the land-surface variables which include the seasonal cycle are impacted only marginally by changes in initial conditions; moreover, their seasonal climatologies exhibit high spatial reproducibility. In contrast, the reproducibility of a seasonal land-surface anomaly is generally low, although it is substantially higher in the Tropics; its spatial reproducibility also markedly fluctuates in tandem with warm and cold phases of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, the overall degree of reproducibility depends strongly on the particular land-surface anomaly considered. It is also shown that the predictability of a land-surface anomaly implied by its reproducibility statistics is consistent with what is inferred from more conventional predictability metrics. Implications of these results for climate model intercomparison projects and for operational forecasts of seasonal continental climate also are elaborated.

  2. Producing Persistent, High-Current, High-Duty-Factor H- Beams for Routine 1 MW Operation of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Hardek, Thomas W; Kang, Yoon W; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, SNS has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ~50 mA H- ions from the ion source with a ~5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ~3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ~170 C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H- beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 C.

  3. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Sakawa, Y; Kuramitsu, Y; Dono, S; Ide, T; Shibata, S; Aoki, H; Tanji, H; Sano, T; Shiroshita, A; Waugh, J N; Gregory, C D; Woolsey, N C; Takabe, H

    2012-10-01

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ~10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)]. PMID:23126856

  4. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Tanji, H.; Sano, T.; Shiroshita, A.; Waugh, J. N.; Gregory, C. D.; Woolsey, N. C.; Takabe, H.

    2012-10-01

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ˜10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)], 10.1007/s10509-010-0525-5. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.175002.

  5. Evidence That High Catecholamine Levels Produced by Pheochromocytoma May be Responsible for Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Scott W; McAllister, Nancy; Dassenko, David; Lin, David; Han, Kelly; Maron, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a novel form of acute heart failure, characterized by regional left ventricular dysfunction without coronary artery obstruction, and usually triggered by a stressful event. Excessive circulating catecholamines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. This report documents the unusual occurrence of acute TC events in 2 male subjects of disparate ages, 16 and 66 years, for whom subsequent investigation in both led to the unexpected discovery of catecholamine-producing pheochromocytoma. Marked elevation of plasma catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) was present in both subjects and were remarkably similar to those previously reported in female patients with TC triggered by emotional stress. These observations show a common link between TC occurrence and elevated catecholamine levels in both male and female patients and, therefore, support the hypothesis that excessive levels of catecholamines may be involved in the pathophysiology of TC independent of age or gender. PMID:25851794

  6. An evaluation method for a high concentration profile produced in very low energy doping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, M.; Mizuno, B.

    1997-01-01

    A modified SIMS measurement process provided an accurate evaluation of self-sputtering phenomena during low energy arsenic ion implantation. This method used a correction factor produced from RBS measurements. By utilizing the modified SIMS, it was determined that 87% of the implanted arsenic atoms were self-sputtered during the ion implantation process. The sample was doped with 6 keV arsenic, at a dose of 1 × 10 17 cm -2. It was found that SIMS with oxygen flooding can be utilized with a sample error of just 1% against modified SIMS when evaluating self-sputtering effects on arsenic profiles. near the surface of the substrate made by low energy doping processes.

  7. CVD aluminiding process for producing a modified platinum aluminide bond coat for improved high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of depositing by chemical vapor deposition a modified platinum aluminide diffusion coating onto a superalloy substrate comprising the steps of applying a layer of a platinum group metal to the superalloy substrate; passing an externally generated aluminum halide gas through an internal gas generator which is integral with a retort, the internal gas generator generating a modified halide gas; and co-depositing aluminum and modifier onto the superalloy substrate. In one form, the modified halide gas is hafnium chloride and the modifier is hafnium with the modified platinum aluminum bond coat comprising a single phase additive layer of platinum aluminide with at least about 0.5 percent hafnium by weight percent and about 1 to about 15 weight percent of hafnium in the boundary between a diffusion layer and the additive layer. The bond coat produced by this method is also claimed.

  8. A Process for Producing Highly Wettable Aluminum 6061 Surfaces Compatible with Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ferraro, N. W.; Yue, A. F.; Estes, R. H.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. The space-based portion of the mission architecture consists of a primary or core spacecraft and a constellation of NASA and contributed spacecrafts. The efforts described in this paper refer to the core spacecraft (hereafter referred to as simply GPM) which is to be fabricated at GSFC. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design-for-demise-spacecraft." This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. Composite overwrapped aluminum lined propellant tanks with aluminum propellant management devices (PMD) were shown by analyses to demise and thus became the baseline configuration for GPM. As part of the GPM tank development effort, long term compatibility and wettability testing with hydrazine was performed on Al6061 and 2219 coupons fabricated and cleaned by conventional processes. Long term compatibility was confirmed. However, the wettability of the aluminum as measured by contact angle produced higher than desired angles (greater than 30 deg.) with excessive scatter. The availability of PMD materials exhibiting consistently low contact angles aids in the design of simple PMDs. Two efforts performed by Angeles Crest Engineering and funded by GSFC were undertaken to reduce the risk of using aluminum for the GPM PMD. The goal of the first effort was to develop a cleaning or treatment process to produce consistently low contact angles. The goal of the second effort was to prove via testing that the processed aluminum would retain compatibility with hydrazine and retain low contact angle after long term exposure to hydrazine. Both goals were achieved. This paper describes both efforts and the results achieved.

  9. A review of research and methods for producing high-consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Dalton, L.; Peercy, D.; Pollock, G.; Sicking, C.

    1994-12-31

    The development of software for use in high-consequence systems mandates rigorous (formal) processes, methods, and techniques to improve the safety characteristics of those systems. This paper provides a brief overview of current research and practices in high-consequence software, including applied design methods. Some of the practices that are discussed include: fault tree analysis, failure mode effects analysis, petri nets, both hardware and software interlocks, n-version programming, Independent Vulnerability Analyses, and watchdogs. Techniques that offer improvement in the dependability of software in high-consequence systems applications are identified and discussed. Limitations of these techniques are also explored. Research in formal methods, the cleanroom process, and reliability models are reviewed. In addition, current work by several leading researchers as well as approaches being used by leading practitioners are examined.

  10. Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kameyama, Ikuya

    1997-01-01

    Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.

  11. Proton stopping power measurements using high intensity short pulse lasers produced proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Atzeni, S.; Gauthier, M.; Higginson, D. P.; Mangia, F.; Marques, J.-R.; Riquier, R.; Fuchs, J.

    2014-03-01

    Proton stopping power measurements in solids and gases, typically made using proton accelerators, Van de Graf machines, etc., have existed now for many decades for many elements and compounds. We propose a new method of making this type of measurement using a different source, namely proton beams created by high intensity short pulse lasers. The advantage of this type of source is that there is the high number of particles and short bunch lengths, which is ideal for measurements of evolving mediums such as hot dense plasmas. Our measurements are consistent with exiting data and theory which validates this method.

  12. Streptomyces sp. JS520 produces exceptionally high quantities of undecylprodigiosin with antibacterial, antioxidative, and UV-protective properties.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Nada; Radulovic, Vanja; Petkovic, Milos; Vuckovic, Ivan; Jadranin, Milka; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-positive, red-pigment-producing bacterial strain, designated JS520 was isolated from the pristine sediment from the cave on mountain Miroc in Serbia. Strain was confirmed to belong to Streptomyces genus based on phenotypic and genetic analysis. Streptomyces sp. JS520 has the ability to produce exceptionally high amounts of deep red pigment into both solid and liquid media. Liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy of the purified pigments revealed the major component to be undecylprodigiosin (93 %) with minor component being oxidatively cyclized derivative. The pigment production was affected by medium composition, temperature, pH, and the aeration rate. By medium optimization, yields of undecylprodigiosin of 138 mg l(-1) were achieved, what is the highest level of undecylprodigiosin production reported for the members of Gram-positive Streptomyces genus. Purified pigment had antimicrobial properties against bacterial Bacillus and Micrococcus species (50 ?g ml(-1)) and against Candida albicans species (100-200 ?g ml(-1) range). The ability to affect auto-oxidation of the linoleic acid was demonstrated for the purified undecylprodigiosin, suggesting antioxidative properties of this pigment. Multiple ecophysiological roles of the pigment were revealed by comparing cultures grown under pigment-producing and pigment-nonproducing conditions. Cells grown under undecylprodigiosin-producing conditions could tolerate presence of hydrogen peroxide exhibiting three times smaller zones of inhibition at 100 mM H(2)O(2). Undecylprodigiosin-producing cells were also less susceptible to tetracycline, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. While the growth of the cells not producing pigment was completely inhibited by 15 min of exposure to ultraviolet light (254 nm), cells producing undecylprodigiosin and cells supplied with purified pigment in vitro showed survival rates at 22 and 8 %, respectively. PMID:22767180

  13. An Analytical Evaluation of Locally Produced Iranian High School ELT Textbooks from 1970 to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azizifar, Akbar; Koosha, Mansoor; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Textbooks play a very crucial role in the process of language teaching and learning. The present study carries out an evaluation of two series of ELT textbooks used for teaching English language in Iranian high schools from 1970 to the present. For this purpose, Tucker's (1975) textbook evaluation model is employed. The results suggest that one of…

  14. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  15. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  16. Increasing Cottonseed Utilization Through Breeding and Genetic Engineering to Produce High Levels of (+)-Gossypol in Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is composed of ~22.5% of high quality protein. The estimate of world cottonseed production for 2006 is over 42.5 million metric tons (National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, 2005), which translates to an estimated 9.56 million metric tons of protein available for use as a food/fe...

  17. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  18. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  19. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations of the peas and oats were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them...

  20. The magnitude of variability produced by methods used to estimate annual stormwater contaminant loads for highly urbanised catchments.

    PubMed

    Beck, H J; Birch, G F

    2013-06-01

    Stormwater contaminant loading estimates using event mean concentration (EMC), rainfall/runoff relationship calculations and computer modelling (Model of Urban Stormwater Infrastructure Conceptualisation--MUSIC) demonstrated high variability in common methods of water quality assessment. Predictions of metal, nutrient and total suspended solid loadings for three highly urbanised catchments in Sydney estuary, Australia, varied greatly within and amongst methods tested. EMC and rainfall/runoff relationship calculations produced similar estimates (within 1 SD) in a statistically significant number of trials; however, considerable variability within estimates (?50 and ?25 % relative standard deviation, respectively) questions the reliability of these methods. Likewise, upper and lower default inputs in a commonly used loading model (MUSIC) produced an extensive range of loading estimates (3.8-8.3 times above and 2.6-4.1 times below typical default inputs, respectively). Default and calibrated MUSIC simulations produced loading estimates that agreed with EMC and rainfall/runoff calculations in some trials (4-10 from 18); however, they were not frequent enough to statistically infer that these methods produced the same results. Great variance within and amongst mean annual loads estimated by common methods of water quality assessment has important ramifications for water quality managers requiring accurate estimates of the quantities and nature of contaminants requiring treatment. PMID:23064853

  1. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  2. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  3. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity, and sorting behavior were similar among treatments. Ruminal in situ starch digestibility was greater for SHRD than KP forages, and total-tract dietary starch digestibility was greater for SHRD than KP. Milk yield and starch digestibility were greater for SHRD than KP. Lack of improvement in milk fat content and rumination activity for SHRD compared with KP and reduced milk fat content for SHRD compared with KPH, however, suggest no improvement in physically effective fiber from the longer theoretical length of cut used with SHRD in a BMR hybrid. PMID:26026754

  4. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  5. Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders.

    PubMed

    Özbilen, Sedat; Liebert, Daniela; Beck, Tilmann; Bram, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium cylinders were produced with a constant amount of temporary space holder (70vol.%). Different interstitial contents were achieved by varying the starting powders (HDH vs. gas atomized) and manufacturing method (cold compaction without organic binders vs. warm compaction of MIM feedstocks). Interstitial contents (O, C, and N) as a function of manufacturing were measured by chemical analysis. Samples contained 0.34-0.58wt.% oxygen, which was found to have the greatest effect on mechanical properties. Quasi-static mechanical tests under compression at low strain rate were used for reference and to define parameters for cyclic compression tests. Not unexpectedly, increased oxygen content increased the yield strength of the porous titanium. Cyclic compression fatigue tests were conducted using sinusoidal loading in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Increased oxygen content was concomitant with embrittlement of the titanium matrix, resulting in significant reduction of compression cycles before failure. For samples with 0.34wt.% oxygen, R, ?min and ?max were varied systematically to estimate the fatigue limit (~4millioncycles). Microstructural changes induced by cyclic loading were then characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and EBSD. PMID:26706551

  6. KALMAN FILTERING REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    KALMAN FILTERING IN REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES Pingping Zhu #12;Outline · Introduction · Related Work · A Novel Extended Kernel Recursive Least Squares · Kernel Kalman Filter based on Conditional · Develop a Kalman filter in the Reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) Motivation · Kernel methods can

  7. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  8. Padanamides A and B, Highly Modified Linear Tetrapeptides Produced in Culture by a Streptomyces sp. Isolated from a Marine Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David. E.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Patrick, Brian O.; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Andrusiak, Kerry; Deshpande, Raamesh; Myers, Chad L.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Boone, Charles; Yoshida, Minoru; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Two highly modified linear tetrapeptides, padanamides A (1) and B (2), are produced by laboratory cultures of a Streptomyces sp. obtained from a marine sediment. Padanamide B is cytotoxic to Jurkat cells and a chemical genomics analysis using Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants suggested that padanamide A inhibits cysteine and methionine biosynthesis or that these amino acids are involved in the yeast’s response to the peptide. PMID:21749075

  9. Culture of a high-chlorophyll-producing and halotolerant Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Deuchi, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    In order to increase the value of freshwater algae as raw ingredients for health foods and feed for seawater-based farmed fish, we sought to breed high-chlorophyll halotolerant Chlorella with the objective of generating strains with both high chlorophyll concentrations (? 5%) and halotolerance (up to 1% NaCl). We used the Chlorella vulgaris K strain in our research institute culture collection and induced mutations with UV irradiation and acriflavine which is known to effect mutations of mitochondrial DNA that are associated with chlorophyll production. Screenings were conducted on seawater-based "For Chlorella spp." (FC) agar medium, and dark-green-colored colonies were visually selected by macroscopic inspection. We obtained a high-chlorophyll halotolerant strain (designated C. vulgaris M-207A7) that had a chlorophyll concentration of 6.7% (d.m.), a level at least three-fold higher than that of K strain. This isolate also exhibited a greater survival rate in seawater that of K strain. PMID:24331982

  10. Diaphragm does not produce ammonia or lactate during high-intensity short-term exercise.

    PubMed

    Manohar, M; Hassan, A S

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain whether costal diaphragm engages in ammonia and lactate production (like limb muscles) during high-intensity short-term exercise, experiments were carried out on six healthy trained ponies in which phrenic venous catheters had been implanted 5-9 days earlier. Simultaneous anaerobically obtained blood samples from abdominal aorta and the phrenic vein at rest and during 4 min of exertion at 32 km/h and at a 7% grade were analyzed for blood-gas variables as well as lactate and ammonia concentrations using standard procedures. At rest, heart rate was 47 +/- 4 beats/min and the diaphragmatic O2 extraction was 26.5%. With exercise, heart rate rose to 218 +/- 6 beats/min, marked acidosis and hyperventilation occurred, and the diaphragmatic O2 extraction increased threefold (80.9%). Such exercise is known to dramatically increase the work of breathing as respiratory frequency and change in pleural pressure approach 138 +/- 4 breaths/min and 30 +/- 3 cmH2O, respectively. Despite the fact that phrenic-venous O2 tension of exercised ponies decreased to 15.5 +/- 0.6 Torr, the phrenic-venous lactate and ammonia concentrations did not exceed corresponding arterial values. These data thus revealed that the diaphragm is uniquely unlike limb muscles, which at high workloads readily engage in net ammonia and lactate production, and that the diaphragmatic energy needs during high-intensity short-term exercise are primarily met by aerobic metabolism. PMID:2221124

  11. Producing fused silica optics with high UV-damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Ye, Hui; Xie, Ruiqing; Chen, Xianhua; Xu, Qiao

    2015-07-01

    The laser induced damage to optics has been an issue of paramount importance in laser research community. The low damage threshold of fused silica surfaces predominantly restricts the development of high power and high energy systems. This paper is aimed at improving the surface damage threshold of fused silica substrates by researching the effect of mechanical and chemical defects on laser damage: cracks/scratches and metallic impurities. The cracks were found to close, at least in part, after thermal processing and the damage threshold of the indented region was little affected by the thermal processing. In contrast, the cracks were enlarged after chemical etching and the damage threshold was improved slightly. Concerning scratches, the damage threshold can be recovered significantly after different HF-based etching. The metallic contamination can be removed by HF-based etching and acid leaching. The etched surface shows that the damage threshold increased first to ~30J/cm2 and then decreased with etching time while the damage threshold stabilized at ~30J/cm2 for leaching >45min. The surface roughness may degrade after etching, from <1nm to 3~5nm RMS, but that is ~1nm after leaching. The leaching may be a potential method for dissolving metallic contaminants on the glass surface in order to get a smooth surface with high damage resistance.

