Sample records for produced highly reproducible

  1. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  2. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10 000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm-2. The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices.

  3. Osteoblast-specific expression of the Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) causing mutation, Gs?(R201C) produces a high bone mass phenotype but does not reproduce FD in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Cristina; Michienzi, Stefano; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Di Consiglio, Alberto; Cersosimo, Stefania; Spica, Emanuela; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Davis, Graham; Saggio, Isabella; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    We recently reported the generation and initial characterization of the first direct model of human Fibrous Dysplasia (OMIM #174800), obtained through the constitutive systemic expression of one of the disease causing mutations, Gs?(R201C) , in the mouse. To define the specific pathogenetic role(s) of individual cell types within the stromal/osteogenic system in FD, we generated mice expressing Gs?(R201C) selectively in mature osteoblasts using the 2.3kb Col1a1 promoter. We show here that this results in a striking high bone mass phenotype, but not in a mimicry of human FD. The high bone mass phenotype involves specifically a deforming excess of cortical bone and prolonged and ectopic cortical bone remodeling. Expression of genes characteristic of late stages of bone cell differentiation/maturation is profoundly altered as a result of expression of Gs?(R201C) in osteoblasts, and expression of the Wnt inhibitor, Sost, is reduced. While high bone mass is in fact a feature of some types/stages of FD lesions in humans, it is marrow fibrosis, localized loss of adipocytes and hematopoietic tissue, osteomalacia and osteolytic changes that together represent the characteristic pathological profile of FD, as well as the sources of specific morbidity. None of these features are reproduced in mice with osteoblast-specific expression of Gs?(R201C) . We further show that hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells, as well as more mature cell compartments, and adipocyte development are normal in these mice. These data demonstrate that effects of Gs? mutations underpinning FD-defining tissue changes and morbidity do not reflect the effects of the mutations on osteoblasts proper. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25487351

  4. Reproducing kernel technique for high dimensional model representations (HDMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaopeng; Lu, Zhenzhou; Xu, Xin

    2014-12-01

    An easy and effective approach is proposed to estimate the arbitrary l order HDMR approximations for complex high dimensional physical systems on the basis of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). With the help of Fourier transform and Dirac delta function, the corresponding explicit reproducing kernel K(x,y) is first constructed to approximate the HDMR approximations by a linear combination of K(x,y). Then the computation of the l order HDMR approximations can be given in the form of solving a system of linear equations. It can be strictly proved that this linear system is just another equivalent definition of the lth order HDMR approximations by using the corresponding reproducing kernel. And the numerical examples provide a practical evidence for the rationality and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Highly reproducible Bragg grating acousto-ultrasonic contact transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Guzman, Narciso; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic acousto-ultrasonic transducers offer numerous applications as embedded sensors for impact and damage detection in industrial and aerospace applications as well as non-destructive evaluation. Superficial contact transducers with a sheet of fiber optic Bragg gratings has been demonstrated for guided wave ultrasound based measurements. It is reported here that this method of measurement provides highly reproducible guided ultrasound data of the test composite component, despite the optical fiber transducers not being permanently embedded in it.

  6. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  7. Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications.

  8. High resolution optics combined with high spatial reproducibility in flow

    SciTech Connect

    Eisert, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate sizing in flow using optical methods generally requires high resolution optics and specially designed flow systems. Flow systems developed by this group have following features: (a) double sheath configuration for optical index match, (b) no curved optical surface in the sensing area, (c) gradual hydrodynamic focusing over a long distance to minimize mechanical shearing, (d) precision spatial positioning of cells by reducing suspension fluid diameter to a cell diameter or less, (e) total thickness between outer surfaces of the flow chamber at the viewing area of 1.5 mm or less. Cells intersect a laser light beam focussed go circular as well as elliptical cross-sections or 1 micron or less in diameter. Cellular extinction is monitored during transit through the beam. Cell length is derived from the time for flight measurement and corrected for absolute values by continuous velocity reference using a second laser beam intersecting the cell stream at a predetermined distance. This second spot may be circular or elliptical, of a different polarization and/or frequency. Simultaneous fluorescence intensity and diameter measurements were performed on test particles using different optical geometries. The influence of the particle structure on fluorescence measurements is demonstrated where high resolution sizing is required at the same time.

  9. Highly reproducible thermocontrolled electrospun fiber based organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon; Yang, Seung Jae; Sung, Sae Jin; Kim, Yern Seung; Chang, Mi Se; Jung, Haesol; Park, Chong Rae

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we examined the reasons underlying the humidity-induced morphological changes of electrospun fibers and suggest a method of controlling the electrospun fiber morphology under high humidity conditions. We fabricated OPV devices composed of electrospun fibers, and the performance of the OPV devices depends significantly on the fiber morphology. The evaporation rate of a solvent at various relative humidity was measured to investigate the effects of the relative humidity during electrospinning process. The beaded nanofiber morphology of electrospun fibers was originated due to slow solvent evaporation rate under high humidity conditions. To increase the evaporation rate under high humidity conditions, warm air was applied to the electrospinning system. The beads that would have formed on the electrospun fibers were completely avoided, and the power conversion efficiencies of OPV devices fabricated under high humidity conditions could be restored. These results highlight the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method for improving the reproducibility of electrospun nanofibers and performances of devices consisting of the electrospun nanofibers, regardless of the relative humidity. PMID:25650717

  10. High reproducibility of large-gel two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Challapalli, Kiran Kumar; Zabel, Claus; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Kaindl, Angela M; Klose, Joachim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2004-09-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) facilitates the separation of thousands of proteins from highly complex protein mixtures and has become a central method in proteomics in recent years. In the present study, we examined the technical variability of large 2-DE gels with respect to sample preparation, electrophoresis procedure, data acquisition, and biological variation by analyzing a disease (Huntington's disease) and control state with a commercially available software package, PROTEOMWEAVER trade mark. Scatter plots and correlation coefficients were obtained to quantify both technical and biological variation. Even 2-DE gels run separately in both dimensions yielded correlation coefficients around 0.88 and deviations from the mean close to 20% for low-intensity spots. This indicates a high technical reproducibility of the 2-DE procedure developed in our laboratory. Variability within a biological condition was low and comparable to technical variation (at least 0.87). Two-dimensional (2-D) gels obtained from samples of different biological conditions (health vs. disease) achieved a variability similar to intracondition and technical variability. These findings highlight the importance of multiple gel and spot-by-spot comparisons to identify biological significant changes. Minor errors introduced by technical and biological variation allow a comparison of all gels within a study which facilitates the tackling of complex biological problems. PMID:15349946

  11. Reproducible Crystallite Size of Mono-Dispersed and Scalable Biologically Produced Metal-Substituted Nanometer-Sized Magnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Rawn, C.; Rondinone, A.; Love, L.; Roh, Y.; Lauf, R.; Phelps, T.

    2008-12-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that biosynthesized magnetite (biomagnetite) exhibited similar properties as chemically synthesized magnetite. To complement uses of the traditional chemically synthesized magnetite (chem-magnetite) biomagnetite must be exhibit highly reproducible sizes and be available in scalable qualities. Here we emphasize potentially advantageous properties of biomagnetite regarding size, reproducibility and scaling availability. Average crystallite size (ACS) of biomagnetites ranging from 10-100 nm was determined after varied 1) incubation times, 2) substitution of metal and lanthanide species, 3) degrees of congruent incorporation or retardation of substitution elements, 4) bacterial species with their varied ability to substitute elemental species, and 6) incubation temperature that can influence coalescence. The microbial production of biomagnetite has demonstrated capacity to make highly crystalline nanoscale particles of metal-substituted ferrites including compounds of Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and the rare earths in large quantity. Selected Zn-substituted magnetite (nominal composition of Zn0.6Fe2.4O4) has been recovered at over 1 kg (wet weight) in batches from 30 L fermentations. The massively produced extracellular magnetites were confirmed to exhibit good mono- dispersity via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM also validated highly reproducible ACS of 13.1±0.8 nm size as determined through X-ray diffraction (N=7) at a 99 % confidence level. Based on the scale-up experiments performed using the 35 L reactor, the reduction in ACS variability and shorted incubation times of several days may be attributed to increases of electron donor input, and availability of divalent ions of the substitution metal with less ferrous ions in the case of doped magnetite, or a combination of the above. While costs of commercial nanometer sized magnetite (25-50 nm) may vary from 500/kg to > 1,000/kg, microbial mass production is likely capable of producing 13-90 nm magnetite or doped magnetites at a fraction of the cost of traditional chemical synthesis. While there are numerous approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles, bacterial fermentation of magnetite or metal-substituted magnetite may represent a disruptive manufacturing technology with respect to yield, reproducibility and scalability.

  12. Reproducible Crystallite Size of Mono-Dispersed and Scalable Biologically Produced Metal-Substituted Nanometer-Sized Magnetites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moon; C. Rawn; A. Rondinone; L. Love; Y. Roh; R. Lauf; T. Phelps

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research demonstrated that biosynthesized magnetite (biomagnetite) exhibited similar properties as chemically synthesized magnetite. To complement uses of the traditional chemically synthesized magnetite (chem-magnetite) biomagnetite must be exhibit highly reproducible sizes and be available in scalable qualities. Here we emphasize potentially advantageous properties of biomagnetite regarding size, reproducibility and scaling availability. Average crystallite size (ACS) of biomagnetites ranging from

  13. Highly reproducible SERS arrays directly written by inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiang; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Weizhi; Li, Yanan; Guo, Dan; Song, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks.SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on the experimental details, gold nanoparticle characterization, and theoretical calculation for the diameters of contact area of droplets on substrates with different contact angles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04656k

  14. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M; Loffredo, John T; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

  15. A highly sensitive, highly reproducible laser-induced fluorescence detection system with optical pickup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, T.; Izawa, C.; Matsui, T.

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we have developed a novel laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) system, which is particularly well suited for measurements in microfluidic processes such as capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based separations and in devices such as microreactors. In order to obtain a high-performance system, we have used a commercially available optical pickup head as a measurement probe along with an objective lens actuator that is vibrated in the vertical and horizontal directions of a light axis according to a simple methodology. Our system is superior to conventional systems because it has high sensitivity and high reproducibility, and it can be implemented without complex and expensive apparatus for high-precision positioning of the component and detection probe.

  16. An improved and reproducible protocol for the extraction of high quality fungal RNA from plant biomass substrates.

    PubMed

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2014-11-01

    Isolation of high quantity and quality RNA is a crucial step in the detection of meaningful gene expression data. Obtaining intact fungal RNA from complex lignocellulosic substrates is often difficult, producing low integrity RNA which perform poorly in downstream applications. In this study we developed an RNA extraction method using CsCl centrifugation procedure, modified from previous reports and adapted for isolation of RNA from plant biomass. This method provided high level of integrity and good quantity of RNA which were suitable for reliable analyses of gene expression and produced consistent and reproducible results. PMID:24951842

  17. High-Reproducibility and High-Accuracy Method for Automated Topic Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Sirer, M. Irmak; Wang, Jane X.; Acuna, Daniel; Körding, Konrad; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Much of human knowledge sits in large databases of unstructured text. Leveraging this knowledge requires algorithms that extract and record metadata on unstructured text documents. Assigning topics to documents will enable intelligent searching, statistical characterization, and meaningful classification. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is the state of the art in topic modeling. Here, we perform a systematic theoretical and numerical analysis that demonstrates that current optimization techniques for LDA often yield results that are not accurate in inferring the most suitable model parameters. Adapting approaches from community detection in networks, we propose a new algorithm that displays high reproducibility and high accuracy and also has high computational efficiency. We apply it to a large set of documents in the English Wikipedia and reveal its hierarchical structure.

  18. A high resolution flying magnetic disc recording system with zero reproduce spacing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gooch; R. Niedermeyer; R. Wood; R. Pisharody

    1991-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for reducing the reproduce spacing loss and thereby potentially allowing increased linear densities on a disc media while maintaining a reasonable flying height. A laminated magnetic recording media is composed of a high coercivity layer in which the data signals are stored, and a thin, low coercivity, high permeability overlayer called a keeper layer.

  19. High-throughput miniaturized bioreactors for cell culture process development: reproducibility, scalability, and control.

    PubMed

    Rameez, Shahid; Mostafa, Sigma S; Miller, Christopher; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing the timeframe for cell culture process development has been a key goal toward accelerating biopharmaceutical development. Advanced Microscale Bioreactors (ambr™) is an automated micro-bioreactor system with miniature single-use bioreactors with a 10-15 mL working volume controlled by an automated workstation. This system was compared to conventional bioreactor systems in terms of its performance for the production of a monoclonal antibody in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. The miniaturized bioreactor system was found to produce cell culture profiles that matched across scales to 3 L, 15 L, and 200 L stirred tank bioreactors. The processes used in this article involve complex feed formulations, perturbations, and strict process control within the design space, which are in-line with processes used for commercial scale manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Changes to important process parameters in ambr™ resulted in predictable cell growth, viability and titer changes, which were in good agreement to data from the conventional larger scale bioreactors. ambr™ was found to successfully reproduce variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH conditions similar to the larger bioreactor systems. Additionally, the miniature bioreactors were found to react well to perturbations in pH and DO through adjustments to the Proportional and Integral control loop. The data presented here demonstrates the utility of the ambr™ system as a high throughput system for cell culture process development. PMID:24449637

  20. High Reproducibility of Histological Characterization by Whole Virtual Slide Quantification; An Example Using Carotid Plaque Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Velema, Evelyn; Vons, Kristy; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Ruijter, Hester M. den.; de Borst, Gert Jan; Moll, Frans L.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tissue biobanks are an important source for discovery and validation studies aiming for new proteins that are causally related with disease development. There is an increasing demand for accurate and reproducible histological characterization, especially for subsequent analysis and interpretation of data in association studies. We assessed reproducibility of one semiquantative and two quantitative methods for histological tissue characterization. We introduce a new automated method for whole digital slide quantification. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were used to test reproducibility. Methods 50 atherosclerotic plaques that were obtained during carotid endarterectomy were analysed. For the semiquantitative analysis, 6 different plaque characteristics were scored in categories by two independent observers, and Cohen's ? was used to test intra- and interobserver reproducibility. The computer-aided method (assessed by two independent observers) and automated method were tested on CD68 (for macrophages) and ? smooth muscle actin (for smooth muscle cells) stainings. Agreement for these two methods (done on a continuous scale) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results For the semiquantitative analysis, ? values ranged from 0.55 to 0.69 for interobserver variability, and were slightly higher for intraobserver reproducibility in both observers. The computer-aided method yielded intra- and interobserver ICCs between 0.6 and 0.9. The new automated method performed most optimal regarding reproducibility, with ICCs ranging from 0.92 to 0.97. Conclusions The analysis of performance of three methods for histological slide characterization on carotid atherosclerotic plaques showed high precision and agreement in repeated measurements for the automated method for whole digital slide quantification. We suggest that this method can fulfill the need for reproducible histological quantification. PMID:25541691

  1. On-wafer time-dependent high reproducibility nano-force tensile testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergers, L. I. J. C.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Time-dependent mechanical investigations of on-wafer specimens are of interest for improving the reliability of thin metal film microdevices. This paper presents a novel methodology, addressing key challenges in creep and anelasticity investigations through on-wafer tensile tests, achieving highly reproducible force and specimen deformation measurements and loading states. The methodology consists of a novel approach for precise loading using a pin-in-hole gripper and a high-precision specimen alignment system based on three-dimensional image tracking and optical profilometry resulting in angular alignment of <0.1 mrad and near-perfect co-linearity. A compact test system enables in situ tensile tests of on-wafer specimens under light and electron microscopy. Precision force measurement over a range of 0.07 µN to 250 mN is realized based on a simple drift-compensated elastically-hinged load cell with high-precision deflection measurement. The specimen deformation measurement, compensated for drift through image tracking, yields displacement reproducibility of <6 nm. Proof of principle tensile experiments are performed on 5 µm-thick aluminum-alloy thin film specimens, demonstrating reproducible Young’s modulus measurement of 72.6 ± 3.7 GPa. Room temperature creep experiments show excellent stability of the force measurement and underline the methodology’s high reproducibility and suitability for time-dependent nano-force tensile testing of on-wafer specimens.

  2. High resolution downscaling with WRF: reproducing observed climate in high topography islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, P. M.; Tome, R.; Azevedo, E. B.; Teixeira, M.

    2013-12-01

    Isolated islands are specially vulnerable to climate change. However, their climate is generally not explicitly reproduced in GCMs, or even in most Regional Climate Models, due to their size and complex topography. On the other hand, the isolated nature of their location may allow the use of high resolution in domains of limited size, with oceanic boundary conditions all around directly given by a GCM. It is important to know, though, how far do we need to go in horizontal resolution in order to reproduce the main features of observed climate and if the proposed method has significant advantages in relation to simpler procedures. This paper uses the WRF model to downscale global fields given by ERA-Interim and by three runs of the EC-Earth Climate Model (Hazeleger et al 2010): a control run representing the 1961-1990 climate, and two scenario runs corresponding to scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 up to the end of the 21st century. The WRF simulations builds on experience reproducing the climate in Iberia, at 9km horizontal resolution (Soares et al 2012, Cardoso et al 2013), which resulted in a good match with observations not only in what concerns the mean values of temperature and precipitation, but also the statistical distribution of high rank quantiles of daily precipitation (up to percentile 99.9). Here the WRF model is used on a nested grid configuration, with a larger domain simulated at 27km resolution and an inner domain at 6km. The cases of Madeira and Azores, 11 islands of different sizes in the subtropical North Atlantic, are simulated. Broadly speaking, results indicate significant improvements in the representation of observed precipitation in all islands in the ERA-Interim period, at the highest resolution. In the case of Madeira, the largest and bulkiest of the set, the improvement is the most remarkable, whereas in smaller islands there is a suggestion that the used resolution is still too coarse. The excellent results obtained by WRF in the Madeira ERA-Interim case indicate the ability of this model to perform as a regional climate model at high resolution, a requirement for the explicit simulation of climate in many isolated islands. Results obtained in the control and scenario runs are also analyzed, indicating significant changes in the precipitation climate in Madeira Island, and more subtle changes in the Azores. Finally, the WRF results are compared against two alternative downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and the precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005) References Barstad I, Smith RD (2005) Journal of Hydrometeorology 6, 85-99. Cardoso et al (2012) International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.361 Hazeleger et al (2010), Bulletim of the American Meteorological Society, 91, 1357-1363 . doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2877.1 Soares et al (2012) Climate Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-012-1315-2.

  3. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Batdorf, Niles J; Feiveson, Alan H; Schlegel, Todd T

    2004-10-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use. PMID:15484157

  4. Fast response temperature measurement and highly reproducible heating methods for 96-well plates.

    PubMed

    Shellman, Yiqun G; Ribble, Deborah; Yi, Ming; Pacheco, Theresa; Hensley, Mark; Finch, Dudley; Kreith, Frank; Mahajan, Roop L; Norris, David A

    2004-06-01

    Hyperthermia, the procedure of exposing cells to a temperature between 42 degrees and 49 degrees C, has been shown to be a promising approach for cancer treatment. To understand the underlying mechanisms of hyperthermic killing of cancer cells, it is critical to have an accurate temperature measurement technique and a heating method with high reproducibility. To this end, we have developed a method using fine thermocouples with fast response time to measure the temperatures in multiple wells of a 96-well plate. The accuracy of temperature measurement was +/- 0.2 degree C. Such a capability allows a complete record of the time and temperature of the treatment procedure and helps define an accurate thermal dose. We have also compared several methods for heating 96-well plates and found that use of copper blocks in contact with the lower surface of the 96-well plate in an incubator provides a highly reproducible heating method. The common method of using water bath to heat cells in vitro resulted in a decrease of cell viability even at the control temperature of 37 degrees C and a decrease in the reproducibility of certain biological assays. In summary, using these improved techniques, proposed thermal dose can be defined more precisely, and highly reproducible heating in vitro can be achieved. PMID:15211747

  5. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  6. Efficient and reproducible high resolution spiral myocardial phase velocity mapping of the entire cardiac cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three-directional phase velocity mapping (PVM) is capable of measuring longitudinal, radial and circumferential regional myocardial velocities. Current techniques use Cartesian k-space coverage and navigator-gated high spatial and high temporal resolution acquisitions are long. In addition, prospective ECG-gating means that analysis of the full cardiac cycle is not possible. The aim of this study is to develop a high temporal and high spatial resolution PVM technique using efficient spiral k-space coverage and retrospective ECG-gating. Detailed analysis of regional motion over the entire cardiac cycle, including atrial systole for the first time using MR, is presented in 10 healthy volunteers together with a comprehensive assessment of reproducibility. Methods A navigator-gated high temporal (21 ms) and spatial (1.4?×?1.4 mm) resolution spiral PVM sequence was developed, acquiring three-directional velocities in 53 heartbeats (100% respiratory-gating efficiency). Basal, mid and apical short-axis slices were acquired in 10 healthy volunteers on two occasions. Regional and transmural early systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic peak longitudinal, radial and circumferential velocities were measured, together with the times to those peaks (TTPs). Reproducibilities were determined as mean?±?SD of the signed differences between measurements made from acquisitions performed on the two days. Results All slices were acquired in all volunteers on both occasions with good image quality. The high temporal resolution allowed consistent detection of fine features of motion, while the high spatial resolution allowed the detection of statistically significant regional and transmural differences in motion. Colour plots showing the regional variations in velocity over the entire cardiac cycle enable rapid interpretation of the regional motion within any given slice. The reproducibility of peak velocities was high with the reproducibility of early systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic peak radial velocities in the mid slice (for example) being ?0.01?±?0.36, 0.20?±?0.56 and 0.14?±?0.42 cm/s respectively. Reproducibility of the corresponding TTP values, when normalised to a fixed systolic and diastolic length, was also high (?13.8?±?27.4, 1.3?±?21.3 and 3.0?±?10.9 ms for early systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic respectively). Conclusions Retrospectively gated spiral PVM is an efficient and reproducible method of acquiring 3-directional, high resolution velocity data throughout the entire cardiac cycle, including atrial systole. PMID:23587250

  7. Exploring copper nanostructures as highly uniform and reproducible substrates for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Volpati, D; Spada, E R; Plá Cid, C C; Sartorelli, M L; Aroca, R F; Constantino, C J L

    2015-01-21

    The unique properties of metallic nanostructures of coinage metals that can sustain localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) put them at the centre of plasmon-enhanced phenomena. The theory of plasmonic phenomena based on LSPR is well-established. However, the fabrication of plasmonic substrates, reproducibly, is still challenging for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF). In this work we describe well-ordered copper nanostructures (CuNSs), produced by electrodeposition and nanosphere lithography, as active substrates for SEF. After a detailed spectroscopic and microscopic characterization, CuNSs are successfully applied as SEF-active substrates using a well-known perylene derivative as a target molecule. The signal reproducibility from CuNS substrates was established by comparing the results against those obtained from a simply roughened Cu substrate. Under optimal conditions, signal variability is around 4%. PMID:25416536

  8. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  9. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2014-07-01

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  10. Reproducible magnetic features of high-T/sub c/ superconductors in weak fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, M.; Green, C.; Tyagi, S.; Gilmore, R.

    1989-05-01

    The microwave absorption spectrum of the high-T/sub c/ granular superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-//sub delta/ measured in a weak magnetic field with small modulation exhibits reproducible oscillations as a function of external field. We have modeled the high-T/sub c/ ceramics as a network of superconducting wires weakly coupled at randomly placed nodes. Quantum network simulations of the behavior of this system in a magnetic field reveal strong similarities between the computed magnetoconductance, magnetization, and susceptibility and the experimentally observed microwave absorption spectrum.

  11. Highly reproducible planar Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells based on atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KimThese Two Authors Have Equally Contributed To This Work., Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ju; Park, Mi Sun; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Sung, Shi-Joon

    2014-11-01

    A high-quality Sb2S3 thin-absorber with controllable thickness was reproducibly formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Compared with conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD), the Sb2S3 absorber deposited by ALD did not contain oxide or oxygen impurities and showed a very uniform thickness of Sb2S3 absorbers formed on a rough surface of dense blocking TiO2/F-doped SnO2 (bl-TiO2/FTO) substrate. The planar ALD-Sb2S3 solar cells comprised of Au/Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ALD-Sb2S3/bl-TiO2/FTO showed significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 5.77% at 1 sun condition and narrow efficiency deviation, whereas the planar CBD-Sb2S3 solar cells exhibited 2.17% power conversion efficiency. The high efficiency and good reproducibility of ALD-Sb2S3 solar cell devices is attributed to reduced backward recombination because of the inhibition of oxide defects within ALD-Sb2S3 absorber and the conformal deposition of very uniform Sb2S3 absorbers on the blocking TiO2 surface by ALD process.A high-quality Sb2S3 thin-absorber with controllable thickness was reproducibly formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Compared with conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD), the Sb2S3 absorber deposited by ALD did not contain oxide or oxygen impurities and showed a very uniform thickness of Sb2S3 absorbers formed on a rough surface of dense blocking TiO2/F-doped SnO2 (bl-TiO2/FTO) substrate. The planar ALD-Sb2S3 solar cells comprised of Au/Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ALD-Sb2S3/bl-TiO2/FTO showed significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 5.77% at 1 sun condition and narrow efficiency deviation, whereas the planar CBD-Sb2S3 solar cells exhibited 2.17% power conversion efficiency. The high efficiency and good reproducibility of ALD-Sb2S3 solar cell devices is attributed to reduced backward recombination because of the inhibition of oxide defects within ALD-Sb2S3 absorber and the conformal deposition of very uniform Sb2S3 absorbers on the blocking TiO2 surface by ALD process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04148h

  12. Highly reproducible planar Sb?S?-sensitized solar cells based on atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ju; Park, Mi Sun; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Sung, Shi-Joon

    2014-11-01

    A high-quality Sb?S? thin-absorber with controllable thickness was reproducibly formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Compared with conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD), the Sb?S? absorber deposited by ALD did not contain oxide or oxygen impurities and showed a very uniform thickness of Sb?S? absorbers formed on a rough surface of dense blocking TiO?/F-doped SnOv (bl-TiO?/FTO) substrate. The planar ALD-Sb?S? solar cells comprised of Au/Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ALD-Sb?S?/bl-TiO?/FTO showed significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 5.77% at 1 sun condition and narrow efficiency deviation, whereas the planar CBD-Sb?S? solar cells exhibited 2.17% power conversion efficiency. The high efficiency and good reproducibility of ALD-Sb?S? solar cell devices is attributed to reduced backward recombination because of the inhibition of oxide defects within ALD-Sb?S? absorber and the conformal deposition of very uniform Sb?S? absorbers on the blocking TiO? surface by ALD process. PMID:25350778

  13. Highly Reproducible Absolute Quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex by Digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Alison S; Honeyborne, Isobella; Gutteridge, Alice; Whale, Alexandra S; Nixon, Gavin; Wilson, Philip; Jones, Gerwyn; McHugh, Timothy D; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2015-04-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) offers absolute quantification through the limiting dilution of template nucleic acid molecules and has the potential to offer high reproducibility. However, the robustness of dPCR has yet to be evaluated using complex genomes to compare different dPCR methods and platforms. We used DNA templates from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to evaluate the impact of template type, master mixes, primer pairs and, crucially, extraction methods on dPCR performance. Performance was compared between the chip (BioMark) and droplet (QX100) formats. In the absence of any external calibration, dPCR measurements were generally consistent within ?2-fold between different master mixes and primers. Template DNA integrity could influence dPCR performance: high molecular weight gDNA resulted in underperformance of one master mix, while restriction digestion of a low molecular weight sample also caused underestimation. Good concordance (?1.5-fold difference) was observed between chip and droplet formats. Platform precision was in agreement with predicted Poisson error based on partition number, but this was a minor component (<10%) of the total variance when extraction was included. dPCR offers a robust reproducible method for DNA measurement; however, as a predominant source of error, the process of DNA extraction will need to be controlled with suitable calibrators to maximize agreement between laboratories. PMID:25646934

  14. A High-Resolution, Reproducible Technique for Measuring Fracture Aperture in Centimeter-Scale Rock Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, P.; Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical and chemical processes can alter fracture surfaces and their corresponding aperture. Understanding the relationship between physicochemical processes and the alteration of fracture apertures is fundamental to quantifying the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. Therefore, relevant experiments that quantify these processes require the ability to measure fracture surfaces and reconstruct fracture aperture fields at high resolutions before and after experiments. Furthermore, to meaningfully compare measured aperture fields before and after experiments, it is critical that the measurements are reproducible to ensure that differences in fracture apertures are due to physical changes and not data acquisition or reconstruction errors. Energy transmission techniques can provide direct, non-destructive measurement of fracture apertures. However, while X-ray CT is capable of ?m-scale resolution, at those resolutions, it is limited to millimeter-scale cores. Alternatively, light absorbance techniques are limited to transparent analogs or casts of real rocks. Modern surface-profilometry instruments provide the ability to measure surface topography at high resolution, but it is difficult to reconstruct fracture apertures from the measured surfaces. We present a rigorous approach for using high-resolution measurements of surface topography to reproducibly reconstruct fracture aperture fields. An optical profilometer (NANOVEA ST400) provides surface topography measurements averaged over a spot size of 8 ?m with spatial accuracy of ±0.1 ?m and elevation accuracy of ±0.9 ?m. Numerically mating the measured surfaces requires accurate, reproducible alignment of the two fracture halves in three-dimensional space. To facilitate alignment and provide a means for checking the alignment of scanned surfaces, we fabricated a jig for securing the halves of the core to the profilometer stage. The jig consists of two mated blocks of precision-milled steel that are registered using four steel dowels that fit into tight-clearance holes machined into each block. A hole drilled along the intersection of the two blocks provides a means for attaching mated fractured cores to the jig. We register the two halves of the jig against a precision-milled straight edge attached to the profilometer. Accurate reconstruction of fracture apertures requires that: i) temporal fluctuations in the profiles are removed; ii) the joint between the two halves of the jig is perfectly aligned with the scanning axis of the profilometer and iii) the grid spacing of the measurements is precisely the same over the length of the scan. We test and correct for each of these potential error sources and measure several fractured cores twice and demonstrate RMS differences between reconstructed aperture fields of 0.04 ?m. This supports our method as an accurate reproducible means for quantifying small changes in apertures in decimeter-scale cores resulting from different chemical and physical processes.

  15. A Novel Highly Reproducible and Lethal Nonhuman Primate Model for Orthopox Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kramski, Marit; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Nitsche, Andreas; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV) and Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. The efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. The existing nonhuman primate models, using VARV and MPXV, need very high viral doses that have to be applied intravenously or intratracheally to induce a lethal infection in macaques. To overcome these drawbacks, the infectivity and pathogenicity of a particular CPXV was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A CPXV named calpox virus was isolated from a lethal orthopox virus (OPV) outbreak in New World monkeys. We demonstrated that marmosets infected with calpox virus, not only via the intravenous but also the intranasal route, reproducibly develop symptoms resembling smallpox in humans. Infected animals died within 1–3 days after onset of symptoms, even when very low infectious viral doses of 5×102 pfu were applied intranasally. Infectious virus was demonstrated in blood, saliva and all organs analyzed. We present the first characterization of a new OPV infection model inducing a disease in common marmosets comparable to smallpox in humans. Intranasal virus inoculation mimicking the natural route of smallpox infection led to reproducible infection. In vivo titration resulted in an MID50 (minimal monkey infectious dose 50%) of 8.3×102 pfu of calpox virus which is approximately 10,000-fold lower than MPXV and VARV doses applied in the macaque models. Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis. PMID:20454688

  16. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  17. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  18. Reproducible Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2010-01-01

    The reproducibility of an experimental result is a fundamental assumption in science. Yet, results that are merely confirmatory of previous findings are given low priority and can be difficult to publish. Furthermore, the complex and chaotic nature of biological systems imposes limitations on the replicability of scientific experiments. This essay explores the importance and limits of reproducibility in scientific manuscripts. PMID:20876290

  19. Accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scan lateral dimension measurements

    PubMed Central

    Reinstein, Dan Z.; Archer, Timothy J.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Coleman, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of measurement of lateral dimensions using the Artemis (Ultralink LLC) very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (US) arc scanner. Setting London Vision Clinic, London, United Kingdom. Methods A test object was measured first with a micrometer and then with the Artemis arc scanner. Five sets of 10 consecutive B-scans of the test object were performed with the scanner. The test object was removed from the system between each scan set. One expert observer and one newly trained observer separately measured the lateral dimension of the test object. Two-factor analysis of variance was performed. The accuracy was calculated as the average bias of the scan set averages. The repeatability and reproducibility coefficients were calculated. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for repeatability and reproducibility. Results The test object was measured to be 10.80 mm wide. The mean lateral dimension bias was 0.00 mm. The repeatability coefficient was 0.114 mm. The reproducibility coefficient was 0.026 mm. The repeatability CV was 0.38%, and the reproducibility CV was 0.09%. There was no statistically significant variation between observers (P = .0965). There was a statistically significant variation between scan sets (P = .0036) attributed to minor vertical changes in the alignment of the test object between consecutive scan sets. Conclusion The Artemis VHF digital US arc scanner obtained accurate, repeatable, and reproducible measurements of lateral dimensions of the size commonly found in the anterior segment. PMID:17081860

  20. Quantifying Trends in Disease Impact to Produce a Consistent and Reproducible Definition of an Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Jones, Kate E.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as “emerging infectious diseases” (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label ‘emerging’ is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled “emerging,” and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health. PMID:23967065

  1. The Hydrodynamics of High Temperature Plasma: Reproducing the Properties of High Temperature Emission in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    The launch of Hinode and SDO have revolutionized our ability to measure the plasma properties of the solar corona. Many studies have documented both the temperature structure of the corona as well as its temporal variability. Of particular interest is the behavior of high temperature loops that are typically found in the core of an active region. Temperature distributions in these regions are often sharply peaked near 4 MK but rapidly evolving loops are also observed. In this talk we will present results from our effort to perform hydrodynamic simulations of 15 solar active regions that cover a wide range of solar conditions and to reconcile these simulations with observations. In this work we have coupled non-linear force free extrapolations with solutions to the hydrodynamic loop equations approximated by EBTEL. Using relatively simple heating scenarios we are able to reproduce three important properties of the observations: the dependance of the observed intensity on magnetic flux, the sharply peaked emission measure distributions for large regions, and the general frequency distribution of the observed events. Our current simulations, however, suggest much stronger 1MK emission near the neutral line than is observed, indicating the heating of small loops is not well understood. We also do not properly reproduce the relative distribution of large and small events in these active regions.

  2. Quantitative analysis of MRI signal abnormalities of brain white matter with high reproducibility and accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingchang Wei; Simon K. Warfield; Kelly H. Zou; Ying Wu; Xiaoming Li; Alexandre Guimond; John P. Mugler; Randall R. Benson; Leslie Wolfson; Howard L. Weiner; Charles R. G. Guttmann

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility and accuracy com- pared to radiologists of three automated segmentation pipe- lines for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mea- surement of brain white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA). Materials and Methods: WMSA segmentation was per- formed on pairs of whole brain scans from 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 older subjects who were positioned

  3. Side-to-side alignment of gold nanorods with polarization-free characteristic for highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhigao; Xiao, Xiangheng; Wu, Wei; Liao, Lei; Mei, Fei; Yu, Xuefeng; Guo, Shishang; Ying, Jianjian; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-11-01

    A large-batch method for fabricating large-area, low-cost, and flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) arrays with Au nanorods (NRs) using an inkjet printing technique was presented. The Raman mapping results of 441 points reveal clearly that the Au NRs arrays are a well reproducible SERS substrate for the detection of various chemicals. The neighbouring Au NRs aligned side-to-side nanoclusters were formed on printer paper as a highly reproducible SERS platform due to its polarization-free properties which were further confirmed by theoretical calculations of the electric field enhancement change about only two. Therefore, the SERS signals can be more evenly enhanced.

  4. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  5. Sandwich ELISA Microarrays: Generating Reliable and Reproducible Assays for High-Throughput Screens

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2009-05-11

    The sandwich ELISA microarray is a powerful screening tool in biomarker discovery and validation due to its ability to simultaneously probe for multiple proteins in a miniaturized assay. The technical challenges of generating and processing the arrays are numerous. However, careful attention to possible pitfalls in the development of your antibody microarray assay can overcome these challenges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the steps that are involved in generating a reliable and reproducible sandwich ELISA microarray assay.