  12. Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

  13. The effect of space charge produced by corona at ground level on lightning attachment to high objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Aleksandrov, N. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the corona space charge layer created at ground level on lightning attachment to high (20-100 m) slender objects is numerically studied. The shielding effect of corona space charge produced near the object tip on the electric field at ground level is considered. The behavior of a non-stationary streamer-free corona developed from ground irregularities in a time-varying thundercloud electric field is discussed. The initiation of an upward leader from the tip of a high grounded object is simulated in the electric field created by a storm-cloud, approaching downward leader and space charge produced by corona at ground level and near the object tip. The corona space charge produced on the ground surface is shown to affect only slightly the inception of an upward connecting leader from the object when the local electric field near the object tip rises rapidly due to an approaching downward leader. The effect of neutral aerosol particles on lightning attachment to high grounded slender objects is also small.

  14. Cost and Pecuniary Economies in Cotton Production and Marketing: A Study of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Producers

    E-print Network

    Smith, E.G.; Richardson, J.W.; Knutson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    led to renewed interest in the efficiency of different-size farms. This study isolates the degree of pecuniary economies existing for input purchases and marketings on cot ton farms by size in the Texas Southern High Plains. The results indicate... and Marketing: A Study of Texas Southern High Plains Cotton Producers E. G. Smith, J. W. Richardson, and R. D. Knutson* INTRODUCTION In recent years, the "family farm" and its chances for survival has emerged as one of the major agricul tural policy...

  15. Substrate having high absorptance and emitance black electroless nicel coating and a process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Greeson, R.; Geikas, G. I.

    1985-04-16

    A substrate having high absorptance and emittance is produced by roughening the surface of the substrate, immersing the substrate in a first electroless plating bath having a low phosphorus to nickel concentration, then immersing the substrate in a second electroless plating bath having a phosphorus to nickel concentration higher than that of said first electroless plating bath. Thereafter, the resulting electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy coated substrate is immersed in an aqueous acidic etchant bath containing sulfuric acid, nitric acid and divalent nickel to develop a highly blackened surface on said substrate.

  16. A Langmuir Probe Diagnostic for Use in Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Plasmas Produced by High-Energy Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-05-01

    Langmuir probes (LP) are used extensively to characterize plasma environments produced by radio frequency, pulsed plasma thrusters, and laser ablation. We discuss here the development of a LP diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{micro}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  17. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 ?m. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.

  18. Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, Jiri; Lin, Sidney; Lin, Hua-Tay; Johnson, D Ray; Wang, Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

  19. High impact strength polymers having novel nano-structures produced via reactive extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortorella, Nathan Fraser

    A major focus of scientists and engineers over the last century has been to increase the impact strength and therefore reduce the brittleness of materials. By altering and adding energy absorption mechanisms, brittle failure can be averted. Isotactic polypropylene (PP) is the focus of this dissertation because it is an extremely low cost, high volume, versatile plastic but behaves in a brittle manner at or below room temperature or in a notched state. Early work on impact modification of polypropylene focused on blending energy-absorbing low density elastomers and rubbers. These binary blends all had a common problem---an increase in impact strength was paralleled by a significant decrease in both elastic modulus and yield stress. Reactive extrusion processing has allowed the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene and metallocene-catalyzed ethylene-octene copolymers (EOCs). This process involves combining both the comonomer and vector fluid approaches to grafting polyolefins. Styrene monomer and a multifunctional acrylate monomer undergo peroxide-induced copolymerization and grafting in the presence of both PP and EOC. This results in a phase separated alloy with an impact strength over 13 times that of pure polypropylene and double that of the physical blend. There is also a significant improvement in stress-strain performance when comparing the alloys to physical blend counterparts. Many researchers have categorized the necessary components to toughening polypropylene as pertaining to the amorphous phase. The alloys described in this dissertation meet the criteria put forth by these researchers, namely low density, crystallinity, and modulus of the elastomer phase, sub-micron particle diameter, close inter-particle distance, and a high degree of entanglements of both the PP matrix phase and EOC minor phase. But many people neglect to study the crystalline state of impact modified PP in conjunction with the amorphous phase. This work shows that the typical 10-100 mum diameter spherulitic structures found in pure PP are not present in the alloys. In fact, the spherulites are less than a micron in diameter, are uniformly distributed throughout the sample, and crystallize at much higher temperatures. SEM images, when coupled with DSC and XRD, reveal the presence of a high number of small lamellar crystals composed of a unique highly dense cross-hatched structure. Thus, impact strength and stiffness can be simultaneously improved by controlling the size and cross-hatch density of the lamellar crystals and applying phase transformation toughening concepts.

  20. Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, M.S.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Gopal, A.; Tatarakis, M.; Krushelnick, K.; Clark, E.L.; Evans, R.G.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McKenna, P.; Norreys, P.A.; Zepf, M.

    2004-11-01

    Filamented electron beams have been observed to be emitted from the rear of thin solid targets irradiated by a high-intensity short-pulse laser when there is low-density plasma present at the back of the target. These observations are consistent with a laser-generated beam of relativistic electrons propagating through the target, which is subsequently fragmented by a Weibel-like instability in the low-density plasma at the rear. These measurements are in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations and theory, since the filamentation instability is predicted to be dramatically enhanced when the electron beam density approaches that of the background plasma.

  1. Enhanced Isochoric Heating from Fast Electrons Produced by High-Contrast, Relativistic-Intensity Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, F.; Koenig, M.; Baton, S. D.; Audebert, P.; Chahid, M.; Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Drouin, M.; Lefebvre, E.; Vinci, T.; Rassuchine, J.; Cowan, T.; Gaillard, S. A.; Flippo, K. A.; Shepherd, R.

    2010-02-26

    Thin, mass-limited targets composed of V/Cu/Al layers with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 {mu}m have been isochorically heated by a 300 fs laser pulse delivering up to 10 J at 2x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} irradiance. Detailed spectral analysis of the Cu x-ray emission indicates that the highest temperatures, of the order of 100 eV, have been reached when irradiating the smallest targets with a high-contrast, frequency-doubled pulse despite a reduced laser energy. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the detrimental influence of the preformed plasma on the bulk target heating.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure and UV light treatment of produce contaminated with Eimeria acervulina as a Cyclospora cayetanensis surrogate.

    PubMed

    Kniel, Kalmia E; Shearer, Adrienne E H; Cascarino, Jennifer L; Wilkins, Gary C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence, size, genome, and life cycle of Eimeria acervulina make this organism a good surrogate for Cyclospora cayetanensis, a protozoan that causes gastroenteritis in humans, including recent outbreaks in the United States and Canada associated with contaminated raspberries and basil. Laboratory studies of C. cayetanensis are difficult because of the lack of readily available oocysts and of infection models and assays. UV radiation and high-hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP) are both safe technologies with potential for use on fresh produce. Raspberries and basil were inoculated with sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at high (10(6) oocysts) and low (10(4) oocysts) levels, and inoculated and control produce were treated with UV (up to 261 mW/cm2) or HPP (550 MPa at 40 degrees C for 2 min). Oocysts recovered from produce were fed to 3-week-old broiler chickens, which were scored for weight gain, oocyst shedding, and lesions at 6 days postinoculation. Oocysts exhibited enhanced excystation on raspberries but not on basil. Birds fed oocysts from UV-treated raspberries had reduced infection rates, which varied with oocyst inoculum level and UV intensity. Birds fed oocysts from UV-treated raspberries (10(4) oocysts) were asymptomatic but shed oocysts, and birds fed oocysts from UV-treated basil (10(4) oocysts) were asymptomatic and did not shed oocysts. Birds fed oocysts from HPP-treated raspberries and basil were asymptomatic and did not shed oocysts. These results suggest that UV radiation and HPP may be used to reduce the risk for cyclosporiasis infection associated with produce. Both treatments yielded healthy animals; however, HPP was more effective, as indicated by results for produce with higher contamination levels. PMID:18095439

  3. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  4. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings per inch (.28 openings per centimeter)] and is used in conjunction with the press-piston head. Supporting equipment includes a soy-milk heat exchanger for maintaining selected coagulation temperatures, a filter system for separating okara from other particulate matter and from soy milk, two pumps, and various thermocouples, flowmeters, level indicators, pressure sensors, valves, tubes, and sample ports

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Produce High-Resolution Seasonally-Relevant Imagery for Classifying Wetland Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaccio, J. V.; Markle, C. E.; Chow-Fraser, P.

    2015-08-01

    With recent advances in technology, personal aerial imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has transformed the way ecologists can map seasonal changes in wetland habitat. Here, we use a multi-rotor (consumer quad-copter, the DJI Phantom 2 Vision+) UAV to acquire a high-resolution (< 8 cm) composite photo of a coastal wetland in summer 2014. Using validation data collected in the field, we determine if a UAV image and SWOOP (Southwestern Ontario Orthoimagery Project) image (collected in spring 2010) differ in their classification of type of dominant vegetation type and percent cover of three plant classes: submerged aquatic vegetation, floating aquatic vegetation, and emergent vegetation. The UAV imagery was more accurate than available SWOOP imagery for mapping percent cover of submergent and floating vegetation categories, but both were able to accurately determine the dominant vegetation type and percent cover of emergent vegetation. Our results underscore the value and potential for affordable UAVs (complete quad-copter system < 3,000 CAD) to revolutionize the way ecologists obtain imagery and conduct field research. In Canada, new UAV regulations make this an easy and affordable way to obtain multiple high-resolution images of small (< 1.0 km2) wetlands, or portions of larger wetlands throughout a year.

  6. Simple Freeze-Drying Procedure for Producing Nanocellulose Aerogel-Containing, High-Performance Air Filters.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Junji; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Simple freeze-drying of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (TOCN) dispersions in water/tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) mixtures was conducted to prepare TOCN aerogels as high-performance air filter components. The dispersibility of the TOCNs in the water/TBA mixtures, and the specific surface area (SSA) of the resulting TOCN aerogels, was investigated as a function of the TBA concentration in the mixtures. The TOCNs were homogeneously dispersed in the water/TBA mixtures at TBA concentrations up to 40% w/w. The SSAs of the TOCN aerogels exceeded 300 m2/g when the TBA concentration in the aqueous mixtures was in the range from 20% to 50% w/w. When a commercially available, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter was combined with TOCN/water/TBA dispersions prepared using 30% TBA, and the product was freeze-dried, the resulting TOCN aerogel-containing filters showed superior filtration properties. This was because nanoscale, spider-web-like networks of the TOCNs with large SSAs were formed within the filter. PMID:26301859

  7. Optimization of the Electromagnetic (EM) Perturbative Effects Produced by High-Frequency Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Wen, Hao

    2015-10-01

    For the relic gravitational waves in high frequency band, we survey the electromagnetic resonance effect generated from the high frequency gravitational waves, which can be described in the transverse perturbative photon fluxes. Under the fixed tensor-scalar ratio r = 0.2, spectral index n t = 0 and running index ? t = 0.01, we discuss several properties and quantity changes of the transverse perturbative photon fluxes, which can be improved significantly through setting the longitudinal magnetic component of background EM field in the standard gaussian form, and wave impedance analysis on the transverse direction. Through the theoretical calculation, the transverse perturbative photon fluxes can reach up to 103 s -1 with some optimal parameters such as waist of EM field W 0 = 0.05m, initial stochastic phase of gravitational waves ? = (0.21 + n)?(n = 0,1,2...). Furthermore the interference of the background transverse photon fluxes can be removed completely through establishing a suitable wave impedance function.

  8. Hypertension produced by a high sodium diet in the borderline hypertensive rat (BHR).

    PubMed

    Lawler, J E; Sanders, B J; Chen, Y F; Nagahama, S; Oparil, S

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high dietary sodium (8%) on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), borderline hypertensive (BHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined weekly by tail cuff plethysmography for one week of baseline and four weeks of diet. After 4 weeks, significant elevations in systolic blood pressure were found in SHR and BHR groups, but not in WKY. BHR studied an additional 4 weeks showed a further progression of hypertension, reaching levels nearly equal to control SHR. Direct measurement of arterial pressure in conscious animals in their home cage confirmed the elevation in pressure in both SHR and BHR groups. Metabolic studies revealed that the high sodium diet reduced body weight in SHR and BHR strains, but not in WKY. Although both urinary volumes and sodium excretion values were significantly lower in SHR and BHR compared with WKY, this effect disappeared when adjustments for body weight were made. Plasma norepinephrine determinations revealed a significant response to cold stress in all groups. Plasma epinephrine was elevated in all strains in response to cold stress; however, a consistent statistical elevation was seen only in WKY. The BHR is discussed as a model for determining the triggers responsible for environmentally-induced hypertension. PMID:3436073

  9. Role of Health Services Research in Producing High-Value Rehabilitation Care.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Sean D; Goode, Adam P; Friedly, Janna L; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Sullivan, Sean D; Bresnahan, Brian W

    2015-12-01

    The concept of value is receiving greater attention in rehabilitation and the broader health care environment. The overall purpose of this article is to present a framework to help clinicians, researchers, educators, and policy makers better understand the role of health services research in developing and evaluating evidence on value in rehabilitation. Value in health care is a multidimensional concept and may be defined differently by various stakeholders, but assessing value typically involves considering a combination of several health and economic outcomes. However, health care stakeholders often lack sufficient information on these outcomes to make well-informed decisions. Health services approaches such as comparative effectiveness research, patient-centered outcomes research, and health economics assessments are some ways to evaluate value. The evidence generated from such studies directly informs decision making and health policy. Rehabilitation professionals have a great opportunity to increase their engagement in describing, evaluating, delivering, and disseminating high-value care, but there are several barriers they need to consider to be most successful. Embracing health services research best practices is essential for advancing appropriate rehabilitation practice, research, and policy and for addressing challenges to implementing high-value care. PMID:26316531

  10. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  11. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  12. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-print Network

    Asadpour, Reza; Khan, M Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceed...

  13. Intense high-frequency pressure waves produced with low laser fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, Carlos; Sá, Gonçalo F. F.; Arnaut, Luis G.

    2012-02-01

    Pressure waves generated by laser pulses can permeabilize biological barriers, such as the skin or cellular membranes. The characteristics of the absorbing materials are decisive in determining the shape and amplitude of pressure impulse transients. Based on the physics and photochemistry of light-to-pressure conversion, we generate high intensity broadband ultrasound capable of transiently permeabilizing biological barriers. We show evidence that no damage is done to cells exposed to such pressure waves and that skin recovers its protective function some minutes after exposure to the pressure waves. The ability of the pressure waves to promote transient skin permeabilization is assessed by the increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) immediately after the application of pressure waves, and by the full recovery of the skin to the normal TEWL values in the following minutes.

  14. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  15. New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2008-06-24

    This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.

  16. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  17. Exome capture from saliva produces high quality genomic and metagenomic data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted capture of genomic regions reduces sequencing cost while generating higher coverage by allowing biomedical researchers to focus on specific loci of interest, such as exons. Targeted capture also has the potential to facilitate the generation of genomic data from DNA collected via saliva or buccal cells. DNA samples derived from these cell types tend to have a lower human DNA yield, may be degraded from age and/or have contamination from bacteria or other ambient oral microbiota. However, thousands of samples have been previously collected from these cell types, and saliva collection has the advantage that it is a non-invasive and appropriate for a wide variety of research. Results We demonstrate successful enrichment and sequencing of 15 South African KhoeSan exomes and 2 full genomes with samples initially derived from saliva. The expanded exome dataset enables us to characterize genetic diversity free from ascertainment bias for multiple KhoeSan populations, including new exome data from six HGDP Namibian San, revealing substantial population structure across the Kalahari Desert region. Additionally, we discover and independently verify thirty-one previously unknown KIR alleles using methods we developed to accurately map and call the highly polymorphic HLA and KIR loci from exome capture data. Finally, we show that exome capture of saliva-derived DNA yields sufficient non-human sequences to characterize oral microbial communities, including detection of bacteria linked to oral disease (e.g. Prevotella melaninogenica). For comparison, two samples were sequenced using standard full genome library preparation without exome capture and we found no systematic bias of metagenomic information between exome-captured and non-captured data. Conclusions DNA from human saliva samples, collected and extracted using standard procedures, can be used to successfully sequence high quality human exomes, and metagenomic data can be derived from non-human reads. We find that individuals from the Kalahari carry a higher oral pathogenic microbial load than samples surveyed in the Human Microbiome Project. Additionally, rare variants present in the exomes suggest strong population structure across different KhoeSan populations. PMID:24708091

  18. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  19. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-print Network

    Reza Asadpour; Raghu V. K. Chavali; M. Ryyan Khan; Muhammad A. Alam

    2015-05-15

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceeding the bifacial HIT performance at practical albedo reflections. Unlike the traditional design, this bifacial design is relatively insensitive to Perovskite thickness variations, which may translate to simpler manufacture and higher yield.

  20. Using a hybrid Monte Carlo/Genetic Algorithm Slip Estimator to produce high resolution models of paleoearthquakes from geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, A.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.; Simao, N.; Murphy, S.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Steacy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying fault sections where slip deficits have accumulated may provide a means for understanding sequences of large megathrust earthquakes. Stress accumulated during the interseismic period on locked sections of an active fault is stored as potential slip. Where this potential slip remains unreleased during earthquakes, a slip deficit can be said to have accrued. Analysis of the spatial distribution of slip during antecedent events along the fault will show where the locked plate has spent its stored slip and indicate where the potential for large events remains. The location of recent earthquakes and their distribution of slip can be estimated instrumentally. To develop the idea of long-term slip-deficit modelling it is necessary to constrain the size and distribution of slip for pre-instrumental events dating back hundreds of years covering more than one ';seismic cycle'. This requires the exploitation of proxy sources of data. Coral microatolls, growing in the intertidal zone of the outer island arc of the Sunda trench, present the possibility of producing high resolution reconstructions of slip for a number of pre-instrumental earthquakes. Their growth is influenced by tectonic flexing of the continental plate beneath them allows them to act as long term geodetic recorders. However, the sparse distribution of data available using coral geodesy results in a under determined problem with non-unique solutions. Instead of producing one definite model satisfying the observed corals displacements, a Monte Carlo Slip Estimator based on a Genetic Algorithm (MCSE-GA) accelerating the rate of convergence is used to identify a suite of models consistent with the data. Successive iterations of the MCSE-GA sample different displacements at each coral location, from within the spread of associated uncertainties, producing a catalog of models from the full range of possibilities. The suite of best slip distributions are weighted according to their fitness and stacked to produce a final estimate of the distribution of slip for a particular earthquake. Examination of the slip values in the stacked models allows areas of high confidence to be identified where the standard deviation is low. Similarly, areas of low confidence will be found where standard deviations are high. These high resolution models can be used to reconstruct a history of slip along the fault, both identifying and quantifying of slip deficits and constraining confidence in the accuracy of the modelled information. This presentation will demonstrate the ability of the MCSE-GA to produce accurate models of slip for instrumentally recorded earthquakes and show estimates for slip during paleoearthquakes along the Sunda Megathrust.

  1. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Leonard P.; Cockburn, Iain M.; Simcoe, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total) prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B)/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible—in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures. PMID:26057340

  2. Ablation produced using a toroidal High Intensity Focused Ultrasound device is independent of hepatic perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, David; N'Djin, William A.; Favre, Julia; Parmentier, Hubert; Rivoire, Michel; Chapelon, Jean Yves

    2011-09-01

    In the liver, the efficacy of radiofrequency or HIFU ablation is impaired by blood perfusion. This can be overcome by hepatic inflow occlusion using a Pringle manoeuver. Here we report the in vivo evaluation of ablations performed in the liver using a surgical toroidal High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device used during an open procedure with and without hepatic inflow occlusion. The HIFU device was composed of 256 toroidal-shaped emitters working at 3 MHz and an integrated ultrasound imaging probe working at 7.5 MHz. Using an Intermittent Pringle Manoeuver (IPM), thermal ablations were created in three pigs with hepatic inflow occlusion (IPM Group) and in three pigs with normal perfusion (NoIPM Group). The ablations were studied on sonograms, macroscopically and microscopically fourteen days after the treatment. In the NoIPM group, the average coagulated volume obtained after a 40 s total exposure was 7.4±3.8 cm3 (2.2-16.6). In the IPM group, the average ablated volume was 6.3±2.9 cm3 (2.6-12.1). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ablated volume (p = 0.25), diameter (p = 0.37), or depth (p = 0.61). The data from the present study demonstrated that there is no significant influence of hepatic vascular flow on the size and shape of ablations created with the toroidal-shaped HIFU device that has been used. The HIFU approach presented in this study is characterized by the brevity of the treatment (40 seconds for one ablation of 7 cm3), which makes it possible to reduce treatment dependence on blood perfusion. Ablations obtained with or without a Pringle manoeuver were homogeneous in both groups and were not significantly different in terms of diameter, depth and volumes in the IPM group compared with the NoIPM group.

  3. Precision mass measurements using a penning trap and highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgenstrand, H.; Carlberg, C.; Rouleau, G.; Schuch, R.; Söderberg, F.; Beebe, E.; Bergström, I.; Liljeby, L.; Paal, A.; Pikin, A.; Bollen, G.; Hartmann, H.; Jertz, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schwarz, T.; Senne, P.; Mann, R.

    1997-01-01

    A method for precision mass measurements in a Penning trap using highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion source (CRYSIS) has been developed. The cyclotron frequencies for O8+, 7+, 6+, 5+ and Ar18+, 17+, 16+, 15+, 14+, 13+ ions have been determined by the excitation of the sum frequency v+ + v-. In addition to CRYSIS ions, H+, H2+ and He+ ions were produced by electron bombardment of the H2 rest gas or helium gas introduced through an UHV leak valve into an auxiliary ion trap (or a pre-trap). A technique for fast (seconds) interchanging of the ion species in the precision trap has been implemented to reduce the long term magnetic field drift.

  4. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  5. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.

    PubMed

    Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  6. Phase contrast imaging using Betatron x-ray beams produced by a 100 TW high intensity laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, Sylvain; Corde, Sebastien; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Lassonde, Philippe; Martin, Francois; Malka, Victor; Rousse, Antoine; Kieffer, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Development of x-ray phase contrast imaging applications with a laboratory scale source have been limited by the long exposure time needed to obtain one image. We demonstrate, using the Betatron x-ray radiation produced when electrons are accelerated and wiggled in the laser-wakefield cavity, the potential of Betatron x-ray radiation for femtosecond phase contrast imaging. We characterize the x-ray source using a knife edge technique and nylon wires for calibration. We then show that high-quality phase contrast images of complex objects located in air, can be obtained with only a single laser shot. The Betatron x-ray source used in this demonstration experiment has a source diameter of 1.7 microns and produces a synchrotron spectrum with critical energy Ec = 12 . 3 + / - 2 . 5 keV and 109 photons per shot in the whole spectrum.

  7. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A.; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants’ individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a “statistically significant” finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  8. Comparable high rates of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in birds of prey from Germany and Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas bla(CTX-M-1) predominated among German isolates (100%), bla(CTX-M-9) was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23300857

  9. Comparable High Rates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Birds of Prey from Germany and Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas blaCTX-M-1 predominated among German isolates (100%), blaCTX-M-9 was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23300857

  10. IFN?/IL-10 Co-producing Cells Dominate the CD4 Response to Malaria in Highly Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Prasanna; Eccles-James, Ijeoma; Bowen, Katherine; Nankya, Felistas; Auma, Ann; Wamala, Samuel; Ebusu, Charles; Muhindo, Mary K.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Briggs, Jessica; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tappero, Jordan W.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant; Feeney, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that T cells are critical for immunity to malaria, reliable T cell correlates of exposure to and protection from malaria among children living in endemic areas are lacking. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to perform a detailed functional characterization of malaria-specific T cells in 78 four-year-old children enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda, a highly malaria-endemic region. More than 1800 episodes of malaria were observed in this cohort, with no cases of severe malaria. We quantified production of IFN?, TNF?, and IL-10 (alone or in combination) by malaria-specific T cells, and analyzed the relationship of this response to past and future malaria incidence. CD4+ T cell responses were measurable in nearly all children, with the majority of children having CD4+ T cells producing both IFN? and IL-10 in response to malaria-infected red blood cells. Frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4+ T cells, which express the Th1 transcription factor T-bet, were significantly higher in children with ?2 prior episodes/year compared to children with <2 episodes/year (P<0.001) and inversely correlated with duration since malaria (Rho?=??0.39, P<0.001). Notably, frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing cells were not associated with protection from future malaria after controlling for prior malaria incidence. In contrast, children with <2 prior episodes/year were significantly more likely to exhibit antigen-specific production of TNF? without IL-10 (P?=?0.003). While TNF?-producing CD4+ T cells were not independently associated with future protection, the absence of cells producing this inflammatory cytokine was associated with the phenotype of asymptomatic infection. Together these data indicate that the functional phenotype of the malaria-specific T cell response is heavily influenced by malaria exposure intensity, with IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4+ T cells dominating this response among highly exposed children. These CD4+ T cells may play important modulatory roles in the development of antimalarial immunity. PMID:24415936

  11. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Szitenberg, Amir; John, Max; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This ‘single file’ approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution. PMID:26335558

  12. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Szitenberg, Amir; John, Max; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2015-09-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This 'single file' approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution. PMID:26335558

  13. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and ?-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

  14. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process.

    PubMed

    Skjånes, Kari; Rebours, Céline; Lindblad, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and ?-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

  15. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  16. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  17. Generation of a stable packaging cell line producing high-titer PPT-deleted integration-deficient lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peirong; Li, Yedda; Sands, Mark S; McCown, Thomas; Kafri, Tal

    2015-01-01

    The risk of insertional mutagenesis inherent to all integrating exogenous expression cassettes was the impetus for the development of various integration-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) systems. These systems were successfully employed in a plethora of preclinical applications, underscoring their clinical potential. However, current production of IDLVs by transient plasmid transfection is not optimal for large-scale production of clinical grade vectors. Here, we describe the development of the first tetracycline-inducible stable IDLV packaging cell line comprising the D64E integrase mutant and the VSV-G envelope protein. A conditional self-inactivating (cSIN) vector and a novel polypurine tract (PPT)-deleted vector were incorporated into the newly developed stable packaging cell line by transduction and stable transfection, respectively. High-titer (~107 infectious units (IU)/ml) cSIN vectors were routinely generated. Furthermore, screening of single-cell clones stably transfected with PPT-deleted vector DNA resulted in the identification of highly efficient producer cell lines generating IDLV titers higher than 108 IU/mL, which upon concentration increased to 1010 IU/ml. IDLVs generated by stable producer lines efficiently transduce CNS tissues of rodents. Overall, the availability of high-titer IDLV lentivirus packaging cell line described here will significantly facilitate IDLV-based basic science research, as well as preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:26229972

  18. High damping Al-Fe-Mo-Si/Zn-Al composites produced by rapidly solidified powder metallurgy process

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.Y.; Dai, S.L.; Chai, S.C.; Li, Y.R.

    2000-05-10

    The metallic materials commonly used in aircraft and aerospace fields, such as aluminum and titanium alloys, steels, etc., show extremely low damping capacity (usually of the order of or less than 10{sup {minus}3}). Thus, some problems related to vibration may emerge and influence the reliability, safety and life of airplanes, satellites, etc. It has been reported that almost two thirds of errors for rockets and satellites are related to vibration and noise. One effective way to solve these vibration-related problems is to adopt high damping metallic materials. Conventional high damping alloys exhibit damping capacity above 10{sup {minus}2}, however, their densities are usually great than 5 x 10{sup 3} kg m{sup {minus}3}, or their strengths are less than 200 MPa (for alloys based on dislocation damping), making them impossible to be applied to aircraft and aerospace areas. Recently, some low-density high-damping metal/metal composites based on aluminum and high damping alloys have been developed in Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM) by the rapidly solidified power metallurgy process. This paper aims to report the properties of the composites based on a high temperature Al-Fe-Mo-Si alloy and a high damping Zn-Al alloy, and compare them with that of 2618-T61 alloy produced by the ingot metallurgy process.

  19. ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part I: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q-ACSM) and consistency with Time-of-Flight ACSM (ToF-ACSM), High Resolution ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and other co-located instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Croteau, P. L.; Verlhac, S.; Fröhlich, R.; Belis, C. A.; Aas, W.; Äijälä, M.; Alastuey, A.; Artiñano, B.; Baisnée, D.; Bonnaire, N.; Bressi, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Canonaco, F.; Carbone, C.; Cavalli, F.; Coz, E.; Cubison, M. J.; Esser-Gietl, J. K.; Green, D. C.; Gros, V.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, H.; Lunder, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Mo?nik, G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Petralia, E.; Poulain, L.; Priestman, M.; Riffault, V.; Ripoll, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Setyan, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Favez, O.

    2015-07-01

    As part of the European ACTRIS project, the first large Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) intercomparison study was conducted in the region of Paris for three weeks during the late fall-early winter period (November-December 2013). The first week was dedicated to tuning and calibration of each instrument whereas the second and third were dedicated to side-by-side comparison in ambient conditions with co-located instruments providing independent information on submicron aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties. Near real-time measurements of the major chemical species (organic matter, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride) in the non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) were obtained here from 13 Q-ACSM. The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its major components. Taking the median of the 13 Q-ACSM as a reference for this study, strong correlations (r2 > 0.9) were observed systematically for each individual ACSM across all chemical families except for chloride for which three ACSMs showing weak correlations partly due to the very low concentrations during the study. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were determined using appropriate methodologies defined by the International Standard Organization (ISO 17025) and were found to be of 9, 15, 19, 28 and 36 % for NR-PM1, nitrate, organic matter, sulfate and ammonium respectively. However, discrepancies were observed in the relative concentrations of the constituent mass fragments for each chemical component. In particular, significant differences were observed for the organic fragment at mass-to-charge ratio 44, which is a key parameter describing the oxidation state of organic aerosol. Following this first major intercomparison exercise of a large number of ACSMs, detailed intercomparison results are presented as well as a discussion of some recommendations about best calibration practices, standardized data processing and data treatment.