  6. Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J., E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei, E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-21

    Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

  7. A highly reproducible bolus immobilization technique for the treatment of scalp malignancies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Steven H; Latronico, Diane; Teslow, Terrance; Bajaj, Gopal K

    2008-01-01

    Radiation treatment of scalp malignancies can be a challenge due to the multiple curved surfaces to which homogenous dose must be delivered. The most readily available techniques utilize linear accelerator-based technique of opposed lateral electron field abutting opposed lateral photon field with central blocking. Bolus material is used to achieve adequate skin dose. Although plans to add bolus material often occur in the virtual setting during treatment planning, the practical aspects of reproducibly maintain the bolus material along curved surfaces during the day-to-day patient setup can be a challenge. We present a case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp with neck node involvement treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. We demonstrate a unique immobilization technique that maintains the bolus material on the aquaplast mesh adherent to the patient's scalp as well as the neck. TomoTherapy with daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) scan was utilized to verify the daily bolus position. We were able to maintain a 95% reproducibility rate. This technique reliably maintains the bolus material on the desired locations with minimum adjustments and manipulation by the therapist and is a technique that can be universally adaptable for conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. PMID:18262120

  8. Screening for high fertility in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Nogareda, C; López-Béjar, M

    2006-05-01

    A retrospective study involving 2756 pregnancies from two commercial dairy herds in northeastern Spain determined relationships between management, production and reproductive data, and high fertility (conception before 90 days in milk) in high-producing dairy cows. High fertility was registered in 989 (35.9%) cows. The following data were recorded for each animal: herd, repeated animal (cows included two or more times within the study in which data were obtained from different lactational periods), parity (primiparous versus multiparous), previous twinning, reproductive disorders following calving (retained placenta, primary metritis) and at postpartum gynecological examination (incomplete uterine involution, pyometra and ovarian cysts), days in milk at conception, previous estrous synchronization and season of calving and conception. In order to evaluate the possible effect of high production during the peak milk yield on subsequent fertility, daily milk production at Day 50 postpartum was also recorded and cows were classified as high (> or = 50 kg) and low (< 50 kg) producers. Logistic regression analysis indicated no significant effects of herd, repeated animal, previous twinning, reproductive disorders such as primary metritis, incomplete uterine involution, pyometra and ovarian cysts, previous estrous synchronization and season of calving and insemination. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of high fertility increased in high-producer cows by a factor of 6.8. High fertility was less likely for multiparous cows (by a factor of 0.35) and for cows suffering placenta retention (by a factor of 0.65). High fertile cows produced a mean of 49.5 kg milk at Day 50 postpartum, in contrast to that 43.2 kg milk of the remainder cows. These findings question the negative effect of high production on fertility. Our results indicated that high individual cow milk production can be positively related to high fertility. PMID:16256186

  9. Reproducible High Density Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma for Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shouyin; Grabowski, Chris; Ruden, Edward

    2005-10-01

    Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma will be translated into an imploding metal liner in a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) scenario. Field-Reversed Theta Pinch technology is employed with programmed cusp fields at the theta coil ends to achieve non-tearing field line reconnection during FRC formation. In the Field Reversed Configuration Experiment with a Liner (FRX-L), an optimum formation procedure is identified. The well-formed FRC plasma has volume-averaged density of 2 - 4x10^22m-3, Te+Ti of 300-500 eV, and plasma lifetime between 15-20 ?s. These parameters are very close to the desired parameters of a target plasma for MTF, and they can be reproduced with standard deviation of less than 10% about the mean in consecutive discharges. Recently, the redesigned crowbar switches have reduced the external main field modulation from 52% previously to 21% now. Better FRC performance is expected in on-going experimental campaigns.

  10. Two-dimensional correlation analysis of the reproducibility of high-performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Simon, József; Felinger, Attila

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis is a well-established tool in spectroscopy. Despite its versatility in various measurement systems, 2D correlation has not yet become popular in separation science. 2D correlation is seldom used in chromatography; only a few a studies can be found on this topic and most of those publications report about gel chromatography. In the present study, 2D correlation analysis is applied to chromatograms. In this study, a simple method is built for studying the similarities and dissimilarities between a number of chromatograms. We present the applicability of the method by two examples, where the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical and nonlinear measurements in HPLC are evaluated and demonstrated. In order to validate the results of 2D correlation analysis, they are compared to principal component analysis (PCA). We confirm the equivalence in the interpretation of the results obtained with the two methods of calculation. The results confirm that 2D correlation can be a successful chemometric tool in chromatography. PMID:25660524

  11. Gold Nanoisland Films as Reproducible SERS Substrates for Highly Sensitive Detection of Fungicides.

    PubMed

    Khlebtsov, Boris N; Khanadeev, Vitaly A; Panfilova, Elizaveta V; Bratashov, Daniil N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2015-04-01

    A wet-chemical approach is used to fabricate centimeter-scale gold nanoisland films (NIFs) with tunable morphology of islands and with strong electromagnetic coupling between them. The approach consists in a uniform seeding of small gold nanoparticles on a glass or silicon substrate, followed by controllable growth of the seeds into small nanoislands. A special technique for TEM sampling was developed to follow the gradual formation of larger-sized isolated nanoparticles, nanoislands of sintered overgrown seeds, and a complete gold layer with nanoscale cracks. The electromagnetic field distribution inside the fabricated NIFs was calculated by FDTD simulations applied to actual TEM images of the fabricated samples rather than to artificial models commonly used. SERS measurements with 1,4-aminothiophenol (ATP) molecules demonstrated the analytical enhancement factor about of 10(7) and the fundamental enhancement factor about of 10(8) for optimized substrates. These values were at least 1 order of magnitude higher than that for self-assembled arrays of gold nanostars and silver nanocubes. SERS spectra of independent samples demonstrated good sample-to-sample reproducibility in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the main peaks less than 20%. Additionally, Raman maps with 1 ?m increment in X-Y directions of NIFs (800 spectral spots) demonstrated good point-to-point repeatability in the intensity of the main Raman vibration modes (RSD varied from 5% to 15% for 50 randomly selected points). A real-life application of the fabricated SERS substrates is exemplified by the detection of the thiram fungicide in apple peels within the 5-250 ppb linear detection range. Specifically, the NIF-based SERS technology detected thiram on apple peel down to level of 5 ng/cm(2). PMID:25764374

  12. Reproducible Growth of High-Quality Cubic-SiC Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor electronic devices and circuits based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which devices made from conventional semiconductors cannot adequately perform. The ability of SiC-based devices to function under such extreme conditions is expected to enable significant improvements in a variety of applications and systems. These include greatly improved high-voltage switching for saving energy in public electric power distribution and electric motor drives; more powerful microwave electronic circuits for radar and communications; and sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines.

  13. Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves

    E-print Network

    Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

    2006-06-22

    With production costs increasing and calf prices remaining fairly stable, cow-calf producers are searching for ways to add value to calves and make their operations more profitable. In this publication readers will learn about breeding herd...

  14. Standardized, Reproducible, High Resolution Global Measurements of T1 Relaxation Metrics in Cases of Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhika Srinivasan; Roland Henry; Daniel Pelletier; Sarah Nelson

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We herein present a methodology for standardized and clinically applicable measurement of T1 relaxation maps with high resolution and volumetric coverage by using the commercially available 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence. The repro- ducibility of the T1 metrics derived from these maps and their sensitivity to distinguish between control participants and patients with multiple sclerosis are evaluated. METHODS:

  15. Targets for producing high purity I-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Tellurium powder in improved targets is bombarded with a cyclotron beam to produce Xe-123. Flowing gas streams carry the Xe-123 through one cold trap which removes Xe-123 that subsequently decays to I-123. During this bombardment energy is deposited in the target material causing its temperature to rise. Some of the tellurium vaporizes and subsequently condenses on surfaces that are cooler than the vaporization temperature. Provision is made for the repeated bombardment of this condensed tellurium.

  16. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  17. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  18. High Reproducibility of Adhesion Formation in Rat with Meso-Stitch Approximation of Injured Cecum and Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Poehnert, Daniel; Abbas, Mahmoud; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Klempnauer, Juergen; Winny, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritoneal adhesions following surgery are a common, serious pathology with severe complications. Appropriate animal adhesion models are essential for the assessment of adhesion preventing medical devices. This study introduces a variation of an established rat model in which highest degree adhesions are induced with excellent reproducibility (OPAM = optimized peritoneal adhesion model). Thus, this model seems to be eligible to study effects of adhesion preventing devices. Methods: 24 Lewis male rats were divided into four groups (OPAM, WSFX, sham-OPAM, sham-WSFX). The OPAM technique comprised cecal abrasion, creation of an abdominal wall defect plus approximation of injured areas by a suture, which was compared to a setting of lesions without suture fixation (WSFX). All rats were sacrificed at day 7. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Dunnett's test. Results: In OPAM rats macroscopic analyses revealed a 90% incidence adhesion of cecum to the abdominal wall, all adhesions imposing as complete agglutination. In WSFX animals incidence of adhesions formation was 75%, while in both sham groups there were no adhesions at all. Histology showed the structure of adhesions with merged smooth muscle of colon and skeletal muscle of abdominal wall in all cases. Conclusion: OPAM technique provides adhesions of injured areas with a better probability than with conventional methods. All OPAM adhesions impressed as highest degree adhesions, i.e. agglutination. Due to high reproducibility in incidence and extend of adhesion formation, the OPAM is recommended for testing of adhesion prevention medical devices. PMID:25552912

  19. Electron beam chemistry produces high purity metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Marsik, S. J.; Lad, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Application of radiation chemistry for deposition of metals by irradiation of aqueous solutions with high energy electrons is presented. Design of reaction vessel for irradiation of solution is illustrated. Features of radiochemical technique and procedures followed are described.

  20. Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-04

    A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  1. High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 ?? cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23537333

  2. Highly reproducible immunoassay of cancer markers on a gold-patterned microarray chip using surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonkwon; Lee, Sangyeop; Lee, Jung-hwan; Lim, Hyun-woo; Seong, Gi Hun; Lee, Eun Kyu; Chang, Soo-Ik; Oh, Chil Hwan; Choo, Jaebum

    2011-01-15

    This paper reports a highly reproducible immunoassay of cancer markers using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. SERS is a highly sensitive detection method but it is limited in its ability to achieve reproducible signal enhancement because of the difficulty with precisely controlling the uniform distribution of hot junctions. Consequently, inconsistent enhancement prevents the wide exploitation of SERS detection as a bio-detection tool for quantitative analysis. To resolve this problem, we explored the use of a SERS imaging-based immunoassay. For this purpose, Raman reporter-labeled hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs), were manufactured and antibodies were immobilized onto their surfaces for targeting specific antigens. After the formation of sandwich immunocomplexes using these functional HGNs on the surfaces of gold patterned wells, the SERS mapping images were measured. For target protein markers, 12×9 pixels were imaged using a Raman mapping technique in the 0-10(-4) g/mL concentration range, and the SERS signals for 66 pixels were averaged. Here, the SERS imaging-based assay shows much better correlations between concentration and intensity than does the conventional point-based assay. The limits of detection were determined to be 0.1 pg/mL and 1.0 pg/mL for angiogenin (ANG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), respectively. This detection sensitivity is increased by three or four orders of magnitude over that of conventional ELISA method. The detectable dynamic range for SERS imaging (10(-4)-10(-12) g/mL) is also much wider than that for ELISA (10(-6)-10(-9) g/mL). PMID:20926277

  3. Repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of Artemis-2 high-frequency ultrasound in determination of human corneal thickness

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and limits of agreement of corneal thickness values measured by a high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis-2), hand-held ultrasound pachymeter (DGH-500) and a specular microscope (SP-3000P). Methods Central corneal thickness (CCT) was analyzed in this prospective randomized study that included 32 patients (18 men and 14 women) aged 21–24 years. Measurements were obtained in two sessions, one week apart, by two examiners with three devices in a randomized order. Nine measurements were taken (three with each device) on one randomly selected eye of each patient in each measurement session. The coefficient of repeatability and interobserver reproducibility for the values of each method were calculated. The limits of agreement between techniques were also evaluated. Results There were no significant differences in CCT values between sessions for each of the three devices (P > 0.05). The repeatability coefficients for the Artemis-2 (±8 ?m/±9 ?m) were superior to those of the SP-3000P (±9 ?m/±11 ?m) and DGH 500 (±12 ?m/±12 ?m) in session 1/session 2 respectively, while the interobserver reproducibility index (differences between session 1 and session 2) was superior for the SP-3000P (±17 ?m) with respect to DHG-500 (±29 ?m) and the Artemis-2 (±31 ?m). In session 1 and session 2, the limits of agreement between the techniques were 35 ?m to ?31 ?m and 34 to ?20 ?m, respectively, for DGH-500 versus Artemis-2, 73 ?m to 3 ?m and 60 ?m to 9 ?m for Artemis-2 versus SP-3000P, and 58 ?m to 22 ?m and 72 ?m to 10 ?m for DGH-500 versus SP-3000P comparisons. The DGH-500 and Artemis-2 gave similar values (P > 0.05) in both sessions, but both (Artemis-2 and DGH-500) values were significantly greater than that of the SP-3000P (P < 0.05) in both sessions. Conclusion Repeatability was comparably good for the three techniques. However, interobserver reproducibility was approximately twice as good with the SP-3000P compared with the other two devices. The Artemis-2 CCT values consistently agreed with the DGH-500 and less so with the SP-3000P. The Artemis-2 provided CCT values that were, on average, 38 ?m and 34 ?m greater than that of the SP-3000P in session 1 and session 2, respectively. PMID:22693418

  4. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. Author manuscript High reproducibility of two-dimensional liquid chromatography using

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cells Author Keywords Two-dimensional liquid chromatography ; HPLC ; Proteomics ; Reproducibility ; Peak spectrometer, thereby resulting in a dramatic increase of the dynamic range of an analysis ( ). To date the analysis to the most abundant proteins, has demonstrated a relative lack of reproducibility and has trouble

  5. High-adhesive superhydrophobic 3D nanostructured silver films applied as sensitive, long-lived, reproducible and recyclable SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunwen; Hang, Tao; Komadina, Jason; Ling, Huiqin; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Silver films with different morphologies were chemically deposited by controlling the bath composition. It is found that the wettability and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties were closely connected with the surface morphology. Due to the perfect 3D morphology and the 3D electromagnetic field enhanced by three types of nanogaps distributed uniformly, the 3D microball/nanosheet (MN) silver film shows better SERS properties than those of 2D nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The MN silver film showed high adhesive superhydrophobic properties after an oxidation process without any functionalization. It can hold the liquid droplet and trace the target molecules in a rather small volume. The SERS properties of the oxidized MN substrate were enhanced remarkably compared to those of the freshly prepared substrate because of the concentrating effect of the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared 3D MN silver substrate has also exhibited good performances in reproducibility and reutilization which makes it a promising substrate for molecule tracing.Silver films with different morphologies were chemically deposited by controlling the bath composition. It is found that the wettability and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties were closely connected with the surface morphology. Due to the perfect 3D morphology and the 3D electromagnetic field enhanced by three types of nanogaps distributed uniformly, the 3D microball/nanosheet (MN) silver film shows better SERS properties than those of 2D nanosheets (NSs) and nanoparticles (NPs). The MN silver film showed high adhesive superhydrophobic properties after an oxidation process without any functionalization. It can hold the liquid droplet and trace the target molecules in a rather small volume. The SERS properties of the oxidized MN substrate were enhanced remarkably compared to those of the freshly prepared substrate because of the concentrating effect of the superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared 3D MN silver substrate has also exhibited good performances in reproducibility and reutilization which makes it a promising substrate for molecule tracing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of three different substrates. XPS spectra of the MN silver film after modification. Raman spectra collected from 5 random points in the NP silver film. SERS spectra of 1 ?M 4-Mpy absorbed on different substrates. XPS O 1s spectra of the MN surface before and after storage. SERS spectra of 4 ?L 10-12 R6G absorbed onto the freshly prepared MN substrate. Raman spectra obtained on the solid R6G. SERS spectra obtained on the surface of the oxidized MN substrate after rinsing with deionized water. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02198c

  6. Non-invasive bone competence analysis by high-resolution pQCT: an in vitro reproducibility study on structural and mechanical properties at the human radius.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas L; Stauber, Martin; Kohler, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Müller, Ralph; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2009-02-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength. Bone strength depends, among others, on bone density, bone geometry and its internal architecture. With the recent introduction of a new generation high-resolution 3D peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) system, direct quantification of structural bone parameters has become feasible. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that bone mechanical competence can be derived from HR-pQCT based micro-finite element modeling (microFE). However, reproducibility data for HR-pQCT-derived mechanical indices is not well-known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify reproducibility of HR-pQCT-derived indices. We measured 14 distal formalin-fixed cadaveric forearms three times and analyzed three different regions for each measurement. For each region cortical and trabecular parameters were determined. Reproducibility was assessed with respect to precision error (PE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Reproducibility values were found to be best in all three regions for the full bone compartment with an average PE of 0.79%, followed by the cortical compartment (PE=1.19%) and the trabecular compartment with an average PE of 2.31%. The mechanical parameters showed similar reproducibility (PE=0.48%-2.93% for bone strength and stiffness, respectively). ICC showed a very high reproducibility of subject-specific measurements, ranging from 0.982 to 1.000, allowing secure identification of individual donors ranging from healthy to severely osteoporotic subjects. From these in vitro results we conclude that HR-pQCT derived morphometric and mechanical parameters are highly reproducible such that differences in bone structure and strength can be detected with a reproducibility error smaller than 3%; hence, the technique has a high potential to become a tool for detecting bone quality and bone competence of individual subjects. PMID:19027092

  7. Reproducible Preparation of Au/TS-1 with High Reaction Rate for Gas Phase Epoxidation of Propylene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. S.; Stach E.; Akatay, M.C.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, N.

    2012-03-01

    A refined and reliable synthesis procedure for Au/TS-1(Si/Ti molar ratio {approx}100) with high reaction rate for the direct gas phase epoxidation of propylene has been developed by studying the effects of pH of the gold slurry solution, mixing time, and preparation temperature for deposition precipitation (DP) of Au on TS-1 supports. Au/TS-1 catalysts prepared at optimal DP conditions (pH {approx} 7.3, mixing for 9.5 h, room temperature) showed an average PO rate {approx} 160 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} kg{sub Cat}{sup -1} at 200 C at 1 atm. A reproducibility better than {+-}10% was demonstrated by nine independent samples prepared at the same conditions. These are the highest rates yet reported at 200 C. No visible gold particles were observed by the HRTEM analysis in the fresh Au/TS-1 with gold loading up to {approx}0.1 wt%, indicating that the gold species were smaller than 1 nm. Additionally, the rate per gram of Au and the catalyst stability increased as the Au loading decreased, giving a maximum value of 500 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} g{sub Au}{sup -1}, and Si/Ti molar ratios of {approx}100 gave the highest rates.

  8. fMRI changes over time and reproducibility in unmedicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Whalley, H. C.; Gountouna, V-E.; Hall, J.; McIntosh, A. M.; Simonotto, E.; Job, D. E.; Owens, D. G. C.; Johnstone, E. C.; Lawrie, S. M.

    Background. Functional brain abnormalities have been repeatedly demonstrated in schizophrenia but there is little data concerning their progression. For such studies to have credibility it is first important to establish the reproducibility...

  9. Sequence-matched probes produce increased cross-platform consistency and more reproducible biological results in microarray-based gene expression measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigham H. Mecham; Gregory T. Klus; Jeffrey Strovel; Meena Augustus; David Byrne; Peter Bozso; Daniel Z. Wetmore; Thomas J. Mariani; Isaac S. Kohane; Zoltan Szallasi

    2004-01-01

    Cancer derived microarray data sets are routinely produced by various platforms that are either com- mercially available or manufactured by academic groups. The fundamental difference in their probe selection strategies holds the promise that identical observations produced by more than one platform prove to be more robust when validated by biology. However, cross-platform comparison requires matching corresponding probe sets. We

  10. Quantitative Analysis with the Cameca Sxfive fe at High Lateral Resolution and High Reproducibility. Applications to Geochronology and Mineralogy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrke, Hans-Ulrich; Hombourger, Chrystel; Outrequin, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Schottky emitter and its implementation as electron source in Electron Microprobe has significantly improved the characterization of materials in earth sciences and in metallurgy. The strength of an Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is the ability to accurately measure and quantify element in traces at few 10's ppm level. The Field Emission (FE) Source allows trace element analysis with high beam currents thanks to the high brightness of the source and the excellent stability of the beam current, trading off spatial resolution. Of course, accuracy of major element quantification is maintained with a FE source. As X-rays are generated from a much larger diameter than the diameter of the incident electron beam, it is advised to work at low voltage and low beam current in order to take full advantage of the small spot sizes achievable with a Field Emission Source. Thus, the analytical resolution is not limited anymore by the beam diameter but only by the diameter of the X-ray emission volume. One of the advantages of the FE Source is to obtain fine focused electron beam at low beam voltage (?10 keV) while maintaining high and stable beam current. In these experimental conditions, the penetration depth of the primary electrons and thus the interaction volume- in which electrons are scattered and generate X-rays- decreases to sub-?m scale (compared to micron scale of the traditional Electron Microprobe at 15 or 20 keV). Thanks to WDS spectrometers with sub 10eV energy resolution, accurate quantitative analysis can be achieved even on sub micron phases at low beam energy and high lateral resolution using L- and M-Lines for heavy elements. This will be illustrated, in a first example, by measuring different areas in a Monazite grain. U, Pb and Th are quantitatively analyzed with high precision in order to characterize age domains. PIC PIC In the above example, several generations of monazite growth are represented in the quantified high-resolution X-ray maps. Of foremost interest is the high Y rim and fracture filling monazite (ca. ~1800 Ma) which has penetrated much older monazite (ca. ~2400 Ma). (Monazite from Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canadian Artic) In a second example, quantification of small refractory phases (hibonite, grossite, perovskite, ...) formed by gas condensation in the solar nebula will be presented. Paris Meteorite is a stone classified by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle as a CM chondrite. It contains chondrules and Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI). These latter are materials formed at nearly the same time as the solar system i.e. 4.56 billion years ago. PIC PIC

  11. Inexperienced clinicians can extract pathoanatomic information from MRI narrative reports with high reproducibility for use in research\\/quality assurance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kent; Andrew M Briggs; Hanne B Albert; Andreas Byrhagen; Christian Hansen; Karina Kjaergaard; Tue S Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Background  Although reproducibility in reading MRI images amongst radiologists and clinicians has been studied previously, no studies\\u000a have examined the reproducibility of inexperienced clinicians in extracting pathoanatomic information from magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) narrative reports and transforming that information into quantitative data. However, this process is frequently\\u000a required in research and quality assurance contexts. The purpose of this study was to

  12. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-01

    Generation of highly collimated (?div ˜10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge ˜50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C12H22N2O2)n target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  13. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  14. Suggestions for Small-Acreage Alfalfa Producers Texas High Plains

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Suggestions for Small-Acreage Alfalfa Producers Texas High Plains August, 2005 Calvin Trostle of alfalfa can reduce some of the concerns that might be faced by larger producers. You may not have the alfalfa hay for? If you want highest quality alfalfa (cut near initial bloom), then you have to cut more

  15. Sequence-matched probes produce increased cross-platform consistency and more reproducible biological results in microarray-based gene expression measurements.

    PubMed

    Mecham, Brigham H; Klus, Gregory T; Strovel, Jeffrey; Augustus, Meena; Byrne, David; Bozso, Peter; Wetmore, Daniel Z; Mariani, Thomas J; Kohane, Isaac S; Szallasi, Zoltan

    2004-01-01

    Cancer derived microarray data sets are routinely produced by various platforms that are either commercially available or manufactured by academic groups. The fundamental difference in their probe selection strategies holds the promise that identical observations produced by more than one platform prove to be more robust when validated by biology. However, cross-platform comparison requires matching corresponding probe sets. We are introducing here sequence-based matching of probes instead of gene identifier-based matching. We analyzed breast cancer cell line derived RNA aliquots using Agilent cDNA and Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platforms to assess the advantage of this method. We show, that at different levels of the analysis, including gene expression ratios and difference calls, cross-platform consistency is significantly improved by sequence- based matching. We also present evidence that sequence-based probe matching produces more consistent results when comparing similar biological data sets obtained by different microarray platforms. This strategy allowed a more efficient transfer of classification of breast cancer samples between data sets produced by cDNA microarray and Affymetrix gene-chip platforms. PMID:15161944

  16. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  17. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ruckman, Mark (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Daniel (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  18. Late Quaternary Geomagnetic Excursions at High Northen Latitudes in Marine Sediments: Reproducing Results for the Wrong Reasons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowball, I.; Nilsson, A.; Rasmussen, T.

    2007-12-01

    Paleomagnetic records based on multiple sediment cores from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland Seas (e.g. Nowaczyk et al. 2003 Geophys. J. Int. 155) have suggested that several Late Quaternary geomagnetic excursions took place in this region, with the possibility of two excursions with calibrated radiocarbon ages younger than Laschamp (~40ka). During a study of the effect of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion and the associated decrease in dipole moment on cosmogenic radionuclide production in the atmosphere, we have measured the palaeomagnetic properties of three sediment cores: JM05-31GC1 (from the Yermak Plateau), JM04-025PC2 (western Svalbard shelf) and LINK15 (Faroe-Shetland Channel). Magnetic susceptibility logs of the three cores show millennial-scale trends that can be correlated to the Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial/interstadial cycles recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Laschamp is the only geomagnetic excursion in marine isotope stage 3 that can be securely identified in the LINK15 core and it took place during D-O cycles 9 and 10, as determined from the record of magnetic susceptibility. This core was recovered from a sediment drift receiving detrital minerals from a mainly basaltic province and, therefore, the sediments contain relatively high concentrations of magnetic minerals and are characterized by stable natural remanent magnetizations. On the other hand, the two other cores were recovered from areas with a detrital source dominated by sedimentary bedrock. Thus, the sediments have a relatively low magnetic mineral concentration and relatively weak natural remanent magnetizations. In the two cores from the Arctic, a few apparent excursions were revealed by the application of successively stronger alternating field demagnetization steps. Thus, we were able to reproduce the results of Nowaczyk et al. (2003). However, we discovered that many of the apparent excursions in our cores, which are also characterized by low relative paleointensity estimates, were artifacts caused by the acquisition of anhysteretic remanent magnetizations perpendicular to the final demagnetization (vertical geographic) axis by samples with weak natural remanent magnetizations. We cannot claim that the earlier published reports of excursions were due to a similar systematic laboratory magnetization; however, we do not find conclusive evidence of an excursion younger than Laschamp (e.g. Mono) in these relatively high-resolution sediment records.

  19. Developing nutrition programs for high producing dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Chase, L E

    1993-10-01

    Herd average milk production continues to increase in the US. Average milk production in Holstein herds enrolled in DHI testing programs surpassed 9000 kg in some states in 1991. Individual dairy herds have produced > 14,000 kg per cow per lactation. The upper limit for milk production per cow continues to increase. A challenge exists in developing nutrition programs for these herds. The goal is to attain efficient and profitable levels of milk production while maintaining herd health and reproductive performance. Evaluation of rations currently fed to high producing herds indicate that these rations are consistent with current nutrient requirement guidelines. Many high producing herds have average DMI > 4% of BW. Ration formulation principles and nutrient requirements used in development of feeding programs for high producing herds are similar to methods already in use. Optimizing DMI, optimizing rumen fermentation, and providing supplemental nutrients are key factors in meeting tissue nutrient demands in this formulation process. PMID:8227648

  20. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  1. Nanoemulsions produced by rotor-stator high speed stirring.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Patrik; Keck, Cornelia M

    2015-03-30

    Nanoemulsions were produced by high speed stirring using an ART MICCRA D27 rotor-stator system. Nanoemulsions with a droplet size of 135nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. The emulsions are physically stable for at least three months. Optimized production parameters are a stirring speed of 36,000rpm (maximum speed) and a production time of 5min. A further reduction in processing time might be possible with a rotor with ultrafine slit size, i.e., 0.5mm. The droplet size of the emulsion produced by high speed stirring is slightly larger than droplet sizes obtained by high pressure homogenization. However, the differences in size can be expected to have no influence on the in vivo efficacy of the emulsions. Thus, high speed stirring was found to be a highly effective method for the production of nanoemulsions. The process is fast, cost-effective and can be used for large scale production. PMID:25532442

  2. Can Population III Stars at High Redshifts produce GRB's?

    E-print Network

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-08-24

    Gamma ray bursts are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe, consisting of flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours. There have been attempts to observe gamma ray bursts, for example, from population III stars of about 500 solar mass at high redshifts. Here we argue that collapse of such high mass stars does not lead to gamma ray burst as their core collapse temperatures are not sufficient to produce gamma rays, leading to GRBs.

  3. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  4. The solubility of Fish Produced High Magnesium Calcite in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, R. J.; Millero, F. J.; Grosell, M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish have been shown to produce high 10 to 30% magnesium calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance. The importance of this source to the marine carbon cycle is only now being considered. In this paper we report the first measurements of the solubility of this CaCO3 in seawater. The resulting solubility (pKsp = 5.85 ± 0.07) is more than two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite generated on the Bahamas Banks (pKsp = 5.90). This high solubility of fish produced CaCO3 renders it soluble in near surface (<2000 m) waters contributing to the input of carbonate to surface ocean waters, and at least partially explaining the increase in total alkalinity above the aragonite saturation horizon.

  5. Reproducibility of a High-Resolution, Late Holocene Foraminiferal Mg/Ca Record From the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. N.; Poore, R. Z.; Flower, B. P.; Hollander, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The errors associated with Mg/Ca-SST estimates from planktonic foraminifers are critical in the interpretation of low-amplitude decadal to sub-decadal resolution marine records. Inter-test variability within a temporally well-constrained sample can exceed the amplitude of the environmental signal. In this study we examine a number of factors that contribute to the error associated with Mg/Ca records including test size, inter-test variability and intra-test variability. We also test the reproducibility of late Holocene Mg/Ca records both within the same box core from the Pigmy Basin (Gulf of Mexico), and among three different basins in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Garrison Basin, Fisk Basin and Pigmy Basin). Results indicate a significant positive correlation between Mg/Ca and test size, with a range of 1.0 mmol/mol (2.5°C) from the smallest (150- 212?m) to largest (500-600?m) size fractions of Globigerinoides ruber (pink). No significant correlation was observed between test size and Mg/Ca in G. ruber (white), Neogloboquadrina dutertrei or Globorotalia menardii. Within the Pigmy Basin, the downcore Mg/Ca record generated from G. ruber (pink) and G. ruber (white) yielded the same magnitude and pattern of variability over the past 1400 years. Downcore Mg/Ca records generated from G. ruber (white) covering the past 500 years from the 3 Gulf of Mexico basins show a consistent 2.5°C warming from the maximum cooling in the Little Ice Age (c.a.250 yrs BP) to the 20th century.

  6. Very high coercivity magnetic stripes produced by particle rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, R.B.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a current research program at Sandia National Laboratories whereby magnetic stripes are produced through the use of a new particle rotation technology. This new process allows the stripes to be produced in bulk and then held in a latent state so that they may be encoded at a later date. Since particle rotation is less dependent on the type of magnetic particle used, very high coercivity particles could provide a way to increase both magnetic tamper-resistance and accidental erasure protection. This research was initially funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguard and Security as a portion of their Science and Technology Base Development, Advanced Security Concepts program. Current program funding is being provided by Sandia National Laboratories as part of their Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  7. Vacancy supersaturations produced by high-energy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Venezia, V.C.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Gossmann, H.J. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Agarwal, A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Friessnegg, T.; Nielsen, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for detecting the vacancy clusters produced by high-energy ion implantation into silicon is proposed and tested. This technique takes advantage of the fact that metal impurities, such as Au, are gettered near one-half of the projected range ({1/2}R{sub p}) of MeV implants. The vacancy clustered region produced by a 2 MeV Si{sup +} implant into silicon has been labeled with Au diffused in from the front surface. The trapped Au was detected by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to profile the vacancy clusters. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis shows that the Au in the region of vacancy clusters is in the form of precipitates. By annealing MeV implanted samples prior to introduction of the Au, changes in the defect concentration within the vacancy clustered region were monitored as a function of annealing conditions.

  8. Method for producing high purity Si for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, H.; Eisenrith, K.H.; Schulze, F.W.; Urbach, H.P.

    1984-07-17

    Highly purified starting materials for the production of silicon suitable for fabrication of solar cells are produced via the carbo-thermal reduction process. A carbon-containing material with impurities therein, either by itself or admixed with glass bodies, which are attained from a melt of quartz sand and glass-forming additives formed into a fiber form and pulverized, is converted into a granulate form with the aid of a bonding agent. The resultant granulates are contacted with a hot inorganic acid, such as 3N HC1 at about 90/sup 0/ C, to extract substantially all impurities from the granulates, which can be in pellet or tablet form. The resultant purified pellets are then directly charged into an electrical arc furnace to yield solar-quality silicon. With this process, highly purified SiO/sub 2/ and highly purified carbon are produced in a simple and cheap manner. The impurity level for boron, phosphorus and transition metal in these starting materials is less than about 10 ppm.

  9. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  11. High reproducibility of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation of intact proteins using pH-driven fractionation with a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -LC, two-dimensional liquid chromatography; 2-DE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; HPLC, high of an analysis (2). To date, there is no single fractionation strategy that has demonstrated the capacity

  12. How Do Beetles Reproduce?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jenny Drnevich

    Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

  13. High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2011-06-28

    We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

  14. Neotracking in North Carolina: How High School Courses of Study Reproduce Race and Class-Based Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Everett, Bobbie J.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: This article describes neotracking, a new form of tracking in North Carolina that is the outgrowth of the state's reformed curricular standards, the High School Courses of Study Framework (COS). Neotracking combines older versions of rigid, comprehensive tracking with the newer, more flexible within-subject area curricular…

  15. Highly reproducible swept-source, dispersion-encoded full-range biometry and imaging of the mouse eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Wang; Bernd Hofer; Yen-Po Chen; Jeremy A. Guggenheim; Wolfgang Drexler; Boris Povazay

    2010-01-01

    We report a high-speed, dispersion-encoded, full-range (DEFR) swept-source optical coherence tomography system for in vivo ocular imaging and biometry of small animals. The fast DEFR algorithm removes the depth ambiguity, gives access to objects located at the zero delay position, and doubles the sampling depth to 2×5.0 mm (at -101 to -71 dB sensitivity) in a single scan using 2048

  16. Optimization of a wafer-level process for the fabrication of highly reproducible thin-film MOX sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Elmi; S. Zampolli; G. C. Cardinali

    2008-01-01

    Thin-film metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors are characterized by high sensitivity and fast response. Those characteristics make them very promising among the several existing technologies for the production of solid state gas sensors. Furthermore, by means of silicon micro-machining technology, MOX sensors can be made on micro hotplates, allowing to reach very low-power consumption, and the batch production guaranties

  17. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  18. Isolation of thermophilic L-lactic acid producing bacteria showing homo-fermentative manner under high aeration condition.

    PubMed

    Tongpim, Saowanit; Meidong, Ratchanu; Poudel, Pramod; Yoshino, Satoshi; Okugawa, Yuki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Sakai, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    By applying non-sterile open fermentation of food waste, various thermotolerant l-lactic acid-producing bacteria were isolated and identified. The predominant bacterial isolates showing higher accumulation of l-lactic acid belong to 3 groups of Bacillus coagulans, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. B. coagulans strains M21 and M36 produced high amounts of l-lactic acid of high optical purity and lactic acid selectivity in model kitchen refuse medium and glucose-yeast extract-peptone medium. Other thermotolerant isolates resembling to Bacillus humi, B. ruris, B. subtilis, B. niacini and B. soli were also identified. These bacteria produced low amounts of l-lactic acid of more than 99% optical purity. All isolated strains showed the highest growth rate at temperatures around 55-60°C. They showed unique responses to various oxygen supply conditions. The majority of isolates produced l-lactic acid at a low overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa); however, acetic acid was produced instead of l-lactic acid at a high KLa. B. coagulans M21 was the only strain that produced high, consistent, and reproducible amounts of optically pure l-lactic acid (>99% optical purity) under high and low KLa conditions in a homo-fermentative manner. PMID:24119530

  19. Reproducible, Ultra High-Throughput Formation of Multicellular Organization from Single Cell Suspension-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cell Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Ungrin, Mark D.; Joshi, Chirag; Nica, Andra; Bauwens, Céline; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) should enable novel insights into early human development and provide a renewable source of cells for regenerative medicine. However, because the three-dimensional hESC aggregates [embryoid bodies (hEB)] typically employed to reveal hESC developmental potential are heterogeneous and exhibit disorganized differentiation, progress in hESC technology development has been hindered. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a centrifugal forced-aggregation strategy in combination with a novel centrifugal-extraction approach as a foundation, we demonstrated that hESC input composition and inductive environment could be manipulated to form large numbers of well-defined aggregates exhibiting multi-lineage differentiation and substantially improved self-organization from single-cell suspensions. These aggregates exhibited coordinated bi-domain structures including contiguous regions of extraembryonic endoderm- and epiblast-like tissue. A silicon wafer-based microfabrication technology was used to generate surfaces that permit the production of hundreds to thousands of hEB per cm2. Conclusions/Significance The mechanisms of early human embryogenesis are poorly understood. We report an ultra high throughput (UHTP) approach for generating spatially and temporally synchronised hEB. Aggregates generated in this manner exhibited aspects of peri-implantation tissue-level morphogenesis. These results should advance fundamental studies into early human developmental processes, enable high-throughput screening strategies to identify conditions that specify hESC-derived cells and tissues, and accelerate the pre-clinical evaluation of hESC-derived cells. PMID:18270562

  20. New technologies and decision making in high producing herds.

    PubMed

    Spahr, S L

    1993-10-01

    New technologies have evolved for improved management of on-farm records and their use in decision making. Computerized on-farm record systems, coupled with automated monitoring of individual animal performance and electronic transfer of data between the on-farm database and mainframe systems, have enhanced the capability for herd management. Electronic aids for decision making may be embedded into on-farm management programs to allow more detailed data to be available with ease and convenience. Technological advances and their application toward improved operational decisions concerning production monitoring, reproductive management, genetic improvement, feeding, and health in a 300-cow dairy herd are presented as examples. Substantial advances have been made in technologies that improve management and decision making. Evolving technologies promise to enhance further the capabilities for improved management and decision making in high producing herds. PMID:8227646

  1. Effects produced by iodine irradiation on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lazanu, S.; Slav, A.; Lepadatu, A.-M.; Stavarache, I.; Palade, C.; Iordache, G.; Ciurea, M. L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2012-12-10

    The effects of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -26+}I{sup 127} ions of 28 MeV kinetic energy on high resistivity (100) Si were studied. The profile of primary defects was simulated. The defects produced by irradiation which act as traps were investigated. Thermally stimulated current measurements without externally applied bias were used, and for this the traps were charged by illuminating samples with 1000, 800, and 400 nm wavelengths. The discharge currents were recorded and modeled, and therefore the parameters of the traps were determined. The presence of I ions, heavier than Si, stopped into the target was modeled as a temperature independent electric field.

  2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Remote sensing of the upper tropospheric state of storms using space-borne high spectral resoluti...