  20. Global high-resolution simulations of CO2 and CH4 using a NIES transport model to produce a priori concentrations for use in satellite data retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Saito, R.; Belikov, D.; Maksyutov, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measures column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively). Since the launch of GOSAT, model-simulated three-dimensional concentrations from a National Institute for Environmental Studies offline tracer Transport Model (NIES TM) have been used as a priori concentration data for operational near real-time retrievals of XCO2 and XCH4 from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra at NIES. Although the choice of a priori profile has only a minor effect on retrieved XCO2 or XCH4, a realistic simulation with minimal deviation from observed data is desirable. In this paper, we describe the newly developed version of NIES TM that has been adapted to provide global and near real-time concentrations of CO2 and CH4 using a high-resolution meteorological dataset, the Grid Point Value (GPV) prepared by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The spatial resolution of the NIES TM is set to 0.5° × 0.5° in the horizontal in order to utilise GPV data, which have a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°, 21 pressure levels and a time interval of 3 h. GPV data are provided to the GOSAT processing system with a delay of several hours, and the near real-time model simulation produces a priori concentrations driven by diurnally varying meteorology. A priori variance-covariance matrices of CO2 and CH4 are also derived from the simulation outputs and observation-based reference data for each month of the year at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and 21 pressure levels. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulation results with the GLOBALVIEW dataset and other observational data. The overall root-mean-square differences between model predictions and GLOBALVIEW analysis are estimated to be 1.45 ppm and 12.52 ppb for CO2 and CH4, respectively, and the seasonal correlation coefficients are 0.87 for CO2 and 0.53 for CH4. The model showed good performance particularly at oceanic and free tropospheric sites. The high-resolution model also performs well in reproducing both the observed synoptic variations at some sites and stratospheric profiles over Japan. These results give us confidence that the performance of our GPV-forced high-resolution NIES TM is adequate for use in satellite retrievals.

  1. Reproducibility of MRE shear modulus estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Miller, Timothy B.; Doyley, Marvin D.; Wang, Huifang; Perrinez, Phillip R.; Cheung, Yvonne Y.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2007-03-01

    A significant effort has been expended to measure the accuracy of the shear modulus estimates. Conversely, very little effort has been expended to establish the reproducibility of the method in a clinical context. Previously we established the reproducibility in phantoms to be 3% for repeated measurements without moving the phantom and 5% when the phantom was moved,however, the clinical reproducibility has not been demonstrated. The reproducibility of the method was estimated by scanning subjects' heels repeatedly on a GE 1.5T scanner using previously described methods. Three subjects were scanned three times on different days (termed non-consecutive) and three subjects were scanned three times in the same session without changing the position of the foot (termed consecutive). The average difference between mean values within the field of view for the non-consecutive group was 7.75% +/- 3.76% and for the consecutive group it was 5.30% +/- 4.16%. These values represent remarkably good reproducibility considering the 20% variation in shear modulus observed within individual heels and the several hundred percent changes observed between normal and pathologic tissues. The variation in repeated examinations was caused by four factors: positioning error between examinations accounted for 4.8%, computational noise 3.0%, and the combination of MR noise and patient motion during the examination, 5.3%. Each of these sources of variation can be reduced in relatively straightforward ways if necessary but the current level of reproducibility is sufficient for most current applications.

  2. Neutron-deficient N{approx_equal}126 nuclei produced in 238U fragmentation: population of high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M.; Pearson, C. J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gerl, J.; Hellstroem, M.; Becker, F.; Gorska, M.; Kelic, A.; Kopatch, Y.; Mandal, S.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Banu, A.; Geissel, H.; Grawe, H.; Kojouharov, I.; Lozeva, R.; Portillo, M.

    2006-04-26

    The population of metastable states produced in relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam has been measured. For states with high angular momentum, I=17({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and I=21.5({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), a higher population than expected has been observed, with the discrepancy increasing with angular momentum. By considering two sources for the angular momentum, related to single-particle and collective motions, a much improved description of the experimental results can be obtained. In addition, new results on the structure of 208Fr, 211Ra and 216Ac are reported.

  3. On the use of ICE/SAT Lidar Space-Born Observations to Evaluate the Ability of MM5 Meso-Scale Model to Reproduce High Altitude Clouds Over Europe in Fall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P.; Yang, K.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L.; Stehr, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS/Aura offers unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, coupled with global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Publicly released SO2 pollution data are processed with the Band Residual Difference (BRD) algorithm that uses calibrated residuals at SO2 absorption band centers produced by the NASA operational ozone algorithm (OMTO3). By using optimum wavelengths for retrieval of SO2, the retrieval sensitivity is improved over NASA predecessor Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by factors of 10 to 20, depending on location. The ground footprint of OMI is 8 times smaller than TOMS. These factors produce a two orders of magnitude improvement in the minimum detectable mass of SO2. The improved sensitivity now permits daily global measurement of heavy anthropogenic SO2 pollution. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions have been measured by OMI over known sources of air pollution, such as eastern China, Eastern Europe, and from individual copper smelters in South America and elsewhere. Here we present data from a case study conducted over Shenyang in NE China as part of EAST-AIRE in April 2005. SO2 observations from instrumented aircraft flights are compared with OMI SO2 maps. The OMI SO2 algorithm was improved to account for the known altitude profile of SO2, and the comparison demonstrates that this algorithm can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. Between 5 and 7 April 2005 a cold front traveled from continental China, over Korea and on to the Sea of Japan. The satellite-derived measurements of SO2 confirm the in situ aircraft observations of high concentrations of SO2 (ca 4 DU) ahead of the front and lower concentrations behind it and provide evidence for a large-scale impact of pollutant emissions. The BRD algorithm sensitivity does not represent the maximum sensitivity theoretically achievable with OMI, and hence future improvements in instrument calibration and the algorithm should allow even weaker SO2 sources to be monitored routinely. Such measurements are essential given the growing concern over the effects of anthropogenically-forced climate change and intercontinental transport of air pollution. http://www.knmi.nl/omi/research/product/so2/introduction.html

  4. Reproducibility of SELDI Spectra Across Time and Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lixia; Clarke, Charlotte H.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Roth, Jack; Mao, Li; Czerniak, Bogdan; Baggerly, Keith A.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Fung, Eric T.; Bast, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This is an open access article. Unrestricted non-commercial use is permitted provided the original work is properly cited. The reproducibility of mass spectrometry (MS) data collected using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) has been questioned. This investigation was designed to test the reproducibility of SELDI data collected over time by multiple users and instruments. Five laboratories prepared arrays once every week for six weeks. Spectra were collected on separate instruments in the individual laboratories. Additionally, all of the arrays produced each week were rescanned on a single instrument in one laboratory. Lab-to-lab and array-to-array variability in alignment parameters were larger than the variability attributable to running samples during different weeks. The coefficient of variance (CV) in spectrum intensity ranged from 25% at baseline, to 80% in the matrix noise region, to about 50% during the exponential drop from the maximum matrix noise. Before normalization, the median CV of the peak heights was 72% and reduced to about 20% after normalization. Additionally, for the spectra from a common instrument, the CV ranged from 5% at baseline, to 50% in the matrix noise region, to 20% during the drop from the maximum matrix noise. Normalization reduced the variability in peak heights to about 18%. With proper processing methods, SELDI instruments produce spectra containing large numbers of reproducibly located peaks, with consistent heights. PMID:21552492

  5. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

  6. The EPR study of Mn(2+) ion doped DADT single crystal produced under high pressure and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ümit; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-01-01

    An EPR study on Cu(2+) and VO(2+) doped di ammonium d-tartrate single crystals has been reported in previous papers, but the same host did not accept Mn(2+) ion at the same reaction conditions in previous trials. In this study EPR study of Mn(2+) ion doped di ammonium d tartrate single crystal, (DADT) [(NH4)2C4H4O6], produced in a reactor under high pressure and high temperature. The electronic transitions were determined by the optical absorption spectrum. Hyperfine splitting and g values of the Mn(2+) ion forming a complex in the lattice were measured from experimental spectra and spin-spin dipolar splitting parameters D and E were found by the spectrum simulation techniques. PMID:26137878

  7. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  8. Direct conversion of chicory flour into L(+)-lactic acid by the highly effective inulinase producer Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 23505.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Penka; Velikova, Petya; Popova, Luiza; Petrov, Kaloyan

    2015-06-01

    Highly effective bio-process for lactic acid (LA) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of chicory flour was developed. The strain used, Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 23505 produced natural inulinase (EC 3.2.1.80) with molecular weight ?130 kDa, located in the cell wall fraction. In batch fermentation with optimized medium content and fermentation conditions, a complete conversion of 136 g/L chicory flour (89.3% inulin and 10.7% mix of sucrose, fructose and glucose) into 123.7 g/L LA was achieved. These yield and conversion rate are the highest obtained by SSF for LA production from inulin. The high efficiency, the cheap fermentation broth and the simple process performance disclose the promising use of the chicory flour in industrial biotechnology for LA production. PMID:25824595

  9. The EPR study of Mn2+ ion doped DADT single crystal produced under high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Ümit; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-01-01

    An EPR study on Cu2+ and VO2+ doped di ammonium D-tartrate single crystals has been reported in previous papers, but the same host did not accept Mn2+ ion at the same reaction conditions in previous trials. In this study EPR study of Mn2+ ion doped di ammonium D tartrate single crystal, (DADT) [(NH4)2C4H4O6], produced in a reactor under high pressure and high temperature. The electronic transitions were determined by the optical absorption spectrum. Hyperfine splitting and g values of the Mn2+ ion forming a complex in the lattice were measured from experimental spectra and spin-spin dipolar splitting parameters D and E were found by the spectrum simulation techniques.

  10. Pseudomonas Strains Naturally Associated with Potato Plants Produce Volatiles with High Potential for Inhibition of Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

  11. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-02

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the “Reproducible Research Standard” (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  12. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the ?Reproducible Research Standard? (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  13. Reproducibility responsibilities in the HPC arena

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; McLay, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Expecting bit-for-bit reproducibility in the HPC arena is not feasible because of the ever changing hardware and software. No user s application is an island; it lives in an HPC eco-system that changes over time. Old hardware stops working and even old software won t run on new hardware. Further, software libraries change over time either by changing the internals or even interfaces. So bit-for-bit reproducibility should not be expected. Rather a reasonable expectation is that results are reproducible within error bounds; or that the answers are close (which is its own debate.) To expect a researcher to reproduce their own results or the results of others within some error bounds, there must be enough information to recreate all the details of the experiment. This requires complete documentation of all phases of the researcher s workflow; from code to versioning to programming and runtime environments to publishing of data. This argument is the core statement of the Yale 2009 Declaration on Reproducible Research [1]. Although the HPC ecosystem is often outside the researchers control, the application code could be built almost identically and there is a chance for very similar results with just only round-off error differences. To achieve complete documentation at every step, the researcher, the computing center, and the funding agencies all have a role. In this thesis, the role of the researcher is expanded upon as compared to the Yale report and the role of the computing centers is described.

  14. Relevance relations for the concept of reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Atmanspacher, H.; Bezzola Lambert, L.; Folkers, G.; Schubiger, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reproducibility is widely considered a cornerstone of scientific methodology. However, recent problems with the reproducibility of empirical results in large-scale systems and in biomedical research have cast doubts on its universal and rigid applicability beyond the so-called basic sciences. Reproducibility is a particularly difficult issue in interdisciplinary work where the results to be reproduced typically refer to different levels of description of the system considered. In such cases, it is mandatory to distinguish between more and less relevant features, attributes or observables of the system, depending on the level at which they are described. For this reason, we propose a scheme for a general ‘relation of relevance’ between the level of complexity at which a system is considered and the granularity of its description. This relation implies relevance criteria for particular selected aspects of a system and its description, which can be operationally implemented by an interlevel relation called ‘contextual emergence’. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels and thus construct level-specific criteria for reproducibility in an overall consistent fashion. Relevance relations merged with contextual emergence challenge the old idea of one fundamental ontology from which everything else derives. At the same time, our proposal is specific enough to resist the backlash into a relativist patchwork of unconnected model fragments. PMID:24554574

  15. Chemical Fabrication Used to Produce Thin-Film Materials for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Rybicki, George C.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Junek, William; Gorse, Joseph; Thompson, Tracy L.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space solar arrays is the development of a high-efficiency, thin-film solar cell that can be fabricated directly on a flexible, lightweight, space-qualified durable substrate such as Kapton (DuPont) or other polyimide or suitable polymer film. Cell efficiencies approaching 20 percent at AM0 (air mass zero) are required. Current thin-film cell fabrication approaches are limited by either (1) the ultimate efficiency that can be achieved with the device material and structure or (2) the requirement for high-temperature deposition processes that are incompatible with all presently known flexible polyimide or other polymer substrate materials. Cell fabrication processes must be developed that will produce high-efficiency cells at temperatures below 400 degrees Celsius, and preferably below 300 degress Celsius to minimize the problems associated with the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and thin-film solar cell and/or the decomposition of the substrate.

  16. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  17. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

  18. High occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Salmonella in broiler carcasses from poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Kim, Young-Ji; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne Salmonella has become a major public health problem. Consumption of undercooked poultry contaminated with Salmonella can induce food poisoning in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated from 120 chicken carcasses produced in 6 poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. A total of 11 samples (9.2%) were found contaminated with Salmonella: 5 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Bellevue strain (slaughterhouse C) and 6 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis strain (slaughterhouse E). Salmonella Bellevue isolates were resistant to five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), while Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were resistant to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cephalothin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline). All cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis isolates exhibited the extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried the gene encoding CTX-M-15, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme worldwide. Based on molecular subtyping performed using the automated rep-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system (DiversiLab), the isolates showing ? 95 similarity in their rep-PCR banding patterns were classified into 5 pulsotypes. Given that cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for invasive Salmonella infections, the high incidence of ESBL-producing strains in chicken should emphasize the necessity of regular monitoring of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant ESBL-positive Salmonella strains in poultry meat. PMID:25692653

  19. Effects of OLRs and HRTs on hydrogen production from high salinity substrate by halophilic hydrogen producing bacterium (HHPB).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Lee, Yunhee; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2013-08-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on hydrogen production were investigated with glucose medium containing 2% NaCl. Halophilic hydrogen producing bacterium (HHPB) Clostridium bifermentans 3AT-ma, which can survive under high salt conditions, was used. Sponge media were used as 20% of working volume. The OLR and HRT were varied in 10-60 g-glucose/L-reactor/day and 24-6h. With OLR of 20 g-glucose/L/day, shorter HRT resulted in higher hydrogen producing rate and yield. When the OLR was increased from 20 to 60 g-glucose/L-reactor/day at HRT 6h, the hydrogen production rate increased, while the hydrogen production yield decreased due to the increase and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. Biohydrogen production was possible from the salinity substrate using HHPB, and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 1.1 mol-H?/mol-glucose with optimal conditions of OLR of 20 g-glucose/L/day and HRT of 12h. PMID:23305894

  20. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  1. A paper-based microbial fuel cell array for rapid and high-throughput screening of electricity-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gihoon; Hassett, Daniel J; Choi, Seokheun

    2015-06-21

    There is a large global effort to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) techniques and advance their translational potential toward practical, real-world applications. Significant boosts in MFC performance can be achieved with the development of new techniques in synthetic biology that can regulate microbial metabolic pathways or control their gene expression. For these new directions, a high-throughput and rapid screening tool for microbial biopower production is needed. In this work, a 48-well, paper-based sensing platform was developed for the high-throughput and rapid characterization of the electricity-producing capability of microbes. 48 spatially distinct wells of a sensor array were prepared by patterning 48 hydrophilic reservoirs on paper with hydrophobic wax boundaries. This paper-based platform exploited the ability of paper to quickly wick fluid and promoted bacterial attachment to the anode pads, resulting in instant current generation upon loading of the bacterial inoculum. We validated the utility of our MFC array by studying how strategic genetic modifications impacted the electrochemical activity of various Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strains. Within just 20 minutes, we successfully determined the electricity generation capacity of eight isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa. These efforts demonstrate that our MFC array displays highly comparable performance characteristics and identifies genes in P. aeruginosa that can trigger a higher power density. PMID:25939879

  2. Plants Probiotics as a Tool to Produce Highly Functional Fruits: The Case of Phyllobacterium and Vitamin C in Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R.; Rivera, Lina P.; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

  3. High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Natalie J.; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays. PMID:25146501

  4. Biological effectiveness of nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons interacting in tissues near the bone- soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, Mark Randall

    1999-12-01

    High-energy protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR)-or generated by nuclear interactions of GCR heavy-ions with material-are capable of penetrating great thicknesses of shielding to irradiate humans in spacecraft or in lunar or Martian habitats. As protons interact with the nuclei of the elemental constituents of soft tissue and bone, low energy nuclei-target fragments-are emitted into the cells responsible for bone development and maintenance and for hematopoiesis. Leukemogenesis is the principal endpoint of concern because it is the most likely deleterious effect, and it has a short latency period and comparatively low survival rate, although other myelo- proliferative disorders and osteosarcoma also may be induced. A one-dimensional proton-target fragment transport model was used to calculate the energy spectra of fragments produced in bone and soft tissue, and present in marrow cavities at distances from a bone interface. In terms of dose equivalent, the target fragments are as significant as the incident protons. An average radiation quality factor was found to be between 1.8 and 2.6. Biological response to the highly non- uniform energy deposition of the target fragments is such that an alternative approach to conventional predictive risk assessment is needed. Alternative procedures are presented. In vitro cell response and relative biological effectiveness were calculated from the radial dose distribution of each fragment produced by 1-GeV protons using parameters of a modified Ion-Gamma- Kill (IGK) model of radiation action. The modelled endpoints were survival of C3H10t 1/2 and V79 cells, neoplastic transformation of C3H10t1/2 cells, and mutation of the X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in V79 cells. The dose equivalent and cell responses increased by 10% or less near the interface. Since RBE increases with decreasing dose in the IGK model, comparisons with quality factors were made at dose levels 0.01 <= D [Gy] <= 2. Applying average quality factors derived herein to GCR exposures results in a <= 5% increase of in average quality. Calculated RBEs indicate that accepted quality factors for high-energy protons may be too low due to the relatively high effectiveness of the low-charged target fragments. Derived RBEs for target fragments increase the calculated biological effectiveness of GCR by 20% to 180%.

  5. Human Computation Must Be Reproducible Praveen Paritosh

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Human Computation Must Be Reproducible Praveen Paritosh Google 345 Spear St, San Francisco, CA 94105. pkp@google.com ABSTRACT Human computation is the technique of performing a com- putational process by outsourcing some of the difficult-to- automate steps to humans. In the social and behavioral

  6. Teacher's Role and Reproducibility of Didactical Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsac, Gilbert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Teacher's abilities to remain sufficiently faithful to predefined learning scenarios are examined via case studies. The behavior of 2 teachers during problem-solving sessions in geometry with 13-14 year olds exhibited 2 types of factors that tend to hamper scenario reproducibility: constraints on the teacher resulting from the teaching situation;…

  7. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  8. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  9. Comparison of bare fiber and contact diffuser tip inductions of interstitial laser lesions: assessment of reproducibility using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Keyvan; Castro, Dan J.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    Ninety interstitial lesions were produced in ex-vivo sheep liver using various power outputs (5, 10, and 20 Watts) and exposure times for delivery of 200 Joules of the Nd:YAG laser energy. For the purpose of determining lesion reproducibility, two different methods of laser energy delivery to tissue, namely, the bare fiber optic and the sapphire diffuser tip techniques, were utilized. Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or laser treated specimens were performed on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnet. Images were examined for shape and extent of damage, as well as uniformity. Lateral and longitudinal extent of thermal injury was measured from the image of each lesion. Results showed that the diffuser tip method is better able to reproduce lesions than the bare fiber method, particularly when high levels of laser power are employed. This study indicates the need for development of MRI-compatible diffuser tip technology for use in MRI-guided interstitial laser therapy.

  10. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18?MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18?MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  11. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    PubMed

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18?MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18?MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  12. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

  13. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  14. High spatial resolution laser cavity extinction and laser-induced incandescence in low-soot-producing flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Gao, Y.; Balusamy, S.; Hochgreb, S.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate measurement techniques for in situ determination of soot are necessary to understand and monitor the process of soot particle production. One of these techniques is line-of-sight extinction, which is a fast, low-cost and quantitative method to investigate the soot volume fraction in flames. However, the extinction-based technique suffers from relatively high measurement uncertainty due to low signal-to-noise ratio, as the single-pass attenuation of the laser beam intensity is often insufficient. Multi-pass techniques can increase the sensitivity, but may suffer from low spatial resolution. To overcome this problem, we have developed a high spatial resolution laser cavity extinction technique to measure the soot volume fraction from low-soot-producing flames. A laser beam cavity is realised by placing two partially reflective concave mirrors on either side of the laminar diffusion flame under investigation. This configuration makes the beam convergent inside the cavity, allowing a spatial resolution within 200 ?m, whilst increasing the absorption by an order of magnitude. Three different hydrocarbon fuels are tested: methane, propane and ethylene. The measurements of soot distribution across the flame show good agreement with results using laser-induced incandescence (LII) in the range from around 20 ppb to 15 ppm.

  15. Chemical immobilization of crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids on nitinol wires produces highly robust sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tien D; Toledo, Bruna R; Hantao, Leandro W; Anderson, Jared L

    2014-09-16

    Super elastic nitinol (NiTi) wires were exploited as highly robust supports for three distinct crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based coatings in solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The oxidation of NiTi wires in a boiling (30%w/w) H2O2 solution and subsequent derivatization in vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) allowed for vinyl moieties to be appended to the surface of the support. UV-initiated on-fiber copolymerization of the vinyl-substituted NiTi support with monocationic ionic liquid (IL) monomers and dicationic IL crosslinkers produced a crosslinked PIL-based network that was covalently attached to the NiTi wire. This alteration alleviated receding of the coating from the support, which was observed for an analogous crosslinked PIL applied on unmodified NiTi wires. A series of demanding extraction conditions, including extreme pH, pre-exposure to pure organic solvents, and high temperatures, were applied to investigate the versatility and robustness of the fibers. Acceptable precision of the model analytes was obtained for all fibers under these conditions. Method validation by examining the relative recovery of a homologous group of phthalate esters (PAEs) was performed in drip-brewed coffee (maintained at 60 °C) by direct immersion SPME. Acceptable recoveries were obtained for most PAEs in the part-per-billion level, even in this exceedingly harsh and complex matrix. PMID:25150693

  16. The draft genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: a C4 dicot producing high-lysine edible pseudo-cereal.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R; Gupta, Ravi P; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-12-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  17. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Cassidy, Jennifer; Scullen, Butch; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are regularly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 STEC isolates, including the "big six" serovars, O104 and O157:H7. STEC isolates included those isolated from animals and environmental sources in addition to those associated with illness in humans. Individual STEC were inoculated into 80% lean ground beef and treated with HPP (350 MPa, 4 °C, up to 40 min). The mean D10 was 9.74 min, with a range of 0.89-25.70 min. The D10 of the STEC involved in human illness was 9.25 vs. 10.40 min for those not involved in human illness (p > 0.05). The presence or absence of genes encoding virulence factors (e.g. Shiga toxin 1 or 2, intimin, or enterohemolysin) had no effect on the HPP D10 (p > 0.05). The high D10 of some STEC involved in human illness should be considered in selecting HPP processing parameters for ground beef. This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of STEC resistance to HPP. Risk assessors and the food industry can use this information to provide safer meat products to consumers. PMID:26338120

  18. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-band high-frequency clicks.

    PubMed

    Kyhn, L A; Jensen, F H; Beedholm, K; Tougaard, J; Hansen, M; Madsen, P T

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of smaller odontocetes have recently been shown to produce stereotyped narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Click source parameters of NBHF clicks are very similar, and it is unclear whether the sonars of individual NBHF species are adapted to specific habitats or the presence of other NBHF species. Here, we test whether sympatric NBHF species sharing the same habitat show similar adaptations in their echolocation clicks and whether their clicks display signs of character displacement. Wide-band sound recordings were obtained with a six-element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133+/-2 kHz) and Peale's (129+/-3 kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12+/-3 kHz for both species. The source level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185+/-6 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's (177+/-5 dB re 1 muPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25 dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging in a coastal environment. We conclude that the small species-specific shifts in distribution of centroid frequencies around 130 kHz may reflect character displacement in otherwise-stereotyped NBHF clicks. PMID:20472781

  19. Specific and efficient electrochemical selection of Geoalkalibacter subterraneus and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans in high current-producing biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pierra, Mélanie; Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro A; Trably, Eric; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Two different saline sediments were used to inoculate potentiostatically controlled reactors (a type of microbial bioelectrochemical system, BES) operated in saline conditions (35 gNaCl l(-1)). Reactors were fed with acetate or a mixture of acetate and butyrate at two pH values: 7.0 or 5.5. Electroactive biofilm formation lag-phase, maximum current density production and coulombic efficiency were used to evaluate the overall performance of reactors. High current densities up to 8.5 A m(-2) were obtained using well-defined planar graphite electrodes. Additionally, biofilm microbial communities were characterized by CE-SSCP and 454 pyrosequencing. As a result of this procedure, two anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) always dominated the anodic biofilms: Geoalkalibacter subterraneus and/or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. This suggests that a strong electrochemically driven selection process imposed by the applied potential occurs in the BES system. Moreover, the emergence of Glk. subterraneus in anodic biofilms significantly contributes to broaden the spectrum of high current producing microorganisms electrochemically isolated from environmental samples. PMID:25717030

  20. Pregnancy patterns during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows treated with GnRH or progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bech-Sàbat, G; López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Santolaria, J P; Serrano, B; Nogareda, C; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; Yániz, J

    2009-04-01

    In order to explore pregnancy patterns in high producing dairy cows treated with GnRH or progesterone at pregnancy diagnosis (Days 28-34), two consecutive experiments were designed. In Experiment 1, cows bearing a single embryo were randomly assigned to a PRID (n=40; cows fitted with a progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device for 28 days), GnRH (n=40; cows receiving GnRH) or Control (n=26; untreated cows) group. PRID treatment led to a rise in plasma progesterone concentrations in the 7 days following the onset of treatment compared to the other two groups. In Experiment 2, in which we also examined twin pregnancies, animals were randomly assigned to PRID (n=312) or GnRH (n=294) treatment groups. Treatments were the same as described for Experiment 1. Logistic regression procedures revealed that in cows with a single corpus luteum, the probability of pregnancy loss between the first (Days 28-34) and second (Days 65-62) pregnancy diagnosis decreased by a factor of 0.51 in the PRID group compared to the GnRH group. However, in cows with two or more corpora lutea, PRID treatment increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss by a factor of three, compared to GnRH treatment. In cows carrying twins, the conceptus reduction rate was higher (P=0.02) for the GnRH (36%) than for the PRID (16.4%) group. Formation of a new corpus luteum was recorded in 17.7% of cows in the GnRH group. Our results indicate that compared to GnRH treatment, progesterone treatment given at pregnancy diagnosis in high producing dairy cows, reduced by a factor of 0.51 and increased by a factor of 3 the probability of pregnancy loss in cows with a single or with two or more corpora lutea, respectively, and reduced the conceptus reduction rate in cows carrying twins. The practical implications of our findings are that in herds with a high incidence of early fetal loss of a non-infectious nature, treatment at the time of pregnancy diagnosis with PRID in cows with one corpus luteum and with GnRH in cows with two or more corpora lutea should offer considerable benefits. PMID:19100610

  1. High prevalence of Salmonella and IMP-4-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the silver gull on Five Islands, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Dobiasova, Hana; Jamborova, Ivana; Karpiskova, Renata; Havlicek, Martin; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the silver gull as an indicator of environmental contamination by salmonellae and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in south-east Australia. Methods A total of 504 cloacal samples were collected from gull chicks at three nesting colonies in New South Wales, Australia [White Bay (n?=?144), Five Islands (n?=?200) and Montague Island (n?=?160)] and were examined for salmonellae and CPE. Isolates were tested for carbapenemase genes and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. Clonality was determined by PFGE and MLST. Genetic context and conjugative transfer of the carbapenemase gene were determined. Results A total of 120 CPE of 10 species, mainly Escherichia coli (n?=?85), carrying the gene blaIMP-4, blaIMP-38 or blaIMP-26 were obtained from 80 (40%) gulls from Five Islands. Thirty percent of birds from this colony were colonized by salmonellae. Most isolates contained the gene within a class 1 integron showing a blaIMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3 array. The blaIMP gene was carried by conjugative plasmids of variable sizes (80–400 kb) and diverse replicons, including HI2-N (n?=?30), HI2 (11), A/C (17), A/C-Y (2), L/M (5), I1 (1) and non-typeable (6). Despite the overall high genetic variability, common clones and plasmid types were shared by different birds and bacterial isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a large-scale transmission of carbapenemase-producing bacteria into wildlife, likely as a result of the feeding habits of the birds at a local waste depot. The isolates from gulls showed significant similarities with clinical isolates from Australia, suggesting the human origin of the isolates. The sources of CPE for gulls on Five Islands should be explored and proper measures applied to stop the transmission into the environment. PMID:26472769

  2. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? PEPG Report No.: 10-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    To see how well U.S. schools do at producing high-achieving math students, the authors compare the percentage of U.S. public and private school students in the graduating Class of 2009 who were highly accomplished in mathematics in each of the 50 states and in 10 urban districts to percentages of high achievers in 56 other countries. Their…

  3. Reproducibility of optical coherence tomography airway imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Miranda; Ohtani, Keishi; Nickens, Taylor; Lisbona, Rosa Maria Lopez; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Shaipanich, Tawimas; Lane, Pierre; MacAulay, Calum; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging technique to evaluate small airway remodeling. However, the short-term insertion-reinsertion reproducibility of OCT for evaluating the same bronchial pathway has yet to be established. We evaluated 74 OCT data sets from 38 current or former smokers twice within a single imaging session. Although the overall insertion-reinsertion airway wall thickness (WT) measurement coefficient of variation (CV) was moderate at 12%, much of the variability between repeat imaging was attributed to the observer; CV for repeated measurements of the same airway (intra-observer CV) was 9%. Therefore, reproducibility may be improved by introduction of automated analysis approaches suggesting that OCT has potential to be an in-vivo method for evaluating airway remodeling in future longitudinal and intervention studies. PMID:26601002

  4. Reproducible Ultrahigh Electromagnetic SERS Enhancement in Nanosphere-Plane Junctions

    E-print Network

    Long, Jing; Li, Hongquan; Yang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in nanoscale hotspots has been placed great hopes upon for identification of minimum chemical traces and in-situ investigation of single molecule structures and dynamics. However, previous work consists of either irreproducible enhancement factors (EF) from random aggregates, or moderate EFs despite better reproducibility. Consequently, systematic study of SERS at the single and few molecules level is still very limited, and the promised applications are far from being realized. Here we report EFs as high as the most intense hotspots in previous work yet achieved in a reproducible and well controlled manner, that is, electromagnetic EFs (EMEF) of 10^9~10 with an error down to 10^+/-0.08 from gold nanospheres on atomically flat gold planes under radially polarized (RP) laser excitation. In addition, our experiment reveals the EF's unexpected nonlinearity under as low as hundreds of nanowatts of laser power.