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without of Wisconsin at Madison pg. n/a #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction

  3. Reproducible epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca; Zeger, Scott L

    2006-05-01

    The replication of important findings by multiple independent investigators is fundamental to the accumulation of scientific evidence. Researchers in the biologic and physical sciences expect results to be replicated by independent data, analytical methods, laboratories, and instruments. Epidemiologic studies are commonly used to quantify small health effects of important, but subtle, risk factors, and replication is of critical importance where results can inform substantial policy decisions. However, because of the time, expense, and opportunism of many current epidemiologic studies, it is often impossible to fully replicate their findings. An attainable minimum standard is "reproducibility," which calls for data sets and software to be made available for verifying published findings and conducting alternative analyses. The authors outline a standard for reproducibility and evaluate the reproducibility of current epidemiologic research. They also propose methods for reproducible research and implement them by use of a case study in air pollution and health. PMID:16510544

  4. Reproducibility of striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using [11C]raclopride with high-resolution positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alakurtti, Kati; Aalto, Sargo; Johansson, Jarkko J; Någren, Kjell; Tuokkola, Terhi; Oikonen, Vesa; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of small striatal brain structures such as the ventral striatum (VST) has been hampered by low spatial resolution causing partial-volume effects. The high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a brain-dedicated PET scanner that has considerably better spatial resolution than its predecessors. However, its superior spatial resolution is associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the test–retest reliability of the striatal and thalamic dopamine D2 receptor binding using the HRRT scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two [11C]raclopride PET scans with a 2.5-hour interval. Dopamine D2 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential (BPND) using the simplified reference tissue model. To evaluate the reproducibility of repeated BPND estimations, absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. VAR values indicated fairly good reproducibility and were 3.6% to 4.5% for the caudate nucleus and putamen and 4.5% to 6.4% for the lateral and medial part of the thalamus. In the VST, the VAR value was 5.8% when the definition was made in the coronal plane. However, the ICC values were only moderate, in the range of 0.34 to 0.66, for all regions except the putamen (0.87). Experimental signal processing methods improved neither ICC nor VAR values significantly. PMID:20442726

  5. High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-01-21

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  6. High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-11-25

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  7. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  8. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  9. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)). PMID:21902048

  10. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  11. Characteristics of Very High Frequency Plasma Produced with Ladder-Shaped Electrode at High Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromu Takatsuka; Yasuhiro Yamauchi; Yoshiaki Takeuchi; Hiroshi Mashima; Hideaki Yamashita; Yoshinobu Kawai

    2005-01-01

    A very high frequency (VHF) plasma was produced with a ladder-shaped electrode at high pressure and plasma parameters such as the density and temperature of electrons were measured as a function of pressure using a Langmuir probe. A VHF power source with a frequency of 60 MHz was used and the power was up to 450 W. When the pressure

  12. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The thermal efficiency is better than 67% operating at full load. This fuel processor has been integrated with a 5-kW fuel cell producing electricity and hot water.

  13. Solar-Power System Produces High-Pressure Steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Combination of three multistaged solar collectors produces highpressure steam for large-scale continuously operating turbines for generating mechanical or electrical energy. Superheated water vapor drives turbines, attaining an overall system efficiency about 22 percent.

  14. Threshold detector produces narrow pulses at high repetition rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrahan, N. M.

    1965-01-01

    Solid state device generates fixed width output pulses from variable width input pulses in the nanosecond range. The circuit produces pulse repetition rates in the megacycle range and exhibits low power drain.

  15. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  16. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  17. Modeling waveform distortion produced by high speed AC locomotive converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Carbone; F. De Rosa; R. Langella; A. Sollazzo; A. Testa

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a new high computational efficiency model for the calculation of the waveform distortion caused by the new high-speed locomotive E404P. The adjustable speed drives of this locomotive use PWM-controlled converters both to rectify the voltage of the AC supply system and to feed AC motors. The proposed model is validated by comparing its results with those of

  18. Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

  19. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

  20. Comparison of methods of producing very highly stripped uranium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1983-10-01

    A comparison is made between the production of high intensity beams of helium-like uranium ions, U/sup 90 +/, by conventional and exotic ion sources, and by the foil stripping of highly accelerated ions output from the Bevalac. The parameter requirements are specified and compared to the parameters achievable by present day ion source technology. The EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source) comes closest to satisfying the necessary parameters, and this possibility is considered in some detail. We conclude that existing and near-future ion source technology does not provide a means of production of high intensity U/sup 90 +/ beams. Foil stripping of lower charge state species that have been accelerated through the Bevalac provides a convenient approach.

  1. A METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH QUALITY SOLENOIDAL FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive device is described which can be used to provide a highly homogeneous solenoidal magnetic field when the solenoid windings are inadequate. Design considerations and experimental measurements are presented. A field straightness of approximately 10{sup -4} radians has been achieved.

  2. Method of producing high T(subc) superconducting NBN films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (inventor); Lamb, James L. (inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (inventor); Khanna, Satish K. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of niobium nitride with high superconducting temperature (T sub c) of 15.7 K are deposited on substrates held at room temperature (approx 90 C) by heat sink throughout the sputtering process. Films deposited at P sub Ar 12.9 + or - 0.2 mTorr exhibit higher T sub c with increasing P sub N2,I with the highest T sub c achieved at P sub n2,I= 3.7 + or - 0.2 mTorr and total sputtering pressure P sub tot = 16.6 + or - 0.4. Further increase of N2 injection starts decreasing T sub c.

  3. What produces the high densities observed in solar flare plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C.-C.; Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the implications of the high densities observed in flare plasmas in the wide temperature range from 10 to the 4th K to more than 10 to the 7th K. The chromospheric evaporation theory for the decay phase is discussed, and it is found that it is not consistent with the observations. It is pointed out that all the flare mechanisms proposed so far, e.g., magnetic field reconnection in various geometries, have entirely ignored the fundamental problem of how the high densities arise in the first place, and, in fact, they are unable to answer this question. It is suggested that compressional heatings of a flaring loop might be responsible for the density and emission measure (EM) increases observed in flare plasmas. Chromospheric evaporation associated with local heating in the initial rising phase of the flare, in distinction to the existing evaporation theory which assumes a coronal heating source, is also discussed. Possible observational tests, utilizing the newly launched Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite, are presented.

  4. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  5. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  6. The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J 2012; published 11 April 2012. [1] Fish have been shown to produce high (10 to 48 mol %) magnesium 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite

  7. High flux of relativistic electrons produced in femtosecond laser-thin foil target interactions: Characterization with nuclear techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Aléonard, M. M.; Hannachi, F.; Malka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Claverie, G.; Méot, V.; Morel, P.; Faure, J.; Glinec, Y.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Santos, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    We present a protocol to characterize the high energy electron beam emitted in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with matter at intensities higher than 1019Wcm-2. The electron energies and angular distributions are determined as well as the total number of electrons produced above a 10MeV threshold. This protocol is based on measurements with an electron spectrometer and nuclear activation techniques, combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on the GEANT3 code. The method is detailed and exemplified with data obtained with polypropylene and copper thin solid targets at a laser intensity of 2×1019Wcm-2. Special care is taken of the different sources of uncertainties. In particular, the reproducibility of the laser shots is considered.

  8. High flux of relativistic electrons produced in femtosecond laser-thin foil target interactions: Characterization with nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbaux, M.; Gobet, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Hannachi, F.; Malka, G.; Scheurer, J. N.; Tarisien, M.; Claverie, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Meot, V.; Morel, P. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, DPTA/Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Faure, J.; Glinec, Y.; Guemnie-Tafo, A.; Malka, V.; Manclossi, M.; Santos, J. J. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    We present a protocol to characterize the high energy electron beam emitted in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with matter at intensities higher than 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. The electron energies and angular distributions are determined as well as the total number of electrons produced above a 10 MeV threshold. This protocol is based on measurements with an electron spectrometer and nuclear activation techniques, combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on the GEANT3 code. The method is detailed and exemplified with data obtained with polypropylene and copper thin solid targets at a laser intensity of 2x10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Special care is taken of the different sources of uncertainties. In particular, the reproducibility of the laser shots is considered.

  9. High flux of relativistic electrons produced in femtosecond laser-thin foil target interactions: characterization with nuclear techniques.

    PubMed

    Gerbaux, M; Gobet, F; Aléonard, M M; Hannachi, F; Malka, G; Scheurer, J N; Tarisien, M; Claverie, G; Méot, V; Morel, P; Faure, J; Glinec, Y; Guemnie-Tafo, A; Malka, V; Manclossi, M; Santos, J J

    2008-02-01

    We present a protocol to characterize the high energy electron beam emitted in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with matter at intensities higher than 10(19) W cm(-2). The electron energies and angular distributions are determined as well as the total number of electrons produced above a 10 MeV threshold. This protocol is based on measurements with an electron spectrometer and nuclear activation techniques, combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on the GEANT3 code. The method is detailed and exemplified with data obtained with polypropylene and copper thin solid targets at a laser intensity of 2x10(19) W cm(-2). Special care is taken of the different sources of uncertainties. In particular, the reproducibility of the laser shots is considered. PMID:18315296

  10. High Interlaboratory Reproducibility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Species Identification of Nonfermenting Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Mellmann, A.; Bimet, F.; Bizet, C.; Borovskaya, A. D.; Drake, R. R.; Eigner, U.; Fahr, A. M.; He, Y.; Ilina, E. N.; Kostrzewa, M.; Maier, T.; Mancinelli, L.; Moussaoui, W.; Prévost, G.; Putignani, L.; Seachord, C. L.; Tang, Y. W.; Harmsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid, cost-effective alternative for bacterial species identification. Identifying 60 blind-coded nonfermenting bacteria samples, this international study (using eight laboratories) achieved 98.75% interlaboratory reproducibility. Only 6 of the 480 samples were misidentified due to interchanges (4 samples) or contamination (1 sample) or not identified because of insufficient signal intensity (1 sample). PMID:19776231

  11. Optimal seeding of self-reproducing systems.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Kabamba, Pierre T

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the need to minimize the number of elements required to establish a self-reproducing system. One such system is a self-reproducing extraterrestrial robotic colony, which reduces the launch payload mass for space exploration compared to current mission configurations. In this work, self-reproduction is achieved by the actions of a robot on available resources. An important consideration for the establishment of any self-reproducing system is the identification of a seed, for instance, a set of resources and a set of robots that utilize them to produce all of the robots in the colony. This article outlines a novel algorithm to determine an optimal seed for self-reproducing systems, with application to a self-reproducing extraterrestrial robotic colony. Optimality is understood as the minimization of a cost function of the resources and, in this article, the robots. Since artificial self-reproduction is currently an open problem, the algorithm is illustrated with a simple robotic self-replicating system from the literature and with a more complicated self-reproducing example from nature. PMID:22035080

  12. Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications

    E-print Network

    Li, Shaofan

    Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

  13. Mission Statement "The Mission of the Starkey Swine Center is to produce high

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    for programs in Animal and Veterinary Science and other University departments. High quality swine are producedMission Statement "The Mission of the Starkey Swine Center is to produce high quality animals). The Starkey Center is also used to host a variety of youth-based activities, including 4-H and FFA, school

  14. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    E-print Network

    Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph- quence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic MHD interchange instabilities. In contrast

  15. Reproducibility in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph A; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M; Haring, Rudolf A; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V; Liebsch, Thomas A; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-11-26

    Fixing a problem is usually greatly aided if the problem is reproducible. To ensure reproducibility of a multiprocessor system, the following aspects are proposed; a deterministic system start state, a single system clock, phase alignment of clocks in the system, system-wide synchronization events, reproducible execution of system components, deterministic chip interfaces, zero-impact communication with the system, precise stop of the system and a scan of the system state.

  16. Combined experimental and numerical approach to evaluate impact scaling relations and reproducibility of craters produced at the Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (E.P.I.C., Centro de Astrobiología, Spain.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, J.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G.; Melero Asensio, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber at Centro de Astrobiología, Spain, consists of a 7m wide, funnel-shaped test bed, and a 20.5mm caliber compressed N2 gas gun. The test bed can be filled with any type of target material, but is especially designed for wet target experiments. The shape and size aim to decrease disturbance from reflected surface waves in wet target experiments. Experiments are done under 1Atm pressure. The gas gun can launch projectiles of any material and dimensions <20mm (smaller diameters using sabots), and at any angle from vertical to near horizontal. The projectile velocities are of the order of a few hundreds of meters per second depending mainly on the gas pressure, as well as projectile diameter and density. When using a dry sand target a transient crater about 30cm wide is produced. Wet target experiments have not yet been performed in this newly installed test chamber, but transient cavities in water are expected to be in the order of 50-70cm wide. The large scale allows for detailed study of the dynamics of cratering motions during the stages of crater growth and subsequent collapse, especially in wet targets. These observations provide valuable benchmark data for numerical simulations and for comparison with field studies. Here we describe the results of ten impact experiments using three different gas pressures (100bar, 180bar, 200bar), two projectile compositions (20mm, 5.7g delrin; 20mm, 16.3g Al2O3), and two different impact angles (90? and 53? over the horizontal plane). Nine of the experiments were done in a quarter-space geometry using a specially designed camera tank with a 45mm thick glass window. One experiment was done in half-space geometry as reference. The experiments were recorded with a high-speed digital video camera, and the resulting craters were documented with a digital still frame camera. Projectile velocities are estimated with a combination of tracking software and a Shooting Chrony Alpha M-1 chronograph to be about 330m/s for delrin (100bar), 220m/s for Al2O3 (100bar), 400m/s for delrin (200bar), and 275m/s for Al2O3 (200bar). The velocities for the lighter delrin projectile and at the higher pressure are above the speed of sound in dry silica sand (243 m/s; Sandia report SAND2007-3524). The experimental set up (i.e. target material, projectile density and velocity, impact angle), as well as the dimensions of the resulting craters, are used as inputs in numerical simulation using the iSALE computational code. Results from these simulations will be presented and compared with the experiments.

  17. Phase distortions of attosecond pulses produced by resonance-enhanced high harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haessler, S.; Strelkov, V.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Khokhlova, M.; Gobert, O.; Hergott, J.-F.; Lepetit, F.; Perdrix, M.; Ozaki, T.; Salières, P.

    2013-01-01

    Resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation can be obtained in plasmas containing ions with strong radiative transitions resonant with harmonic orders. The mechanism for this enhancement is still debated. We perform the first temporal characterization of the attosecond emission from a tin plasma under near-resonant conditions for two different resonance detunings. We show that the resonance considerably changes the relative phase of neighboring harmonics. For very small detunings, their phase locking may even be lost, evidencing strong phase distortions in the emission process and a modified attosecond structure. These features are well reproduced by our simulations, allowing their interpretation in terms of the phase of the recombination dipole moment.

  18. Radiation cooling in laser-produced plasmas due to high-Z layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Moreno; S. Goldsmith; H. R. Griem; Leonard Cohen; R. Epstein; D. Bradley; P. A. Jaanimagi; J. Knauer

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cooling of laser-produced aluminum plasmas by highly ionized gold atoms was studied experimentally. The plasma was produced by irradiating 500-mum-diam glass spheres coated with two layers of aluminum and an intermediate gold layer of varying thickness. The 24-beam Omega laser system at a laser wavelength of 351 nm and intensity in the range (2-3)×1014 W\\/cm2 was used to produce

  19. A Novel Canine Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia with Reproducible Neurologic Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Sugawara; Hajime Kumagai; Taijiro Sueda

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a canine model of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) with highly reproducible neurologic outcomes. Methods. Spinal cord ischemia was induced by crossclamping the proximal descending aorta. To produce substantial ischemia in the critical lumbar region, the proximal aortic blood pressure (PAP) was reduced to 80 mmHg by withdrawing blood into a reservoir connected to the left subclavian artery.

  20. WHY DO MOST TROPICAL ANIMALS REPRODUCE SEASONALLY? TESTING HYPOTHESES ON AN AUSTRALIAN SNAKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Brown; R. Shine

    2006-01-01

    Most species reproduce seasonally, even in the tropics where activity occurs year-round. Squamate reptiles provide ideal model organisms to clarify the ultimate (adap- tive) reasons for the restriction of reproduction to specific times of year. Females of almost all temperate-zone reptile species produce their eggs or offspring in the warmest time of the year, thereby synchronizing embryogenesis with high ambient

  1. High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a

    E-print Network

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a , Jie nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis. The average tensile modulus of the SWNT nano-fibers is 265, respectively, from a SWNT bundle of 10 nm diameter and a SWNT nano- fiber of diameter 55 nm with a packing

  2. CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL (CLSM) PRODUCED WITH HIGH-LIME FLY ASH

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL (CLSM) PRODUCED WITH HIGH-LIME FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik Director of Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) with high fly ash content. CLSM is defined by the ACI Committee 229 for low-strength concrete containing a high proportion of fly ash (ASTM Class C), and necessary water

  3. ccsd00001731, Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00001731, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF laser Norio in a high pressure argon gas from 50 to 130 atm, the plasma development is observed by streak camera from side window of chamber. The high pressure ArF laser plasma develops symmetrically and the plasma

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier

    E-print Network

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite are mostly composed of magmatic rocks of the Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite (TTG e.g. Jahn et al. 1981

  5. Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,

    E-print Network

    Basu, Amar S.

    Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae to the physiological level, including photosynthesis, heat shock, neurobiology, sensory networks (vision, olfaction the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

  6. Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high-diversity plant communities

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high Streptomyces Antagonism Diversity Antibiosis Resource diversity a b s t r a c t Plantesoil feedbacks bacteria, the Streptomyces possess particularly strong antagonistic activities and inhibit diverse plant

  7. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-01

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs. PMID:23885720

  8. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US); Koo, Y.-M. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  9. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-PRODUCING U.S. DAIRY HERDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen L. Ott

    1997-01-01

    The National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Dairy +96 Study of dairy herds in 20 states examined herd management practices that varied between high-producing (top 25%) and low-producing (bottom 25%) U.S. dairy herds. Only 100% Holstein herds were included in the study. Within four size categories (30-99 cows, 100-199 cows, 200-499 cows, 500 or more cows) herds were ranked by

  10. Fatal Syndrome in Mice Engrafted with Cells Producing High Levels of the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Metcalf; D. P. Gearing

    1989-01-01

    Cells of the murine hemopoietic cell line FDC-P1 were multiply infected with a retroviral construct containing cDNA encoding the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to produce cells secreting high levels of LIF. Injection of these cells to unirradiated or irradiated syngeneic DBA\\/2 mice resulted in animals engrafted with LIF-producing cells in the marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes and with elevated serum

  11. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  12. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure load.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, P K; Sheps, S G; Bailey, K R; Wiltgen, C M; Moore, A G

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-two hypertensive patients were monitored during two separate drug-free occasions with a Del Mar Avionics ambulatory device. Blood pressure loads (percentage of systolic and diastolic readings more than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively) and mean BP were measured both to determine their reproducibility and to examine how they correlate with each other. The systolic and diastolic mean awake BPs for day 1 and day 2 were 140/93 mmHg and 140/91 mmHg, respectively, and BP loads were 45%/55% and 43%/54%. Moreover, mean BP loads correlated highly (r = 0.93) with mean BP values taken on the same day. Both ambulatory mean SBP and BP load were highly reproducible (r = 0.87 and 0.80, respectively, during the awake hours), and mean DBP and load were fairly reproducible (r = 0.59 and 0.39, respectively, during the awake hours). Clinically, however, both were consistent from day 1 to day 2. Mean and individual standard deviations also were reproducible for both systolic and diastolic pressures and loads. PMID:2096203

  13. Evolution of laser-produced Sn extreme ultraviolet source diameter for high-brightness source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: roy@fzu.cz, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní B?ežany (Czech Republic); Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Miura, Taisuke; Mocek, Tomas; Endo, Akira [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní B?ežany (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-18

    We have investigated the effect of irradiation of solid Sn targets with laser pulses of sub-ns duration and sub-mJ energy on the diameter of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting region and source conversion efficiency. It was found that an in-band EUV source diameter as low as 18??m was produced due to the short scale length of a plasma produced by a sub-ns laser. Most of the EUV emission occurs in a narrow region with a plasma density close to the critical density value. Such EUV sources are suitable for high brightness and high repetition rate metrology applications.

  14. Use of high hydrostatic pressure to produce high quality and safe fresh pork sausage

    E-print Network

    Huang, Mei

    1997-01-01

    (Salmonella barei lly) were much more sensitive to pressure at -20'C than at +20'C. Carlez et al. (1992) studied the effects of high pressure in combination with both low and high temperatures on Citrobacter Peundii. Temperatures greater than 50'C or lower...

  15. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Robert; Buckman, Jr. William R.; Geller, Clint B.

    1997-12-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume ({approximately}1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum.

  16. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Geller, C.B.

    1999-02-09

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume (ca. 1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum. 10 figs.

  17. High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Bianco, Robert (Finleyville, PA); Buckman, Jr., R. William (Pittsburgh, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2-4% by volume (.about.1-4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T.sub.m of molybdenum.

  18. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  19. The salience of visuospatial and organizational skills in reproducing the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure in subjects with high and low IQs.

    PubMed

    Fujii, D E; Lloyd, H A; Miyamoto, K

    2000-11-01

    The salience of visuospatial and organizational skills in copying the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) was examined in 44 adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Subjects were divided into a high average and above IQ group (n = 21) and an average and below IQ group (n = 23). Multiple regressions were conducted for both groups, with the ROCF copy as the dependent variable and WAIS-R Block Design and Stern Fragmentation scores as predictor variables. Results indicated that, for the high IQ group, visuospatial skills were more salient in predicting ROCF copy scores. By contrast, for the low IQ group, organizational skills were more salient for predicting ROCF copy score. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Boston Process Approach. PMID:11262724

  20. Vitra-violet process for producing flame resistant polyamides and products produced thereby. [protective clothing for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, M. S.; Stringham, R. S. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    Aromatic polyamides with improved nonflammability characteristics are produced by contacting a polyamide substrate with a gaseous medium comprising a minor amount of a haloolefinic material and an inert diluent in the presence of light having sufficient energy to effect chemical addition of the haloolefin to the polyamide substrate.

  1. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  2. Reproducible Research in Computational Science

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Computational science has led to exciting new developments, but the nature of the work has exposed limitations in our ability to evaluate published findings. Reproducibility has the potential to serve as a minimum standard for judging scientific claims when full independent replication of a study is not possible. PMID:22144613

  3. Reproducible research in computational science.

    PubMed

    Peng, Roger D

    2011-12-01

    Computational science has led to exciting new developments, but the nature of the work has exposed limitations in our ability to evaluate published findings. Reproducibility has the potential to serve as a minimum standard for judging scientific claims when full independent replication of a study is not possible. PMID:22144613

  4. Method for producing through extrusion an anisotropic magnet with high energy product

    DOEpatents

    Chandhok, Vijay K.

    2004-09-07

    A method for producing an anisotropic magnet with high energy product through extrusion and, more specifically, by placing a particle charge of a composition from the which magnet is to be produced in a noncircular container, heating the container and particle charge and extruding the container and particle charge through a noncircular extrusion die in such a manner that one of the cross-sectional axes or dimension of the container and particle charge is held substantially constant during the extrusion to compact the particle charge to substantially full density by mechanical deformation produced during the extrusion to achieve a magnet with anisotropic magnetic properties along the axes or dimension thereof and, more specifically, a high energy product along the transverse of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the extruded magnet.

  5. Laser-produced plasma: a new window for high pressure science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ng

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. High-energy-density laser-produced plasmas offer an unique window for the investigation of high pressure phenomena. From observations of the intensity of optical emission from and the reflectivity of a plasma generated by a laser-driven shock wave, one learns about not only the rate of thermal equilibriation between electrons and ions in a strongly coupled plasma

  6. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  7. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  8. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium--called CIGS cells-- that are different than conventional

  9. A Highly Accurate Stress Measurement System for Producing Precise X-Ray Masks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Oda; Atsunobu Une; Ikuo Okada; Shinji Shinohara; Yasuo Nakayama; Hideo Yoshihara

    1995-01-01

    A new system that measures stress in film deposited on Si wafers has been developed to produce highly accurate X-ray masks. The system consists of very rigid air sliders, an electrostatic sensor, and a soft-handling wafer chuck. With the system, wafer warp is precisely measured before and after film deposition, and the stress distribution is calculated from those measurements. Wafer

  10. Process for producing synthetic natural gas and high octane motor fuel components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Pfefferie; W. P. Jr. Hettinger

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic natural gas and high octane motor fuel blending stock is produced by catalytically reforming naphtha at low severity to maximize production of aromatics and minimize hydrocracking, and then converting the remaining paraffins to methane in a methanation zone. The effluent from the methanation zone is separated into synthetic natural gas and motor fuel blending stock.

  11. Female field voles with high testosterone and glucose levels produce male-biased litters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuli Helle; Toni Laaksonen; Annika Adamsson; Jorma Paranko; Otso Huitu

    2008-01-01

    The proximate physiological mechanisms producing the parental ability to vary offspring sex ratio in many vertebrates remain elusive. Recently, high concentrations of maternal testosterone and glucose and low concentrations of maternal corticosterone have been suggested to explain male bias in offspring sex ratio. We examined how these factors affect secondary offspring sex ratio in nondomesticated field voles, Microtus agrestis, while

  12. Well-organized raspberry-like Ag@Cu bimetal nanoparticles for highly reliable and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Chen, Dongchang; Li, Xiaxi; Yoo, Seungmin; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Park, Soojin; Liu, Meilin

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ideally suited for probing and mapping surface species and incipient phases on fuel cell electrodes because of its high sensitivity and surface-selectivity, potentially offering insights into the mechanisms of chemical and energy transformation processes. In particular, bimetal nanostructures of coinage metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) have attracted much attention as SERS-active agents due to their distinctive electromagnetic field enhancements originated from surface plasmon resonance. Here we report excellent SERS-active, raspberry-like nanostructures composed of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle core decorated with smaller copper (Cu) nanoparticles, which displayed enhanced and broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra. These unique Ag@Cu raspberry nanostructures enable us to use blue, green, and red light as the excitation laser source for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a large enhancement factor (EF). A highly reliable SERS effect was demonstrated using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules and a thin film of gadolinium doped ceria.Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ideally suited for probing and mapping surface species and incipient phases on fuel cell electrodes because of its high sensitivity and surface-selectivity, potentially offering insights into the mechanisms of chemical and energy transformation processes. In particular, bimetal nanostructures of coinage metals (Au, Ag, and Cu) have attracted much attention as SERS-active agents due to their distinctive electromagnetic field enhancements originated from surface plasmon resonance. Here we report excellent SERS-active, raspberry-like nanostructures composed of a silver (Ag) nanoparticle core decorated with smaller copper (Cu) nanoparticles, which displayed enhanced and broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra. These unique Ag@Cu raspberry nanostructures enable us to use blue, green, and red light as the excitation laser source for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a large enhancement factor (EF). A highly reliable SERS effect was demonstrated using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules and a thin film of gadolinium doped ceria. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03363e

  13. An Enzymatic Assay for High-Throughput Screening of Cytidine-Producing Microbial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Liu, Yongfei; Zu, Xin; Li, Ning; Li, Feiran; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cytidine is an industrially useful precursor for the production of antiviral compounds and a variety of industrial compounds. Interest in the microbial production of cytidine has grown recently and high-throughput screening of cytidine over-producers is an important approach in large-scale industrial production using microorganisms. An enzymatic assay for cytidine was developed combining cytidine deaminase (CDA) and indophenol method. CDA catalyzes the cleavage of cytidine to uridine and NH3, the latter of which can be accurately determined using the indophenol method. The assay was performed in 96-well plates and had a linear detection range of cytidine of 0.058 - 10 mM. This assay was used to determine the amount of cytidine in fermentation flasks and the results were compared with that of High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The detection range of the CDA method is not as wide as that of the HPLC, furthermore the correlation factor of CDA method is not as high as that of HPLC. However, it was suitable for the detection of large numbers of crude samples and was applied to high-throughput screening for high cytidine-producing strains using 96-well deep-hole culture plates. This assay was proved to be simple, accurate, specific and suitable for cytidine detection and high-throughput screening of cytidine-producing strains in large numbers of samples (96 well or more). PMID:25816248

  14. An organic surface modifier to produce a high work function transparent electrode for high performance polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Hak-Beom; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    Modification of an ITO electrode with small-molecule organic surface modifier, 4-chloro-benzoic acid (CBA), via a simple spin-coating method produces a high-work-function electrode with high transparency and a hydrophobic surface. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, CBA modification achieves efficiency enhancement up to 8.5%, which is attributed to enhanced light absorption within the active layer and smooth hole transport from the active layer to the anode. PMID:25515353

  15. Moderate Volume of High Relative Training Intensity Produces Greater Strength Gains Compared With Low and High Volumes in Competitive Weightlifters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan José González-Badillo; Mikel Izquierdo; Esteban M. Gorostiaga

    2006-01-01

    Gonzalez-Badillo, J.J., M. Izquierdo, and E.M. Gorostiaga. Moderate volume of high relative training in- tensity produces greater strength gains compared with low and high volumes in competitive weightlifters. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20(1)73-81. 2006.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 3 volumes of heavy resistance, average relative training intensity (expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition

  16. Expression of highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in calcitonin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, I; Seki, T; Oota, T; Ohta, M; Ogiso, M

    1993-10-01

    Calcitonin-producing cells are endocrine derivatives of the neural crest and have several neuron-like properties. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in calcitonin-producing cells was examined using two types of antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule: monoclonal antibody 12E3 recognizes the polysialic acid portion of highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, and monoclonal antibody AF11 and polyclonal antiserum react with the polypeptide portion common to three major isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule. An immunohistochemical study revealed that highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule was expressed both in fetal rat thyroidal calcitonin-producing cells and in a calcitonin-producing cell line, rMTC 6-23, established from explantable neoplasm of rat calcitonin-producing cells. The neural cell adhesion molecule in the rMTC 6-23 cells was further characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis. Two anti-neural cell adhesion molecule monoclonal antibodies, 12E3 and AF11, revealed a broad positive band around 200,000-250,000 mol. wt in solubilized proteins. When the polysialic acids were eliminated by neuraminidase treatment, the immunoreactivity to monoclonal antibody 12E3 was completely abolished, and core polypeptide corresponding to neural cell adhesion molecule with a molecular weight of 120,000 was detected by monoclonal antibody AF11. These results suggest that cells of the calcitonin-producing cell line express on their surfaces highly polysialylated 120,000 mol. wt form of neural cell adhesion molecule polypeptide. PMID:8255434

  17. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  18. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  19. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  20. Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  1. Local vs. Global Approaches to Reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure By Children, Adolescents, and Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Bodner, Kimberly E.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8–14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15–47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in erformance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in ither HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically emonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  2. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

  3. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Lankford, Jr., James (San Antonio, TX)

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  4. High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

  5. Reproducibility of functional connectivity and graph measures based on the phase lag index (PLI) and weighted phase lag index (wPLI) derived from high resolution EEG.

    PubMed

    Hardmeier, Martin; Hatz, Florian; Bousleiman, Habib; Schindler, Christian; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Fuhr, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) and graph measures provide powerful means to analyze complex networks. The current study determines the inter-subject-variability using the coefficient of variation (CoV) and long-term test-retest-reliability (TRT) using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) in 44 healthy subjects with 35 having a follow-up at years 1 and 2. FC was estimated from 256-channel-EEG by the phase-lag-index (PLI) and weighted PLI (wPLI) during an eyes-closed resting state condition. PLI quantifies the asymmetry of the distribution of instantaneous phase differences of two time-series and signifies, whether a consistent non-zero phase lag exists. WPLI extends the PLI by additionally accounting for the magnitude of the phase difference. Signal-space global and regional PLI/wPLI and weighted first-order graph measures, i.e. normalized clustering coefficient (gamma), normalized average path length (lambda), and the small-world-index (SWI) were calculated for theta-, alpha1-, alpha2- and beta-frequency bands. Inter-subject variability of global PLI was low to moderate over frequency bands (0.12high-resolution EEG has apparently good reliability, which is one important requirement for longitudinal studies exploring the effects of chronic brain diseases over several years. PMID:25286380

  6. Reproducibility of Functional Connectivity and Graph Measures Based on the Phase Lag Index (PLI) and Weighted Phase Lag Index (wPLI) Derived from High Resolution EEG

    PubMed Central

    Hardmeier, Martin; Hatz, Florian; Bousleiman, Habib; Schindler, Christian; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Fuhr, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) and graph measures provide powerful means to analyze complex networks. The current study determines the inter-subject-variability using the coefficient of variation (CoV) and long-term test-retest-reliability (TRT) using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) in 44 healthy subjects with 35 having a follow-up at years 1 and 2. FC was estimated from 256-channel-EEG by the phase-lag-index (PLI) and weighted PLI (wPLI) during an eyes-closed resting state condition. PLI quantifies the asymmetry of the distribution of instantaneous phase differences of two time-series and signifies, whether a consistent non-zero phase lag exists. WPLI extends the PLI by additionally accounting for the magnitude of the phase difference. Signal-space global and regional PLI/wPLI and weighted first-order graph measures, i.e. normalized clustering coefficient (gamma), normalized average path length (lambda), and the small-world-index (SWI) were calculated for theta-, alpha1-, alpha2- and beta-frequency bands. Inter-subject variability of global PLI was low to moderate over frequency bands (0.12high-resolution EEG has apparently good reliability, which is one important requirement for longitudinal studies exploring the effects of chronic brain diseases over several years. PMID:25286380

  7. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  8. Reproducing kernel element method. Part IV: Globally compatible Cn

    E-print Network

    Li, Shaofan

    Reproducing kernel element method. Part IV: Globally compatible Cn ðn P 1� triangular hierarchy Cn ðX� triangular element hierarchy is constructed in the framework of reproducing kernel element conforming element can be made arbitrarily high ðn P 1�. The triangle interpolation field can interpolate

  9. Reproducibility along a 10 cm vertical visual analogue scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J S Dixon; H A Bird

    1981-01-01

    Reproducibility along a vertical 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was investigated. Eight normal volunteers attempted to duplicate a set of marked VAS. There was a tendency to estimate too high on the scale, and reproducibility was found to be variable along its length. This indicates that the error involved in the use of VASs is even more complex than

  10. Looking for the pick of the bunch: high-throughput screening of producing microorganisms with biosensors.

    PubMed

    Schallmey, Marcus; Frunzke, Julia; Eggeling, Lothar; Marienhagen, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The engineering of microbial strains for the production of small molecules of biotechnological interest is a time-consuming, laborious and expensive process. This can be mostly attributed to the fact that good producers cannot be readily obtained by high-throughput screening approaches since increased product formation usually does not confer a clear phenotype to producing strain variants. Recently, advances were made in the design and construction of genetically encoded RNA aptamer-based or transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting small molecules at the single-cell level. The first promising examples for the application of these molecular biosensors in combination with fluorescent-activated cell sorting as a high-throughput screening device demonstrated the value and potential of these new tools for microbial strain development. PMID:24480185

  11. Method to Produce Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection System Resistant to High Aeroacoustic Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Calamito, Dominic P. (Inventor); Jong, Anthony (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of producing a three dimensional angle interlock ceramic fiber which is stable to high aeroacoustic noise of about 170 decibels and to high temperatures of about 2500 F is disclosed. The method uses multiple separate strands of a ceramic fiber or ceramic tow suitable for weaving having multiple warp fibers and multiple fill fibers woven with a modified fly-shuttle loom or rapier shuttleless loom which has nip rolls, a modified fabric advancement mechanism and at least eight harnesses in connection with a Dobby pattern chain utilizing sufficient heddles for each warp fiber and a reed which accommodates at least 168 ends per inch. The method produces a multilayered top fabric, rib fabric and single-layered bottom fabric.

  12. Miniature whirlwinds produced in the laboratory by high-voltage electrical discharges.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R T; Vonnegut, B

    1970-06-12

    Laboratory experiments showed that under certain conditions of vorticity the electrical heatinig produced by a high-voltage discharge at atmospheric pressure can cause the formation of a miniature tornado-like vortex. Once it forms, this vortex stabilizes the electrical discharge along its axis and changes its character from that of a spark to high-pressure variety of a glow discharge. Electrical and dynamic parameters were measured. By relating observations and measurements made in these experiments to previous work and to analogous situations in nature, it is concluded that the heating produced by electrical discharges in a large storm may play a significant role in forming and maintaining natural tornadoes. PMID:17731044

  13. Optimization of transformation procedures in avermectin high-producing Streptomyces avermitilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Soon Hwang; Jae-Young Lee; Eung-Soo Kim; Cha-Yong Choi

    2001-01-01

    The optimal pH conditions for efficient transformation of protoplasts and intact cells were established in avermectin high-producing mutants, ATCC31780 and L-9. Among all factors tested, protoplast buffer pH was elucidated as the most important factor influencing transformation efficiency. The optimal pH of the protoplast buffer for the regeneration of ATCC31780 was 6.5, and using this condition, 4.5 × 106 transformants

  14. Heavy-ion beams produced by high-voltage pulse-powered plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, M. J.

    1980-11-01

    The paper reports preliminary experimental studies of heavy-ion beams produced by a new type of plasma focus device which is powered by a fast high-voltage pulse of 500 kV, 20 kA, and 50 ns. A variety of ion species, either from solid materials or gases, were obtained and their beam characteristics, including charge states, energy spectrum, and emittance, were measured.

  15. Characterization of a new Bacillus stearothermophilus isolate: a highly thermostable ?-amylase-producing strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Wind; R. M. Buitelaar; G. Eggink; H. J. Huizing; L. Dijkhuizen

    1994-01-01

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known a-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable a-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this a-amylase was 5.1 h at 80°C and 2.4 h at 90°C. The temperature optimum for activity of the a-amylase was 70°C;

  16. Process for producing synthetic natural gas and high octane motor fuel components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Pfefferle; W. P. Jr. Hettinger

    1978-01-01

    Engelhard Minerals and Chemicals Corp.'s process produces both synthetic natural gas and high-octane motor-fuel blending stock by catalytically reforming a naphtha feedstock containing naphthenes of low severity, thereby maximizing production of aromatics and hydrogen by dehydrogenation of naphthenes and minimizing hydrocracking of paraffins. The effluent from the reforming reaction zone is cooled and separated in a first separation zone into

  17. Methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Kamada, K.; Nakai, Y.

    1981-10-20

    A methacrylic resin having a high solar radiant energy absorbing property wherein an organic compound (A) containing cupric ion and a compound (B) having at least one p-o-h bond in a molecule are contained into the methacrylic resin selected from poly(Methyl methacrylate) or methacrylic polymers containing at least 50% by weight of a methyl methacrylate unit. A process for producing said methacrylic resin is also disclosed.