  5. An exploration of graph metric reproducibility in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Telesford, Qawi K.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The application of graph theory to brain networks has become increasingly popular in the neuroimaging community. These investigations and analyses have led to a greater understanding of the brain's complex organization. More importantly, it has become a useful tool for studying the brain under various states and conditions. With the ever expanding popularity of network science in the neuroimaging community, there is increasing interest to validate the measurements and calculations derived from brain networks. Underpinning these studies is the desire to use brain networks in longitudinal studies or as clinical biomarkers to understand changes in the brain. A highly reproducible tool for brain imaging could potentially prove useful as a clinical tool. In this review, we examine recent studies in network reproducibility and their implications for analysis of brain networks. PMID:23717257

  6. Electrodeposition of Pt nanostructures with reproducible SERS activity and superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suhee; Kweon, Suji; Kim, Jongwon

    2015-09-28

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and water wettability are important characteristic properties of nanostructured surfaces with respect to their practical applications. In the present work, we report a simple one-step electrodeposition of nanostructured Pt surfaces. The tree-like Pt nanostructures exhibited reproducible SERS activity, and they also showed superhydrophobic natures after n-dodecanethiol modification. The growth process of Pt nanostructures as a function of deposition charge was monitored using a scanning electron microscope, from which the correlation between the structural variation of the Pt nanostructures and the SERS activity and wettability was investigated. The SERS activity was dependent on the presence of sharp edge sites, whereas the wettability was dependent on the apex structures. Well-defined Pt tree nanostructures exhibited high, reproducible, and electrochemically stable SERS activity. The straightforward fabrication of multi-functional Pt nanostructures presented in this work would allow new opportunities for the application of nanostructured metal surfaces. PMID:26299821

  7. Pressure Stabilizer for Reproducible Picoinjection in Droplet Microfluidic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Yilmaz, Suzan; Adams, Paul D.; Saxena, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Picoinjection is a promising technique to add reagents into pre-formed emulsion droplets on chip; however, it is sensitive to pressure fluctuation, making stable operation of the picoinjector challenging. We present a chip architecture using a simple pressure stabilizer for consistent and highly reproducible picoinjection in multi-step biochemical assays with droplets. Incorporation of the stabilizer immediately upstream of a picoinjector or a combination of injectors greatly reduces pressure fluctuations enabling reproducible and effective picoinjection in systems where the pressure varies actively during operation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the pressure stabilizer for an integrated platform for on-demand encapsulation of bacterial cells followed by picoinjection of reagents for lysing the encapsulated cells. The pressure stabilizer was also used for picoinjection of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) reagents to achieve genomic DNA amplification of lysed bacterial cells. PMID:25270338

  8. De novo Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Acremonium chrysogenum: High-Yield and Wild-Type Strains of Cephalosporin C Producer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xie, Liping; Gong, Guihua; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Baoquan; Hu, Youjia

    2014-01-01

    ?-lactam antibiotics are widely used in clinic. Filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is an important industrial fungus for the production of CPC, one of the major precursors of ?-lactam antibiotics. Although its fermentation yield has been bred significantly over the past decades, little is known regarding molecular changes between the industrial strain and the wild type strain. This limits the possibility to improve CPC production further by molecular breeding. Comparative transcriptome is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms of CPC industrial high yield producer compared to wild type. A total of 57 million clean sequencing reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated from Illumina sequencing platform. 22,878 sequences were assembled. Among the assembled unigenes, 9502 were annotated and 1989 annotated sequences were assigned to 121 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) database. Furthermore, we compared the transcriptome differences between a high-yield and a wild-type strain during fermentation. A total of 4329 unigenes with significantly different transcription level were identified, among which 1737 were up-regulated and 2592 were down-regulated. 24 pathways were subsequently determined which involve glycerolipid metabolism, galactose metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism. We also examined the transcription levels of 18 identified genes, including 11 up-regulated genes and 7 down-regulated genes using reverse transcription quantitative -PCR (RT-qPCR). The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with the Illumina sequencing. In this study, the Illumina sequencing provides the most comprehensive sequences for gene expression profile of Acremonium chrysogenum and allows de novo transcriptome assembly while lacking genome information. Comparative analysis of RNA-seq data reveals the complexity of the transcriptome in the fermentation of different yield strains. This is an important public information platform which could be used to accelerate the research to improve CPC production in Acremonium chrysogenum. PMID:25118715

  9. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=?0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  10. Taxonomic characterization and metabolic analysis of the Halomonas sp. KM-1, a highly bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Shi, Lian-Hua; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    In a brief previous report, the gram-negative moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. KM-1, that was isolated in our laboratory was shown to produce the bioplastic, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), using biodiesel waste glycerol (Kawata and Aiba, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 74, 175-177, 2010). Here, we further characterized this KM-1 strain and compared it to other Halomonas strains. Strain KM-1 was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain KM-1 was rod-shaped and formed colonies on a plate that were cream-beige in color, smooth, opaque, and circular with entire edges. KM-1 grew under environmental conditions of 0.1%-10% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-10.5 and at temperatures between 10°C and 45°C. The G+C content of strain KM-1 was 63.9 mol%. Of the 16 Halomonas strains examined in this study, the strain KM-1 exhibited the highest production of PHB (63.6%, w/v) in SOT medium supplemented with 10% glycerol, 10.0 g/L sodium nitrate and 2.0 g/L dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. The intracellular structures within which PHB accumulated had the appearance of intracellular granules with a diameter of approximately 0.5 ?m, as assessed by electron microscopy. The intra- and extra-cellular metabolites of strain KM-1 were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. In spite of the high amount of PHB stored intra-cellularly, as possible precursors for PHB only a small quantity of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and acetyl CoA, and no quantity of 3-hydroxybutyl CoA, acetoacetyl CoA and acetoacetate were detected either intra- or extra-cellularly, suggesting highly efficient conversion of these precursors to PHB. PMID:22172913

  11. A simple dissolved metals mixing method to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Suminar E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Baqiya, Malik A. E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Istianah, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Lestari, Rina E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Angela, Riyan E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id

    2014-02-24

    A simple dissolved metals mixing method has been effectively used to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} (MT) nanocrystals. The method involves the mixing of independently dissolved magnesium and titanium metal powders in hydrochloric acid followed by calcination. The phase purity and nanocrystallinity were determined by making use of laboratory x-ray diffraction data, to which Rietveld-based analyses were performed. Results showed that the method yielded only one type magnesium titanate powders, i.e. MgTiO{sub 3}, with no Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases. The presence of residual rutile or periclase was controlled by adding excessive Mg up to 5% (mol) in the stoichiometric mixing. The method also resulted in MT nanocrystals with estimated average crystallite size of 76±2 nm after calcination at 600°C and 150±4 nm (at 800°C). A transmission electron micrograph confirmed the formation of the nanocrystallites.

  12. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel. PMID:26489344

  13. Effect of surface produced secondary electrons on the sheath structure induced by high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie

    2011-03-15

    Dielectric window breakdown, whose mechanism is not thoroughly understood, is a major factor of limiting the transmission and radiation of high-power microwave on the order of 1 GW. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid-like sheath model is developed to investigate the sheath structures formed at different gas pressures. The dominant processes during the surface flashover are isolated by this model. In vacuum, electron multipactor is self-sustained by secondary electron emission, a positive space-charge potential is formed on the dielectric surface. With increasing gas pressure, electron-neutral ionization prevails against secondary electron emission. The multipactor effect is suppressed by the shielding of plasma electrons. This leads to the sheath potential changing gradually from a positive space-charge potential to a negative space-charge potential. For argon gas pressure lower than 14 Torr, the sheath is space charge limited. A potential minimum could be formed in front of the dielectric which traps secondary electrons emitted from the wall. With the higher argon gas pressure, the number density of ions becomes comparable to that of electrons, all surface produced electrons are accelerated toward the presheath region. Therefore, the normal sheath is formed and the resulting surface flashover on the dielectric surface becomes rf-driven volumetric breakdown.

  14. Technique for the efficient and reproducible fabrication of electromagnetic levitation coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Theiss, J.; Abbaschian, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been developed for fabricating electromagnetic induction coils in a reproducible manner. The process utilizes a split mandrel that can be disassembled to remove the mandrel from the coil. The technique has increased coil production rates by a factor of 8 over the freehand winding method. The success rate for producing a functional levitation coil has been increased from 50 percent to 95 percent. The levitation coil designed during this work has successfully levitated and melted a variety of alloys including Cu, Ag, Ag-Ni, Cu-Fe, Fe-C, and Nb-Ge. W was also levitated but not melted at temperatures as high as 2700 C. The highest sample melt temperature achieved was 2400 C for the Nb-Ge samples.

  15. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  16. Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli in strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most fresh produce, such as strawberries, receives minimal processing and is often eaten raw. Contamination of produce with pathogenic bacteria may occur during growth, harvest, processing, transportation, and storage and presents a serious public health risk. Strawberries have been implicated in ...

  17. An Improved, High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germinati...

  18. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  19. Reproducibility of Reported In utero Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In studies of the fetal origins of disease and life course epidemiology, measures of fetal exposure may be based on information reported by the adults who were exposed in utero. In particular, the full spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking is now an area of active investigation, and the ability to report such exposure reproducibly is of interest. We evaluated the reproducibility of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, reported by the adult daughter during consecutive pregnancies. METHODS This study was based on 11,257 women who enrolled for more than one pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants completed a questionnaire around 17 weeks of gestation, which asked about their in utero exposure to tobacco smoke. Kappa statistics were calculated. Determinants of agreement were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS Weighted Kappa for in utero exposure for the first and second reports was 0.80. Determinants of agreement were higher education (better) and longer time between reports (worse). CONCLUSIONS Information on in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking provided by adult women was highly reproducible in this population. PMID:21130369

  20. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and generate summary statistics relating the particular area to the land system archetype. Such an extension demonstrates the advantages of open geoprocesses, because the user does not need to replicate the whole workflow, which included considerable data preparation steps, and can still access an analysis result tailored to his needs. The LSAs are the basis for science-based policy recommendations for sustainable land management and yield improvement at a global scale. The reproducibility of the study strengthens the scientific work and the open source platform allows scientists to adapt and extend it to provide new original contributions to sustainable land use management.

  1. Contributions to reproducible CPV outdoor power ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Pierre; Domínguez, César; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    Methodologies that aim to obtain a reproducible power rating are still under discussion at the WG7 of the IEC and there is a need for feedback from real field application in order to validate or improve these methods. These procedures are evaluated through the outdoor rating of seven modules from four different CPV technologies, which have been measured at the CEA outdoor monitoring bench at the Institut National de l'Energie Solaire (INES) site. The benefit of introducing other procedural considerations is analyzed, namely the inclusion of spectrally-corrected irradiance, the utilization of lens temperature as a new parameter for regressions and the optimization of dataset filtering.

  2. Process for reproducibly preparing titanium subhydride

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Richard S. (West Alexandria, OH)

    1982-01-01

    Titanium subhydride is produced in a reactor by heating a selected amount of finely divided titanium compound at a selected temperature for a selected period of time under dynamic vacuum conditions. Hydrogen is removed substantially uniformly from each powder grain and there is produced a subhydride of substantially uniform titanium-hydrogen composition. Selection of the amount, temperature and time produces a subhydride of selected titanium-hydrogen composition.

  3. Reproducibility Data on SUMMiT

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Lloyd; Jakubczak, Jay; Limary, Siv; McBrayer, John; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James; Sniegowski, Jeffry; Stewart, Harold; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-16

    SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology) at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL (Microelectronics Development Laboratory) is a standardized MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers (with the third oxide layer being planarized) to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SWiT run to obtain post-processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

  4. A method for generating reproducible evidence in fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Liou, Michelle; Su, Hong-Ren; Lee, Juin-Der; Aston, John A D; Tsai, Arthur C; Cheng, Philip E

    2006-01-15

    Insights into cognitive neuroscience from neuroimaging techniques are now required to go beyond the localisation of well-known cognitive functions. Fundamental to this is the notion of reproducibility of experimental outcomes. This paper addresses the central issue that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments will produce more desirable information if researchers begin to search for reproducible evidence rather than only p value significance. The study proposes a methodology for investigating reproducible evidence without conducting separate fMRI experiments. The reproducible evidence is gathered from the separate runs within the study. The associated empirical Bayes and ROC extensions of the linear model provide parameter estimates to determine reproducibility. Empirical applications of the methodology suggest that reproducible evidence is robust to small sample sizes and sensitive to both the magnitude and persistency of brain activation. It is demonstrated that research findings in fMRI studies would be more compelling with supporting reproducible evidence in addition to standard hypothesis testing evidence. PMID:16226893

  5. A reproducible and low-cost piezoelectric droplet generator

    E-print Network

    Liu, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design for a piezoelectric droplet generator capable of producing highly repeatable droplets ranging from 0.60 mm to 1.60 mm in diameter. The generator is low cost, simple to fabricate, and easily ...

  6. The reproducibility of intrapartum cardiotocogram assessments.

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, M. D.; Fabia, J.; Leduc, B.; Brisson, J.; Bastide, A.; Blouin, D.; Gauthier, R. J.; Lalonde, A.

    1982-01-01

    Five obstetrician-gynecologists experienced in fetal monitoring assessed 150 intrapartum cardiotocograms obtained with an external transducer. There were three successive blind readings, the first two without any clinical data apart from gestational age. The reviewers indicated whether the tracings showed definite, possible or no abnormalities. The interpretations given by each reviewer for any one tracing were fairly consistent, but they varied markedly from one reviewer to another. The proportion of tracings interpreted as normal ranged from 39% to 74%, and the proportion assessed as abnormal ranged from 3% to 43%. All five observers agreed on the interpretation of 29% of the tracings. Inter-reviewer reproducibility scarcely changed when clinical data were provided. These findings emphasize the need to evaluate all methods of fetal monitoring before they become widespread. PMID:7104902

  7. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  8. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (?) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean ?-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean ?-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  9. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses.

  10. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a High Lipid-Producing Strain of Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Comparative Genome Analysis with a Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The genome of a high lipid-producing fungus Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (36% w/w lipid, cell dry weight, CDW) was sequenced and compared with that of the low lipid-producing strain, CBS 277.49 (15% w/w lipid, CDW), which had been sequenced by Joint Genome Institute. The WJ11 genome assembly size was 35.4 Mb with a G+C content of 39.7%. The general features of WJ11 and CBS 277.49 indicated that they have close similarity at the level of gene order and gene identity. Whole genome alignments with MAUVE revealed the presence of numerous blocks of homologous regions and MUMmer analysis showed that the genomes of these two strains were mostly co-linear. The central carbon and lipid metabolism pathways of these two strains were reconstructed and the numbers of genes encoding the enzymes related to lipid accumulation were compared. Many unique genes coding for proteins involved in cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were identified for each strain. In conclusion, our study on the genome sequence of WJ11 and the comparative genomic analysis between WJ11 and CBS 277.49 elucidated the general features of the genome and the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in strain WJ11 at the genomic level. The different numbers of genes and unique genes involved in lipid accumulation may play a role in the high oleaginicity of strain WJ11. PMID:26352831

  12. Dissemination of a clone carrying a fosA3-harbouring plasmid mediates high fosfomycin resistance rate of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Shen, Ping; Wei, Zeqing; Liu, Lilin; He, Fang; Shi, Keren; Wang, Yanfei; Wang, Haiping; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin has been proposed as an adjunct to other active agents for treating KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants among KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from clinical samples in China. In total, 278 KPC-producing and 80 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (non-KPC-producing) clinical K. pneumoniae isolates were collected in 12 hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Fosfomycin susceptibility testing was carried out using the agar dilution method. Phylogenetic clonal patterns were revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes (fosA, fosA3 and fosC2) by PCR amplification. A plasmid was completely sequenced by next-generation sequencing. The fosfomycin resistance rate in KPC-producers (60.8%; 169/278) was significantly higher than in ESBL-producers (12.5%; 10/80). In addition, 94 KPC-producing isolates were positive for fosA3 and most of them were clonally related. A 23939-bp plasmid (pFOS18) co-harbouring fosA3 and bla(KPC-2) was completely sequenced, revealing that the fosA3 gene was flanked by two copies of IS26; however, bla(KPC-2) was located on a Tn3-Tn4401 integration structure. Although the fosA3 and blaKPC-2 genes are located on different transposon systems, they are able to spread together worldwide through plasmid transfer. Dissemination of the clone carrying the fosA3-harbouring plasmid mediates the high fosfomycin resistance rate of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in China. Fosfomycin as an alternative option for treating infections caused by KPC-producing K. pneumoniae should not be recommended in hospitals in which fosfomycin-resistant clonal dissemination is emerging. PMID:25450805

  13. A COMPARISON OF REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BOARS GENERATED BY SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER TO HIGHLY RELATED CONVENTIONALLY PRODUCED BOARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the reproductive performance of boars produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer vs. conventional breeding. Two different genotypes were selected for comparison: terminal cross line 1 (TX1) and terminal cross line 2 (TX2). The boars selected for comparison from TX1 were three clon...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens Strain JJC, a Highly Efficient Hydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y M; Juan, J C; Gan, H M; Austin, C M

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strain JJC is an effective biohydrogen and biochemical producer that was isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the gene interactions involved in efficient biohydrogen production. PMID:24604637

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens Strain JJC, a Highly Efficient Hydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Y. M.; Gan, H. M.; Austin, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strain JJC is an effective biohydrogen and biochemical producer that was isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the gene interactions involved in efficient biohydrogen production. PMID:24604637

  16. Inoculation of sweet potatoes with AM fungi produced on-farm increases yield in high P soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable farmers who grow seedlings for later outplanting to the field have the opportunity to incorporate arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inocula into potting media to produce plants ready to benefit from the symbiosis upon outplanting. Inocula of AM fungi are available commercially or may be ...

  17. Application and evaluation of the interlaboratory reproducibility of tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) for identification of Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Baele, M; Storms, V; Haesebrouck, F; Devriese, L A; Gillis, M; Verschraegen, G; de Baere, T; Vaneechoutte, M

    2001-04-01

    The discriminatory power, speed, and interlaboratory reproducibility of tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) combined with capillary electrophoresis was evaluated for the identification of streptococci. This method was carried out in three different laboratories under highly standardized conditions for 54 strains belonging to 18 different species. It was concluded that interlaboratory reproducibility of tDNA fingerprints produced by means of capillary electrophoresis was sufficiently high to permit the exchange between different laboratories and the construction of common libraries which can be consulted for comparison with fingerprints obtained independently in separate laboratories. In a second step, 17 other species were included in the study and examined in one of the participating laboratories. All Streptococcus species studied, except S. mitis, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus, and S. vestibularis, showed distinguishable tDNA fingerprints. A database of well-characterized strains was constructed to enable computer-aided identification of unknown streptococcal isolates. PMID:11283068

  18. Sustained Positive Effects on Graduation Rates Produced by New York City's Small Public High Schools of Choice. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Unterman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, New York City undertook a district-wide high school reform that is perhaps unprecedented in its scope, scale, and pace. Between fall 2002 and fall 2008, the school district closed 23 large failing high schools (with graduation rates below 45 percent), opened 216 new small high schools (with different missions, structures,…

  19. Reproducible quantitative proteotype data matrices for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-11-01

    Historically, many mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies have aimed at compiling an inventory of protein compounds present in a biological sample, with the long-term objective of creating a proteome map of a species. However, to answer fundamental questions about the behavior of biological systems at the protein level, accurate and unbiased quantitative data are required in addition to a list of all protein components. Fueled by advances in mass spectrometry, the proteomics field has thus recently shifted focus toward the reproducible quantification of proteins across a large number of biological samples. This provides the foundation to move away from pure enumeration of identified proteins toward quantitative matrices of many proteins measured across multiple samples. It is argued here that data matrices consisting of highly reproducible, quantitative, and unbiased proteomic measurements across a high number of conditions, referred to here as quantitative proteotype maps, will become the fundamental currency in the field and provide the starting point for downstream biological analysis. Such proteotype data matrices, for example, are generated by the measurement of large patient cohorts, time series, or multiple experimental perturbations. They are expected to have a large effect on systems biology and personalized medicine approaches that investigate the dynamic behavior of biological systems across multiple perturbations, time points, and individuals. PMID:26543201

  20. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Au nanotubes and their sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Si Yin; Ye, Enyi; Pan, Pei Hua; Lee, Coryl Jing Jun; Hui, Hui Kim; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Koh, Leng Duei; Dong, Zhili; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02399h

  1. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56...APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping...

  2. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56...APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping...

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56...APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping...

  4. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56...APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping...

  5. Produce consumption in the United States: an analysis of consumption frequencies, serving sizes, processing forms, and high-consuming population subgroups for microbial risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, K; Pouillot, R; Egan, K; Dennis, S

    2012-02-01

    A great variety of fruits and vegetables are available in the United States. These items are produced in various geographic regions by a diverse industry. Produce has been increasingly identified as a vehicle for disease outbreaks. Changes in consumption may explain this increase, but analyses of produce consumption are limited. Comprehensive assessments of the public health risks associated with produce depend on quantitative consumption data, including the population fractions and subgroups of consumers, the quantities consumed by these individuals, and the processing that occurs before consumption. Here, we provide an analysis of nationally representative consumption estimates by estimating consumption frequencies, serving sizes, and processing forms for a variety of produce commodities based on 1999 through 2006 data from "What We Eat in America," the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey performed by the National Center for Health Statistics. Consumption patterns for fresh and heat-treated produce were assessed, compared with U.S. food availability estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (ERS), and combined with ERS data on temporal trends in food availability and nondomestic produce origins. To identify high-consuming population subgroups, we explored consumer habits and demographic predictors of fresh produce consumption (data available at www.foodrisk.org). Our analysis of common outbreak vehicles revealed limited temporal changes in food availability but frequent consumption as fresh commodities. In addition to providing quantitative consumption estimates for risk assessments, our data clearly show that produce consumption differs among fruits and vegetables, fresh and heat-treated foods, and demographic subgroups. These results are valuable for risk assessments and outbreak investigations and allow targeting of risk communication or interventions to those individuals at greatest risk. PMID:22289594

  6. Radio-frequency emission and currents from showers and muons produced in a medium by a beam of high-energy neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Askar'yan, G.A.

    1984-04-10

    The current produced by muons and showers in a beam of high-energy neutrinos is analyzed. This current is calculated, as is the electromagnetic field which arises during its flow and modulation. A deep underground source of electromagnetic fields could be developed for use in detecting the neutrino beam and for rf subsurface imaging of rock formations.

  7. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, Producer of Type II Polyketide Azicemicins, Using Illumina and PacBio Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Torrez-Martinez, Norah; Aragon, Anthony D.; Yackley, Benjamin J.; Weber, Jessica A.; Sundararajan, Anitha; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Edwards, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of actinobacterium Kibdelosporangium sp. MJ126-NF4, producer of the type II polyketide azicemicins, obtained using Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. The 11.75-Mbp genome contains >11,000 genes and 22 polyketide and nonribosomal peptide natural product gene clusters. PMID:25838474

  8. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Ge, Ci-bin; Xiao, Rong-feng; Zheng, Xue-fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999T, which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  9. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for high-resolution subtyping of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a canonical SNP panel for subtyping of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To this purpose, 906 putative SNPs were identified using resequencing tiling arrays. A subset of 391 SNPs was further screened using high-throughput TaqMan PCR against a d...

  10. Local immunosuppression induced by high viral load of human papillomavirus: characterization of cellular phenotypes producing interleukin-10 in cervical neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Prata, Thiago Theodoro Martins; Bonin, Camila Mareti; Ferreira, Alda Maria Teixeira; Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Machado, Ana Paula; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida

    2015-09-01

    A specific immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cervical microenvironment plays a key role in eradicating infection and eliminating mutated cells. However, high-risk HPVs modulate immune cells to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment, and induce these immune cells to produce interleukin 10 (IL-10). This production of IL-10, in conjunction with HPV infection, contributes to the appearance of cervical neoplastic lesions. We sought to characterize the IL-10-producing cellular phenotype, and investigate the influence of host and HPV factors upon the induction of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an increase in IL-10 production by keratinocytes, macrophages and Langerhans cells in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer. This increase was more pronounced in patients older than 30 years, and was also correlated with high viral load, and infection with a single HPV type, particularly high-risk HPVs. Our results indicate the existence of a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment composed of different IL-10-producing cellular phenotypes in cervical cancer samples, and samples classified as high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stages II and III). The immunosuppressive microenvironment that developed for these different cellular phenotypes favours viral persistence and neoplastic progression. PMID:26059395

  11. Africa Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. 1990 Revised Edition. World Eagle's Today Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A collection of reproducible black and white maps, charts, and graphs for classroom use profiles Africa today. Individual country maps were originally produced by the United Nations, U.S. Department of State, and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The material depicts the continent's (1) size, (2) population, (3) resources, (4) commodities, (5)…

  12. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    PubMed

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed. PMID:25964757

  13. Reproducible, rugged, and inexpensive photocathode x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G. C.; Tierney, T. E.; Lockard, T. E.; Moy, K. J.; Keister, J. W.

    2008-10-15

    The photoemissive cathode type of x-ray diode (XRD) is popular for measuring time and spectrally resolved output of pulsed power experiments. Vitreous carbon XRDs currently used on the Sandia National Laboratories Z-machine were designed in the early 1980s and use materials and processes no longer available. Additionally cathodes used in the high x-ray flux and dirty vacuum environment of a machine such as Z suffer from response changes requiring recalibration. In searching for a suitable replacement cathode, we discovered very high purity vitreous-carbon planchets are commercially available for use as biological substrates in scanning electron microscope (SEM) work. After simplifying the photocathode mounting to use commercially available components, we constructed a set of 20 XRDs using SEM planchets that were then calibrated at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We present comparisons of the reproducibility and absolute calibrations between the current vitreous-carbon XRDs and our new design.

  14. Locating the Dropout Crisis. Which High Schools Produce the Nation's Dropouts? Where Are They Located? Who Attends Them? Report 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to locate the dropout crisis- to determine its scale and scope by identifying the number of high schools with severe dropout problems, detailing the states, cities, and locales where they are concentrated, and establishing who attends them. For this analysis of high schools across the country, two cut-points were…

  15. Towards interoperable and reproducible QSAR analyses: Exchange of datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background QSAR is a widely used method to relate chemical structures to responses or properties based on experimental observations. Much effort has been made to evaluate and validate the statistical modeling in QSAR, but these analyses treat the dataset as fixed. An overlooked but highly important issue is the validation of the setup of the dataset, which comprises addition of chemical structures as well as selection of descriptors and software implementations prior to calculations. This process is hampered by the lack of standards and exchange formats in the field, making it virtually impossible to reproduce and validate analyses and drastically constrain collaborations and re-use of data. Results We present a step towards standardizing QSAR analyses by defining interoperable and reproducible QSAR datasets, consisting of an open XML format (QSAR-ML) which builds on an open and extensible descriptor ontology. The ontology provides an extensible way of uniquely defining descriptors for use in QSAR experiments, and the exchange format supports multiple versioned implementations of these descriptors. Hence, a dataset described by QSAR-ML makes its setup completely reproducible. We also provide a reference implementation as a set of plugins for Bioclipse which simplifies setup of QSAR datasets, and allows for exporting in QSAR-ML as well as old-fashioned CSV formats. The implementation facilitates addition of new descriptor implementations from locally installed software and remote Web services; the latter is demonstrated with REST and XMPP Web services. Conclusions Standardized QSAR datasets open up new ways to store, query, and exchange data for subsequent analyses. QSAR-ML supports completely reproducible creation of datasets, solving the problems of defining which software components were used and their versions, and the descriptor ontology eliminates confusions regarding descriptors by defining them crisply. This makes is easy to join, extend, combine datasets and hence work collectively, but also allows for analyzing the effect descriptors have on the statistical model's performance. The presented Bioclipse plugins equip scientists with graphical tools that make QSAR-ML easily accessible for the community. PMID:20591161

  16. Multi-Parametric Neuroimaging Reproducibility: A 3T Resource Study

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Bennett A.; Huang, Alan J.; Gifford, Aliya; Vikram, Deepti S.; Lim, Issel Anne L.; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Bogovic, John A.; Hua, Jun; Chen, Min; Jarso, Samson; Smith, Seth A.; Joel, Suresh; Mori, Susumu; Pekar, James J.; Barker, Peter B.; Prince, Jerry L.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern MRI image processing methods have yielded quantitative, morphometric, functional, and structural assessments of the human brain. These analyses typically exploit carefully optimized protocols for specific imaging targets. Algorithm investigators have several excellent public data resources to use to test, develop, and optimize their methods. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on combining MRI protocols in multi-parametric studies. Notably, these have included innovative approaches for fusing connectivity inferences with functional and/or anatomical characterizations. Yet, validation of the reproducibility of these interesting and novel methods has been severely hampered by the limited availability of appropriate multi-parametric data. We present an imaging protocol optimized to include state-of-the-art assessment of brain function, structure, micro-architecture, and quantitative parameters within a clinically feasible 60 minute protocol on a 3T MRI scanner. We present scan-rescan reproducibility of these imaging contrasts based on 21 healthy volunteers (11 M/10 F, 22–61 y/o). The cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, thalamus, putamen, caudate, cerebellar gray matter, cerebellar white matter, and brainstem were identified with mean volume-wise reproducibility of 3.5%. We tabulate the mean intensity, variability and reproducibility of each contrast in a region of interest approach, which is essential for prospective study planning and retrospective power analysis considerations. Anatomy was highly consistent on structural acquisition (~1–5% variability), while variation on diffusion and several other quantitative scans was higher (~<10%). Some sequences are particularly variable in specific structures (ASL exhibited variation of 28% in the cerebral white matter) or in thin structures (quantitative T2 varied by up to 73% in the caudate) due, in large part, to variability in automated ROI placement. The richness of the joint distribution of intensities across imaging methods can be best assessed within the context of a particular analysis approach as opposed to a summary table. As such, all imaging data and analysis routines have been made publicly and freely available. This effort provides the neuroimaging community with a resource for optimization of algorithms that exploit the diversity of modern MRI modalities. Additionally, it establishes a baseline for continuing development and optimization of multi-parametric imaging protocols. PMID:21094686

  17. Combined Effect of High-Pressure Treatments and Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria on Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Raw-Milk Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eva; Arques, Juan L.; Nuñez, Manuel; Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure (HP) treatments combined with bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produced in situ on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cheese was investigated. Cheeses were manufactured from raw milk inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 at approximately 105 CFU/ml. Seven different bacteriocin-producing LAB were added at approximately 106 CFU/ml as adjuncts to the starter. Cheeses were pressurized on day 2 or 50 at 300 MPa for 10 min or 500 MPa for 5 min, at 10°C in both cases. After 60 days, E. coli O157:H7 counts in cheeses manufactured without bacteriocin-producing LAB and not pressurized were 5.1 log CFU/g. A higher inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 was achieved in cheeses without bacteriocin-producing LAB when 300 MPa was applied on day 50 (3.8-log-unit reduction) than if applied on day 2 (1.3-log-unit reduction). Application of 500 MPa eliminated E. coli O157:H7 in 60-day-old cheeses. Cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing LAB and not pressurized showed a slight reduction of the pathogen. Pressurization at 300 MPa on day 2 and addition of lacticin 481-, nisin A-, bacteriocin TAB 57-, or enterocin AS-48-producing LAB were synergistic and reduced E. coli O157:H7 counts to levels below 2 log units in 60-day-old cheeses. Pressurization at 300 MPa on day 50 and addition of nisin A-, bacteriocin TAB 57-, enterocin I-, or enterocin AS-48-producing LAB completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in 60-day-old cheeses. The application of reduced pressures combined with bacteriocin-producing LAB is a feasible procedure to improve cheese safety. PMID:16000741

  18. Selection on soil microbiomes reveals reproducible impacts on plant function.

    PubMed

    Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Poole, Angela C; Goodrich, Julia K; Ley, Ruth E; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms found in the root zone impact plant growth and development, but the potential to harness these benefits is hampered by the sheer abundance and diversity of the players influencing desirable plant traits. Here, we report a high level of reproducibility of soil microbiomes in altering plant flowering time and soil functions when partnered within and between plant hosts. We used a multi-generation experimental system using Arabidopsis thaliana Col to select for soil microbiomes inducing earlier or later flowering times of their hosts. We then inoculated the selected microbiomes from the tenth generation of plantings into the soils of three additional A. thaliana genotypes (Ler, Be, RLD) and a related crucifer (Brassica rapa). With the exception of Ler, all other plant hosts showed a shift in flowering time corresponding with the inoculation of early- or late-flowering microbiomes. Analysis of the soil microbial community using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing showed distinct microbiota profiles assembling by flowering time treatment. Plant hosts grown with the late-flowering-associated microbiomes showed consequent increases in inflorescence biomass for three A. thaliana genotypes and an increase in total biomass for B. rapa. The increase in biomass was correlated with two- to five-fold enhancement of microbial extracellular enzyme activities associated with nitrogen mineralization in soils. The reproducibility of the flowering phenotype across plant hosts suggests that microbiomes can be selected to modify plant traits and coordinate changes in soil resource pools. PMID:25350154