  18. Silver-indium joints produced at low temperature for high temperature devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky W. Chuang; Chin C. Lee

    2002-01-01

    A two-step fluxless bonding process adopted to produce high temperature silver-indium joints (80 wt% silver and 20 wt% indium) at relatively low process temperature of 206°C has been developed. After annealing the joint continuously for 26 h at 145°C, its melting temperature increases to 765-780°C, as confirmed by a de-bonding test. The technique thus developed provides a viable alternative to

  19. High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Zhang; Jie Tang; Pinwen Zhu; Jun Ma; Lu-Chang Qin

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental measurement of the high tensile modulus of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles and SWNT nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis. The average tensile modulus of the SWNT nano-fibers is 265GPa, much higher than the carbon nanotube fibers spun by other techniques. The tensile modulus increases as the diameter of the fiber decreases due to changes in the dieletrophoretic

  20. Polydiacetylene-Based High-Throughput Screen for Surfactin Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyan; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Although traditional mutation is still an attractive approach for strain improvement, it is tedious, time-consuming, and inefficient to screen for surfactin producing strains. To overcome this, we developed a high-throughput screening method for surfactin producing mutants by applying polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles as sensors with visible chromatic change from blue to red, detected as colorimetric response (CR%) signal, which can even semi-quantify the yields of surfactin. Bacillus subtilis 723 was used as parent strain and multiply mutated with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Mutants were cultured in MicroFlask by Duetz (24 square deepwell plates, Applikon Biotechnology) and surfactin titers were tested in 96-well plates with PDA vesicles. Mutants with surfactin titers above150 mg/L (CR% value above 26%) were selected as high-yield strains and further quantified by HPLC. By integrating MicroFlask cultivation and the PDA vesicles detection, we screened 27,000 mutants and found 37 high-yield strains. From these, one mutant produced 473.6 mg/L surfactin (including 353.1 mg/L C15 surfactin), which was 5.4-fold than that of the parent strain. This method is efficient, cost-effective and provides wider application in screening for various surfactants. PMID:24498439

  1. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  2. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  3. Reproducibility of brain ADC histograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan C. A. Steens; Faiza Admiraal-Behloul; Jorrit A. Schaap; Frank G. C. Hoogenraad; Claudia A. M. Wheeler-Kingshott; Saskia le Cessie; Paul S. Tofts; Mark A. van Buchem

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of differences in acquisition technique on whole-brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters, as well as to assess scan–rescan reproducibility. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 7 healthy subjects with b-values 0–800, 0–1000, and 0–1500 s\\/mm 2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DWI with b-values 0–1000 s\\/mm 2. All sequences were repeated

  4. Reproducible Clusters from Microarray Research: Whither?

    PubMed Central

    Garge, Nikhil R; Page, Grier P; Sprague, Alan P; Gorman, Bernard S; Allison, David B

    2005-01-01

    Motivation In cluster analysis, the validity of specific solutions, algorithms, and procedures present significant challenges because there is no null hypothesis to test and no 'right answer'. It has been noted that a replicable classification is not necessarily a useful one, but a useful one that characterizes some aspect of the population must be replicable. By replicable we mean reproducible across multiple samplings from the same population. Methodologists have suggested that the validity of clustering methods should be based on classifications that yield reproducible findings beyond chance levels. We used this approach to determine the performance of commonly used clustering algorithms and the degree of replicability achieved using several microarray datasets. Methods We considered four commonly used iterative partitioning algorithms (Self Organizing Maps (SOM), K-means, Clutsering LARge Applications (CLARA), and Fuzzy C-means) and evaluated their performances on 37 microarray datasets, with sample sizes ranging from 12 to 172. We assessed reproducibility of the clustering algorithm by measuring the strength of relationship between clustering outputs of subsamples of 37 datasets. Cluster stability was quantified using Cramer's v2 from a kXk table. Cramer's v2 is equivalent to the squared canonical correlation coefficient between two sets of nominal variables. Potential scores range from 0 to 1, with 1 denoting perfect reproducibility. Results All four clustering routines show increased stability with larger sample sizes. K-means and SOM showed a gradual increase in stability with increasing sample size. CLARA and Fuzzy C-means, however, yielded low stability scores until sample sizes approached 30 and then gradually increased thereafter. Average stability never exceeded 0.55 for the four clustering routines, even at a sample size of 50. These findings suggest several plausible scenarios: (1) microarray datasets lack natural clustering structure thereby producing low stability scores on all four methods; (2) the algorithms studied do not produce reliable results and/or (3) sample sizes typically used in microarray research may be too small to support derivation of reliable clustering results. Further research should be directed towards evaluating stability performances of more clustering algorithms on more datasets specially having larger sample sizes with larger numbers of clusters considered. PMID:16026595

  5. An open investigation of the reproducibility of cancer biology research.

    PubMed

    Errington, Timothy M; Iorns, Elizabeth; Gunn, William; Tan, Fraser Elisabeth; Lomax, Joelle; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that research that builds upon previously published findings has reproduced the original work. However, it is rare for researchers to perform or publish direct replications of existing results. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is an open investigation of reproducibility in preclinical cancer biology research. We have identified 50 high impact cancer biology articles published in the period 2010-2012, and plan to replicate a subset of experimental results from each article. A Registered Report detailing the proposed experimental designs and protocols for each subset of experiments will be peer reviewed and published prior to data collection. The results of these experiments will then be published in a Replication Study. The resulting open methodology and dataset will provide evidence about the reproducibility of high-impact results, and an opportunity to identify predictors of reproducibility. PMID:25490932

  6. The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, Ryan J.; Millero, Frank J.; Grosell, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Fish have been shown to produce high (10 to 48 mol %) magnesium calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance. The importance of this source to the marine carbon cycle is only now being considered. In this paper, we report the first measurements of the solubility of this CaCO3 in seawater. The resulting solubility (pK*sp = 5.89 ± 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite generated on the Bahamas Banks (pK*sp = 5.90). This high solubility of fish-produced CaCO3 is a result of the high magnesium content and not a product of micro-environments created by microbial activity. This material is soluble in near surface waters, contributing to the input of carbonate to surface ocean waters, and may at least partially explain the observed increase in total alkalinity above the aragonite saturation horizon.

  7. Estimating high mosquito-producing rice fields using spectral and spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Washino, R. K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Salute, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The cultivation of irrigated rice provides ideal larval habitat for a number of anopheline vectors of malaria throughout the world. Anopheles freeborni, a potential vector of human malaria, is associated with the nearly 240,000 hectares of irrigated rice grown annually in Northern and Central California; therefore, this species can serve as a model for the study of rice field anopheline population dynamics. Analysis of field data revealed that rice fields with early season canopy development, that are located near bloodmeal sources (i.e., pastures with livestock) were more likely to produce anopheline larvae than fields with less developed canopies located further from pastures. Remote sensing reflectance measurements of early-season canopy development and geographic information system (GIS) measurements of distanes between rice fields and pastures with livestock were combined to distinguish between high and low mosquito-producing rice fields. Using spectral and distance measures in either a discriminant or Bayesian analysis, the identification of high mosquito-producing fields was made with 85 percent accuracy nearly two months before anopheline larval populations peaked. Since omission errors were also minimized by these approaches, they could provide a new basis for directing abatement techniques for the control of malaria vectors.

  8. High-Throughput Sorting of the Highest Producing Cell via a Transiently Protein-Anchored System

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, I-Shiuan; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Kao, Chien-Han; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, Bing-Mae; Roffler, Steve R.; Huang, Ming-Yii; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Developing a high-throughput method for the effecient selection of the highest producing cell is very important for the production of recombinant protein drugs. Here, we developed a novel transiently protein-anchored system coupled with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the efficient selection of the highest producing cell. A furin cleavage peptide (RAKR) was used to join a human anti-epithelial growth factor antibody (?EGFR Ab) and the extracellular-transmembrane-cytosolic domains of the mouse B7-1 antigen (B7). The furin inhibitor can transiently switch secreted ?EGFR Ab into a membrane-anchored form. After cell sorting, the level of membrane ?EGFR Ab-RAKR-B7 is proportional to the amount of secreted ?EGFR Ab in the medium. We further selected 23 ?EGFR Ab expressing cells and demonstrated a high correlation (R2?=?0.9165) between the secretion level and surface expression levels of ?EGFR Ab. These results suggested that the novel transiently protein-anchored system can easily and efficiently select the highest producing cells, reducing the cost for the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25036759

  9. Extended Eden model reproduces growth of an acellular slime mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Geri; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Meakin, Paul

    1999-11-01

    A stochastic growth model was used to simulate the growth of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum on substrates where the nutrients were confined in separate drops. Growth of Physarum on such substrates was previously studied experimentally and found to produce a range of different growth patterns [Phys. Rev. E 57, 941 (1998)]. The model represented the aging of cluster sites and differed from the original Eden model in that the occupation probability of perimeter sites depended on the time of occupation of adjacent cluster sites. This feature led to a bias in the selection of growth directions. A moderate degree of persistence was found to be crucial to reproduce the biological growth patterns under various conditions. Persistence in growth combined quick propagation in heterogeneous environments with a high probability of locating sources of nutrients.

  10. High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage in Dutch community patients with gastrointestinal complaints.

    PubMed

    Reuland, E A; Overdevest, I T M A; Al Naiemi, N; Kalpoe, J S; Rijnsburger, M C; Raadsen, S A; Ligtenberg-Burgman, I; van der Zwaluw, K W; Heck, M; Savelkoul, P H M; Kluytmans, J A J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in the community in the Netherlands and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains. Faecal samples from 720 consecutive patients presenting to their general practitioner, obtained in May 2010, and between December 2010 and January 2011, were analysed for presence of ESBL-E. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed according to the Dutch national guidelines. PCR, sequencing and microarray were used to characterize the genes encoding for ESBL. Strain typing was performed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy-three of 720 (10.1%) samples yielded ESBL-producing organisms, predominantly E. coli. No carbapenemases were detected. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (34/73, 47%). Co-resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was found in (9/73) 12% of the ESBL-E strains. AFLP did not show any clusters, and MLST revealed that CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonged to various clonal complexes. Clonal complex ST10 was predominant. This study showed a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch primary care patients with presumed gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, also in the Netherlands, a country with a low rate of consumption of antibiotics in humans, resistance due to the expansion of CTX-M ESBLs, in particular CTX-M-15, is emerging. The majority of ESBL-producing strains do not appear to be related to the international clonal complex ST131. PMID:22757622

  11. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  12. LC-MS-based metabolic characterization of high monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chong, William Pooi Kat; Thng, Shu Hui; Hiu, Ai Ping; Lee, Dong-Yup; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Ho, Ying Swan

    2012-12-01

    The selection of suitable mammalian cell lines with high specific productivities is a crucial aspect of large-scale recombinant protein production. This study utilizes a metabolomics approach to elucidate the key characteristics of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with high monoclonal antibody productivities (q(mAb)). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based intracellular metabolite profiles of eight single cell clones with high and low q(mAb) were obtained at the mid-exponential phase during shake flask batch cultures. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) subsequently revealed key differences between the high and low q(mAb) clones, as indicated by the variable importance for projection (VIP) scores. The mass peaks were further examined for their potential association with q(mAb) across all clones using Pearson's correlation analysis. Lastly, the identities of metabolites with high VIP and correlation scores were confirmed by comparison with standards through LC-MS-MS. A total of seven metabolites were identified-NADH, FAD, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and three activated sugar precursors. These metabolites are involved in key cellular pathways of citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione metabolism, and protein glycosylation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify metabolites that are associated closely with q(mAb). The results suggest that the high producers had elevated levels of specific metabolites to better regulate their redox status. This is likely to facilitate the generation of energy and activated sugar precursors to meet the demands of producing more glycosylated recombinant monoclonal antibodies. PMID:22711553

  13. A low-temperature method to produce highly reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongbin; Cheng, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Duan, Xiangfeng; Li, Jinghong

    2013-01-01

    Chemical reduction of graphene oxide can be used to produce large quantities of reduced graphene oxide for potential application in electronics, optoelectronics, composite materials and energy-storage devices. Here we report a highly efficient one-pot reduction of graphene oxide using a sodium-ammonia solution as the reducing agent. The solvated electrons in sodium-ammonia solution can effectively facilitate the de-oxygenation of graphene oxide and the restoration of ?-conjugation to produce reduced graphene oxide samples with an oxygen content of 5.6 wt%. Electrical characterization of single reduced graphene oxide flakes demonstrates a high hole mobility of 123 cm(2)?Vs(-1). In addition, we show that the pre-formed graphene oxide thin film can be directly reduced to form reduced graphene oxide film with a combined low sheet resistance (~350 ? per square with ~80% transmittance). Our study demonstrates a new, low-temperature solution processing approach to high-quality graphene materials with lowest sheet resistance and highest carrier mobility. PMID:23443567

  14. Quantizations from reproducing kernel spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Twareque Ali, S., E-mail: stali@mathstat.concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dieetcam, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Pierre Gazeau, Jean, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Laboratoire APC, Université Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to explore the existence and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert subspaces of L{sup 2}(C,d{sup 2}z/?) based on subsets of complex Hermite polynomials. The resulting coherent states (CS) form a family depending on a nonnegative parameter s. We examine some interesting issues, mainly related to CS quantization, like the existence of the usual harmonic oscillator spectrum despite the absence of canonical commutation rules. The question of mathematical and physical equivalences between the s-dependent quantizations is also considered. -- Highlights: ? We discuss in detail an interesting decomposition of L{sup 2}, in terms of ladder operators. ? We consider coherent states on this structure and we use them for quantization. ? We show how this structure is related with non hermitian quantum mechanics. ? We consider the relation between different schemes of quantizations.

  15. High-resolution music with inaudible high-frequency components produces a lagged effect on human electroencephalographic activities.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2014-06-18

    High-quality digital sound sources with inaudible high-frequency components (above 20 kHz) have become available because of recent advances in information technology. Listening to such sounds has been shown to increase the ?-band power of an electroencephalogram (EEG). The present study scrutinized the time course of this effect by recording EEG along with autonomic measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) and facial electromyograms (corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major). Twenty university students (19-24 years old) listened to two types of a 200-s musical excerpt (J. S. Bach's French Suite No. 5) with or without inaudible high-frequency components using a double-blind method. They were asked to rate the sound quality and to judge which excerpt contained high-frequency components. High-? EEG power (10.5-13 Hz) was larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. This effect was statistically significant only in the last quarter of the period (150-200 s). Participants were not able to distinguish between the excerpts, which did not produce any discernible differences in subjective, autonomic, and facial muscle measures. This study shows that inaudible high-frequency components have an impact on human brain activity without conscious awareness. Unlike a standard test for sound quality, at least 150 s of exposure is required to examine this effect in future research. PMID:24722228

  16. High gradient magnetic separation of a biologically produced FeS adsorbent using sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.T.; Gerber, R. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom); Witts, D. [BNFL Capenhurst, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Product Development Centre] [BNFL Capenhurst, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Product Development Centre

    1998-07-01

    A High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) technique has been used to selectively recover biologically produced iron sulfide (FeS) particles with adsorbed heavy metal ions, from a soil remediation effluent stream. The HGMS system has been optimized and its performance investigated as a function of the magnetic field, flow rate and concentration of biological particles, with time. Results have shown that an efficiency of over 95% can be obtained, proving that HGMS is a valuable method for the concentration of heavy metal contaminated soils, especially when the adsorbed heavy metals are toxic and difficult to handle by other means.

  17. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm, E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk; Zhang, Qian [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  18. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-01

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  19. Performance and nutrient intake of high producing Holstein cows consuming pasture or a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Kolver, E S; Muller, L D

    1998-05-01

    We compared the intakes of nutrients by high producing Holstein cows consuming pasture or a full nutrient positive control ration (total mixed ration; TMR) and identified nutrients that limited the milk production of cows consuming the high quality pasture. Cows (n = 8) were adapted to an all pasture diet by incrementally reducing the amount of TMR fed over a 4-wk period. A control group of cows (n = 8) remained in confinement and was fed a TMR. The performance of grazing cows differed significantly from that of cows fed the TMR in dry matter (DM) intake (19.0 vs. 23.4 kg/d of DM), milk production (29.6 vs. 44.1 kg/d), milk protein content (2.61% vs. 2.80%), live weight (562 vs. 597 kg), and body condition score (2.0 vs. 2.5). The high quality of the pasture permitted cows to consume the same daily intakes of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein (kilograms per day) as cows fed the TMR, but the pasture provided 19% less DM, organic matter, and net energy for lactation. Predictions using National Research Council estimates and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model indicated that the supply of metabolizable energy was first-limiting for the milk production of cows consuming high quality pasture rather than the supply of metabolizable protein or amino acids. Although a daily intake of 19 kg of DM was achieved on spring pasture, the significant mobilization of energy reserves indicated that supplemental energy is required to achieve milk production greater than 30 kg/d from high producing Holstein cows on intensive grazing systems. PMID:9621244

  20. High dose of spinal morphine produce a nonopiate receptor-mediated hyperesthesia: clinical and theoretic implications.

    PubMed

    Yaksh, T L; Harty, G J; Onofrio, B M

    1986-05-01

    In rats with chronically implanted intrathecal catheters, high concentrations of morphine (3 microliters of 50 mg/ml: 150 micrograms) yielded a reliable and striking syndrome of pain behavior that involved intermittent bouts of biting and scratching at the dermatomes innervated by levels of the spinal cord proximal to the catheter tip. In addition, during intervals between bouts of agitation, the animals displayed a clear, marked hyperesthesia where an otherwise innocuous stimuli (brush stroke) evoked significant signs of discomfort and consequent aggressive behavior. These effects were exaggerated rather than reversed by high doses of naltrexone. The effect, perfectly mimicked by a considerably lower dose of morphine-3-glucuronide (15 micrograms) or the glycine antagonist strychnine (30 micrograms), was not produced by equimolar concentrations of sodium sulfate, glucuronide, methadone, or sufentanil. In halothane-anesthetized cats, light brushing of the hindpaw and tail or low-intensity stimulation of the sciatic nerves resulted in prominent elevations in blood pressure and pupil diameter following the intrathecal administration of high concentrations (50 mg/ml; 0.1 ml) of morphine sulfate. This effect, exaggerated by naloxone, was produced by a lower concentration of intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide (5 mg/ml; 0.1 ml) but not by intrathecal saline. These results suggest the possibility that the effects of high doses of morphine may be characterized by a nonopiate receptor-mediated effect that alters the coding of sensory information in the spinal cord. The authors speculate that high concentrations of spinal opiates, as may be employed in tolerant terminal-cancer patients, could exert an action that physiologically antagonizes the analgesic effects otherwise mediated by the action of morphine on the spinal opiate receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2938524

  1. High density flux of Co nanoparticles produced by a simple gas aggregation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, G. T.; Romero, S. A.; Santos, A. D. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Laboratorio de Materiais Magneticos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Gas aggregation is a well known method used to produce clusters of different materials with good size control, reduced dispersion, and precise stoichiometry. The cost of these systems is relatively high and they are generally dedicated apparatuses. Furthermore, the usual sample production speed of these systems is not as fast as physical vapor deposition devices posing a problem when thick samples are needed. In this paper we describe the development of a multipurpose gas aggregation system constructed as an adaptation to a magnetron sputtering system. The cost of this adaptation is negligible and its installation and operation are both remarkably simple. The gas flow for flux in the range of 60-130 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) is able to completely collimate all the sputtered material, producing spherical nanoparticles. Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized using electron microscopy techniques and Rutherford back-scattering analysis. The size of the particles is around 10 nm with around 75 nm/min of deposition rate at the center of a Gaussian profile nanoparticle beam.

  2. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.

    PubMed

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-09-23

    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar ? phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar ? phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 ?A peak short-circuit current output. PMID:25133594

  3. Reproducing the kinematics of damped Lyman ? systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin; Neeleman, Marcel; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-02-01

    We examine the kinematic structure of damped Lyman ? systems (DLAs) in a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using the AREPO code. We are able to match the distribution of velocity widths of associated low-ionization metal absorbers substantially better than earlier work. Our simulations produce a population of DLAs dominated by haloes with virial velocities around 70 km s-1, consistent with a picture of relatively small, faint objects. In addition, we reproduce the observed correlation between velocity width and metallicity and the equivalent width distribution of Si II. Some discrepancies of moderate statistical significance remain; too many of our spectra show absorption concentrated at the edge of the profile and there are slight differences in the exact shape of the velocity width distribution. We show that the improvement over previous work is mostly due to our strong feedback from star formation and our detailed modelling of the metal ionization state.

  4. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-10-06

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production.

  5. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 1019 cm-3 and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  6. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M.; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P. S.; Lindbäck, Toril

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ?734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ?734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ?734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ?734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak. PMID:25692100

  7. High-performance nanocrystalline PrFeB-based magnets produced by intensive milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollero, A.; Gutfleisch, O.; Müller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.; Drazic, G.

    2002-05-01

    The intensive milling technique has been used to produce nanocrystalline isotropic PrFeB-based powders. Highly coercive powders were obtained using the base composition R16T76B8 (R: rare earth, T: transition metal) with Dy and Zr additions achieving a high value of ?0Hc=2.66 T for Pr15Dy1Fe75.9B8Zr0.1. The influence of Dy and Zr, and the substitution of Pr by Nd, on the microstructural and magnetic properties have been studied. Reduction of the R content, increase of the T content, and the presence of Co in the starting composition gave rise to an improved performance with values of Jr=0.92 T, ?0Hc=1.25 T, and (BH)max=140 kJ/m3 for Pr9Nd3Dy1Fe72Co8B6.9Zr0.1, originating from a very fine microstructure with a mean grain size of 20 nm. Furthermore, intensive milling has been shown to be a very versatile technique to produce high-performance nanocomposite magnets by blending this latter alloy with different fractions of soft magnetic ?-Fe (x=5-35 wt % Fe). A 25 wt % Fe addition resulted in an optimum combination of magnetic properties with a very high (BH)max value of 178 kJ/m3 due to an effective exchange coupling between the hard- and soft-magnetic phases. A Curie temperature of about 370 °C was observed for this magnet. Demagnetization recoil loops of both single-phase and nanocomposite magnets showed clear differences with relatively open minor loops in the case of the latter due to the exchange-spring mechanism present. ?J plots for the nanocomposite magnets showed a negative deviation of the demagnetizing remanence from the Wohlfarth model, indicative of exchange-coupling interactions being dominant.

  8. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  9. Impact of highly concentrated contaminants on the quality of oxygen 93 % produced by pressure swing adsorption.

    PubMed

    Züchner, K; Pflaum, U B; Meineke, I

    2014-01-01

    A zeolite based pressure swing adsorption (PSA) module designed to produce medicinal oxygen with 90 - 96 % oxygen content was exposed to high input concentrations and high total amounts of CO (17.7 %, 44 mol), CO2 (16.5 %, 23 mol), NO2 (0.98 %, 2 mol), NO (6.2 %, 6 mol) and SO2 (4.2 %, 6 mol). In addition the system was operated with up to 35 % argon in the feed gas. An empirical model was developed to describe the dependence of the oxygen concentration in the product on the oxygen concentration in the input. If the oxygen concentration in the feed gas was reduced below 18 % by dilution, the oxygen concentration in the product fell under the 90 % threshold. Additional effects were observed with NO, NO2 and SO2 which are apparently due to chemical reactions on the adsorbent. These effects consisted of a further decrease in the oxygen concentration measured in the product and could not be reversed by excessive regeneration of the module with air. Under the experimental conditions used, only CO was detected in the product. Appropriate CO monitoring of the input gas is considered a possible remedy for PSA modules in order to ascertain the pharmaceutical quality of the oxygen produced. PMID:25655243

  10. Evidence of plasma polarization shift of Ti He-? resonance line in high density laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, F. Y.; Percie du Sert, O. A. M. B.; Rosmej, F. B.; Riley, D.

    2012-12-01

    A spectroscopic study of the He-? (1s2 1s0 - ls2p 1p1) line emission (4749.73 eV) from high density plasma was conducted. The plasma was produced by irradiating Ti targets with intense (I ? l×l019 W/cm2), 400nm wavelength high contrast, short (45fs) p-polarized laser pulses at an angle of 45°. A line shift up to 3.4+1.0 eV (1.9±0.55 mÅ) was observed in the He-? line. The line width of the resonance line at FWHM was measured to be 12.1±0.6 eV (6.7±0.35 mÅ). For comparison, we looked into the emission of the same spectral line from plasma produced by irradiating the same target with laser pulses of reduced intensities (?1017 W/cm2): we observed a spectral shift of only 1.8+1.0 eV (0.9+0.55mÅ) and the line-width measures up to 5.8+0.25 eV (2.7+0.35 mÅ). These data provide evidence of plasma polarization shift of the Ti He-? line.

  11. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

  12. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-28

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

  13. Improvement of compactin (ML-236B) production by genetic engineering in compactin high-producing Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Abe, Y; Suzuki, T; Ono, C; Iwamoto, K; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

    2009-06-01

    An increase in compactin (ML-236B) production was achieved by introducing a whole compactin biosynthetic gene cluster or the regulatory gene mlcR into compactin high-producing Penicillium citrinum. In the previous report, we introduced mlcR encoding the positive regulator of compactin biosynthetic genes into compactin high-producing strain no. 41520, and most of the transformants produced higher amounts of compactin. Here, we characterize one of the resulting high producers (strain TIR-35, which produced 50% more compactin) and reveal that TIR-35 contained five copies of mlcR and that early, enhanced expression of mlcR caused compactin overproduction. Similarly, the introduction of mlcR into strain T48.19, which was created previously from strain no. 41520 by introducing a partial compactin biosynthetic gene cluster, enhanced compactin production further. Our results indicated that genetic engineering is an effective tool to improve compactin production, even in compactin high producers. PMID:19277641

  14. Dominance of high-producing interleukin 6 and low-producing interleukin 10 and interferon gamma alleles in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Upperman, Jeffrey S; Pillage, Gina; Siddiqi, Muhammad Q; Zeevi, Adriana; Kelly, Natasha; Ford, Henri R; Kammerer, Candace; Spolarics, Zoltán

    2005-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a condition associated with malaria resistance, is a common genetic polymorphism. Decreased interleukin (IL)-10 production was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro in the African and Mediterranean forms of G6PD deficiencies. We hypothesized that low-producing IL-10 alleles are more abundant in the G6PD-deficient than nondeficient population. One hundred eleven men with African American ancestry were tested for G6PD deficiency (Type A-202/376) and for the cytokine gene promoter polymorphisms of IL-10 (-1082 G/A, -819 T/C, and -592 A/C), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (-308 G/A), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 (C/T codon 10 and C/G codon 25), IL-6 (-174 G/C), and interferon (IFN)-gamma (+874 A/T). There were no differences in the allele frequencies for TNF-alpha, IL-6, or TGF-beta1 between the G6PD-deficient and nondeficient population. In contrast, the low-producing IL-10 alleles (-592A) and low-producing IFN-gamma (+874A) allele frequencies were greater in G6PD-deficient than nondeficient samples (P = 0.035 and 0.009). Seventy-one percent of G6PD-deficient and 50% of nondeficient samples carried the high-producing IL-6(G) allele with low-producing IL-10(A) allele (P = 0.03). Furthermore, 95% of deficient and 81% of nondeficient samples carried the IL-6(G) allele together with low-producing IFN-gamma(A) allele (P = 0.017). These investigations indicate a predominant presence of high-producing IL-6 alleles together with low-producing IL-10 and IFN-gamma alleles in individuals with ancestry from malaria-endemic regions. The frequency of low-producing IL-10 genotypes is greater in the G6PD-deficient compared with nondeficient patients. The fact that these genetic differences are preserved in the current African American G6PD-deficient population indicates their potential role in pathophysiological processes in the absence of the selective pressure caused by tropical diseases. PMID:15718915

  15. Nonequiatomic NiTi Alloy Produced by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, P.; Bassani, E.; Tuissi, A.; Giuliani, P.; Zanotti, C.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloy NiTi in porous form is of high interest as implantable material, as low apparent elastic modulus, comparable to that of bone, can be achieved. This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Porous NiTi can be produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from mixed powders of pure Ni and Ti. Process parameters, among which powder compaction degree and preheating temperature, strongly influence the reaction temperature and the resulting product: at low reaction temperatures, high quantity of secondary phases are formed, which are generally considered detrimental for biocompatibility. On the contrary, at higher reaction temperatures, the powders melt and crystallize in ingots. The porous structure is lost and huge pores are formed. Mechanical activation of powders through ball milling and addition of TiH x are investigated as means to reduce reaction temperature and overheating, in order to preserve high porosity and limit secondary phases content. Both processes affect SHS reaction, and require adjustment of parameters such as heating rate. Changes in porous shape and size were observed especially for TiH x additions: the latter could be a promising route to obtain shaped porous products of improved quality.

  16. Measurement of photoneutron dose produced by wedge filters of a high energy linac using polycarbonate films.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Hashemi-Malayeri, Bijan; Raisali, Gholamreza; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Sharafi, Ali Akbar; Torkzadeh, Falamarz

    2008-05-01

    Radiotherapy represents the most widely spread technique to control and treat cancer. To increase the treatment efficiency, high energy linacs are used. However, applying high energy photon beams leads to a non-negligible dose of neutrons contaminating therapeutic beams. In addition, using conventional linacs necessitates applying wedge filters in some clinical conditions. However, there is not enough information on the effect of these filters on the photoneutrons produced. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of photoneutron dose equivalent due to the use of linac wedge filters. A high energy (18 MV) linear accelerator (Elekta SL 75/25) was studied. Polycarbonate films were used to measure the dose equivalent of photoneutrons. After electrochemical etching of the films, the neutron dose equivalent was calculated using Hp(10) factor, and its variation on the patient plane at 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 cm from the center of the X-ray beam was determined. By increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreased rapidly for the open and wedged fields. Increasing of the field size increased the photoneutron dose equivalent. The use of wedge filter increased the proportion of the neutron dose equivalent. The increase can be accounted for by the selective absorption of the high energy photons by the wedge filter. PMID:18460824

  17. High Prevalence of Mucosa-Associated E. coli Producing Cyclomodulin and Genotoxin in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sauvanet, Pierre; Raisch, Jennifer; Delmas, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs) which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%), (p<0.01). Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5%) than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%), (p?=?0.01). Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis), and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n?=?21/76) E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p?=?0.91). In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of patients with CRC. PMID:23457644

  18. 7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

  19. Photon dose produced by a high-intensity laser on a solid target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    2014-08-01

    When a high-intensity laser pulse hits a solid target, its pedestal creates a preplasma. The interaction of the main laser pulse, linearly polarized, with this preplasma produces relativistic electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the target, with high atomic number, and produce bremsstrahlung emission, which constitutes an x-ray source that may be used in various applications such as radiography of high area density objects, photonuclear studies or positron production. This x-ray source is mainly defined by its photon dose, which depends upon the laser, preplasma and target characteristics. In new facilities the radioprotection layout design can be obtained by numerical simulations, which are somewhat tedious. A simple model giving the photon dose per laser energy unit is obtained by using the mean bremsstrahlung cross section of electrons interacting with the atoms of the conversion target. It is expressed versus the fraction ?el of the laser energy absorbed into the forward hot electrons, their mean kinetic energy E, the photon lobe emission mean angular aperture \\bar{{\\theta}} and the target characteristics, i.e. thickness, element, atomic mass and atomic number. The parameters ?el, E and \\bar{{\\theta}} are analysed by applying the energy and momentum flux conservation laws during the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic regime in an underdense and overdense plasma, including the hole-boring effect. In addition, these quantities are parametrized versus the normalized laser vector potential a0 and the preplasma scale length Lp by using a full set of numerical simulations, in the laser intensity domain 1018-1021 W cm-2 and preplasma scale length range 0.03-400µm. These simulations are done in two- and three-dimensional geometry with the CALDER particle-in-cell code, which computes the laser-plasma interaction, and with the MCNP Monte Carlo code, which calculates the bremsstrahlung emission. The present model is compared with the simulations and with experimental results.

  20. The reproducibility of patch tests.

    PubMed

    Bourke, J F; Batta, K; Prais, L; Abdullah, A; Foulds, I S

    1999-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the reproducibility of patch testing. Discordant results have been reported in up to 44% of cases. The clinical relevance of these discordant patch tests has not been previously assessed. We studied 383 consecutive patients receiving simultaneous duplicate patch testing on opposite sides of the upper back with 10 allergens from the European standard series. Completely discordant patch tests-a negative test on one side with a positive test on the opposite side-were recorded in 30 (8%) patients. Two patients had discordant tests to two of the allergens; 28 had discordant reactions to one allergen. Completely discordant tests were recorded for nickel in 10 (3%) patients, balsam of Peru in two (0.5%), thiomersal in one (0.3%), cobalt in four (1%), paraphenylenediamine in three (0.8%), fragrance mix in two (0.5%), formaldehyde in four (1%), potassium dichromate in two (0.5%), lanolin in three (0.8%) and Kathon CG in one (0.3%). Of those patients with completely discordant patch tests, the allergen was deemed to be a true positive in 11 (3% of total) cases and of possible relevance in a further three. The allergen was felt to be relevant to the presenting complaint in seven (2% of total) patients. PMID:10215776

  1. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (?45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations in a normal estrous cycle of dairy cows, and furthermore, it was found that high-producing dairy cows with higher postpartum serum adiponectin concentrations had NLA and earlier C-LA. PMID:25680575

  2. Reproducibility of pain measurement and pain perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa M. Rosier; Michael J. Iadarola; Robert C. Coghill

    2002-01-01

    The reproducibility of both the conscious experience of pain and the reproducibility of psychophysical assessments of pain remain critical, yet poorly characterized factors in pain research and treatment. To assess the reproducibility of both the pain experience and two methods of pain assessment, 15 subjects evaluated experimental heat pain during four weekly sessions. In each session, both brief (5s) and

  3. Methods for Producing High-Performance Silicon Carbide Fibers, Architectural Preforms, and High-Temperature Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing architectural preforms and high-temperature composite structures containing high-strength ceramic fibers with reduced preforming stresses within each fiber, with an in-situ grown coating on each fiber surface, with reduced boron within the bulk of each fiber, and with improved tensile creep and rupture resistance properties tier each fiber. The methods include the steps of preparing an original sample of a preform formed from a pre-selected high-strength silicon carbide ceramic fiber type, placing the original sample in a processing furnace under a pre-selected preforming stress state and thermally treating the sample in the processing furnace at a pre-selected processing temperature and hold time in a processing gas having a pre-selected composition, pressure, and flow rate. For the high-temperature composite structures, the method includes additional steps of depositing a thin interphase coating on the surface of each fiber and forming a ceramic or carbon-based matrix within the sample.

  4. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, B.; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-01

    Experiments on the Titan laser (˜150 J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 1020 W cm-2) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2 MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5 MeV and 4 MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  5. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  6. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Beg, F. N., E-mail: fbeg@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  7. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  8. Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

  9. Tribological properties of carbon coatings produced by high temperature chlorination of silicon carbide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoy, D. A.; McNallan, M. J.; Gogotsi, Y.; Erdemir, A.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Drexel Univ.

    2000-01-01

    The tribological properties of highly disordered graphitic carbon layers formed on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by reaction with chlorine and chlorine-hydrogen gas mixtures at 1000 {sup o}C were studied. Si was selectively removed from the near surface of SiC by chlorine gas, leaving behind a layer of carbon having high structural density and strong bonding characteristics. Tribological tests showed that the carbon films were highly adherent and able to reduce friction coefficients of the base SiC by factors of up to seven. There was little or no change in the factional behavior of carbon layers when sliding velocity and load were increased. Low friction coefficients (-0.1) could be obtained under wet, dry, polished, and rough conditions. The initially rough carbon surface underwent plastic flow producing a smooth, self-adjusting carbon layer. Structural morphology and the amount of disorder in the carbon layers were correlated with the friction and wear performance of the resultant films.

  10. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

  11. Highly N-methylated linear peptides produced by an atypical sponge-derived Acremonium sp.

    PubMed

    Boot, Claudia M; Tenney, Karen; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    RHM1 (1) and RHM2 (2) are highly N-methylated linear octapeptides produced by an atypical strain of Acremonium sp., cultured from a marine sponge collected in Papua New Guinea. The known peptaibiotic efrapeptin G (3) was also isolated from this fungus. The planar structures of 1 and 2 were assigned based on 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and fragmentation patterns from ESIMS. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined via Marfey's method; the absolute configuration of 2 is proposed to be identical. Efrapeptin G (3) displayed potent cytotoxicity against murine cancer cell lines, while RHM1 (1) and RHM2 (2) showed weak cytotoxicity against murine cancer cell lines; efrapeptin G (3) and RHM1 (1) also demonstrated antibacterial activity. PMID:16441074

  12. Micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie

    2013-09-10

    The present invention relates to micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams. In one embodiment, the micro-cone target includes a substantially cone-shaped body including an outer surface, an inner surface, a generally flat and round, open-ended base, and a tip defining an apex. The cone-shaped body tapers along its length from the generally flat and round, open-ended base to the tip defining the apex. In addition, the outer surface and the inner surface connect the base to the tip, and the tip curves inwardly to define an outer surface that is concave, which is bounded by a rim formed at a juncture where the outer surface meets the tip.

  13. Transport of aurorally produced N/2D/ by winds in the high latitude thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional model is developed for describing the meridional circulation of thermospheric odd nitrogen species produced in the auroral zone. The model is based on a previous model by Roble and Gary (1979) extended to upper altitude transport of the nitrogen species. Assumptions made include the existence of a steady neutral wind flowing from low to high latitudes, and an initial background due to scattered Lyman-beta and nightglow emissions. The aurora is also assumed as steady, along with a constant ion production. Predictions made using the model are compared with observations with the Atmosphere Explorer C spacecraft and rocket sounding measurements of the 5200 A distribution near the day-side polar cusp. The model requires thermospheric winds of 100-200 m/sec, flowing from day to nightside. Convective velocities near 1000 m/sec were detected by the Explorer spacecraft, as well as a day-to-nightside flow at the cusp.

  14. Serological screening for Coxiella burnetii infection and related reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Almeria, S; Garcia-Ispierto, I

    2012-08-01

    The possible relationship between Coxiella-seropositivity and the reproductive performance of cows during the previous year to the serological screening was examined in three high producing dairy herds. The herds had a history of subfertility (<25% of pregnancies for the total number of AI), abortion (>18% abortions) and a positive polymerase chain reaction test for Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk with an excretion higher than 10(4)Coxiella /ml for all three herds. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 50.2% of the 781 parous cows analyzed. Coxiella seropositivity was linked to placenta retention, to changes in the interval from parturition to conception (with the lowest interval parturition-conception for cows with low level of seropositivity), early pregnancy (cows becoming pregnant before Day 90 postpartum) and maintenance of gestation during the early fetal period, while it failed to affect rates of abortion after Day 90 of gestation or stillbirth. PMID:21862091

  15. Producing high pressure pseudotachylytes: implications for the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, Natalie; Ashwal, Lewis; Andersen, Torgeir

    2013-04-01

    Gabbro- and peridotite-hosted blueschist facies pseudotachylytes (PST) from Cima di Gratera, Corsica, previously determined to have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions (1.8 - 2.6 GPa, 1400 °C), have been causally linked to the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Detailed petrographic and microtextural analyses of these PST indicate that their initiation is controlled by a thermally activated shear runaway process that is controlled by rheology rather than mineralogy (as with dehydration embrittlement or transformational faulting), such that the rock behaves as a viscoelastic material. This is evidenced by sheared out, prolate, kinked and twinned wallrock clasts that have been peeled off and entrained into the PST vein as sigmoids. The presence of gouge and wallrock grains that have undergone crystal plastic behaviour that increases towards PST are suggestive of a high temperature shear localization mechanism. The presence of metastable high temperature crystallisation products from the PST such as hoppers and dendrites of olivine (Mg# 84), enstatite and diopside (peridotite), and Al-rich omphacite and Fe-rich anorthite (gabbro) support the hypothesis of a short-lived high temperature event resulting from thermal runaway. Overprinting of these high temperature mineral assemblages by ones indicating lower temperatures, but still high pressures, such as glaucophane, albite and epidote (gabbro) and clinochore, fine-grained granoblastic olivine, enstatite and diopside (peridotite) are further support of this. The detailed study of two different lithologies (peridotite and gabbro) that were exposed to similarly high PST-producing P-T conditions are used to corroborate the proposed runaway process. This work provides the first detailed observations from natural samples indicating that intermediate-depth seismicity may be generated by thermal runaway. Detailed microprobe analyses and BSE imaging of the PST vein matrix (comprising glass, the crystallisation products and entrained wallrock material) show that the PST melt ranges in water content from 0 - 14 wt%. This water is derived internally within the shear system due to the wholesale fusion of hydrous wallrock minerals (glaucophane, tremolite, clinochlore and serpentine) rather than dehydration. These observations, together with the microtextures, preclude local dehydration embrittlement, transformational faulting and purely ductile models such as self-localizing runaway (as proposed by Kelemen and Hirth, 2007 and John et al., 2009) as sources of intermediate-depth seismicity.

  16. Development of high-emittance scales on thoriated nickel-chromium-aluminum-base alloys. [produced by high temperature oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, I. G.; Wilcox, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The surface regions of a DSNiCrAl alloy have been doped, by a pack diffusion process, with small amounts of Mn, Fe, or Co, and the effect of these dopants on the total normal emissivity of the scales produced by subsequent high temperature oxidation has been measured. While all three elements lead to a modest increase in emissivity, (up to 23% greater than the undoped alloy) only the change caused by manganese is thermally stable. However, this increased emissivity is within 85 percent of that of TDNiCr oxidized to form a chromia scale. The maganese-doped alloy is some 50 percent weaker than undoped DSNiCrAl after the doping treatment, and approximately 30 percent weaker after oxidation.

  17. Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

  18. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain: high percentage of colistin resistance among VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 isolates.

    PubMed

    Pena, Irene; Picazo, Juan J; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar

    2014-05-01

    Here we describe the carbapenemase genes, genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility data of 123 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) clinical isolates recovered from 2010 to 2012, comprising Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 79), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 13), Serratia marcescens (n = 14), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 12), Enterobacter asburiae (n = 4) and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 1). VIM-1 was the most common carbapenemase (n = 101) followed by KPC-2 (n = 19), OXA-48 (n = 2) and IMP-22 (n = 1). Among the K. pneumoniae isolates, nine sequence types (STs) were identified but two clones were dominant: ST11 (54/79) containing mainly VIM-1-producing isolates; and ST101 (13/79) constituted by KPC-2-producing strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed a higher genetic diversity among the remaining Enterobacteriaceae. Amikacin and fosfomycin were the most active agents with 82.9% and 80.5% susceptibility, respectively. Non-susceptibility to tigecycline was detected in 36.5% of strains. Overall, colistin resistance was 24.7% and was as high as 47% in Enterobacter spp. An increase in colistin resistance from 13.5% to 31.7% was observed among K. pneumoniae isolates during the study period. Resistance was focused on ST11 since 83.3% of colistin-resistant strains belonged to this clone. The high level of colistin resistance observed in this study is worrying with respect to the already limited therapeutic options for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24657043

  19. Estimation of intake in high producing Holstein cows grazing grass pasture.

    PubMed

    Holden, L A; Muller, L D; Fales, S L

    1994-08-01

    The objectives were to estimate intake of pasture and total DMI by high producing cows grazing grass pastures and to measure changes in nutrient composition of grass pasture during the grazing season. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows averaging 31 kg of 4% FCM/d at the start of the trial grazed grass pastures at a stocking rate of 2.5 or 3.9 cows/ha from April until October 1990. Intake was estimated using Cr2O3 as an indigestible fecal marker. Pasture samples were analyzed for nutrient composition at six times during the grazing season corresponding to the times of intake estimation. Total daily DMI increased from 21.3 kg in early spring to 22.4 kg in late spring and then decreased as lactation progressed; however, DMI exceeded NRC recommendations during most of the grazing season. Daily pasture DMI varied with season, ranging from 11.6 to 15.6 kg and was lowest (11.6 kg) in the summer. Estimated NEL intakes were lower than NRC recommendations in early spring. During the grazing season, pasture ranged from 39 to 48% NDF and from 22 to 30% CP with 15 to 20% ruminally degradable protein on a DM basis. Grazing cows consumed adequate DM from pasture except in early spring. Although nutrient composition of pasture varied with season, quality remained high. PMID:7962855

  20. Coupled-Multiplier Accelerator Produces High-Power Electron Beams for Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hatridge, M.; McIntyre, P.; Roberson, S.; Sattarov, A.; Thomas, E.; Meitzler, Charles [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University (United States); Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University (United States)

    2003-08-26

    The coupled multiplier is a new approach to efficient generation of MeV d.c. power for accelerator applications. High voltage is produced by a series of modules, each of which consists of a high-power alternator, step-up transformer, and 3-phase multiplier circuit. The alternators are connected mechanically along a rotating shaft, and connected by insulating flexible couplers. This approach differs from all previous d.c. technologies in that power is delivered to the various stages of the system mechanically, rather than through capacitive or inductive electrical coupling. For this reason the capital cost depends linearly on required voltage and power, rather than quadratically as with conventional technologies. The CM technology enables multiple electron beams to be driven within a common supply and insulating housing. MeV electron beam is extremely effective in decomposing organic contaminants in water. A 1 MeV, 100 kW industrial accelerator using the CM technology has been built and is being installed for treatment of wastewater at a petrochemical plant.

  1. Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of hepatotoxic peptides in lichen symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. Microcystins are potent toxins that are responsible for the poisoning of both humans and animals. These toxins are mainly associated with aquatic cyanobacterial blooms, but here we show that the cyanobacterial symbionts of terrestrial lichens from all over the world commonly produce microcystins. We screened 803 lichen specimens from five different continents for cyanobacterial toxins by amplifying a part of the gene cluster encoding the enzyme complex responsible for microcystin production and detecting toxins directly from lichen thalli. We found either the biosynthetic genes for making microcystins or the toxin itself in 12% of all analyzed lichen specimens. A plethora of different microcystins was found with over 50 chemical variants, and many of the variants detected have only rarely been reported from free-living cyanobacteria. In addition, high amounts of nodularin, up to 60 ?g g?1, were detected from some lichen thalli. This microcystin analog and potent hepatotoxin has previously been known only from the aquatic bloom-forming genus Nodularia. Our results demonstrate that the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins in lichen symbiosis is a global phenomenon and occurs in many different lichen lineages. The very high genetic diversity of the mcyE gene and the chemical diversity of microcystins suggest that lichen symbioses may have been an important environment for diversification of these cyanobacteria. PMID:22451908

  2. Scintillation light produced by low-energy beams of highly-charged ions

    E-print Network

    Vogel, M; Ernst, H; Zimmermann, H; Kester, O

    2008-01-01

    Measurements have been performed of scintillation light intensities emitted from various inorganic scintillators irradiated with low-energy beams of highly-charged ions from an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Beams of xenon ions Xe$^{q+}$ with various charge states between $q$=2 and $q$=18 have been used at energies between 5 keV and 17.5 keV per charge generated by the ECRIS. The intensity of the beam was typically varied between 1 and 100 nA. Beams of highly charged residual gas ions have been produced by the EBIS at 4.5 keV per charge and with low intensities down to 100 pA. The scintillator materials used are flat screens of P46 YAG and P43 phosphor. In all cases, scintillation light emitted from the screen surface was detected by a CCD camera. The scintillation light intensity has been found to depend linearly on the kinetic ion energy per time deposited into the scintillator, while up to $q$=18 no significant contribution from the ions' potential e...

  3. Scintillation light produced by low-energy beams of highly-charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M.; Winters, D. F. A.; Ernst, H.; Zimmermann, H.; Kester, O.

    2007-10-01

    Measurements have been performed of scintillation light intensities emitted from various inorganic scintillators irradiated with low-energy beams of highly-charged ions from an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Beams of xenon ions Xe q+ with various charge states between q = 2 and q = 18 have been used at energies between 5 and 17.5 keV per charge generated by the ECRIS. The intensity of the beam was typically varied between 1 and 100 nA. Beams of highly charged residual gas ions have been produced by the EBIS at 4.5 keV per charge and with low intensities down to 100 pA. The scintillator materials used are flat screens of P46 YAG and P43 phosphor. In all cases, scintillation light emitted from the screen surface was detected by a CCD camera. The scintillation light intensity has been found to depend linearly on the kinetic ion energy per time deposited into the scintillator, while up to q = 18 no significant contribution from the ions' potential energy was found. We discuss the results on the background of a possible use as beam diagnostics, e.g. for the new HITRAP facility at GSI, Germany.

  4. Intense electron emission due to picosecond laser-produced plasmas in high gradient electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Tsang, T.; Kirk, H.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Fischer, J.; Batchelor, K.; Russell, P.; Fernow, R.C. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Picosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 266 nm have been focused onto a solid metal cathode in coincidence with high gradient electric fields to produce high brightness electron beams. At power densities exceeding 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, a solid density plasma is formed and intense bursts of electrons are emitted from the target accompanied by macroscopic surface damage. An inferred {similar to}1 {mu}C of integrated charge with an average current of {similar to}20 A is emitted from a radio-frequency cavity driven at electric field gradients of {similar to}80 MV/m. In another experiment, where a dc extraction field of {similar to}6 MV/m is used, we observed an electron charge of {similar to}0.17 {mu}C. Both results are compared with the Schottky effect and the Fowler--Nordheim field emission. We found that this laser-induced intense electron emission shares many features with the explosive electron emission processes. No selective wavelength dependence is observed in the production of the intense electron emission in the dc extraction field. The integrated electrons give an apparent quantum efficiency of {similar to}1.2%, which is one of the highest reported to date from metal photocathodes at these photon energies.

  5. Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

    1983-07-26

    One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

  6. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  7. Proximity coupling in high-T{sub c} Josephson junctions produced by focused electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Booij, W.E. [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Pauza, A.J.; Tarte, E.J.; Moore, D.F. [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Blamire, M.G. [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    Using the particular benefits of focused electron beam irradiation (FEBI) junctions, such as on chip modification of the barrier resistivity through controlled variation of the electron fluence and annealing, we show that the conventional model for superconductor{endash}normal-metal{endash}superconductor (SNS) junctions as derived by De Gennes can explain their behavior in great detail. We find that the damage distribution produced by the electron beam has a full width at half maximum of the order of 15 nm and is largely determined by the profile of the electron beam used in the fabrication process. Due to the high defect concentration produced by the electron beam, the barrier material is nonsuperconducting and has a much higher normal-state resistivity than undamaged YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. From the exponential scaling of the critical current (I{sub c}) with the square root of the resistance (R{sub n}) it is shown that FEBI junctions have a dirty limit SNS character and that the carrier mass in the irradiated material is of the order of m{sub e}. Both the quadratic scaling of I{sub c} with T{sub c}{minus}T close to T{sub c} and the reduced I{sub c}R{sub n} values of the junctions indicate that the SN interface has a soft boundary nature. From the low-temperature scaling of I{sub c}R{sub n} with the ratio of the barrier length and the coherence length we find that the suppressed superconducting gap at the SN interface is approximately 4.5 meV. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. High-Energy Neutrinos Produced by Interactions of Relativistic Protons in Shocked Pulsar Winds

    E-print Network

    S. Nagataki

    2003-09-26

    We have estimated fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays that are generated from decays of charged and neutral pions from a pulsar surrounded by supernova ejecta in our galaxy, including an effect that has not been taken into consideration, that is, interactions between high energy cosmic rays themselves in the nebula flow, assuming that hadronic components are the energetically dominant species in the pulsar wind. Bulk flow is assumed to be randomized by passing through the termination shock and energy distribution functions of protons and electrons behind the termination shock are assumed to obey the relativistic Maxwellians. We have found that fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays depend very sensitively on the wind luminosity, which is assumed to be comparable to the spin-downluminosity. In the case where B=10^{12}G and P=1ms, neutrinos should be detected by km^3 high-energy neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and IceCube. Also, gamma-rays should be detected by Cherenkov telescopes such as CANGAROO and H.E.S.S. as well as by gamma-ray satellites such as GLAST. On the other hand, in the case where B=10^{12}G and P=5ms, fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays will be too low to be detected even by the next-generation detectors. However, even in the case where B=10^{12}G and P=5ms, there is a possibility that very high fluxes of neutrinos may be realized at early stage of a supernova explosion (t \\le 1yr), where the location of the termination shock is very near to the pulsar. We also found that there is a possibility that protons with energies \\sim 10^5 GeV in the nebula flow may interact with the photon field from surface of the pulsar and produce much pions, which enhances the intensity of resulting neutrinos and gamma-rays.

  9. Multiple Species of Trichosporon Produce Biofilms Highly Resistant to Triazoles and Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Iturrieta-González, Isabel Antonieta; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Bizerra, Fernando César; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon spp. have increased considerably in recent years, especially in neutropenic and critically ill patients using catheters and antibiotics. The genus presents limited sensitivity to different antifungal agents, but triazoles are the first choice for treatment. Here, we investigated the biofilm production and antifungal susceptibility to triazoles and amphotericin B of 54 Trichosporon spp. isolates obtained from blood samples (19), urine (20) and superficial mycosis (15). All isolates and 7 reference strains were identified by sequence analysis and phylogenetic inferences of the IGS1 region of the rDNA. Biofilms were grown on 96-well plates and quantitation was performed using crystal violet staining, complemented with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Susceptibility tests for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B were processed using the microdilution broth method (CLSI) for planktonic cells and XTT reduction assay for biofilm-forming cells. Our results showed that T. asahii was the most frequent species identified (66.7%), followed by T. faecale (11.1%), T. asteroides (9.3%), T. inkin (7.4%), T. dermatis (3.7%) and one T. coremiiforme (1.8%). We identified 4 genotypes within T. asahii isolates (G1, G3, G4 and G5) and 2 genotypes within T. faecale (G1 and G3). All species exhibited high adhesion and biofilm formation capabilities, mainly T. inkin, T. asteroides and T. faecale. Microscopy images of high biofilm-producing isolates showed that T. asahii presented mainly hyphae and arthroconidia, whereas T. asteroides exhibited mainly short arthroconidia and few filaments. Voriconazole exhibited the best in vitro activity against all species tested. Biofilm-forming cells of isolates and reference strains were highly resistant to all antifungals tested. We concluded that levels of biofilm formation by Trichosporon spp. were similar or even greater than those described for the Candida genus. Biofilm-forming cells were at least 1,000 times more resistant to antifungals than planktonic cells, especially to voriconazole. PMID:25360765

  10. Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic Activity Accomplishments #12;Reproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticReproducible Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in Reusable BioMEMSActivity in Reusable BioMEMS Accomplishment Pro-tagged Pfs enzymes are spatially assembled

  11. Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

    Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

  12. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Stesmans, A.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ˜100 ?s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 ?m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 ?s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  13. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ?100??s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1??m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461??s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  14. High-throughput detection of ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in a microdroplet platform.

    PubMed

    Abalde-Cela, Sara; Gould, Anna; Liu, Xin; Kazamia, Elena; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol production by microorganisms is an important renewable energy source. Most processes involve fermentation of sugars from plant feedstock, but there is increasing interest in direct ethanol production by photosynthetic organisms. To facilitate this, a high-throughput screening technique for the detection of ethanol is required. Here, a method for the quantitative detection of ethanol in a microdroplet-based platform is described that can be used for screening cyanobacterial strains to identify those with the highest ethanol productivity levels. The detection of ethanol by enzymatic assay was optimized both in bulk and in microdroplets. In parallel, the encapsulation of engineered ethanol-producing cyanobacteria in microdroplets and their growth dynamics in microdroplet reservoirs were demonstrated. The combination of modular microdroplet operations including droplet generation for cyanobacteria encapsulation, droplet re-injection and pico-injection, and laser-induced fluorescence, were used to create this new platform to screen genetically engineered strains of cyanobacteria with different levels of ethanol production. PMID:25878135

  15. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, K.W.; Maley, N.

    2000-06-20

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  16. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  17. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  18. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography purification of biosurfactant isoforms produced by a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Sivapathasekaran, C; Mukherjee, Soumen; Samanta, Ramapati; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-01

    A marine Bacillus strain produced biosurfactant during its growth in a defined glucose-containing medium. An efficient method for separation and purification of biosurfactant isoforms was developed and optimized in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by manipulating solvent gradient program and flow rates. Starting with an initial run time of 60 min, the final optimized method had a significantly reduced run time of 20 min. By using this method, all the surface-active isoforms (fractions A-D) were eluted within 12 min of elution with much shortened retention time of each component. The purity levels of the isoforms were enhanced using the optimized method as evident from their lower CMC values. Among the four surface-active fractions, antimicrobial action was solely displayed by HPLC fraction A. FTIR analysis revealed all the HPLC fractions to be lipopeptide in nature and MALDI-ToF mass spectral analysis showed that these belonged to the fengycin family containing C(15), C(16), and C(17) fengycins. PMID:19688340

  20. Thermophysical property measurement at high temperatures by laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethehem, PA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Excitation by a high-power laser pulse of a material surface generates a sequence of plasma, fluid flow, and acoustic events. These are well separated in time, and their detection and analysis can lead to determination of material properties of the condensed phase target. We have developed a new methodology for real-time determination of molten metal composition by time-resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas (LPP). If the laser pulse is shaped in such a way that the movement of the bulk surface due to evaporation is kept in pace with the thermal diffusion front advancing into the interior of the target, the LPP plume becomes representative of the bulk in elemental composition. In addition, the mass loss due to LPP ablation is very well correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the target matter. For several elemental solid specimens, we show that the product of the ablation thickness and heat of formation is proportional to the thermal diffusivity per unit molecular weight. Such measurements can be extended to molten metal specimens if the mass loss by ablation, density, heat of formation, and molecular weight can be determined simultaneously. The results from the solid specimen and the progress with a levitation-assisted molten metal experiment are presented.

  1. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  2. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil- and natural gas-producing region of the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional-scale air quality model (WRF-Chem) to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high-resolution meteorological simulations are able qualitatively to reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and the accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on estimates of methane (CH4) emissions derived from in situ aircraft measurements and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than in the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. The model simulation using the top-down emission case captures the buildup and afternoon peaks observed during high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive within the UB. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. The model analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover.

  3. Medium- and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Nenci, Fabio; Cinquepalmi, Massimo; Chita, Giuseppe

    1998-07-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For the other ones, operating to high pressure range, generally the two components of the transducers are both threaded only and threaded and then circularly welded by micro TIG for the other higher range, till to 1000 bar. In this work the products, operating on the approximately equals 30 divided by 200 bar, are considered. These, when assembled on industrial plants, as an outcome of a non-correct operating sequence, give a 'shifted' electrical signal. This is due to a shift of the 'zero electrical signal' that unbalances the electrical bridge - thin layer sensor - that is the sensitive part of the product. Moreover, for the same problem, often some mechanical settlings of the transducer happen during the first pressure semi-components, with an increasing of the product manufacturing costs. In light of all this, the above referred, in this work the whole transducer has been re-designed according to the specific laser welding technology requirements. On the new product no threaded parts exist but only a circular laser welding with a full penetration depth about 2.5 divided by 3 mm high. Three different alloys have been tested according to the applications and the mechanical properties requested to the transducer. By using a 1.5 KW CO2 laser system many different working parameters have been evaluated for correlating laser parameters to the penetration depths, crown wides, interaction laser-materia times, mechanical and metallurgical properties. Moreover during the laser welding process the measurements of the maximum temperature, reached by the transducer top, has been read and recorded. At least some transducers, before the usual destructive testings, have been undertaken to many pressure test cycles to verify any pressure drops, the transducer sealing and the total quality of the new product.

  4. Performance of high producing dairy cows offered drinking water of high and low salinity in the Arava desert.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R; Miron, J; Ben-Ghedalia, D; Zomberg, Z

    1995-03-01

    The effect of supplying high producing Israeli Holstein cows with desalinated or salty water on milk composition and production was examined in the Arava desert of southern Israel. Daily water consumption of cows offered desalinated water was higher by 10.6 L than that of the group offered salty drinking water; DMI was similar for the two groups. Daily production of milk and 3.5% FCM was higher for the cows receiving desalinated water than for the cows receiving salty water; 35.2 versus 33.1 kg and 31.6 versus 29.8 kg, respectively. The percentage of protein in milk and the daily protein production were higher for the cows receiving desalinated water than for the cows receiving salty water: 2.89% and 1.01 kg versus 2.84% and .93 kg, respectively. The percentage of milk fat and the daily fat production were higher for the cows receiving desalinated water. These results indicate that water salinity negatively affects milk production. Improvement of water quality by desalination increased production of milk and milk constituents. PMID:7782517

  5. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  6. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  7. Swine Intestinal Tract Harbors a High Diversity of Butyrate-Producing Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a preferred energy source of human colonic epithelial cells, and changes in the communities of butyrate-producing bacteria have been associated with adverse health. We hypothesize that in swine, like in humans, butyrate-producing bacteria contribute to a healthy intestinal ecosystem. T...

  8. Comparing the Characteristics of Schools That Produce High Percentages and Low Percentages of Primary Care Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Michael E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared characteristics of the 25 medical schools producing the lowest percentage of primary care physicians with the 25 producing the largest percentage. Results indicate differences in school commitment to primary care education, research programs, and clinical environments supporting required clerkships, suggesting educational…

  9. Reproducibility of Research Algorithms in GOES-R Operational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennelly, E.; Botos, C.; Snell, H. E.; Steinfelt, E.; Khanna, R.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    The research to operations transition for satellite observations is an area of active interest as identified by The National Research Council Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations. Their report recommends improved transitional processes for bridging technology from research to operations. Assuring the accuracy of operational algorithm results as compared to research baselines, called reproducibility in this paper, is a critical step in the GOES-R transition process. This paper defines reproducibility methods and measurements for verifying that operationally implemented algorithms conform to research baselines, demonstrated with examples from GOES-R software development. The approach defines reproducibility for implemented algorithms that produce continuous data in terms of a traditional goodness-of-fit measure (i.e., correlation coefficient), while the reproducibility for discrete categorical data is measured using a classification matrix. These reproducibility metrics have been incorporated in a set of Test Tools developed for GOES-R and the software processes have been developed to include these metrics to validate both the scientific and numerical implementation of the GOES-R algorithms. In this work, we outline the test and validation processes and summarize the current results for GOES-R Level 2+ algorithms.

  10. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  11. Feeding management and characteristics of rations for high-producing dairy cows in freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Endres, M I; Espejo, L A

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional observational study were to 1) describe the feeding management and characteristics of rations for high-producing Holstein cows housed in freestall barns in Minnesota, 2) evaluate ration change over time, and 3) investigate herd-level risk factors for ration change. Each of 50 randomly selected freestall dairy herds was visited once during the study. Samples of TMR were collected from the high-production group feed bunk to represent the initial ration as delivered to the cows, 3 additional samples were collected every 2 to 3h after feed delivery, and the accumulated orts were cleaned out of the feed bunk. Feeding management practices and TMR formulation were also collected at the time of visit. Seventy percent of herds fed once daily, 22% fed twice daily, and 8% fed 3 times daily. Frequency of feed push-up was 5.4+/-2.3 times daily. Linear feed bunk space per cow was 0.45+/-0.11m. Sixty-two percent of the farms had 3-row pens and 38% had 2-row pens. Linear feed bunk space per cow was greater in 2-row pens (0.56 m/cow) than in 3-row pens (0.39 m/cow). Post and rail was the most common type of feed barrier; it was used by 60% of the herds. Headlocks were used by 28% of the herds, combination of post and rail with headlocks was used by 8%, and diagonal bars were used by 4%. Water trough linear space was 4.6+/-2.1 cm/cow. Estimated dry matter intake was 24.3 kg/cow per day. The forage content of the formulated ration was 52% of the ration DM, and corn silage was the most commonly used forage. The NDF content of the analyzed ration was greater than the NDF content of the formulated ration (30.6 and 29.8%, respectively). In contrast, the CP content was lower (17.5 and 17.9%, respectively). Some feeding management practices (e.g., feeding frequency) were associated with ration NDF content change over time. This association may be minimized by implementing ration and management changes. PMID:20105555

  12. Reproduced from: 3 November 2004: B24

    E-print Network

    Turner, Scott

    , there is a 50% probability that a gene carried by me is identical to one carried by my sister. This gene, no matter which body it resides in, mine or my sister's, can be transmitted either by me reproducing, or by me "altruistically" doing something that at least doubles the chance my sister will reproduce

  13. Reproducing Kernel Element Interpolation: Globally Conforming Im

    E-print Network

    Li, Shaofan

    Reproducing Kernel Element Interpolation: Globally Conforming Im /Cn /P k Hierarchies Shaofan Li1 hierarchies are constructed in the framework of reproducing kernel element method (RKEM) for multi in multiple dimension was the challenge in the early development of finite element methods. It attracted

  14. Performance and Nutrient Intake of High Producing Holstein Cows Consuming Pasture or a Total Mixed Ration1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Kolver; L. D. Muller

    1998-01-01

    We compared the intakes of nutrients by high producing Holstein cows consuming pasture or a full nutrient positive control ration (total mixed ration; TMR) and identified nutrients that limited the milk production of cows consuming the high quality pasture. Cows (n = 8 ) were adapted to an all pasture diet by incrementally reducing the amount of TMR fed over

  15. Viability of seed produced on highly sodic coal-mine spoils. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.Z.; McDonough, W.T.; Farmer, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    An adapted plant species must not only grow on a particular site, but also produce viable seeds capable of germination and establishment on the site. Ten species of rangeland grasses had been successfully used to revegetate sodic mine spoils at the Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana. However, the effect of the sodic spoils on seed viability, and hence the potential for regeneration, was unknown. Seeds produced by these plants were tested for viability and germination.

  16. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings per inch (.28 openings per centimeter)] and is used in conjunction with the press-piston head. Supporting equipment includes a soy-milk heat exchanger for maintaining selected coagulation temperatures, a filter system for separating okara from other particulate matter and from soy milk, two pumps, and various thermocouples, flowmeters, level indicators, pressure sensors, valves, tubes, and sample ports

  17. High numbers of IL2-producing CD8M T cells during viral infection: correlation with stable memory development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanna Ny Kristensen; Jan Pravsgaard Christensen; Allan Randrup Thomsen

    Using infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus in mice as model systems, we have investigated the ability of antigen-primed CD8M T cells generated in the context of viral infections to produce IL-2. Our results indicate that acute immunizing infection normally leads to generation of high numbers of IL-2-producing antigen-specific CD8M T cells. By costaining for IL-2

  18. Commercial Broth Microdilution Panel Validation and Reproducibility Trials for Garenoxacin (BMS-284756), a Novel Desfluoroquinolone

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Kelley A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2003-01-01

    Results from garenoxacin dry-form broth microdilution MIC panels prepared commercially (Sensititre, TREK Diagnostics) were compared to reference frozen-form MICs to ensure the validity of the longer-shelf-life product. A total of 1,078 organisms from seven major organism groups were used in this trial. All commercial MIC results were within ± one log2 dilution of reference garenoxacin values, and reproducibility trials produced identical MIC results for 90.5 to 92.1% of garenoxacin MIC comparisons. Control quinolones (ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin) also performed at a similarly high level of accuracy. PMID:12904431

  19. Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)

  20. Reproducibility and utility of dune luminescence chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, Carly L.; Thomas, David S. G.; Bailey, Richard M.

    2014-02-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of dune deposits has increasingly been used as a tool to investigate the response of aeolian systems to environmental change. Amalgamation of individual dune accumulation chronologies has been employed in order to distinguish regional from local geomorphic responses to change. However, advances in dating have produced chronologies of increasing complexity. In particular, questions regarding the interpretation of dune ages have been raised, including over the most appropriate method to evaluate the significance of suites of OSL ages when local 'noisy' and discontinuous records are combined. In this paper, these issues are reviewed and the reproducibility of dune chronologies is assessed. OSL ages from two cores sampled from the same dune in the northeast Rub' al Khali, United Arab Emirates, are presented and compared, alongside an analysis of previously published dune ages dated to within the last 30 ka. Distinct periods of aeolian activity and preservation are identified, which can be tied to regional climatic and environmental changes. This case study is used to address fundamental questions that are persistently asked of dune dating studies, including the appropriate spatial scale over which to infer environmental and climatic change based on dune chronologies, whether chronological hiatuses can be interpreted, how to most appropriately combine and display datasets, and the relationship between geomorphic and palaeoclimatic signals. Chronological profiles reflect localised responses to environmental variability and climatic forcing, and amalgamation of datasets, with consideration of sampling resolution, is required; otherwise local factors are always likely to dominate. Using net accumulation rates to display ages may provide an informative approach of analysing and presenting dune OSL chronologies less susceptible to biases resulting from insufficient sampling resolution.

  1. New Approach to Increasing Rice Lodging Resistance and Biomass Yield Through the Use of High Gibberellin Producing Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass. PMID:24586255

  2. The diagnostics of plasmas produced by a high power excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueqing; Liu, Jingru; Yi, Aiping; Hua, Hengqi; Zheng, Guoxin; Xue, Quanxi; Qian, Hang; Huang, Chao; Xiao, Weiwei; Huang, Xin; Ye, Xisheng; Wang, Lijun

    2007-05-01

    A special designed long pulse XeCl MOPA laser system and its initial laser-target experiments are introduced. Laser produced plasmas of carbon, aluminum and copper are concerned. Based on measured results of plasma spectra and framing pictures of ejected plume, Plasma temperature and expanded speed of plasma flume are obtained.

  3. Method of producing high aromatic yields through aromatics removal and recycle of remaining material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Jacobson; L. W. Jossens

    1987-01-01

    A dehydrocyclization process is described comprising: (a) contacting a naphtha feed in a reaction vessel with a dehydrocyclization catalyst at process conditions which favor dehydrocyclization to produce an aromatics product and a gaseous stream wherein the catalyst is a monofunctional catalyst comprising a large-pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal; (b) separating the aromatics product from the gaseous

  4. Esterification with ethanol to produce biodiesel from high acidity raw materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Pisarello; B. Dalla Costa; G. Mendow; C. A. Querini

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA) in sunflower oil, coconut oil and concentrated FFA, with ethanol, methanol and ethanol 96%, using homogeneous acid catalysts to produce biodiesel is studied. Kinetic parameters are estimated with a simplified model, and then used to predict the reaction behavior. Reactions other than the reversible esterification are considered to explain

  5. High prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Norwegian patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Silje Bakken; Samuelsen, Orjan; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Bhatti, Sidra Ahmad; Jørgensen, Ingvild; Sivapathasundaram, Thusanth; Leegaard, Truls Michael

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients with gastroenteritis. During April 2011, all faecal samples submitted to our hospital laboratory were examined for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates expressing an ESBL phenotype were investigated for the presence of genes encoding broad-spectrum beta-lactamases, ESBLs, carbapenemases, and plasmid-mediated AmpC. Information on age, gender, and travel history was extracted from the laboratory records. In total 273 faecal samples were included. The overall carrier rate in the study population was 15.8%. The ESBL carrier rate among patients with no history of recent travel, or where this information was missing, was 10.3%. In contrast, the carrier rate was 56.3% (odds ratio 16.3, p < 0.001) among patients with a record of travel to Asia. Two ESBL-producing isolates were identified as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Co-resistance between third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones was seen in 49% of isolates. No carbapenemase-producers were found. PMID:24702690

  6. Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

    2014-08-01

    Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution meteorological simulations are able to qualitatively reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on the previously derived estimates of methane (CH4) emissions and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. WRF-Chem simulations using the two emission data sets resulted in significant differences for concentrations of most gas-phase species. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. Comparison of simulations using the two emission data sets reveals that the top-down case captures the high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation case using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that the UB O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. We also present modeling results for winter of 2012, when high O3 levels were not observed in the UB. The air quality model together with the top-down emission framework presented here may help to address the emerging science and policy related questions surrounding the environmental impact of oil and NG drilling in western US.

  7. Copyright Association for Investment Management Research. Reproduced

    E-print Network

    Copyright Association for Investment Management Research. Reproduced republished Benchmarks Attribution permission Association for Investment Management All ©2001, ® www.aimr.org . Toward Agent of money relationships imply. is about demands investors create inefficiencies. inefficiencies arise

  8. Use of transformers in producing high-power output from homopolar generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Lupton; R. D. Ford; D. Conte; H. B. Lindstrom; I. M. Vitkovitsky

    1979-01-01

    Analysis is presented for systems using high current pulse transformers to exploit the high energy storage capability of homopolar generators or other limited current sources. The stepped-up secondary current can be established either by current interruption when the primary is also used for energy storage or by commutation of current into the primary from a separate storage inductor. For high-power

  9. Reproducibility of neuroendocrine lung tumor classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D Travis; Anthony A Gal; Thomas V Colby; David S Klimstra; Roni Falk; Michael N Koss

    1998-01-01

    For a tumor classification scheme to be useful, it must be reproducible and it must show clinical significance. Classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors is a difficult problem with little information about interobserver reproducibility. We sought to evaluate the classification of typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors as proposed by W.D. Travis

  10. A Rubber-Modified Thermoplastic where the Morphology Produced by Phase-Separation Induced by Polymerization Disappears at High Conversions

    E-print Network

    E. R. Soule; G. E. Elicabe; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21

    An unexpected experimental finding is reported where the primary morphology developed during polymerization-induced phase separation in a rubber-modified thermoplastic disappears at high conversions. This process was evidenced by light scattering (LS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a particular composition of solutions of polyisobutylene oligomers (PIB) in isobornylmethacrylate (IBoMA), during the free-radical polymerization of the monomer. The primary phase separation produced a dispersion of domains rich in PIB containing significant amounts of the monomer (IBoMA). Polymerization of the monomer in these domains occurred at high overall conversions producing the filling of dispersed domains with a PIBoMA-PIB blend. Under these conditions the final material had the appearance of a homogeneous blend. The process might be adapted to produce new types of rubber-modified thermoplastics where rubber particles are replaced by rubber-rich domains that do not exhibit definite boundaries. Keywords:

  11. Mineral-produced high-pressure striae and clay polish: Key evidence for nonballistic transport of ejecta from Ries crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Recently discovered mineral-produced, deeply incised striae and mirror-like polish on broken surfaces of limestone fragments from the sedimentary ejecta of the Ries impact crater of southern Germany are described. The striae and polish were produced under high confining pressures during high-velocity nonballistic transport of the ejecta mass within the time span of the cratering event (measured in terms of seconds). The striae on these fragments were produced by scouring by small mineral grains embedded in the surrounding clay matrix, and the polish was formed under the same condition, by movements of relatively fragment-free clay against the fragment surfaces. The occurrence of these striae and polish is key evidence for estimating the distribution and determining the relative importance of nonballistic and ballistic transport of ejecta from the shallow Ries stony meteorite impact crater.

  12. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yongli

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaAS(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia, or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid to form the desired compound or a precursor that can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities, and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE systems. Ongoing research using the same apparatus suggests that photon or electron irradiation could be used to promote the reactions needed to produce the intended material.