  19. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Maesani, Andrea; Ramdya, Pavan; Cruchet, Steeve; Gustafson, Kyle; Benton, Richard; Floreano, Dario

    2015-11-01

    The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior. PMID:26600381

  20. Effect of Soil Moisture Content on the Splash Phenomenon Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Ry?ak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Polakowski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods for testing splash (the first phase of water erosion) may be an analysis of photos taken using so-called high-speed cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of measurements using a single drop splash of simulated precipitation. The height from which the drops fell resulted in a splash of 1.5 m. Tests were carried out using two types of soil: Eutric Cambisol (loamy silt) and Orthic Luvisol (sandy loam); three initial pressure heads were applied equal to 16 kPa, 3.1 kPa, and 0.1 kPa. Images for one, five, and 10 drops were recorded at a rate of 2000 frames per second. It was found that (i) the dispersion of soil caused by the striking of the 1st drop was significantly different from the splash impact caused by subsequent drops; (ii) with every drop, the splash phenomenon proceeded more reproducibly, that is, the number of particles of soil and/or water that splashed were increasingly close to each other; (iii) the number of particles that were detached during the splash were strongly correlated with its surface area; and (iv) the higher the water film was on the surface the smaller the width of the crown was. PMID:25785859

  1. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cruchet, Steeve; Gustafson, Kyle; Benton, Richard; Floreano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs—locomotor bouts—matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior. PMID:26600381

  2. Spaceborne telescopes on a budget: paradigms for producing high-reliability telescopes, scanners, and EO assemblies using heritage building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Tony; Schwalm, Mark

    2011-06-01

    By starting with established and flown hardware (high Technology Readiness Level (TRL)), and implementing a concurrent engineering environment and seamless team, a mission architect can achieve high reliability and high performance while operating under constrained cost and short implementation schedule. We will describe methods, including those used by the telescope team on the recent Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, to manage cost and realize aggressive schedules. These lessons may be evoked for telescopes addressing defense, security and sensing, as well as those for NASA science.

  3. Spectral diagnostics of a vapor-plasma plume produced during welding titanium with a high-power ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskiy, S. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Mironov, V. D.; Prokopova, N. M.; Tret'yakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    This work is devoted to the research of welding plume during high power ytterbium fiber laser welding of a titanium alloy in the Ar shielding gas environment. High speed video observation of a vapor-plasma plume for visualization of processes occurring at laser welding was carried out. The coefficient of the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation is calculated for a plasma welding plume by results of spectrometer researches. The conclusion deals with the impact of plasma on a high-power fiber laser radiation.

  4. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin L. (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

  5. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  6. Purification and Molecular Characterization of the Novel Highly Potent Bacteriocin TSU4 Produced by Lactobacillus animalis TSU4.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial infections causing fish diseases and spoilage during fish food processing and storage are major concerns in aquaculture. Use of bacteriocins has recently been considered as an effective strategy for prevention of bacterial infections. A novel bacteriocin produced by Catla catla gut isolates, Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, designated as bacteriocin TSU4 was purified to homogeneity by a three-step protocol. The molecular mass of bacteriocin TSU4 was 4117 Da determined by Q-TOF LC/MS analysis. Its isoelectric point was ~9. Secondary conformation obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy showed molecular conformation with significant proportions of the structure in ?-helix (23.7 %) and ?-sheets (17.1 %). N-terminal sequencing was carried out by the Edman degradation method; partial sequence identified was NH2-SMSGFSKPHD. Bacteriocin TSU4 exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity, pH and thermal stability. It showed a bacteriocidal mode of action against the indicator strain Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC 646. Bacteriocin TSU4 is the first reported bacteriocin produced by fish isolate Lactobacillus animalis. The characterization of bacteriocin TSU4 suggested that it is a novel bacteriocin with potential value against infections of bacteria such as A. hydrophila MTCC 646 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1688 and application to prevent spoilage during food preservation. PMID:26245257

  7. Reproducing Natural Spider Silks’ Copolymer Behavior in Synthetic Silk Mimics

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P.; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia, indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into ?-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure. PMID:23110450

  8. Reproducible culture and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells using an automated microwell platform?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Waqar; Moens, Nathalie; Veraitch, Farlan S.; Hernandez, Diana; Mason, Chris; Lye, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their progeny in high throughput drug discovery and regenerative medicine will require production at scale of well characterized cells at an appropriate level of purity. The adoption of automated bioprocessing techniques offers the possibility to overcome the lack of consistency and high failure rates seen with current manual protocols. To build the case for increased use of automation this work addresses the key question: “can an automated system match the quality of a highly skilled and experienced person working manually?” To answer this we first describe an integrated automation platform designed for the ‘hands-free’ culture and differentiation of ESCs in microwell formats. Next we outline a framework for the systematic investigation and optimization of key bioprocess variables for the rapid establishment of validatable Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Finally the experimental comparison between manual and automated bioprocessing is exemplified by expansion of the murine Oct-4-GiP ESC line over eight sequential passages with their subsequent directed differentiation into neural precursors. Our results show that ESCs can be effectively maintained and differentiated in a highly reproducible manner by the automated system described. Statistical analysis of the results for cell growth over single and multiple passages shows up to a 3-fold improvement in the consistency of cell growth kinetics with automated passaging. The quality of the cells produced was evaluated using a panel of biological markers including cell growth rate and viability, nutrient and metabolite profiles, changes in gene expression and immunocytochemistry. Automated processing of the ESCs had no measurable negative effect on either their pluripotency or their ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Equally important is that over a 6-month period of culture without antibiotics in the medium, we have not had any cases of culture contamination. This study thus confirms the benefits of adopting automated bioprocess routes to produce cells for therapy and for use in basic discovery research. PMID:23956681

  9. Transfers of user process innovations to process equipment producers: A study of Dutch high-tech firms

    E-print Network

    de Jong, Jeroen P. J.

    A detailed survey of 498 high technology small and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty-four percent of these firms reported developing entirely ...

  10. Reproducibility of an aerobic endurance test for nonexpert swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Veronese da Costa, Adalberto; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Carlos, Daniel Medeiros; Guerra, Luis Marcos de Medeiros; Silva, Antônio José; Barbosa, Tiago Manoel Cabral dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to verify the reproduction of an aerobic test to determine nonexpert swimmers’ resistance. Methods: The sample consisted of 24 male swimmers (age: 22.79 ± 3.90 years; weight: 74.72 ± 11.44 kg; height: 172.58 ± 4.99 cm; and fat percentage: 15.19% ± 3.21%), who swim for 1 hour three times a week. A new instrument was used in this study (a Progressive Swim Test): the swimmer wore an underwater MP3 player and increased their swimming speed on hearing a beep after every 25 meters. Each swimmer’s heart rate was recorded before the test (BHR) and again after the test (AHR). The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the number of laps performed (NLP) were also recorded. The sample size was estimated using G*Power software (v 3.0.10; Franz Faul, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany). The descriptive values were expressed as mean and standard deviation. After confirming the normality of the data using both the Shapiro–Wilk and Levene tests, a paired t-test was performed to compare the data. The Pearson’s linear correlation (r) and intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) tests were used to determine relative reproducibility. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to determine absolute reproducibility. The limits of agreement and the bias of the absolute and relative values between days were determined by Bland–Altman plots. All values had a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences in AHR (P = 0.03) and NLP (P = 0.01) between the 2 days of testing. The obtained values were r > 0.50 and ICC > 0.66. The SEM had a variation of ±2% and the CV was <10%. Most cases were within the upper and lower limits of Bland–Altman plots, suggesting correlation of the results. The applicability of NLP showed greater robustness (r and ICC > 0.90; SEM < 1%; CV < 3%), indicating that the other variables can be used to predict incremental changes in the physiological condition of swimmers. Conclusion: The Progressive Swim Test for nonexpert swimmers produces comparable results for noncompetitive swimmers with a favorable degree of reproducibility, thus presenting possible applications for researching the physiological performance of nonexpert swimmers. PMID:23055740

  11. Reproducibility of the Structural Brain Connectome Derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Nesland, Travis; Paulus, Walter; Helms, Gunther; Focke, Niels K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Disruptions of brain anatomical connectivity are believed to play a central role in several neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The structural brain connectome is typically derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which may be influenced by methodological factors related to signal processing, MRI scanners and biophysical properties of neuroanatomical regions. In this study, we evaluated how these variables affect the reproducibility of the structural connectome. Methods Twenty healthy adults underwent 3 MRI scanning sessions (twice in the same MRI scanner and a third time in a different scanner unit) within a short period of time. The scanning sessions included similar T1 weighted and DTI sequences. Deterministic or probabilistic tractography was performed to assess link weight based on the number of fibers connecting gray matter regions of interest (ROI). Link weight and graph theory network measures were calculated and reproducibility was assessed through intra-class correlation coefficients, assuming each scanning session as a rater. Results Connectome reproducibility was higher with data from the same scanner. The probabilistic approach yielded larger reproducibility, while the individual variation in the number of tracked fibers from deterministic tractography was negatively associated with reproducibility. Links connecting larger and anatomically closer ROIs demonstrated higher reproducibility. In general, graph theory measures demonstrated high reproducibility across scanning sessions. Discussion Anatomical factors and tractography approaches can influence the reproducibility of the structural connectome and should be factored in the interpretation of future studies. Our results demonstrate that connectome mapping is a largely reproducible technique, particularly as it relates to the geometry of network architecture measured by graph theory methods. PMID:26332788

  12. Educating for Anti-Racism: Producing and Reproducing Race and Power in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonn, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore some of the issues associated with teaching about race, culture, and ethnicity in a psychology program. These curriculum initiatives are part of a broader agenda of raising awareness about racialised oppression and exclusion and contributing to the development of ways of researching and practicing psychology that are…

  13. Entrepreneurial Endeavors: (Re)Producing Neoliberalization through Urban Agriculture Youth Programming in Brooklyn, New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Driven by social and environmental criticism of the neoliberalization of agro-food systems, urban agriculture today enjoys renewed interest throughout the United States as a primary space to engage the politics of food. Using Brooklyn, New York as a case study, I employ mixed qualitative methods to investigate the contradictions that arise in…

  14. Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M.

    1994-09-01

    It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work, synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. The majority of reactions will be conducted in microautoclaves. If this research is successful, a new market for high sulfur, high mineral Illinois coal would emerge. Samples needed for this project have been obtained and sample preparation have been completed. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 was employed to study pyrolysis. significant interactions have been observed. About 200 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400-450{degrees}C. Synergism occurs at short reaction time. High temperature and long reaction times result in higher residue yields and a loss of synergisms. Reactive species may be required to stabilize intermediate products.

  15. The pressures of competition: High-cost producers won't be alone as market forces squeeze harder

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1993-06-15

    The traditional utility ratemaking process has condoned if not fostered inefficiencies from which the forces promoting electric utility competition derive much of their underlying strength. As competition develops, market forces can be expected to play an increasingly important role in setting electricity prices. These, in turn, are likely to put growing pressure on electric rates, which will reflect both the entrenched inefficiencies of utilities and the technological progress of recent years in improving the efficiency of new generating facilities. The best measure of the long-term vulnerability of electric utility rates to competitive pressure is the difference between rates and the cost of producing power using the most efficient new generating facilities. The relevant cost is the total cost, including capital costs per kilowatt-hour. In terms of economic theory, this represents the long-run marginal cost of electric power. If the price of electricity is above this cost, efficient producers will have an incentive to build new plants, and thus increase electric production. Conversely, if the price is below this cost, new capacity additions will be unprofitable. Hence, if electric demand is growing, competitive pressure in the long-run will tend to move the price of electricity toward the cost per kilowatt-hour of power from new generating facilities. Competitive pressures, of course, cannot become effective unless efficient new capacity is reasonably free to enter production. This requires eliminating the existing barriers utilities use to prevent entry, the most important being the prohibition of retail wheeling. Accordingly, the cost of power from efficient new generating facilities will probably have only a limited impact on utility rates until retail wheeling either is permitted directly or becomes prevalent in some disguised form.

  16. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Sacco, Roberto; Stukalov, Alexey; van Drogen, Audrey; Planyavsky, Melanie; Hauri, Simon; Aebersold, Ruedi; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of all protein complexes of human cells under defined physiological conditions using affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is a highly desirable step in the quest to understand the phenotypic effects of genomic information. However, such a challenging goal has not yet been achieved, as it requires reproducibility of the experimental workflow and high data consistency across different studies and laboratories. We systematically investigated the reproducibility of a standardized AP-MS workflow by performing a rigorous interlaboratory comparative analysis of the interactomes of 32 human kinases. We show that it is possible to achieve high interlaboratory reproducibility of this standardized workflow despite differences in mass spectrometry configurations and subtle sample preparation-related variations and that combination of independent data sets improves the approach sensitivity, resulting in even more-detailed networks. Our analysis demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining a high-quality map of the human protein interactome with a multilaboratory project. PMID:23455922

  17. Intraoperative flash VEPs are reproducible in the presence of low amplitude EEG.

    PubMed

    Houlden, David A; Turgeon, Chantal A; Polis, Thomas; Sinclair, John; Coupland, Stuart; Bourque, Pierre; Corsten, Martin; Kassam, Amin

    2014-06-01

    Flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) are often irreproducible during surgery. We assessed the relationship between intraoperative FVEP reproducibility and EEG amplitude. Left then right eyes were stimulated by goggle light emitting diodes, and FVEPs were recorded from Oz–Fz? (International 10-20 system) in 12 patients. Low cut filters were ?5 Hz in all patients; two patients also had recordings using 10 and 30 Hz. The reproducibility of FVEP and the amplitude of the concomitant EEG from C4?–Fz were measured. Nine patients had low amplitude EEG (<30 ?V); reproducible FVEPs were obtained from all eyes with normal pre-operative vision. The other three patients had high amplitude EEG (>50 ?V); FVEPs were absent from three of four eyes with normal pre-operative vision (the other normal eye had a present but irreproducible FVEP). Raising the low cut filter to 10 and 30 Hz (in two patients) progressively reduced EEG and FVEP amplitude, reduced amplifier blocking time and improved FVEP reproducibility. FVEPs were more reproducible in the presence of low amplitude EEG than high amplitude EEG. This is the first report describing the effect of EEG amplitude on FVEP reproducibility during surgery PMID:24233355

  18. Oligonucleotides that Exist in High Frequency in EST-unigenes are Useful in Producing Polymorphism among Watermelon Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report a simple procedure for developing and using a new type of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers, named ‘high frequency oligonucleotides - targeting active genes (HFO-TAG)’. The HFO-TAG primers are constructed by first using a “practical extraction and report language (Per...

  19. The role of volatile exsolution and sub-solidus fluid/rock interactions in producing high 56

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    Fe ratios in siliceous igneous rocks q Adriana Heimann *, Brian L. Beard, Clark M. Johnson Department Highly differentiated igneous rocks can, in some cases, have 56 Fe/54 Fe ratios that are significantly higher than those of mafic- to intermediate-composition igneous rocks. Iron isotope compositions were

  20. 7. Modeling Evolution: Evolutionary Computation "How does evolution produce increasingly fit organisms in environments which are highly uncertain for

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Luis

    organisms in environments which are highly uncertain for individual organisms? How does an organism use its experience to modify its behavior in beneficial ways (i.e. how does it learn or `adapt under sensory guidance John Holland when he thought of Genetic Algorithms (GA's) in the 1960's. All these questions were shown