  13. Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

    2008-05-01

    Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

  14. High$beta$ capture and mirror confinement of laser-produced plasmas. Semiannual report, February 1July 31, 1973

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Haught; D. H. Polk; J. T. Woo; W. J. Fader; R. G. Tomlinson; R. A. Jong; W. B. Ard

    1973-01-01

    The United Aircraft Research Laboratories are engaged in a program to ; investigate the use of a dense, mirror-confined, laser-produced plasma as the ; target for a neutral-injection beam and to examine this technique for ; establishing and maintaining a high-temperature, high-density, steady-state, ; mirrorconfined fusion plasma. The program is a direct extension of the current ; UARL investigations of

  15. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans in a Se-deficient rat model. The Se content of soybean seeds, protein isolate and tofu was 5.17 ± 0.22, 11.44 ± 0.09 and 7.37 ± 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Male ...

  16. High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency. When recording and analysing these

  17. High-resolution ultrasonic monitoring of cellular differentiation in an ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Winterroth; S. J. Hollister; K. W. Hollman; S. E. Feinberg; J. B. Fowlkes; S. Kuo; K. Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Background, Motivation and Objective This study examines the use of high-resolution ultrasound to monitor an ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) as it develops from oral keratinocytes being seeded on a dermal cadaveric scaffold, with surface variations, into a stratified uniform cellular layer. Ultrasonic profilometry should be able to detect filling and smoothing of surface irregularities as seeded cells

  18. An alternative membrane treatment process to produce low-salt and high-nutrient recycled water suitable for irrigation purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Mrayed; P. Sanciolo; L. Zou; G. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the flexibility and effectiveness of using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to produce recycled water that is suitable for irrigation purposes from treated water with high salinity. An intermediate NF stage was added to the conventional microfiltration (MF)–RO process to extract the useful nutrient ions from the stream rather than allowing

  19. Amplification of the isopenicillin N synthetase gene in a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing high levels of penicillin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Smith; John H. Bull; Jeffrey Edwards; Geoffrey Turner

    1989-01-01

    The isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) gene has been isolated from wild-type Penicillium chrysogenum and used as a probe to detect the equivalent gene on Southern blots of genomic DNA from a mutant producing high levels of penicillin. The IPNS gene in this strain is contained within a region of DNA of wild-type restriction pattern that extends for at least 39

  20. A study of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in LHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Saito; R. Kumazawa; T. Mutoh; T. Seki; T. Watari; T. Yamamoto; Y. Torii; N. Takeuchi; C. Zhang; Y. Zhao; A. Fukuyama; F. Shimpo; G. Nomura; M. Yokota; A. Kato; M. Sasao; M. Isobe; A. V. Krasilnikov; T. Ozaki; M. Osakabe; K. Narihara; Y. Nagayama; S. Inagaki; K. Itoh; T. Ido; S. Morita; K. Ohkubo; M. Sato; S. Kubo; T. Shimozuma; H. Idei; Y. Yoshimura; T. Notake; O. Kaneko; Y. Takeiri; Y. Oka; K. Tsumori; K. Ikeda; A. Komori; H. Yamada; H. Funaba; K. Y. Watanabe; S. Sakakibara; R. Sakamoto; J. Miyazawa; K. Tanaka; B. J. Peterson; N. Ashikawa; S. Murakami; T. Minami; M. Shoji; S. Ohdachi; S. Yamamoto; H. Suzuki; K. Kawahata; M. Emoto; H. Nakanishi; N. Inoue; N. Ohyabu; Y. Nakamura; S. Masuzaki; S. Muto; K. Sato; T. Morisaki; M. Yokoyama; T. Watanabe; M. Goto; I. Yamada; K. Ida; T. Tokuzawa; N. Noda; K. Toi; S. Yamaguchi; K. Akaishi; A. Sagara; K. Nishimura; K. Yamazaki; S. Sudo; Y. Hamada; O. Motojima; M. Fujiwara

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the behaviour of high-energy ions created by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating on the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the third experimental campaign conducted in 1999, it was found that minority heating has good heating performance, and high-energy particles were observed. In the fourth campaign in 2000, the temporal behaviour of high-energy ions was

  1. Measurement of Liver Iron Concentration by MRI Is Reproducible

    PubMed Central

    Alústiza, José María; Emparanza, José I.; Castiella, Agustín; Casado, Alfonso; Aldazábal, Pablo; San Vicente, Manuel; Garcia, Nerea; Asensio, Ana Belén; Banales, Jesús; Salvador, Emma; Moyua, Aranzazu; Arozena, Xabier; Zarco, Miguel; Jauregui, Lourdes; Vicente, Ohiana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives were (i) construction of a phantom to reproduce the behavior of iron overload in the liver by MRI and (ii) assessment of the variability of a previously validated method to quantify liver iron concentration between different MRI devices using the phantom and patients. Materials and Methods. A phantom reproducing the liver/muscle ratios of two patients with intermediate and high iron overload. Nine patients with different levels of iron overload were studied in 4 multivendor devices and 8 of them were studied twice in the machine where the model was developed. The phantom was analysed in the same equipment and 14 times in the reference machine. Results. FeCl3 solutions containing 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 1.2?mg?Fe/mL were chosen to generate the phantom. The average of the intramachine variability for patients was 10% and for the intermachines 8%. For the phantom the intramachine coefficient of variation was always below 0.1 and the average of intermachine variability was 10% for moderate and 5% for high iron overload. Conclusion. The phantom reproduces the behavior of patients with moderate or high iron overload. The proposed method of calculating liver iron concentration is reproducible in several different 1.5 T systems.

  2. Highly Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Produced by Sewing Textile Electrodes on Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices. PMID:24957920

  3. Generating Reproducible Heterogeneity for Laboratory Flow and Transport Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, B. C.; Holt, R. M.; Glass, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    To understand the impact of heterogeneity on unsaturated flow and transport processes, many researchers have begun to conduct flow and transport experiments in laboratory analogues to heterogeneous geologic materials. Most of these experiments are conducted in macroheterogeneous media where homogeneous units are arranged to represent large-scale heterogeneity. However, most sedimentary media displays heterogeneity at a hierarchy of scales, the smallest of which is a stratum that is graded. Such stratification can lead to complicated wetted-phase structures that influence moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, access to surface area for reaction, and non-ideal transport. Because of the difficulty in reproducing "geologically realistic" microheterogeneity, the impact of small-scale stratification on flow and transport is difficult to evaluate using current laboratory constructed analogues. We have developed and evaluated a new approach for constructing reproducible, "geologically realistic" heterogeneity for laboratory flow and transport experiments. Using an apparatus with a computer-controlled arm, mixtures of sand are deposited in an experimental chamber through a tube. Mechanical grading processes within the tube and the chamber lead to stratification that mimics that produced by sedimentary processes. By varying the arm speed, stratum thickness and angle can be controlled. By using different sand mixtures, the grain size at the top and bottom of a stratum can be varied. Through the use of carefully designed computer programs, a variety of reproducible micro/macroheterogeneous structures can be produced.

  4. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2012-08-01

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6 %, which may be high enough to cause oxidative instability of the oil. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high oleic acid background to further reduce the linolenic acid content. As a result, soybean lines with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid (HOLL) content were produced using different sources of mutant FAD2-1A genes. While oleic acid content of these HOLL lines was stable across two testing environments, the reduction of linolenic acid content varied depending on the number of mutant FAD3 genes combined with mutant FAD2-1 genes, on the severity of mutation in the FAD2-1A gene, and on the testing environment. Combination of two mutant FAD2-1 genes and one mutant FAD3 gene resulted in less than 2 % linolenic acid content in Portageville, Missouri (MO) while four mutant genes were needed to achieve the same linolenic acid in Columbia, MO. This study generated non-transgenic soybeans with the highest oleic acid content and lowest linolenic acid content reported to date, offering a unique alternative to produce a fatty acid profile similar to olive oil. PMID:22476873

  5. Observation of Dust Stream Formation Produced by Low Current, High Voltage Cathode Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Macro-particle acceleration driven by low current, high voltage cathode spots has been investigated. The phenomenon was observed to occur when nanometer and micrometer-sized particles in the presence of a discharge plasma were exposed to a high voltage pulse. The negative voltage pulse initiates the formation of multiple, high voltage, low current cathode spots which provides the mechanism of actual acceleration of the charged dust particles. Dust streams generated by this process were detected using laser scattering techniques. The particle impact craters observed at the surface of downstream witness badges were documented using SEM and light microscopy.

  6. High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  7. High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

    2014-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

  8. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high ?-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including ?-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84?±?1.12, 48.02?±?2.53, and 30.10?±?1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more ?-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field. PMID:25129039

  9. The microalga Parachlorella kessleri--a novel highly efficient lipid producer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuling; P?ibyl, Pavel; Bišová, Kate?ina; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Cepák, Vladislav; Zachleder, Vilém; ?ížková, Mária; Brányiková, Irena; Vítová, Milada

    2013-01-01

    The alga Parachlorella kessleri, strain CCALA 255, grown under optimal conditions, is characterized by storage of energy in the form of starch rather than lipids. If grown in the complete medium, the cultures grew rapidly, producing large amounts of biomass in a relatively short time. The cells, however, contained negligible lipid reserves (1-10% of DW). Treatments inducing hyperproduction of storage lipids in P. kessleri biomass were described. The cultures were grown in the absence or fivefold decreased concentration of either nitrogen or phosphorus or sulfur. Limitation by all elements using fivefold or 10-fold diluted mineral medium was also tested. Limitation with any macroelement (nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus) led to an increase in the amount of lipids; nitrogen limitation was the most effective. Diluted nutrient media (5- or 10-fold) were identified as the best method to stimulate lipid overproduction (60% of DW). The strategy for lipid overproduction consists of the fast growth of P. kessleri culture grown in the complete medium to produce sufficient biomass (DW more than 10 g/L) followed by the dilution of nutrient medium to stop growth and cell division by limitation of all elements, leading to induction of lipid production and accumulation up to 60% DW. Cultivation conditions necessary for maximizing lipid content in P. kessleri biomass generated in a scale-up solar open thin-layer photobioreactor were described. PMID:22766749

  10. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  11. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  12. Photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of oilfield produced wastewater containing refractory organic pollutants in the presence of high concentration of chloride ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Chen, Jiaxin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Chen, Fanzhong; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

    2006-11-16

    The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of high saline produced water containing refractory organic pollutants was investigated in the slurry photoelectrocatalytic reactor with nanometer TiO2 particle prepared with sol-gel method using the acetic acid as hydrolytic catalyst. The efficiency of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of produced water was determined with both COD removal from the tested wastewater and the decrease of mutagenic activity evaluated by Ames tests. The experimental results showed that the photoelectrocatalysis is a quite efficient process for decontaminating the produced water, although there are high concentration of salt existed in oilfield wastewater. We found that the COD removal efficiencies by photoelectrocatalytic process are much higher than that of by photocatalytic or electrochemical oxidation individually in the photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The COD removal can be substantially improved by the added H2O2 and the generation of active chlorine from high concentration chlorides in the wastewater. The effects of various operating conditions, such as initial COD concentration, applied cell voltage, catalyst amount and initial pH value of solution, on the photoelectrocatalytic efficiencies, is also investigated in detail. The results showed that when the raw produced wastewater was diluted in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio, there is a highest COD removal efficiency. And the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in saline water is much favored in acidic solution than that in neutral and/or alkaline solution. PMID:16875777

  13. Reproducibility responsibilities in the HPC arena

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; McLay, Robert [Texas Advanced Computing Center

    2014-01-01

    Expecting bit-for-bit reproducibility in the HPC arena is not feasible because of the ever changing hardware and software. No user s application is an island; it lives in an HPC eco-system that changes over time. Old hardware stops working and even old software won t run on new hardware. Further, software libraries change over time either by changing the internals or even interfaces. So bit-for-bit reproducibility should not be expected. Rather a reasonable expectation is that results are reproducible within error bounds; or that the answers are close (which is its own debate.) To expect a researcher to reproduce their own results or the results of others within some error bounds, there must be enough information to recreate all the details of the experiment. This requires complete documentation of all phases of the researcher s workflow; from code to versioning to programming and runtime environments to publishing of data. This argument is the core statement of the Yale 2009 Declaration on Reproducible Research [1]. Although the HPC ecosystem is often outside the researchers control, the application code could be built almost identically and there is a chance for very similar results with just only round-off error differences. To achieve complete documentation at every step, the researcher, the computing center, and the funding agencies all have a role. In this thesis, the role of the researcher is expanded upon as compared to the Yale report and the role of the computing centers is described.

  14. Relevance relations for the concept of reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Atmanspacher, H.; Bezzola Lambert, L.; Folkers, G.; Schubiger, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reproducibility is widely considered a cornerstone of scientific methodology. However, recent problems with the reproducibility of empirical results in large-scale systems and in biomedical research have cast doubts on its universal and rigid applicability beyond the so-called basic sciences. Reproducibility is a particularly difficult issue in interdisciplinary work where the results to be reproduced typically refer to different levels of description of the system considered. In such cases, it is mandatory to distinguish between more and less relevant features, attributes or observables of the system, depending on the level at which they are described. For this reason, we propose a scheme for a general ‘relation of relevance’ between the level of complexity at which a system is considered and the granularity of its description. This relation implies relevance criteria for particular selected aspects of a system and its description, which can be operationally implemented by an interlevel relation called ‘contextual emergence’. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels and thus construct level-specific criteria for reproducibility in an overall consistent fashion. Relevance relations merged with contextual emergence challenge the old idea of one fundamental ontology from which everything else derives. At the same time, our proposal is specific enough to resist the backlash into a relativist patchwork of unconnected model fragments. PMID:24554574

  15. Measuring user innovation in Dutch high tech SMEs: Frequency, nature and transfer to producers

    E-print Network

    de Jong, Jeroen P.J.

    2009-02-27

    A detailed survey of 498 “high tech” SMEs in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty four percent of these relatively small firms reported developing entirely novel process ...

  16. Dynamics of ZnO laser produced plasma in high pressure argon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Kaydashev; J. G. Lunney

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of ZnO in high pressure gas offers a route for the catalyst-free preparation of ZnO nanorods less than 10nm in diameter. This paper describes the results of some experiments to investigate the laser plume dynamics in the high gas pressure (5×103–104Pa) regime used for PLD of ZnO nanorods. In this regime the ablation plume is strongly coupled

  17. Evaluation of the high temperature electrolysis of steam to produce hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngjoon Shin; Wonseok Park; Jonghwa Chang

    2007-01-01

    A very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can be effectively used for hydrogen production through several CO2-free alternative technologies, such as the Sulfur–Iodine (SI) cycle, the high temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES), and others. In our current study, the electrochemical thermodynamic properties and the overall thermal efficiency of the VHTR-assisted hydrogen production system by using the HTES technology have been

  18. Tribological Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced by High Temperature Chlorination of Silicon Carbide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Ersoy; M. J. Mcnallan; Y. Gogotsi; Ali Erdemir

    2000-01-01

    The tribological properties of highly disordered graphitic carbon layers formed on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by reaction with chlorine and chlorine-hydrogen gas mixtures at 1000 °C were studied. Si was selectively removed from the near surface of SiC by chlorine gas, leaving behind a layer of carbon having high structural density and strong bonding characteristics. Tribological tests showed that the

  19. Reproducibility of peroneal motor nerve conduction measurement in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rachel E.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Zivkovic, Sasa A.; Njajou, Omer T.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective While neuropathy is common in the elderly, nerve conduction (NC) reproducibility in older adults is not well-established. We sought to evaluate intraobserver reproducibility of peroneal motor NC measures in a diverse sample of older adults. Methods We measured peroneal motor NC amplitude and velocity in a subset of participants (mean age=82.9 ± 2.7, n=62, 50% female, 51.6% black, 35.5% DM) in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Using coefficients of variation (CVs), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland Altman Plots, we compared two sets of measurements taken by the same examiner hours apart on the same day. Results Low CVs (2.15–4.24%) and moderate to high ICCs (0.75–0.99) were observed. No systematic variation was found across measures. Despite small numbers in some subgroups, we found no differences in reproducibility by diabetes, race, or study site. Conclusion NC measures have moderate to high intraobsever reproducibility in older adults and are not affected by diabetes, race, or gender. Significance These data provide evidence to support use of these measures in aging research. PMID:23022036

  20. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gao, Yongli [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1991-12-31

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on MBE grown GaAs(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid form the desired compound or a precursor than can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE-systems and on going research using the same apparatus suggests than photon or electron irradiation could also be used to promote the reactions needed to give the intended material.

  1. A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Gao, Yongli (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on MBE grown GaAs(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid form the desired compound or a precursor than can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE-systems and on going research using the same apparatus suggests than photon or electron irradiation could also be used to promote the reactions needed to give the intended material.

  2. CVD aluminiding process for producing a modified platinum aluminide bond coat for improved high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of depositing by chemical vapor deposition a modified platinum aluminide diffusion coating onto a superalloy substrate comprising the steps of applying a layer of a platinum group metal to the superalloy substrate; passing an externally generated aluminum halide gas through an internal gas generator which is integral with a retort, the internal gas generator generating a modified halide gas; and co-depositing aluminum and modifier onto the superalloy substrate. In one form, the modified halide gas is hafnium chloride and the modifier is hafnium with the modified platinum aluminum bond coat comprising a single phase additive layer of platinum aluminide with at least about 0.5 percent hafnium by weight percent and about 1 to about 15 weight percent of hafnium in the boundary between a diffusion layer and the additive layer. The bond coat produced by this method is also claimed.

  3. High frequency transformation of the Amphotericin-producing bacterium Streptomyces nodosus.

    PubMed

    Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Barrow, Kevin D; Chuck, Jo-Anne

    2003-10-01

    This study has investigated DNA transformation in the Amphotericin-producing organism Streptomyces nodosus. Amphotericin B is an antifungal drug with severe side effects in humans and the availability of structural variants would aid investigations into the mode of action and cytotoxity of the drug. Analogs of related polyketide drugs have been rapidly made by genetic engineering of biosynthetic genes; however, this requires the introduction of foreign DNA into the host. Protocols for protoplast formation and regeneration were established; however, preparations were recalcitrant to DNA uptake. Electroporation-mediated methodologies also were not successful. Intergeneric conjugal transfer of DNA from E. coli demonstrated transformation efficiencies of 5 x 10(-5) exconjugants generated per recipient. Use of DNA methylation-impaired E. coli donor strains resulted in 100-fold higher transformation efficiencies, indicating that DNA methylation recognition systems are operable in the organism. This methodology will enable genetic and biochemical analysis of the gene cluster responsible for making Amphotericin B. PMID:14500018

  4. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-07-02

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the “Reproducible Research Standard” (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  5. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the ?Reproducible Research Standard? (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  6. A Process for Producing Highly Wettable Aluminum 6061 Surfaces Compatible with Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ferraro, N. W.; Yue, A. F.; Estes, R. H.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. The space-based portion of the mission architecture consists of a primary or core spacecraft and a constellation of NASA and contributed spacecrafts. The efforts described in this paper refer to the core spacecraft (hereafter referred to as simply GPM) which is to be fabricated at GSFC. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design-for-demise-spacecraft." This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. Composite overwrapped aluminum lined propellant tanks with aluminum propellant management devices (PMD) were shown by analyses to demise and thus became the baseline configuration for GPM. As part of the GPM tank development effort, long term compatibility and wettability testing with hydrazine was performed on Al6061 and 2219 coupons fabricated and cleaned by conventional processes. Long term compatibility was confirmed. However, the wettability of the aluminum as measured by contact angle produced higher than desired angles (greater than 30 deg.) with excessive scatter. The availability of PMD materials exhibiting consistently low contact angles aids in the design of simple PMDs. Two efforts performed by Angeles Crest Engineering and funded by GSFC were undertaken to reduce the risk of using aluminum for the GPM PMD. The goal of the first effort was to develop a cleaning or treatment process to produce consistently low contact angles. The goal of the second effort was to prove via testing that the processed aluminum would retain compatibility with hydrazine and retain low contact angle after long term exposure to hydrazine. Both goals were achieved. This paper describes both efforts and the results achieved.

  7. A review of research and methods for producing high-consequence software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Dalton, L.; Peercy, D.; Pollock, G.; Sicking, C.

    1994-12-31

    The development of software for use in high-consequence systems mandates rigorous (formal) processes, methods, and techniques to improve the safety characteristics of those systems. This paper provides a brief overview of current research and practices in high-consequence software, including applied design methods. Some of the practices that are discussed include: fault tree analysis, failure mode effects analysis, petri nets, both hardware and software interlocks, n-version programming, Independent Vulnerability Analyses, and watchdogs. Techniques that offer improvement in the dependability of software in high-consequence systems applications are identified and discussed. Limitations of these techniques are also explored. Research in formal methods, the cleanroom process, and reliability models are reviewed. In addition, current work by several leading researchers as well as approaches being used by leading practitioners are examined.

  8. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs. PMID:25745256

  9. Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kameyama, Ikuya

    1997-01-01

    Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.

  10. Producing - Harvesting - Marketing High Quality Upland Cotton in the El Paso Trade Territory.

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Charles A. (compiler)

    1963-01-01

    GH QUALITY UPLAND COTTON in the EL PAS0 TRADE TERRITORY I LORDSBURG LAS CRUCES DEMING NEW MEXICO ------ DELL CITY COYANOSA PRESIDIO - ms &M w=m , TEXAS AGRI6ULWRAE amSioEF SqVKE J. xj. a~m~~ Q~YEPWP &fbelge Wiq, Te;ear The El Paso.... Consider ing on 40-inch rows, plant 18 to 20 pounds these factors: of delinted seed per acre. The seed should be 1. Plant seed as high in the bed as practi- high-quality tagged seed. cal. Recommended dates for planting cotton are 2. Plant to get...

  11. Enhanced performance of high current discharges in JET produced by ICRF heating during the current rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bures; V. Bhatnagar; J. P. Christiansen; G. Cottrell; S. Corti; L.-G. Eriksson; T. Hellsten; J. Jacquinot; O. N. J. Jarvis; P. Lallia; P. Lomas; J. O'Rourke; A. Taroni; C. Sack; D. F. H. Start

    1989-01-01

    The performance of high current discharges can be improved by applying central ICRF heating before or shortly after the onset of sawtooth activity in the plasma current rise phase. Long sawtooth-free periods have been obtained which result in a transiently-enhanced discharge performance. High Te(0)=9-10.5 keV with peaked profiles Te(0)\\/(Te)=3-4 were obtained giving values of Ne(0)Te(0) up to 6*1020 (keV m-3).

  12. Electrochemical remediation produces a new high-nitrogen compound from NTO wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Michael P; Day, Anthony I; Wallace, Lynne

    2007-10-22

    A new high-nitrogen molecule, identified as azoxytriazolone (AZTO), has been generated in high yield by electroreduction of acidic aqueous solutions of nitrotriazolone (NTO). The near-quantitative conversion appears to be driven by the low solubility of the product. AZTO precipitates readily, leaving the solution virtually free of organic material, and the process may therefore present an efficient and productive remediation method for wastewater from NTO manufacture. The chemical formula and molecular structure of AZTO indicate that it may be effective as an insensitive explosive. PMID:17854992

  13. Reproducing the assembly of massive galaxies within the hierarchical cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; Monaco, Pierluigi; Silva, Laura; Grazian, Andrea

    2007-12-01

    In order to gain insight into the physical mechanisms leading to the formation of stars and their assembly in galaxies, we compare the predictions of the MOdel for the Rise of GAlaxies aNd Active nuclei (MORGANA) to the properties of K- and 850-?m-selected galaxies (such as number counts, redshift distributions and luminosity functions) by combining MORGANA with the spectrophotometric model GRASIL. We find that it is possible to reproduce the K- and 850-?m-band data sets at the same time and with a standard Salpeter initial mass function, and ascribe this success to our improved modelling of cooling in DM haloes. We then predict that massively star-forming discs are common at z ~ 2 and dominate the star formation rate, but most of them merge with other galaxies within ~100 Myr. Our preferred model produces an overabundance of bright galaxies at z < 1; this overabundance might be connected to the build-up of the diffuse stellar component in galaxy clusters, as suggested by Monaco et al., but a naive implementation of the mechanism suggested in that paper does not produce a sufficient slowdown of the evolution of these objects. Moreover, our model overpredicts the number of 1010-1011Msolar galaxies at z ~ 1; this is a common behaviour of theoretical models as shown by Fontana et al.. These findings show that, while the overall build-up of the stellar mass is correctly reproduced by galaxy formation models, the `downsizing' trend of galaxies is not fully reproduced yet. This hints to some missing feedback mechanism in order to reproduce at the same time the formation of both the massive and the small galaxies.

  14. Streptomyces sp. JS520 produces exceptionally high quantities of undecylprodigiosin with antibacterial, antioxidative, and UV-protective properties.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Nada; Radulovic, Vanja; Petkovic, Milos; Vuckovic, Ivan; Jadranin, Milka; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-positive, red-pigment-producing bacterial strain, designated JS520 was isolated from the pristine sediment from the cave on mountain Miroc in Serbia. Strain was confirmed to belong to Streptomyces genus based on phenotypic and genetic analysis. Streptomyces sp. JS520 has the ability to produce exceptionally high amounts of deep red pigment into both solid and liquid media. Liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy of the purified pigments revealed the major component to be undecylprodigiosin (93 %) with minor component being oxidatively cyclized derivative. The pigment production was affected by medium composition, temperature, pH, and the aeration rate. By medium optimization, yields of undecylprodigiosin of 138 mg l(-1) were achieved, what is the highest level of undecylprodigiosin production reported for the members of Gram-positive Streptomyces genus. Purified pigment had antimicrobial properties against bacterial Bacillus and Micrococcus species (50 ?g ml(-1)) and against Candida albicans species (100-200 ?g ml(-1) range). The ability to affect auto-oxidation of the linoleic acid was demonstrated for the purified undecylprodigiosin, suggesting antioxidative properties of this pigment. Multiple ecophysiological roles of the pigment were revealed by comparing cultures grown under pigment-producing and pigment-nonproducing conditions. Cells grown under undecylprodigiosin-producing conditions could tolerate presence of hydrogen peroxide exhibiting three times smaller zones of inhibition at 100 mM H(2)O(2). Undecylprodigiosin-producing cells were also less susceptible to tetracycline, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. While the growth of the cells not producing pigment was completely inhibited by 15 min of exposure to ultraviolet light (254 nm), cells producing undecylprodigiosin and cells supplied with purified pigment in vitro showed survival rates at 22 and 8 %, respectively. PMID:22767180

  15. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  16. Production and Performance of Laboratory Produced High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements in Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bouzoubaâ; V. M. Malhotra

    This paper reports the development at CANMET of high-volume fly ash blended cements, and their performance in concrete. The blended cements are made by intergrinding approximately 55% of fly ash and 45% of ASTM Type I or Type III cement clinker together with small amounts of gypsum and a dry superplasticizer. The concrete made with the HVFA blended cements has

  17. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations of the peas and oats were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them...

  18. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  19. Increasing Cottonseed Utilization Through Breeding and Genetic Engineering to Produce High Levels of (+)-Gossypol in Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is composed of ~22.5% of high quality protein. The estimate of world cottonseed production for 2006 is over 42.5 million metric tons (National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, 2005), which translates to an estimated 9.56 million metric tons of protein available for use as a food/fe...

  20. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Pantier, Earl A. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  1. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of a titan plasma produced by a continuous-high-power CO2 laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel M. de Frutos Baraja; Anne Poueyo-Verwaerde; G. Deshors; Remy Fabbro; Jose M. Orza

    1993-01-01

    It is well known, metallic plasmas created during welding with high power lasers are very important for the welding process. During recent years, we have been trying to characterize these kinds of plasmas, in order to get a better comprehension of the absorption of laser light by a steel target during welding with a CO2 laser. A complete spectroscopic characterization

  3. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

  4. Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants

    DOEpatents

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1987-09-15

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

  5. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  6. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods. PMID:25521615

  7. Using Plasma-Activated High Performance Fibers with Nanocrystalline Structure in Producing New Reinforced Composite Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kudinov; N. Korneeva

    2008-01-01

    A wet-pull-out method for investigation of interaction between the high performance polyethylene (HPPE) fiber and polymer matrix is discussed. The paper concerns a cold plasma technique for improving the bond of the HPPE fibers to the matrices and the fibers impregnation with the matrix. Controlled parameters are pull-out force and the height of the matrix capillary lifting along the fiber

  8. High gravity fermentation of sugarcane molasses to produce ethanol: Effect of nutrients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pradeep; O. V. S. Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation efficiency of more than 85% was obtained by high gravity fermentation of 33–34°Bx (spec. gravity ?1.134) molasses\\u000a medium with certain nutrients, instead of generally employed medium containing ?16% (w\\/v) total sugar (spec. gravity ?1.090)\\u000a for ethanol fermentation in distilleries to get maximum 80–85% conversion. The fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces, has varied capabilities, depending on the species and nutrition for fermenting

  9. Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances.

    PubMed

    Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W

    2002-07-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated) in five 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplementation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter/cow per day) and two concentrate supplementation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate/4 kg of milk). Concentrate supplementation decreased pasture dry matter intake 2.0 kg/d at the low pasture allowance (17.5 vs. 15.5 kg/d) and 4.4 kg/d at the high pasture allowance (20.5 vs. 16.1 kg/d). Substitution rate was lower at the low pasture allowance (0.26 kg pasture/kg concentrate) than at the high pasture allowance (0.55 kg of pasture/kg of concentrate). Total dry matter intake of both supplemented treatments averaged 24.4 kg/d. Milk production of both supplemented treatments averaged 29.8 kg/d, but was increased with higher pasture allowance in the unsupplemented treatments (19.1 vs. 22.2 kg/d). Milk response to concentrate supplementation was 1.36 and 0.96 kg of milk/kg of concentrate for the low and high pasture allowances, respectively. Concentrate supplementation reduced milk fat percentage but increased milk protein percentage. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration were decreased with concentrate supplementation. Substitution rate was likely related to both negative associative effects in the rumen (reductions in rumen pH, rate of pasture digestion, and NDF digestibility) and reductions in grazing time. The latter was more important, quantitatively explaining at least 80% of the reduction in pasture dry matter intake observed. PMID:12201529

  10. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  11. High-Level Modeling and FPGA Prototyping of Produced Order Parallel Queue Processor Core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben A. Abderazek; Tsutomu Yoshinaga; Masahiro Sowa

    2006-01-01

    Emerging high-level hardware description and synthesis technologies in conjunction with field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)\\u000a have significantly lowered the threshold for hardware development. Opportunities exist to integrate these technologies into\\u000a a tool for exploring and evaluating microarchitectural designs especially for newly proposed architectures. This paper presents\\u000a a prototyping of a new processor core based on Queue architecture as starting point

  12. Using Artificial Neural Network model to produce high resolution forest soil property maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, F.-R.; Zhao, Z.; Xing, Z.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Soil property maps are considered as the most important input information for decision support and policy making in agriculture, forestry, flood control as well as environmental protection. Traditionally, soil property maps are mainly obtained from field surveys. Field soil survey is generally time consuming and expensive, which limited it application over a large area. As such, high resolution soil property maps are only available for small areas, very often, being obtained for research purposes. In this research, artificial neural network technology was used to generate high resolutions soil property maps. Hydrological parameters derived from digital elevation maps combined with information extracted from existing coarse resolution soil maps were used as input for the proposed model. Detailed soil survey information from Black Brook Watershed in Northern New Brunswick was used to test the model performance. We found that ANN models base model can be used to predict soil texture, soil drainage classes and soil organic matter content across landscape with reasonable accuracy. The high resolution soil maps derived with this method could be used for growth and yield assessment, silviculture design and making forest management plans.

  13. MODERATE RESISTANCE TRAINING VOLUME PRODUCES MORE FAVORABLE STRENGTH GAINS THAN HIGH OR LOW VOLUMES DURING A SHORT TERM TRAINING CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN J. GONZALEZ-BADILLO; ESTEBAN M. GOROSTIAGA; RAUL ARELLANO; MIKEL IZQUIERDO

    Gonzalez-Badillo, J.J., E.M. Gorostiaga, R. Arellano, and M. Izquierdo. Moderate resistance training volume produces more favorable strength gains than high or low volumes during a short-term training cycle. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(3):689- 697. 2005.—The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 3 resistance training volumes on maximal strength in the snatch (Sn), clean & jerk (C&J),

  14. High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits\\u000a that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency.\\u000a When recording and analysing these

  15. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Kafi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Amin Tamadon; Mehdi Saeb

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4

  16. Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

  17. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C).

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are promising for further fine mapping purpose. PMID:25234739

  18. The effect of space charge produced by corona at ground level on lightning attachment to high objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Aleksandrov, N. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the corona space charge layer created at ground level on lightning attachment to high (20-100 m) slender objects is numerically studied. The shielding effect of corona space charge produced near the object tip on the electric field at ground level is considered. The behavior of a non-stationary streamer-free corona developed from ground irregularities in a time-varying thundercloud electric field is discussed. The initiation of an upward leader from the tip of a high grounded object is simulated in the electric field created by a storm-cloud, approaching downward leader and space charge produced by corona at ground level and near the object tip. The corona space charge produced on the ground surface is shown to affect only slightly the inception of an upward connecting leader from the object when the local electric field near the object tip rises rapidly due to an approaching downward leader. The effect of neutral aerosol particles on lightning attachment to high grounded slender objects is also small.

  19. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  20. Europe Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Illustrative black and white maps, tables, and graphs designed for clear reproducibility depict Europe's size, population, resources, commodities, trade, cities, schooling, jobs, energy, industry, demographic statistics, food, and agriculture. Also included are 33 United States Department of State individual country maps. This volume is intended…

  1. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Nagel

    2006-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  2. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  3. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

  4. Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

  5. A Langmuir Probe Diagnostic for Use in Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Plasmas Produced by High-Energy Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-05-01

    Langmuir probes (LP) are used extensively to characterize plasma environments produced by radio frequency, pulsed plasma thrusters, and laser ablation. We discuss here the development of a LP diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{micro}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  6. A promising plasmatron-produced highly ionized plasma source for research\\/industrial demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Belevtsev; V. F. Chinnov; E. Kh. Isakaev; A. D. Iserov; V. I. Kalinin; V. K. Korolev; A. V. Markin; D. I. Ryazhsky; O. A. Sinkevich; S. A. Tereshkin; A. S. Tyuftyaev

    1998-01-01

    Presents the design features and basic parameters of an industrially important plasma jets source developed from a high-current arc pasmatron (I<=3D500A, G=3D1-4g\\/s, jet diameter at a minimum-6mm). The system has been realized of to collect and process data on plasma radiation in the 200-950nm region (resolution=3D0.01nm) allowing securing of a great body of information on atomic\\/ionic line characteristics (radiation transition

  7. Localization microscopy (SPDM) facilitates high precision control of lithographically produced nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Grab, A L; Hagmann, M; Dahint, R; Cremer, C

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale resolution in material sciences is usually restricted to scanning electron beam microscopes. Here we present a procedure that allows single molecule resolution of the sample surface with visible light. Highlighting the performance we used electron beam lithography to generate highly regular nanostructures consisting of interconnected cubes. The samples were labeled with Alexa 647 dyes. The spatial organization of the dyes on nanostructured surfaces was localized with single molecule resolution using localization microscopy. This succeeded also in an absolute spatial calibration of the localization method applied (spectral precision distance microscopy/SPDM). The findings will contribute to the field of product control for industrial applications and long-term fluorescence imaging. PMID:25212964

  8. First experiment on fission transients in highly fissile spherical nuclei produced by fragmentation of radioactive beams

    E-print Network

    C. Schmitt; P. N. Nadtochy; A. Heinz; B. Jurado; A. Kelic; K. -H. Schmidt

    2007-02-12

    We report on a novel experimental approach for studying the dissipative spreading of collective motion in a meta-stable nuclear system, using, for the first time, highly fissile nuclei with spherical shape. This was achieved by fragmentation of 45 radioactive heavy-ion beams at GSI, Darmstadt. The use of inverse kinematics and a dedicated experimental set-up allowed for the identification in atomic number of both fission fragments. From the width of their charge distributions, a transient time of (3.3 +/- 0.7) 10-21 s is deduced for initially spherical nuclei.

  9. Time-resolved Thomson scattering on high-intensity laser-produced hot dense helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, P.; Liseykina, T.; Bauer, D.; Redmer, R.

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump-probe experiments to characterize warm and hot dense matter states, i.e. systems at solid-like densities and temperatures of one to several hundred eV. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy density studies such as, e.g., in planetary physics and inertial confinement fusion. We consider here a liquid helium jet pumped with a high-intensity optical short-pulse laser that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The optical short-pulse laser generates a strongly inhomogeneous helium plasma which is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. We derive the respective Thomson scattering spectrum based on the Born-Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We observe plasmon modes that are generated in the interior of the target and study their temporal evolution. Such pump-probe experiments are promising tools to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature. The method described here can be applied to various pump-probe scenarios by combining optical lasers, soft x-rays and hard x-ray sources.

  10. The thermal properties of high purity and fully dense tungsten produced by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng; Lian, Youyun; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiang; Zhuang, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-high purity (>99.9999 wt.%) and fully dense (19.23 g/cm3) tungsten (W) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was prepared with the deposition rate higher than 0.6 mm/h. The thermal diffusivity, specific heat, heat conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of CVD-W at the temperature range of 473-1273 K were measured. Thermal shock tests were carried out on a 60 kW electron-beam material testing scenario to investigate the crack-resistant performance of CVD-W, and the crack initiation threshold energies of CVD-W were achieved in 5 ms heating duration. Compared to forged-W, the higher heat conductivity (160.5-111 W/(m K)) and threshold energy of crack initiation (1.1-1.65 MJ/m2) of CVD-W can be attributed to the material characteristics including high purity, fully dense, rough surface composed of pyramid-like grains, and the columnar grain structures.

  11. High accelerations produced by the Western Nagano Prefecture, Japan, earthquake of 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Kuroiso, A.; Ito, K.; Muramatu, I.

    1987-10-01

    Many boulders were thrown out of their former sockets by the Western Nagano Prefecture, Japan, earthquake of 1984 ( M jma = 6.8 ). The anomalous high accelerations of 4-16 g were estimated from the displacement of thrown-out boulders, assuming that the seismic waves had a frequency range of 5-10 Hz. Almost all of the thrown-out boulders were found on the mountain-tops, ridges and saddles. The topographic amplifications of seismic waves were estimated using five aftershocks recorded on the mountain-top and at the foot. Average amplitude ratios (mountain-top: foot) of seismic waves are 2-7 in the frequency range concerned. The high acceleration area defined by the distribution of thrown-out boulders is very small (1× 3 km) compared with the length (12 km) of the assumed main fault. Many cracks were also found in this limited small area, which is characterized by extremely low activity of aftershocks and relatively large dislocation.

  12. Application of High-Density DNA Resequencing Microarray for Detection and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Clostridia

    PubMed Central

    Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Berthet, Nicolas; Mazuet, Christelle; Guigon, Ghislaine; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Stamboliyska, Rayna; Dubois, Philippe; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Popoff, Michel-Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium botulinum and related clostridia express extremely potent toxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause severe, potentially lethal intoxications in humans. These BoNT-producing bacteria are categorized in seven major toxinotypes (A through G) and several subtypes. The high diversity in nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the gene cluster encoding the BoNT components poses a great challenge for the screening and characterization of BoNT-producing strains. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we designed and evaluated the performances of a resequencing microarray (RMA), the PathogenId v2.0, combined with an automated data approach for the simultaneous detection and characterization of BoNT-producing clostridia. The unique design of the PathogenID v2.0 array allows the simultaneous detection and characterization of 48 sequences targeting the BoNT gene cluster components. This approach allowed successful identification and typing of representative strains of the different toxinotypes and subtypes, as well as the neurotoxin-producing C. botulinum strain in a naturally contaminated food sample. Moreover, the method allowed fine characterization of the different neurotoxin gene cluster components of all studied strains, including genomic regions exhibiting up to 24.65% divergence with the sequences tiled on the arrays. Conclusions/Significance The severity of the disease demands rapid and accurate means for performing risk assessments of BoNT-producing clostridia and for tracing potentials sources of contamination in outbreak situations. The RMA approach constitutes an essential higher echelon component in a diagnostics and surveillance pipeline. In addition, it is an important asset to characterise potential outbreak related strains, but also environment isolates, in order to obtain a better picture of the molecular epidemiology of BoNT-producing clostridia. PMID:23818983

  13. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  14. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  15. Single-walled carbon nanotubes produced at high yield by mixed catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, S.; Zhou, D. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States))

    1994-04-18

    We report here on the high-density preparation of single-wall tubes in the presence of mixed catalysts of the types Fe/Ni and Co/Ni, in the soot as well as in the weblike deposits forming in the chamber. The yield is much higher than previously reported, and gram quantities can be obtained. Diameters cover the range from 0.9 to 3.1 nm, larger than previously reported, with the histogram showing only one peak at 1.7 nm. Evidence of an epitaxial action between C[sub 60] and single-walled nanotubes is presented. Results from the mixed catalysts Co/Cu, Ni/Mg, and Ni/Ti are also reported.

  16. High-efficiency homologous recombination in the oil-producing alga Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Oliver; Benemann, Christina S E; Niyogi, Krishna K; Vick, Bertrand

    2011-12-27

    Algae have reemerged as potential next-generation feedstocks for biofuels, but strain improvement and progress in algal biology research have been limited by the lack of advanced molecular tools for most eukaryotic microalgae. Here we describe the development of an efficient transformation method for Nannochloropsis sp., a fast-growing, unicellular alga capable of accumulating large amounts of oil. Moreover, we provide additional evidence that Nannochloropsis is haploid, and we demonstrate that insertion of transformation constructs into the nuclear genome can occur by high-efficiency homologous recombination. As examples, we generated knockouts of the genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, resulting in strains that were unable to grow on nitrate and nitrate/nitrite, respectively. The application of homologous recombination in this industrially relevant alga has the potential to rapidly advance algal functional genomics and biotechnology. PMID:22123974

  17. Intense high-frequency pressure waves produced with low laser fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, Carlos; Sá, Gonçalo F. F.; Arnaut, Luis G.

    2012-02-01

    Pressure waves generated by laser pulses can permeabilize biological barriers, such as the skin or cellular membranes. The characteristics of the absorbing materials are decisive in determining the shape and amplitude of pressure impulse transients. Based on the physics and photochemistry of light-to-pressure conversion, we generate high intensity broadband ultrasound capable of transiently permeabilizing biological barriers. We show evidence that no damage is done to cells exposed to such pressure waves and that skin recovers its protective function some minutes after exposure to the pressure waves. The ability of the pressure waves to promote transient skin permeabilization is assessed by the increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) immediately after the application of pressure waves, and by the full recovery of the skin to the normal TEWL values in the following minutes.

  18. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  19. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion

    PubMed Central

    Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  20. Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion.

    PubMed

    Mangler, C; Gammer, C; Karnthaler, H P; Rentenberger, C

    2010-10-01

    The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

  1. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  2. The response of high and low polyamine-producing cell lines to aluminum and calcium stress.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sridev; Cherry, Smita; Minocha, Rakesh; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash C

    2010-07-01

    The diamine putrescine (Put) has been shown to accumulate in tree leaves in response to high Al and low Ca in the soil, leading to the suggestion that this response may provide a physiological advantage to leaf cells under conditions of Al stress. The increase in Put is reversed by Ca supplementation in the soil. Using two cell lines of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii), one with constitutively high Put (resulting from transgenic expression of a mouse ornithine decarboxylase--called HP cells) and the other with low Put (control cells), we investigated the effects of reduced Ca (0.2-0.8 mM vs. 4 mM) and treatment with 0.1 mM Al on several biochemical parameters of cells. We found that in the presence of reduced Ca concentration, the HP cells were at a disadvantage as compared to control cells in that they showed greater reduction in mitochondrial activity and a reduction in the yield of cell mass. Upon addition of Al to the medium, the HP cells, however, showed a reversal of low-Ca effects. We conclude that due to increased ROS production in the HP cells, their tolerance to low Ca is compromised. Contrary to the expectation of deleterious effects, the HP cells showed an apparent advantage in the presence of Al in the medium, which could have come from reduced uptake of Al, enhanced extrusion of Al following its accumulation, and perhaps a reduction in Put catabolism as a result of a reduction in its biosynthesis. PMID:20552726

  3. Evaluating the impact of high Pluronic(®) F68 concentrations on antibody producing CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Goudar, Chetan T

    2015-04-01

    Pluronic(®) F68 (P-F68) is an important component of chemically-defined cell culture medium because it protects cells from hydrodynamic and bubble-induced shear in the bioreactor. While P-F68 is typically used in cell culture medium at a concentration of 1?g/L (0.1%), higher concentrations can offer additional shear protection and have also been shown to be beneficial during cryopreservation. Recent industry experience with variability in P-F68-associated shear-protection has opened up the possibility of elevated P-F68 concentrations in cell culture media, a topic that has not been previously explored in the context of industrial cell culture processes. Recognizing this gap, we first evaluated the effect of 1-5?g/L P-F68 concentrations in shake flask cultures over ten 3-day passages for cell lines A and B. Increase in terminal cell density and cell size was seen over time at higher P-F68 concentrations but protein productivity was not impacted. Results from this preliminary screening study suggested no adverse impact of high P-F68 concentrations. Subsequently fed-batch bioreactor experiments were conducted at 1 and 5?g/L P-F68 concentrations with both cell lines where cell growth, viability, metabolism, and product quality were examined under process conditions reflective of a commercial process. Results from these bioreactor experiments confirmed findings from the preliminary screen and also indicated no impact of elevated P-F68 concentration on product quality. If additional shear protection is desired, either due to raw material variability, cell line sensitivity, or a high-shear cell culture process, our results suggest this can be accomplished by elevating the P-F68 concentration in the cell culture medium without impacting cell culture performance and product quality. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 832-837. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25384465

  4. New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2008-06-24

    This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.

  5. Analytical Validation of a Highly Quantitative, Sensitive, Accurate, and Reproducible Assay (HERmark®) for the Measurement of HER2 Total Protein and HER2 Homodimers in FFPE Breast Cancer Tumor Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Laurie J.; Tan, Yuping; Defazio-Eli, Lisa; Paquet, Agnes C.; Cook, Jennifer W.; Rivera, Amber; Frankson, Kristi; Bose, Jolly; Chen, Lili; Cheung, Judy; Shi, Yining; Irwin, Sarah; Kiss, Linda D. B.; Huang, Weidong; Utter, Shannon; Sherwood, Thomas; Bates, Michael; Weidler, Jodi; Parry, Gordon; Winslow, John; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the results of the analytical validation of assays that measure HER2 total protein (H2T) and HER2 homodimer (H2D) expression in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumors as well as cell line controls. The assays are based on the VeraTag technology platform and are commercially available through a central CAP-accredited clinical reference laboratory. The accuracy of H2T measurements spans a broad dynamic range (2-3 logs) as evaluated by comparison with cross-validating technologies. The measurement of H2T expression demonstrates a sensitivity that is approximately 7–10 times greater than conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) (HercepTest). The HERmark assay is a quantitative assay that sensitively and reproducibly measures continuous H2T and H2D protein expression levels and therefore may have the potential to stratify patients more accurately with respect to response to HER2-targeted therapies than current methods which rely on semiquantitative protein measurements (IHC) or on indirect assessments of gene amplification (FISH). PMID:21151530

  6. Formation of Highly Twisted Ribbons in a Carboxymethylcellulase Gene-Disrupted Strain of a Cellulose-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Yasushi; Shoda, Makoto; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Tuzi, Satoru; Imai, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Junji; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Cellulases are enzymes that normally digest cellulose; however, some are known to play essential roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although some endogenous cellulases of plants and cellulose-producing bacteria are reportedly involved in cellulose production, their functions in cellulose production are unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that disruption of the cellulase (carboxymethylcellulase) gene causes irregular packing of de novo-synthesized fibrils in Gluconacetobacter xylinus, a cellulose-producing bacterium. Cellulose production was remarkably reduced and small amounts of particulate material were accumulated in the culture of a cmcax-disrupted G. xylinus strain (F2-2). The particulate material was shown to contain cellulose by both solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Electron microscopy revealed that the cellulose fibrils produced by the F2-2 cells were highly twisted compared with those produced by control cells. This hypertwisting of the fibrils may reduce cellulose synthesis in the F2-2 strains. PMID:23243308

  7. Formation of highly twisted ribbons in a carboxymethylcellulase gene-disrupted strain of a cellulose-producing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tomonori; Sugano, Yasushi; Shoda, Makoto; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Tuzi, Satoru; Imai, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Junji; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-03-01

    Cellulases are enzymes that normally digest cellulose; however, some are known to play essential roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although some endogenous cellulases of plants and cellulose-producing bacteria are reportedly involved in cellulose production, their functions in cellulose production are unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that disruption of the cellulase (carboxymethylcellulase) gene causes irregular packing of de novo-synthesized fibrils in Gluconacetobacter xylinus, a cellulose-producing bacterium. Cellulose production was remarkably reduced and small amounts of particulate material were accumulated in the culture of a cmcax-disrupted G. xylinus strain (F2-2). The particulate material was shown to contain cellulose by both solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Electron microscopy revealed that the cellulose fibrils produced by the F2-2 cells were highly twisted compared with those produced by control cells. This hypertwisting of the fibrils may reduce cellulose synthesis in the F2-2 strains. PMID:23243308

  8. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18?MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18?MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  9. Exome capture from saliva produces high quality genomic and metagenomic data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted capture of genomic regions reduces sequencing cost while generating higher coverage by allowing biomedical researchers to focus on specific loci of interest, such as exons. Targeted capture also has the potential to facilitate the generation of genomic data from DNA collected via saliva or buccal cells. DNA samples derived from these cell types tend to have a lower human DNA yield, may be degraded from age and/or have contamination from bacteria or other ambient oral microbiota. However, thousands of samples have been previously collected from these cell types, and saliva collection has the advantage that it is a non-invasive and appropriate for a wide variety of research. Results We demonstrate successful enrichment and sequencing of 15 South African KhoeSan exomes and 2 full genomes with samples initially derived from saliva. The expanded exome dataset enables us to characterize genetic diversity free from ascertainment bias for multiple KhoeSan populations, including new exome data from six HGDP Namibian San, revealing substantial population structure across the Kalahari Desert region. Additionally, we discover and independently verify thirty-one previously unknown KIR alleles using methods we developed to accurately map and call the highly polymorphic HLA and KIR loci from exome capture data. Finally, we show that exome capture of saliva-derived DNA yields sufficient non-human sequences to characterize oral microbial communities, including detection of bacteria linked to oral disease (e.g. Prevotella melaninogenica). For comparison, two samples were sequenced using standard full genome library preparation without exome capture and we found no systematic bias of metagenomic information between exome-captured and non-captured data. Conclusions DNA from human saliva samples, collected and extracted using standard procedures, can be used to successfully sequence high quality human exomes, and metagenomic data can be derived from non-human reads. We find that individuals from the Kalahari carry a higher oral pathogenic microbial load than samples surveyed in the Human Microbiome Project. Additionally, rare variants present in the exomes suggest strong population structure across different KhoeSan populations. PMID:24708091

  10. Why Reproducible Outcomes are Essential in Proteomic Research and Why Standardisation of Processes is Essential for Achieving Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Dracup, W.; Borthwick, A.

    2011-01-01

    In both 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS proteomic analysis we are dealing with highly complex samples, and there are many complex processes involved which in turn can be affected by a host of parameters and issues such as reagent batches, column performance, even the temperature of the lab. This complexity means that it can be very difficult to generate the same results from the same samples in different labs and even in the same lab at different times. This in turn makes it very difficult for labs to build upon published results, a fundamental principle of the scientific method. Quality Control (QC), based on the use of standards to monitor levels of technical variation in industrial processes is fundamental in the output of a reproducible product. We argue that because proteomic analysis is significantly more challenging than most industrial processes, employing standards and the standardisation of processes in proteomics experiments is key to arriving at reproducible outcomes. Focusing mainly on 2D electrophoresis and to some extent on LC-MS we examine the importance of standardisation and how such standards may be applied to Proteomic research in order to facilitate reproducible discoveries. Using studies carried out with single and multi-users from within and between different laboratories, we describe our experiences of achieving standardisation using Standard samples to provide feedback on the reproducibility of each stage and as well as the complete proteomic workflow.

  11. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN x) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN x by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN x. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN x obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN x made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN x prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN x, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  12. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of fac?ade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration. PMID:23556582

  13. Ion composition produced by high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges near the substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, A. P.; Vetushka, A.; Hecimovic, A. [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Konstantinidis, S. [Materia Nova, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    Plasma composition near the substrate was investigated in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge using Langmuir probe analysis, mass spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The HIPIMS discharge was operated in nonreactive Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 2.66 Pa and the magnetron cathode was furnished with Ti target. Plasma density, metal ion-to-neutral ratio, and gas ion-to-metal ion ratio were studied as a function of discharge current. At peak discharge current densities of {approx}1 A cm{sup -2}, the results show that a dense plasma (n{sub e}{approx}10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) expanded from the target toward the substrate and lasted more than 330 {mu}s after the supplied power was turned off. The shape of the time-averaged ion energy distribution function of sputtered material exhibited a transition from Thompson to Maxwellian distribution, indicating efficient energy transfer in the discharge. The metal content in the plasma monotonically increased with discharge current and the metal ion-to-neutral ratio reached approximately 1:1 in the postdischarge plasma at peak current density of 5 A cm{sup -2}.

  14. Producing high-strength liquor from mesophilic batch acidification of chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Christian; Wünsche, Erik; Luschnig, Olaf; Bürger, Christoph; Günther, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the results from anaerobic batch acidification of chicken manure as a mono-substrate studied under mesophilic conditions. The manure was diluted with tap water to prevent methane formation during acidification and to improve mixing conditions by reducing fluid viscosity; no anaerobic digester sludge has been added as an inoculum. Highest acidification rates were measured at concentrations of 10?gVS?L(-1) and 20?gVS?L(-1); the pH value remained high (pH?6.9-7.9) throughout the test duration and unexpected fast methane formation was observed in every single batch. At substrate concentrations of 10?gVS?L(-1) there was a remarkable methane formation representing a value of 82% of the respective biochemical methane potential of chicken manure. Increasing substrate concentrations did not supress methane formation but impaired acid production. Consequently, the liquor cannot be stored over longer periods but should immediately be used in a digestion process. PMID:25672618

  15. Using a hybrid Monte Carlo/Genetic Algorithm Slip Estimator to produce high resolution models of paleoearthquakes from geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, A.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.; Simao, N.; Murphy, S.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Steacy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying fault sections where slip deficits have accumulated may provide a means for understanding sequences of large megathrust earthquakes. Stress accumulated during the interseismic period on locked sections of an active fault is stored as potential slip. Where this potential slip remains unreleased during earthquakes, a slip deficit can be said to have accrued. Analysis of the spatial distribution of slip during antecedent events along the fault will show where the locked plate has spent its stored slip and indicate where the potential for large events remains. The location of recent earthquakes and their distribution of slip can be estimated instrumentally. To develop the idea of long-term slip-deficit modelling it is necessary to constrain the size and distribution of slip for pre-instrumental events dating back hundreds of years covering more than one ';seismic cycle'. This requires the exploitation of proxy sources of data. Coral microatolls, growing in the intertidal zone of the outer island arc of the Sunda trench, present the possibility of producing high resolution reconstructions of slip for a number of pre-instrumental earthquakes. Their growth is influenced by tectonic flexing of the continental plate beneath them allows them to act as long term geodetic recorders. However, the sparse distribution of data available using coral geodesy results in a under determined problem with non-unique solutions. Instead of producing one definite model satisfying the observed corals displacements, a Monte Carlo Slip Estimator based on a Genetic Algorithm (MCSE-GA) accelerating the rate of convergence is used to identify a suite of models consistent with the data. Successive iterations of the MCSE-GA sample different displacements at each coral location, from within the spread of associated uncertainties, producing a catalog of models from the full range of possibilities. The suite of best slip distributions are weighted according to their fitness and stacked to produce a final estimate of the distribution of slip for a particular earthquake. Examination of the slip values in the stacked models allows areas of high confidence to be identified where the standard deviation is low. Similarly, areas of low confidence will be found where standard deviations are high. These high resolution models can be used to reconstruct a history of slip along the fault, both identifying and quantifying of slip deficits and constraining confidence in the accuracy of the modelled information. This presentation will demonstrate the ability of the MCSE-GA to produce accurate models of slip for instrumentally recorded earthquakes and show estimates for slip during paleoearthquakes along the Sunda Megathrust.

  16. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  17. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

  18. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

  19. Lactational performance of high producing dairy cows fed diets containing salmon meal and urea.

    PubMed

    Windschitl, P M

    1991-10-01

    Thirty Holstein cows were used in a 12-wk trial to study the effects of salmon meal and urea on lactational performance. Two experimental diets, one containing 5.6% salmon meal and the other 5.2% salmon meal plus .42% urea, were compared with a soybean meal control diet. Salmon meal and urea replaced a portion of the soybean meal. Dietary undegraded intake protein levels (expressed as percentage of CP) were 28.8, 35.6, and 32.4% for soybean meal, salmon meal, and salmon meal plus urea. Total mixed diets (average 17.3% CP, 17.6% ADF) consisting of 60% concentrate mixture and 40% bromegrass silage (DM basis) were fed twice daily. Total DMI was lower with salmon meal compared with soybean meal (20.2 versus 22.2 kg/d); salmon meal plus urea (21.2 kg/d) was intermediate. Actual milk production was similar for all diets (average 41.1 kg/d). Percentage milk fat and 4% FCM yield were lower with salmon meal (2.56%, 31.6 kg/d) and salmon meal plus urea (2.50%, 31.4 kg/d) than with soybean meal (3.03%, 35.9 kg/d). Gross efficiency (weight FCM/weight DMI) was higher for soybean meal than for salmon meal and salmon meal plus urea. Acetate: propionate tended to be higher with the soybean meal diet. The use of a high oil fish meal to provide a source of rumen undegraded intake protein, alone or in combination with urea, resulted in a decrease in milk fat percentage and yield without any beneficial effects on milk production or lactational efficiency. PMID:1744278

  20. High prevalence of Cfr-producing Staphylococcus species in retail meat in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence and wide distribution of the transferable gene for linezolid resistance, cfr, in staphylococci of human and animal origins is of great concern as it poses a serious threat to the public health. In the present study, we investigated the emergence and presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in retail meat sourced from supermarkets and free markets of Guangzhou, China. Results A total of 118 pork and chicken samples, collected from Guangzhou markets, were screened by PCR for cfr. Twenty-two Staphylococcus isolates obtained from 12 pork and 10 chicken samples harbored cfr. The 22 cfr-positive staphylococci isolates, including Staphylococcus equorum (n?=?8), Staphylococcus simulans (n?=?7), Staphylococcus cohnii (n?=?4), and Staphylococcus sciuri (n?=?3), exhibited 17 major SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. In 14 isolates, cfr was located on the plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed that the genetic structures (including ?tnpA of Tn558, IS21-558, ?tnpB, and tnpC of Tn558, orf138, fexA) of cfr in plasmid pHNTLD18 of a S. sciuri strain and in the plasmid pHNLKJC2 (including rep, ?pre/mob, cfr, pre/mob and partial ermC) of a S. equorum strain were identical or similar to the corresponding regions of some plasmids in staphylococcal species of animal and human origins. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in animal meat. A high occurrence of cfr was observed in the tested retail meat samples. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of cfr in animal foods in China. PMID:24913069

  1. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  2. Comparable High Rates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Birds of Prey from Germany and Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas blaCTX-M-1 predominated among German isolates (100%), blaCTX-M-9 was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23300857

  3. Data Identifiers and Citations Enable Reproducible Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Modern science often involves data processing with tremendous volumes of data. Keeping track of that data has been a growing challenge for data center. Researchers who access and use that data don't always reference and cite their data sources adequately for consumers of their research to follow their methodology or reproduce their analyses or experiments. Recent research has led to recommendations for good identifiers and citations that can help address this problem. This paper will describe some of the best practices in data identifiers, reference and citation. Using a simplified example scenario based on a long term remote sensing satellite mission, it will explore issues in identifying dynamic data sets and the importance of good data citations for reproducibility. It will describe the difference between granule and collection level identifiers, using UUIDs and DOIs to illustrate some recommendations for developing identifiers and assigning them during data processing. As data processors create data products, the provenance of the input products and precise steps that led to their creation are recorded and published for users of the data to see. As researchers access the data from an archive, they can use the provenance to help understand the genesis of the data, which could have effects on their usage of the data. By citing the data on publishing their research, others can retrieve the precise data used in their research and reproduce the analyses and experiments to confirm the results. Describing the experiment to a sufficient extent to reproduce the research enforces a formal approach that lends credibility to the results, and ultimately, to the policies of decision makers depending on that research.

  4. Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and ?-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

  5. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  6. Neutron-deficient N{approx_equal}126 nuclei produced in 238U fragmentation: population of high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M.; Pearson, C. J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gerl, J.; Hellstroem, M.; Becker, F.; Gorska, M.; Kelic, A.; Kopatch, Y.; Mandal, S.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Banu, A.; Geissel, H.; Grawe, H.; Kojouharov, I.; Lozeva, R.; Portillo, M. [CSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] (and others)

    2006-04-26

    The population of metastable states produced in relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam has been measured. For states with high angular momentum, I=17({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and I=21.5({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), a higher population than expected has been observed, with the discrepancy increasing with angular momentum. By considering two sources for the angular momentum, related to single-particle and collective motions, a much improved description of the experimental results can be obtained. In addition, new results on the structure of 208Fr, 211Ra and 216Ac are reported.

  7. Laser cooling of externally produced Mg ions in a Penning trap for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andelkovic, Z.; Cazan, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Bharadia, S.; Segal, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Jöhren, R.; Vollbrecht, J.; Hannen, V.; Vogel, M.

    2013-03-01

    We have performed laser cooling of Mg+ ions confined in a Penning trap. The externally produced ions were captured in flight, stored, and laser cooled. Laser-induced fluorescence was observed perpendicular to the cooling laser axis. Optical detection down to the single-ion level together with the electronic detection of the ion oscillations inside the Penning trap have been used to acquire information on the ion storage time, ion number, and ion temperature. Evidence for the formation of ion crystals has been observed. These investigations are an important prerequisite for the sympathetic cooling of simultaneously stored highly charged ions and the precision laser spectroscopy of forbidden transitions in these.

  8. Mechanism of forward development of a plasma produced by an excimer laser in high-pressure argon gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-03-01

    In high-pressure argon gases up to 150 atm, the plasma produced by a XeCl excimer laser developed not only backward but also forward. The model for the forward development, called a forward breakdown wave, could not predict the developmental behavior in the latter stage. The development model was modified, newly taking into account the laser absorption by the plasma when the laser light was transmitted through the backward plasma. The time variation of the absorption coefficient at each distance was calculated using the inverse bremsstrahlung by the electron-ion impact. This modified model could better predict the forward development behavior than the previous model.

  9. Pressure Stabilizer for Reproducible Picoinjection in Droplet Microfluidic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Yilmaz, Suzan; Adams, Paul D.; Saxena, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Picoinjection is a promising technique to add reagents into pre-formed emulsion droplets on chip; however, it is sensitive to pressure fluctuation, making stable operation of the picoinjector challenging. We present a chip architecture using a simple pressure stabilizer for consistent and highly reproducible picoinjection in multi-step biochemical assays with droplets. Incorporation of the stabilizer immediately upstream of a picoinjector or a combination of injectors greatly reduces pressure fluctuations enabling reproducible and effective picoinjection in systems where the pressure varies actively during operation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the pressure stabilizer for an integrated platform for on-demand encapsulation of bacterial cells followed by picoinjection of reagents for lysing the encapsulated cells. The pressure stabilizer was also used for picoinjection of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) reagents to achieve genomic DNA amplification of lysed bacterial cells. PMID:25270338

  10. An exploration of graph metric reproducibility in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Telesford, Qawi K.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The application of graph theory to brain networks has become increasingly popular in the neuroimaging community. These investigations and analyses have led to a greater understanding of the brain's complex organization. More importantly, it has become a useful tool for studying the brain under various states and conditions. With the ever expanding popularity of network science in the neuroimaging community, there is increasing interest to validate the measurements and calculations derived from brain networks. Underpinning these studies is the desire to use brain networks in longitudinal studies or as clinical biomarkers to understand changes in the brain. A highly reproducible tool for brain imaging could potentially prove useful as a clinical tool. In this review, we examine recent studies in network reproducibility and their implications for analysis of brain networks. PMID:23717257

  11. Segregated mathematical model for the fed-batch cultivation of a high-producing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Tiller, V; Meyerhoff, J; Sziele, D; Schügerl, K; Bellgardt, K H

    1994-05-15

    A new segregated mathematical model for the penicillin fed-batch process is presented and applied to the growth of the pellet-forming, industrially used high-producing strain Penicillium chrysogenum S2. The model comprises two kinds of biomass (growing and producing, nongrowing and still producing), cell lysis, and complex medium as an important substrate for primary growth. In accordance with our experimental observation, product formation is not inhibited by glucose, but related to the growth rate. Maintenance metabolism is cell age-dependent. The model was verified with two sets of experimental data including exhaust gas measurements while keeping the estimated parameters almost constant. The presented model derived from that of Bajpai and Reuss (1980, 1981) does not describe our data properly. The particular influence of the pellet structure on the model is discussed. The necessity of new model assumptions (e.g., different kinds of biomass, non-constant maintenance coefficient) is explained by cell damage by lysis and shear forces, and the succeeding repair processes. PMID:7764846

  12. Molecular basis of ML-236B production in the high-producing mutant No. 41520 of Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuki; Baba, Satoshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ono, Chiho; Iwamoto, Kohji; Hosobuchi, Masahiko

    2004-06-01

    Strain improvement through random mutagenesis, screening and selection has provided us with spontaneous mutants which could produce more ML-236B than the original isolate, Penicillium citrinum SANK18767. The objective of the present study is to clarify how a high-producing mutant No. 41520 acquired the ability to produce 500 times more ML-236B than the original isolate on a molecular basis. Southern blot analysis and sequence comparison revealed that amplification of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and alteration of nucleotides within the loci had not occurred in the genome of No. 41520. On the other hand, a differential hybridization and Northern blot analysis showed that expression levels of the nine biosynthetic genes mlcA to mlcH and mlcR in No. 41520 increased greatly as compared to those in the original isolate. These data suggested that the increase in ML-236B production was partly due to increased expression of genes involved in ML-236B biosynthesis. Morphological differences and higher consumption of carbon source would also affect ML-236B production in No. 41520. Functional analysis revealed that a gene, orf1 next to mlcR, was not involved in the ML-236B biosynthesis, but it was involved in the transcriptional activation of genes along with the ML-236B gene cluster. Titer enhanced mutations might have occurred in the regulation system for transcription activation of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in the mutants of P. citrinum. PMID:15486826

  13. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  14. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

  15. A Transforming Marker That Produces Merodiploids with High Efficiency and Stable Transformants with Low Efficiency in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, Arnold W.; Ma, Michael

    1975-01-01

    A mutation (ery-r8) conferring a high level of resistance to erythromycin in the Challis strain of Streptoccus sanguis can be transferred to wild-type erythromycin-sensitive recipients via single molecules of donor DNA. The transformants thus produced are of two types: (1) cells slightly more resistant to erythromycin than wild-type and capable of segregating (at a frequency of 2 x 10-4/bacterium/generation) either wild-type or highly-resistant cells like the original donor type; (2) cells phenotypically and genotypically identical to the original donor type. The unstable diploids (ery-r8/+) occur with a frequency equivalent to that obtained with high-efficiency (HE) markers, whereas the stable donor-type (ery-r8) transformants occur with about five hundred times lower frequency. Penetration of the wild-type recipient by more than one molecule of DNA bearing the ery-r8 marker increases by as much as seven times the incidence of stable transformants. UV-irradiation of molecules bearing the ery-r8 marker diminishes their ability to cooperate in producing a stable transformant, although the UV sensitivity of stable transformant production by a single DNA molecule is not different from that of diploid production. Hence, stable transformants do not appear to be produced by a process typical of low efficiency (LE) markers, which are generally highly sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation. Moreover, stable ery-r8 transformants are produced with equally low frequencies in strains of S. pneumoniae that discriminate (hex+) and fail to discriminate (hex -) between HE and LE markers. We postulate that all transformations by the ery-r8 marker result in ery-r8/+ diploids, and that segregation results in the infrequent stable transformants of the original donor type. This hypothesis is supported by the observations that rifampin treatment of ery-r8/+ populations increases the frequency of segregation and similar treatment of wild-type recipients undergoing transformation by the ery-r8 marker increases the frequency of stable transformants.—In producing the ery-r8/+ transformant the r8 allele is integrated close to the site of its wild-type homolog, since single molecules of DNA from this transformant can be shown to carry both alleles. Segregation of either the ery-r8 or + allele is not detectably enhanced by acridine orange or thymidine deprivation.—The ery-r8 marker occurs close to a site of mutation (ery-r2) which confers erythromycin resistance upon ribosomes. When the r2 and r8 markers are jointly transferred, ery-r2-r8/+ genomes are produced in which the r2 marker is stably integrated but the r8 marker is unstably adjoined to its wild-type homolog. Thus, the duplicated region can be quite short. When the ery-r8 marker is stably integrated, the region of the marker is refractory to subsequent transformation. Markers with properties like ery-r8 are not particularly rare, being found with a frequency of about 4% among spontaneous mutations to erythromycin resistance. PMID:1232022

  16. High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

  17. Chemical Fabrication Used to Produce Thin-Film Materials for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Rybicki, George C.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Junek, William; Gorse, Joseph; Thompson, Tracy L.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space solar arrays is the development of a high-efficiency, thin-film solar cell that can be fabricated directly on a flexible, lightweight, space-qualified durable substrate such as Kapton (DuPont) or other polyimide or suitable polymer film. Cell efficiencies approaching 20 percent at AM0 (air mass zero) are required. Current thin-film cell fabrication approaches are limited by either (1) the ultimate efficiency that can be achieved with the device material and structure or (2) the requirement for high-temperature deposition processes that are incompatible with all presently known flexible polyimide or other polymer substrate materials. Cell fabrication processes must be developed that will produce high-efficiency cells at temperatures below 400 degrees Celsius, and preferably below 300 degress Celsius to minimize the problems associated with the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and thin-film solar cell and/or the decomposition of the substrate.

  18. High titer production of tetracenomycins by heterologous expression of the pathway in a Streptomyces cinnamonensis industrial monensin producer strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoxuan; Hazzard, Chris; Florova, Galina; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2009-11-01

    Streptomyces cinnamonensis C730.1 and C730.7, are industrially mutagenized strains that produce moderate and high levels of the polyketide polyether antibiotic monensin A, respectively, in an oil-based fermentation medium. The possibility that these strains could be used for high titer production of a heterologous polyketide product was investigated by expression of the entire tetracenomycin (TCM) biosynthetic pathway using an integrative plasmid, pSET154. Expression in C730.1 led to stable production of approximately 0.44 g/l TCM C (the final biosynthetic product) and approximately 2.69 g/l TCM A2 (the penultimate biosynthetic product), and resulted in a 40% decrease in monensin production. Expression in the C730.7 led to higher levels of TCMs, approximately 0.6 g/l TCM C and approximately 4.35 g/l TCM A2, without any detectable decrease in the higher titer monensin production. Abrogation of monensin production in this strain through deletion of the corresponding biosynthetic genes did not lead to higher levels of TCM products. In the case of the C730.7 host, 85% of the TCM C and virtually all of the TCM A2 were intracellular, suggesting feedback inhibition leads to the accumulation of the final pathway intermediate. These observations contrast those made for the native producer Streptomyces glaucescens where the predominant product is TCM C and TCM titers are significantly lower levels (approximately 0.3 g/l), and demonstrate the potential utility of S. cinnamonensis strains as heterologous hosts for high level expression of a variety of polyketide synthase derived products. PMID:19595787

  19. Reproducibility of energy parameters in the pole vault.

    PubMed

    Schade, Falk; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproducibility of kinematic, dynamometric and derived mechanical energy parameters in the pole vault as a main precondition for the practical applicability of the concept of energy exchange in the pole vault. A total of 46 vaults of six experienced vaulters were analyzed. On the basis of 3D kinematic data of the athlete and the pole and ground reaction forces measured at the end of the pole in the planting box the reproducibility of parameters that describe the energy transfer into the pole and the energy exchange between the athlete and the pole during the vault was proofed. Intraclass correlation, mean root mean square and the coefficient of variance were determined, additionally the Wilcoxon Test was applied. Parameters of the athlete's 3D total mechanical energy, e.g. initial energy and final energy, and the pole energy (maximum pole energy, energy of the pole due to compressive force and bending moment) were highly reproducible. The distribution of the energy transferred into the pole due to compressive force and bending moment, the same as the energy gain of the vaulter-pole system during the vault, which indicates the strategy of interacting with the pole, were also reproducible. With this the concept of energy exchange in the pole vault can be used to analyze the impact of training interventions, changes in movement pattern respectively, on the vaulters performance during different phases of the vault. The analysis of one trial of an athlete should be sufficient to identify changes in the athlete's interaction with the elastic pole. PMID:15927190

  20. Process for reproducibly preparing titanium subhydride

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Richard S. (West Alexandria, OH)

    1982-01-01

    Titanium subhydride is produced in a reactor by heating a selected amount of finely divided titanium compound at a selected temperature for a selected period of time under dynamic vacuum conditions. Hydrogen is removed substantially uniformly from each powder grain and there is produced a subhydride of substantially uniform titanium-hydrogen composition. Selection of the amount, temperature and time produces a subhydride of selected titanium-hydrogen composition.

  1. Reproducibility Data on SUMMiT

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Lloyd; Jakubczak, Jay; Limary, Siv; McBrayer, John; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James; Sniegowski, Jeffry; Stewart, Harold; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-16

    SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology) at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL (Microelectronics Development Laboratory) is a standardized MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers (with the third oxide layer being planarized) to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SWiT run to obtain post-processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

  2. Technique for the efficient and reproducible fabrication of electromagnetic levitation coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Theiss, J.; Abbaschian, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    A technique has been developed for fabricating electromagnetic induction coils in a reproducible manner. The process utilizes a split mandrel that can be disassembled to remove the mandrel from the coil. The technique has increased coil production rates by a factor of 8 over the freehand winding method. The success rate for producing a functional levitation coil has been increased from 50 percent to 95 percent. The levitation coil designed during this work has successfully levitated and melted a variety of alloys including Cu, Ag, Ag-Ni, Cu-Fe, Fe-C, and Nb-Ge. W was also levitated but not melted at temperatures as high as 2700 C. The highest sample melt temperature achieved was 2400 C for the Nb-Ge samples.

  3. Physiologic and metabolic characterization of a new marine isolate (BM39) of Pantoea sp. producing high levels of exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine environments are the widest fonts of biodiversity representing a resource of both unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many physiological functions and practical applications. Since EPS production by many bacteria is too scarce for practical use and only few species are known for their high levels of production, the search of new high EPS producers is of paramount importance. Many marine bacteria, that produce EPS to cope with strong environmental stress, could be potentially exploited at the industrial level. Results A novel bacterium, strain BM39, previously isolated from sediments collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was selected for its production of very high levels of EPS. BM39 was affiliated to Pantoea sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. According to the phylogenetic tree, this strain, being quite far from the closest known Pantoea species (96% identity with P. agglomerans and P. ananatis) could belong to a new species. EPS production was fast (maximum of ca. 21 g/L in 24 h on glucose medium) and mainly obtained during the exponential growth. Preliminary characterization, carried out by thin layer and gel filtration chromatography, showed that the EPS, being a glucose homopolymer with MW of ca. 830 kDa, appeared to be different from those of other bacteria of same genus. The bacterium showed a typical slightly halophilic behavior growing optimally at NaCl 40 ‰ (growing range 0-100 ‰). Flow cytometry studies indicated that good cell survival was maintained for 24 h at 120 ‰. Survival decreased dramatically with the increase of salinity being only 1 h at 280 ‰. The biochemical characterization, carried out with the Biolog system, showed that MB39 had a rather limited metabolic capacity. Its ability, rather lower than that of P. agglomerans, was almost only confined to the metabolization of simple sugars and their derivatives. Few alcohols, organic acids and nitrogen compounds were partially used too. Conclusions Strain BM39, probably belonging to a new species, due to its remarkable EPS production, comparable to those of known industrial bacterial producers, could be suggested as a new microorganism for industrial applications. PMID:23360451

  4. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Feldman, Uri [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Holland, Glenn E. [SFA Inc., 2200 Defense Highway, Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States); Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA and Universities Space Research Associates, Columbia, Maryland 21044 (United States); Fielding, Drew [Commonwealth Technologies Inc., 5775 Barclay Drive, Alexandria, Virginia 22315 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  5. Microbial community structure analysis of produced water from a high-temperature North Sea oil-field.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Håkon; Garshol, Frøydis; Madsen, Marit; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2008-01-01

    Molecular and culture-based methods were used to investigate the microbial diversity in produced water obtained from the high-temperature Troll oil formation in the North Sea. 16S rRNA gene libraries were generated from total community DNA, using universal archaeal or bacterial oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of 88 clones in the bacterial library indicated that they originated from members of Firmicutes (48 sequences), Bacteroidetes (17 sequences), delta-Proteobacteria (15 sequences), Spirochaetes (5 sequences), Thermotogales (2 sequences) and gamma-Proteobacteria (1 sequence). Twenty-two sequences in the archaeal library were close relatives to members of the genera Methanococcus (18 sequences), Methanolobus (3 sequences) and Thermococcus (1 sequence). Most of the bacterial sequences shared less than 95% identity with their closest match in GenBank, indicating that the produced water harbours a unique community of novel bacterial species or genera. Members of the thermophilic genera Thermosipho, Thermotoga, Anaerophaga and Thermovirga were isolated. The Troll formations are not injected with sea water. Thus, dramatic changes of the in situ conditions have been avoided, and a common source of continuous contamination from injection water can be excluded. However, the majority of the organisms detected in the gene libraries were most closely related to cultivated organisms with optimum temperatures for growth well below the in situ reservoir temperature (70 degrees C), indicating that produced water from the Troll platform harbours a substantial amount of non-indigenous organisms. This was confirmed by the isolation of a number of mesophilic and moderately thermophilic organisms that were unable to grow at reservoir temperature. PMID:17588160

  6. High Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella in Broiler Carcasses from Poultry Slaughterhouses in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Kim, Young-Ji; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne Salmonella has become a major public health problem. Consumption of undercooked poultry contaminated with Salmonella can induce food poisoning in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated from 120 chicken carcasses produced in 6 poultry slaughterhouses in South Korea. A total of 11 samples (9.2%) were found contaminated with Salmonella: 5 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Bellevue strain (slaughterhouse C) and 6 isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis strain (slaughterhouse E). Salmonella Bellevue isolates were resistant to five antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), while Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were resistant to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cephalothin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline). All cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis isolates exhibited the extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried the gene encoding CTX-M-15, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme worldwide. Based on molecular subtyping performed using the automated rep-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system (DiversiLab), the isolates showing ?95 similarity in their rep-PCR banding patterns were classified into 5 pulsotypes. Given that cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for invasive Salmonella infections, the high incidence of ESBL-producing strains in chicken should emphasize the necessity of regular monitoring of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant ESBL-positive Salmonella strains in poultry meat. PMID:25692653

  7. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Le, Yuan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-07-01

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions—dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions—that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  8. Estimates of the climatic impact of aerosols produced by Space Shuttles, SST's, and other high flying aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Summers, A.; Van Camp, W.; Baldwin, B.

    1976-01-01

    Solar and terrestrial radiative transfer calculations are performed to evaluate the effect of additional aerosols (sulfuric acid, aluminum oxide) produced by aircraft and Space Shuttles flying through the stratosphere on the global heat balance. The results are presented by plotting the dependence of various quantities of interest as a function of the change in the optical depth of the stratosphere at a reference wavelength of 0.55 micron. Perturbation optical depths that will result from the amount of emission expected from supersonic transports (SSTs) and Space Shuttles over the next several decades are determined. The magnitude and importance of the surface temperature change resulting from the added aerosols are assessed. The effect of added aerosols on ozone destruction is evaluated. It is shown that the aerosols produced by SSTs, other high flying aircraft, and Space Shuttles over the next several decades would not seriously alter the climate. However, the effect of SSTs is sufficiently close to the threshold limit, which requires reevaluation as new data are available.

  9. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  10. Dry cow diet, management, and energy balance as risk factors for displaced abomasum in high producing dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R E; Dyk, P B; Herdt, T H; Kaneene, J B; Miller, R; Bucholtz, H F; Liesman, J S; Vandehaar, M J; Emery, R S

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prepartum risk factors for displaced abomasum. The design was a prospective study of 1170 multiparous Holstein cows from 67 high producing dairy herds in Michigan. Each farm was visited four times within a 6-wk period. At each visit, data on nutrition and management were collected. All multiparous cows within 35 d of projected calving were assigned a body condition score, and blood was sampled to determine the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma. A multivariable linear regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with the incidence of displaced abomasum during lactation on a herd basis. A multivariable logistic regression model with random effect was used to determine risk factors for displaced abomasum on an individual cow basis. Significant risk factors for displaced abomasum included a negative energy balance prepartum (as estimated from plasma nonesterified fatty acids), a high body condition score, suboptimal feed bunk management prepartum, prepartum diets containing > 1.65 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter, winter and summer seasons, high genetic merit, and low parity. PMID:9493088

  11. Plants Probiotics as a Tool to Produce Highly Functional Fruits: The Case of Phyllobacterium and Vitamin C in Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R.; Rivera, Lina P.; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

  12. SERS-active silver nanoparticle aggregates produced in high-iron float glass by ion exchange process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvonen, L.; Chen, Y.; Säynätjoki, A.; Taiviola, K.; Tervonen, A.; Honkanen, S.

    2011-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were produced in iron containing float glasses by silver-sodium ion exchange and post-annealing. In particular, the effect of the concentration and the oxidation state of iron in the host glass on the nanoparticle formation was studied. After the nanoparticle fabrication process, the samples were characterized by optical absorption measurements. The samples were etched to expose nanoparticle aggregates on the surface, which were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The SERS-activity of these glass samples was demonstrated and compared using a dye molecule Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as an analyte. The importance of the iron oxidation level for reduction process is discussed. The glass with high concentration of Fe 2+ ions was found to be superior in SERS applications of silver nanoparticles. The optimal surface features in terms of SERS enhancement are also discussed.

  13. Delayed GeV--TeV Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts Producing High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-print Network

    Eli Waxman; Paolo Coppi

    1996-03-27

    A scenario in which cosmic rays (CRs) above $10^{20}{\\rm eV}$ are produced by cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is consistent with observations provided that deflections by the inter-galactic magnetic field (IGMF) delay and spread the arrival time of the CRs over $\\geq50{\\rm yr}$. The energy lost by the CRs as they propagate and interact with the microwave background is transformed by cascading into secondary GeV-TeV photons. We show that a significant fraction of these photons can arrive with delays much smaller than the CR delay if much of inter-galactic space is occupied by large-scale magnetic ``voids'', regions of size $\\gtrsim5{\\rm Mpc}$ and field weaker than $10^{-15}{\\rm G}$. Such voids might be expected, for example, in models where a weak primordial field is amplified in shocked, turbulent regions of the intergalactic medium during the formation of large-scale structure. For a field strength $\\sim4\\times10^{-11}{\\rm G}$ in the high field regions, the value required to account for observed galactic fields if the IGMF were frozen in the protogalactic plasma, the delay of CRs produced by a burst at a distance of $100{\\rm Mpc}$ is $\\sim100{\\rm yr}$, and the fluence of secondary photons above $10{\\rm GeV}$ on hour--day time scales is $I(>E)\\sim10^{-6}E_{\\rm TeV}^{-1}{\\rm cm}^{-2}$. This fluence is close to the detection threshold of current high-energy $\\gamma$-ray experiments. Detection of the delayed flux would support the GRB-CR association and would also provide information on the IGMF structure.

  14. An improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino acid analog with herbicidal activity that specifically inhibits germination of seeds of graminaceous species. Results We used a hybrid next-generation sequencing approach to develop a high-quality draft genome sequence for P. fluorescens WH6. We employed automated, manual, and experimental methods to further improve the draft genome sequence. From this assembly of 6.27 megabases, we predicted 5876 genes, of which 3115 were core to P. fluorescens and 1567 were unique to WH6. Comparative genomic studies of WH6 revealed high similarity in synteny and orthology of genes with P. fluorescens SBW25. A phylogenomic study also placed WH6 in the same lineage as SBW25. In a previous non-saturating mutagenesis screen we identified two genes necessary for GAF activity in WH6. Mapping of their flanking sequences revealed genes that encode a candidate anti-sigma factor and an aminotransferase. Finally, we discovered several candidate virulence and host-association mechanisms, one of which appears to be a complete type III secretion system. Conclusions The improved high-quality draft genome sequence of WH6 contributes towards resolving the P. fluorescens species, providing additional impetus for establishing two separate lineages in P. fluorescens. Despite the high levels of orthology and synteny to SBW25, WH6 still had a substantial number of unique genes and represents another source for the discovery of genes with implications in affecting plant growth and health. Two genes are demonstrably necessary for GAF and further characterization of their proteins is important for developing natural products as control measure against grassy weeds. Finally, WH6 is the first isolate of P. fluorescens reported to encode a complete T3SS. This gives us the opportunity to explore the role of what has traditionally been thought of as a virulence mechanism for non-pathogenic interactions with plants. PMID:20920191

  15. Biological effectiveness of nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons interacting in tissues near the bone- soft tissue interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavers, Mark Randall

    1999-12-01

    High-energy protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR)-or generated by nuclear interactions of GCR heavy-ions with material-are capable of penetrating great thicknesses of shielding to irradiate humans in spacecraft or in lunar or Martian habitats. As protons interact with the nuclei of the elemental constituents of soft tissue and bone, low energy nuclei-target fragments-are emitted into the cells responsible for bone development and maintenance and for hematopoiesis. Leukemogenesis is the principal endpoint of concern because it is the most likely deleterious effect, and it has a short latency period and comparatively low survival rate, although other myelo- proliferative disorders and osteosarcoma also may be induced. A one-dimensional proton-target fragment transport model was used to calculate the energy spectra of fragments produced in bone and soft tissue, and present in marrow cavities at distances from a bone interface. In terms of dose equivalent, the target fragments are as significant as the incident protons. An average radiation quality factor was found to be between 1.8 and 2.6. Biological response to the highly non- uniform energy deposition of the target fragments is such that an alternative approach to conventional predictive risk assessment is needed. Alternative procedures are presented. In vitro cell response and relative biological effectiveness were calculated from the radial dose distribution of each fragment produced by 1-GeV protons using parameters of a modified Ion-Gamma- Kill (IGK) model of radiation action. The modelled endpoints were survival of C3H10t 1/2 and V79 cells, neoplastic transformation of C3H10t1/2 cells, and mutation of the X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in V79 cells. The dose equivalent and cell responses increased by 10% or less near the interface. Since RBE increases with decreasing dose in the IGK model, comparisons with quality factors were made at dose levels 0.01 <= D [Gy] <= 2. Applying average quality factors derived herein to GCR exposures results in a <= 5% increase of in average quality. Calculated RBEs indicate that accepted quality factors for high-energy protons may be too low due to the relatively high effectiveness of the low-charged target fragments. Derived RBEs for target fragments increase the calculated biological effectiveness of GCR by 20% to 180%.

  16. Icy: an open bioimage informatics platform for extended reproducible research.

    PubMed

    de Chaumont, Fabrice; Dallongeville, Stéphane; Chenouard, Nicolas; Hervé, Nicolas; Pop, Sorin; Provoost, Thomas; Meas-Yedid, Vannary; Pankajakshan, Praveen; Lecomte, Timothée; Le Montagner, Yoann; Lagache, Thibault; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Current research in biology uses evermore complex computational and imaging tools. Here we describe Icy, a collaborative bioimage informatics platform that combines a community website for contributing and sharing tools and material, and software with a high-end visual programming framework for seamless development of sophisticated imaging workflows. Icy extends the reproducible research principles, by encouraging and facilitating the reusability, modularity, standardization and management of algorithms and protocols. Icy is free, open-source and available at http://icy.bioimageanalysis.org/. PMID:22743774

  17. A Reproducible Oral Microcosm Biofilm Model for Testing Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J.D.; Chen, R.; Lenton, P.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Jones, R.S.; Reilly, C.; Fok, A.S.; Aparicio, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Most studies of biofilm effects on dental materials use single-species biofilms, or consortia. Microcosm biofilms grown directly from saliva or plaque are much more diverse, but difficult to characterize. We used the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray (HOMIM) to validate a reproducible oral microcosm model. Methods and Results Saliva and dental plaque were collected from adults and children. Hydroxyapatite and dental composite disks were inoculated with either saliva or plaque, and microcosm biofilms were grown in a CDC biofilm reactor. In later experiments, the reactor was pulsed with sucrose. DNA from inoculums and microcosms were analyzed by HOMIM for 272 species. Microcosms included about 60% of species from the original inoculum. Biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite and composites were extremely similar. Sucrose-pulsing decreased diversity and pH, but increased the abundance of Streptococcus and Veilonella. Biofilms from the same donor, grown at different times, clustered together. Conclusions This model produced reproducible microcosm biofilms that were representative of the oral microbiota. Sucrose induced changes associated with dental caries. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first use of HOMIM to validate an oral microcosm model that can be used to study the effects of complex biofilms on dental materials. PMID:22925110

  18. Reproducible research: a bioinformatics case study.

    PubMed

    Gentleman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    While scientific research and the methodologies involved have gone through substantial technological evolution the technology involved in the publication of the results of these endeavors has remained relatively stagnant. Publication is largely done in the same manner today as it was fifty years ago. Many journals have adopted electronic formats, however, their orientation and style is little different from a printed document. The documents tend to be static and take little advantage of computational resources that might be available. Recent work, Gentleman and Temple Lang (2003), suggests a methodology and basic infrastructure that can be used to publish documents in a substantially different way. Their approach is suitable for the publication of papers whose message relies on computation. Stated quite simply, Gentleman and Temple Lang (2003) propose a paradigm where documents are mixtures of code and text. Such documents may be self-contained or they may be a component of a compendium which provides the infrastructure needed to provide access to data and supporting software. These documents, or compendiums, can be processed in a number of different ways. One transformation will be to replace the code with its output -- thereby providing the familiar, but limited, static document.

    In this paper we apply these concepts to a seminal paper in bioinformatics, namely The Molecular Classification of Cancer, Golub et al (1999). The authors of that paper have generously provided data and other information that have allowed us to largely reproduce their results. Rather than reproduce this paper exactly we demonstrate that such a reproduction is possible and instead concentrate on demonstrating the usefulness of the compendium concept itself. PMID:16646837

  19. High spin studies of neutron-rich nuclei produced in the spontaneous fission process of californium-252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2001-08-01

    From an experiment with GAMMMASPHERE and a 252Cf spontaneous fission source, high spin studies of several neutron-rich nuclei have been carried out. In the mass region A ~ 150, a new negative-parity band in 154Nd and new negative-parity levels in 152Nd were identified and the yrast bands were extended to 18+ in 154Nd and 20+ 152Nd in a triple gamma coincidence study. These new negative-parity bands are consistent with octupole vibrational mode rather than the stable octupole deformation seen in Ba and Ce nuclei. There is a constant difference as a function of spin between the J1 values for the negative-parity band in 152Nd and J1 for the similar negative-parity band in 154Nd, however, their J2 values are essentially identical above the 4 + state. These bands indicate a new kind of identical bands associated with an octupole vibrational mode. In mass region A ~ 110, we have observed new bands in 113,115,117,118 Pd up to moderately high spin. The newly identified negative-parity yrast band energy level systematics built on the / isomeric states fit smoothly with the known systematic for other Pd isotopes, and show a minimum excitation energy at N = 68 related to a mid-shell closure. These new negative- parity yrast bands indicate a first band crossing at ¢? ~ 0.45 MeV, nearly identical to those seen in 109,111Pd, but significantly higher than those in the positive yrast parity bands in 113,115Pd and in the even-even Pd isotopes. We have interpreted the new negative-parity yrast bands as having band crossings from the alignment of a nh/ pair, and this suggests that 113,115,117Pd maintain a prolate shape. Additionally, we have observed two new bands in 113,115 Pd, which are tentatively assigned positive parity with band crossings about 0.25 and 0.32 MeV. These lower frequencies are consistent with a nh/ pair alignment. In the neutron-rich 118Pd, the first band crossing at a frequency of ¢? ~ 0.29 MeV was observed in its yrast band. This band crossing frequency is substantially lower than the first band crossing frequency of ¢? ~ 0.45 MeV observed the yrast bands in the lighter odd mass Pd isotopes and the crossing at ¢? = 0.35 in the yrast bands in 112,114,116Pd. This lower crossing frequency is well reproduced by the quasi- neutron Routhian calculation by assuming that the neutron-pairing gap is reduced in 118Pd. The calculation show a two nh/ band crossing at ¢? ~ 0.3 in agreement with the experimental value. A reduction in neutron pairing is responsible in Cranking model for lowering the crossing frequency. This band crossing in the new yrast cascade in 118Pd as well as those in 112,114,116Pd are interpreted based on a two h/ neutron configuration. Our result indicates 118 Pd still maintains a prolate shape. It's found that the crossing frequency in 118Pd is considerably lower and weaker than for the other even Pd isotopes. In the even-even 88,90,92Kr, all yrast bands were studied and extended to 8+, 10+, 12+, respectively. Quasi-gamma bands in 90,92Kr, and possibly one in 88Kr were identified. These data provide useful information about the interplay of collective and independent particle excitations in these three nuclei. Additionally, the coexisting of vibrational motion near the ground state and rotational collective motion at intermediate spins is observed in neutron-rich 90Kr.

  20. The draft genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: a C4 dicot producing high-lysine edible pseudo-cereal.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R; Gupta, Ravi P; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-12-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  1. Evaluation of an MBR-RO system to produce high quality reuse water: microbial control, DBP formation and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Comerton, Anna M; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2005-10-01

    A membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system was developed to assess potential reuse applications of municipal wastewater. The objective of the study was to examine the water quality throughout the system with a focus on waterborne pathogens, disinfection by-products (DBPs) and nitrate. This paper will discuss the presence of these contaminants in MBR effluent and focus on their subsequent removal by RO. This study has shown that high quality reuse water can be produced from municipal wastewater through the use of an MBR-RO system. The water meets California Title 22 reuse regulations for non-potable applications and US EPA drinking water limits for trihalomethanes (THM) (80 microg/L), haloacetic acids (HAA) (60 microg/L), chlorite (1.0 mg/L), total coliform (not detectable), viruses (not detectable), and nitrate/nitrite (10 mg N/L). However, THM formation (182-689 microg/L) attributed to cleaning of the MBR with chlorine and incomplete removal by subsequent RO treatment resulted in reuse water with THM levels (40.2+/-19.9 microg/L) high enough to present a potential concern when considering drinking water applications. Nitrate levels of up to 3.6 mg N/L, which resulted from incomplete removal by the RO membrane, are also a potential concern. A denitrification step in the MBR should be considered in potable water applications. PMID:16112164

  2. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: A C4 Dicot Producing High-Lysine Edible Pseudo-Cereal

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K.; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R.; Gupta, Ravi P.; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. PMID:25071079

  3. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2012-03-01

    Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is <5.8 should be avoided to minimize health disturbances due to SARA. The knowledge generated from these modeling approaches recommends that average amounts of 31.2% peNDF inclusive particles >1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8) in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets without the need to increase their content in peNDF above the threshold that leads to lower DM intake. The latter would require strategies that modulate the fermentability characteristics of the diet and promote absorption and metabolic capacity of ruminal epithelia of dairy cows. PMID:22365188

  4. High Genotypic and Phenotypic Similarity Among Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111 Environmental and Outbreak Strains.

    PubMed

    Diodati, Michelle E; Bates, Anne H; Cooley, Michael B; Walker, Samarpita; Mandrell, Robert E; Brandl, Maria T

    2015-03-01

    Escherichia coli serogroup O111 is among the six most commonly reported non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), which are emerging as important foodborne pathogens. We have assembled a collection of environmental and clinical strains of E. coli O111 from diverse sources and investigated various genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of these strains to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology and biology of this serogroup. Sixty-three percent of the strains (24/38) were of H-type 8, which dominated the environmental- and outbreak-strains group, whereas the sporadic-case strains were more heterogeneous in H-type. All of the environmental and outbreak strains harbored the Shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1), eae, and ehx, and a subset of these also carried the Shiga toxin 2 gene (stx2). Only 9 of 16 sporadic-case strains produced stx1 and/or stx2, and these were mostly of H-type 8 and 10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a cluster of environmental, outbreak, and sporadic illness strains with high phylogenetic similarity. Strains in this pulsogroup were all of the H8 type and STEC pathotype, and carried eae and ehx. Smaller clusters of highly similar STEC O111 strains included outbreak and sporadic illness strains isolated during different time periods or from different geographical locations. A distinct aggregative behavior was observed in the cultures of all environmental and outbreak STEC O111 strains, but not in those of sporadic-case strains. Among environmental and outbreaks strains, aggregation was positively correlated with production of curli fimbriae and RpoS function, and negatively with cellulose synthesis, while the nonaggregative behavior of sporadic-case strains correlated (positively) only with cellulose production. Our results indicate that STEC O111 strains sharing high genotypic similarity and important phenotypic traits with STEC O111 outbreak strains are present in the agricultural environment and may contribute to the burden of foodborne disease. PMID:25658825

  5. Research Spotlight: Improved model reproduces the 2003 European heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-04-01

    In August 2003, record-breaking temperatures raged across much of Europe. In France, maximum temperatures of 37°C (99°F) persisted for 9 days straight, the longest such stretch since 1873. About 40,000 deaths (14,000 in France alone) were attributed to the extreme heat and low humidity. Various climate conditions must come into alignment to produce extreme weather like the 2003 heat wave, and despite a concerted effort, forecasting models have so far been unable to accurately reproduce the event—including the modern European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble modeling system for seasonal forecasts, which went into operation in 2007. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046455, 2011)

  6. A reproducible and low-cost piezoelectric droplet generator

    E-print Network

    Liu, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design for a piezoelectric droplet generator capable of producing highly repeatable droplets ranging from 0.60 mm to 1.60 mm in diameter. The generator is low cost, simple to fabricate, and easily ...

  7. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. PMID:25497828

  8. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? PEPG Report No.: 10-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    To see how well U.S. schools do at producing high-achieving math students, the authors compare the percentage of U.S. public and private school students in the graduating Class of 2009 who were highly accomplished in mathematics in each of the 50 states and in 10 urban districts to percentages of high achievers in 56 other countries. Their…

  9. Factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum prolonged luteal activity in clinically healthy high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2012-01-15

    The objective was to characterize risk factors affecting the occurrence of prolonged luteal phase (PLP) in postpartum, clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasound examinations of the reproductive tract were performed twice weekly, from the 1st to 8th wk after calving in 151 multiparous clinically healthy lactating Holstein cows (mean ± SD of peak milk yield = 56.7 ± 7.4 kg). Serum samples were collected twice weekly to measure progesterone and every 2 wk to detect ?-hydroxybutyrate (?HB), and ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Body condition score (BCS) was recorded weekly after calving. Based on the serum progesterone profile, 52 (34.4%) cows had normal ovarian activity (NLA), whereas 36 (23.8%) cows had a prolonged luteal phase (PLP), the most prevalent type of abnormal pattern of luteal activity. Furthermore, 63 cows with short luteal activity, delayed first ovulation, or cystic ovaries were excluded from this study. Serum AGP concentrations, as an indication of postpartum chronic endometritis, were not different (P > 0.05) between cows with NLA and PLP. Categories of peak milk yields (kg) were positively correlated with the incidence (%) of cows with PLP (r = 0.87, P = 0.02). Furthermore, milk yield peak, day of milk yield peak, mean milk yield (8 wk in milk), and milk yield on the expected day of luteolysis were higher (P < 0.05) in cows with PLP than NLA, and cows with PLP had greater loss of BCS (P = 0.007) than those with NLA. The likelihood of cows with PLP decreased by 0.9-fold for every 1 d delay of commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Moreover, the likelihood of cows with PLP increased by 1.8-fold for each 1 mmol/L increase in the 1st wk serum ?HB concentrations. In conclusion, higher mean of milk yield, greater BCS loss, earlier C-LA, and later peak milk yield were the major risk factors affecting the occurrence of postpartum PLP in clinically healthy, high-producing dairy cows. PMID:21958642

  10. Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized #1 plant brand Proven Winners.

    E-print Network

    Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since of independent garden centers. As a team member of Four Star Greenhouse, you will join the Four Star Greenhouse website to view the complete job description at http

  11. Wave propagation software, computational science, and reproducible research

    E-print Network

    LeVeque, Randy

    Wave propagation software, computational science, and reproducible research Randall J. Le for more reproducibility in computational research. Sample applications discussed include medical on the topic of software development and its relation to mathematics, and on computational science

  12. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...discourages, or detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified documents are subject to the same...

  13. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...discourages, or detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified documents are subject to the same...

  14. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...discourages, or detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified documents are subject to the same...

  15. Reproducible conductance fluctuations in macroscopic Anderson insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. (Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Pichard, J. (Service de Physique du Solide et de Resonance Magnetique, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France (FR))

    1991-08-05

    We study theoretically the reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations in macroscopic Anderson insulators where complex random interferences yield localization at a scale {xi} larger than the elastic mean free path {ital l}. Based on the hypothesis of large ergodic quantum fluctuations of {xi} when a flux quantum is applied through an area {xi}{sup 2}, we show that the normalized magnetoconductance fluctuations {delta}{ital G}{sub tot}/{ital G}{sub tot} is ({xi}{sub {ital p}}{sup {ital D}}/{Omega}{sub {ital e}{ital f}{ital f}}){sup 1/2} for ergodic field changes {Delta}{ital B}{similar to}{phi}{sub 0}/{xi}{sup 2}, where {xi}{sub {ital p}} is a percolation correlation length which approaches macroscopic length scales at very low temperatures, and {Omega}{sub {ital e}{ital f}{ital f}} is an effective volume for th classical self-averaging of the fluctuations.

  16. Reproducibility of binary-mixture toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Cedergreen, Nina; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Sørensen, Helle; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2007-01-01

    Binary-mixture studies often are conducted with the aim of elucidating the effect of one specific chemical on the biological action of another. The results can be interpreted in relation to reference models by the use of response-surface analyses and isobolograms. The amount of data needed for these analyses is, however, extensive, and the experiments therefore rarely are repeated. In the present study, we investigate the reproducibility of isobole shapes of binary-mixture toxicity experiments in terms of deviation from the reference model of concentration addition (CA), dose-level dependence, and isobole asymmetry. We use data from four herbicide mixtures tested in three to five independent experiments on the aquatic test plant Lemna minor and the terrestrial plant Tripleurospermum inodorum. The results showed that the variation both within and among experiments was approximately half the size for the aquatic test system compared to the terrestrial system. As a consequence, a consistent deviation from CA could be obtained in three of four herbicide mixtures for L. minor, whereas this was only the case for one or two of the herbicide mixtures tested on T. inodorum. For one mixture on T. inodorum, both CA synergism and antagonism were detected. Dose-dependent effects could not be repeated consistently, just as the asymmetry found in some isoboles could not. The study emphasizes the importance of repeating mixture toxicity experiments, especially for test systems with large variability, and using caution when drawing biological conclusions from the test results. PMID:17269472

  17. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=?0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  18. High-resolution Crystal Spectroscopy of Charge-Exchange Produced K-shell X-ray Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Olson, R.; Marion, M.

    2005-05-01

    Charge-exchange spectral models needed to describe and predict the X-ray emission of cometary and planetary atmospheres interacting with solar wind heavy ions are under development and require laboratory data for guidance. The relative intensity of the four K-shell emission lines in heliumlike ions is particularly uncertain, as the individual lines have not yet been fully resolved in charge-exchange-produced spectra. Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer, we have measured the charge exchange induced K-shell X-ray emission from Ar16+ following the interaction of Ar17+ ions with fast, 40 keV/amu deuterium atoms. The measurement was performed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The Ar17+ ions were constituents of the plasma, while deuterium was injected via a 80 keV neutral beam. During the brief, 20 ms neutral beam injection emission from electron-impact collisions ceases, and X-ray line emission is solely due to charge exchange. The measurement fully resolves the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines. We have constructed a complete radiative cascade model of Ar16+ that includes electron capture into levels as high as n=29 and all E1, M1, E2, and M2 radiative transitions. We find excellent agreement between the model and the NSTX crystyal spectrum. We will present these findings as well as our predictions of the emission in other spectral bands from the optical and extreme ultraviolet to the soft X-ray region. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by UC-LLNL under contract W-7405-Eng-48, by UMR under contract DE-FG02-84ER53175, and by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-76CHO3073.

  19. De novo Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Acremonium chrysogenum: High-Yield and Wild-Type Strains of Cephalosporin C Producer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xie, Liping; Gong, Guihua; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Baoquan; Hu, Youjia

    2014-01-01

    ?-lactam antibiotics are widely used in clinic. Filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is an important industrial fungus for the production of CPC, one of the major precursors of ?-lactam antibiotics. Although its fermentation yield has been bred significantly over the past decades, little is known regarding molecular changes between the industrial strain and the wild type strain. This limits the possibility to improve CPC production further by molecular breeding. Comparative transcriptome is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms of CPC industrial high yield producer compared to wild type. A total of 57 million clean sequencing reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated from Illumina sequencing platform. 22,878 sequences were assembled. Among the assembled unigenes, 9502 were annotated and 1989 annotated sequences were assigned to 121 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) database. Furthermore, we compared the transcriptome differences between a high-yield and a wild-type strain during fermentation. A total of 4329 unigenes with significantly different transcription level were identified, among which 1737 were up-regulated and 2592 were down-regulated. 24 pathways were subsequently determined which involve glycerolipid metabolism, galactose metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism. We also examined the transcription levels of 18 identified genes, including 11 up-regulated genes and 7 down-regulated genes using reverse transcription quantitative -PCR (RT-qPCR). The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with the Illumina sequencing. In this study, the Illumina sequencing provides the most comprehensive sequences for gene expression profile of Acremonium chrysogenum and allows de novo transcriptome assembly while lacking genome information. Comparative analysis of RNA-seq data reveals the complexity of the transcriptome in the fermentation of different yield strains. This is an important public information platform which could be used to accelerate the research to improve CPC production in Acremonium chrysogenum. PMID:25118715

  20. High serum organochlorine pesticide concentrations in diabetics of a cotton producing area of the Benin Republic (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Azandjeme, Colette S; Delisle, Hélène; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Djrolo, Francois; Houinato, Dismand; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-08-01

    The Borgou region of northern Benin is a major cotton producing area and consistently uses higher amounts of pesticides than other areas of the country. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), poorly handled, have been widely used and are still illegally present. We therefore hypothesized that serum OCP levels would be high in Borgou. As part of a case-control study on diabetes status and pesticide exposure, we measured the distribution of serum concentrations of 14 OCPs by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A sample of 118 diabetic subjects was selected using a four-stage cluster sampling with 54.2% of men and 45.8% of women; 43% lived in urban areas, 14.4% were obese and 39.8% had high economic status. The four detected OCPs were p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH and trans-nonachlor with respective geometric means (geometric standard deviation) of 497.1 (4.5), 20.6 (7.9), 2.9 (3.4), and 2.0 (2.3) ng/g of total serum lipids. OCP levels were significantly higher in obese, wealthier and more educated subjects and in those living in urban areas as compared to the other groups, particularly for p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and ?-HCH. Levels of DDT and DDE were higher than reported in other countries where DDT is no longer permitted. The low DDT/DDE ratio of 0.05 suggests past human exposure through food contamination. There is thus a need to reinforce governmental regulations for a more responsible use of pesticides in the country, in order to reduce health risks associated with persistent organic pollutants. PMID:24769438

  1. Psychophysiological responses to pain identify reproducible human clusters.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Coen, Steven J; Kano, Michiko; Paine, Peter A; Shwahdi, Mustafa; Jafari, Jafar; Kishor, Jessin; Worthen, Sian F; Rossiter, Holly E; Kumari, Veena; Williams, Steven C R; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent P; Droney, Joanne; Riley, Julia; Furlong, Paul L; Knowles, Charles H; Lightman, Stafford L; Aziz, Qasim

    2013-11-01

    Pain is a ubiquitous yet highly variable experience. The psychophysiological and genetic factors responsible for this variability remain unresolved. We hypothesised the existence of distinct human pain clusters (PCs) composed of distinct psychophysiological and genetic profiles coupled with differences in the perception and the brain processing of pain. We studied 120 healthy subjects in whom the baseline personality and anxiety traits and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype were measured. Real-time autonomic nervous system parameters and serum cortisol were measured at baseline and after standardised visceral and somatic pain stimuli. Brain processing reactions to visceral pain were studied in 29 subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reproducibility of the psychophysiological responses to pain was assessed at year. In group analysis, visceral and somatic pain caused an expected increase in sympathetic and cortisol responses and activated the pain matrix according to fMRI studies. However, using cluster analysis, we found 2 reproducible PCs: at baseline, PC1 had higher neuroticism/anxiety scores (P ? 0.01); greater sympathetic tone (P<0.05); and higher cortisol levels (P ? 0.001). During pain, less stimulus was tolerated (P ? 0.01), and there was an increase in parasympathetic tone (P ? 0.05). The 5-HTTLPR short allele was over-represented (P ? 0.005). PC2 had the converse profile at baseline and during pain. Brain activity differed (P ? 0.001); greater activity occurred in the left frontal cortex in PC1, whereas PC2 showed greater activity in the right medial/frontal cortex and right anterior insula. In health, 2 distinct reproducible PCs exist in humans. In the future, PC characterization may help to identify subjects at risk for developing chronic pain and may reduce variability in brain imaging studies. PMID:23714265

  2. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Decisions by Latent Fingerprint Examiners

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner) results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive) was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as “difficult” than for “easy” or “moderate” comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n?=?4); 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization). Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases. PMID:22427888

  3. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  4. A simple dissolved metals mixing method to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapa, Suminar, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Baqiya, Malik A., E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Istianah,, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Lestari, Rina, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id; Angela, Riyan, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id, E-mail: suminar-pratapa@physics.its.ac.id [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    A simple dissolved metals mixing method has been effectively used to produce high-purity MgTiO{sub 3} (MT) nanocrystals. The method involves the mixing of independently dissolved magnesium and titanium metal powders in hydrochloric acid followed by calcination. The phase purity and nanocrystallinity were determined by making use of laboratory x-ray diffraction data, to which Rietveld-based analyses were performed. Results showed that the method yielded only one type magnesium titanate powders, i.e. MgTiO{sub 3}, with no Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases. The presence of residual rutile or periclase was controlled by adding excessive Mg up to 5% (mol) in the stoichiometric mixing. The method also resulted in MT nanocrystals with estimated average crystallite size of 76±2 nm after calcination at 600°C and 150±4 nm (at 800°C). A transmission electron micrograph confirmed the formation of the nanocrystallites.

  5. Chemical interactions in the layered system BCxNy/Ni(Cu)/Si, produced by CVD at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P S; Kosinova, M I; Flege, S; Baake, O; Pollakowski, B; Trunova, V A; Klein, A; Beckhoff, B; Kuznetsov, F A; Ensinger, W

    2012-08-01

    Layered samples Si(100)/C/Ni/BC(x)N(y) and Si(100)/C/Cu/BC(x)N(y) were produced by physical vapor deposition of a metal (Ni, Cu, resp.) and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of the boron carbonitride on a Si(100) substrate. Between the Si and the Ni (Cu) and on the surface of the Ni (Cu) layer, thin carbon layers were deposited, as a diffusion barrier or as a protection against oxidation, respectively. Afterwards, the surface carbon layer was removed. As precursor, trimethylamine borane and, as an auxiliary gas, H(2) and NH(3) were used, respectively. The chemical compositions of the layers and of the interfaces in between were characterized by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The application of H(2) yielded the BC(x)N(y) compound whereas the use of NH(3) led to a mixture of h-BN and graphitic carbon. At the BC(x)N(y)/metal interface, metal borides could be identified. At the relatively high synthesis temperature of 700 °C, broad regions of Cu or Ni and Si were observed between the metal layer and the substrate Si. PMID:22692593

  6. Orthodontic bracket shear bond strengths produced by two high-power light-emitting diode modes and halogen light.

    PubMed

    Türkkahraman, Hakan; Küçüke?men, H Cenker

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets cured with two different high-power light-emitting diode (LED) polymerization modes with traditional halogen polymerization. A total of forty-five extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Each group consisted of 15 teeth mounted in an acrylic block. Following a standard enamel etching protocol, orthodontic brackets were cured on the first group of teeth with fast-mode LED, the second group with soft-start mode LED, and on the last group with a halogen light. After bonding, the shear bond strengths of the brackets were tested with a universal testing machine. The results showed that brackets cured with soft-start mode LED produced the highest shear bond strengths (23.86 +/- 6.20 MPa). No significant difference was found between fast-mode LED (17.14 +/- 5.75 MPa) and the halogen group (17.38 +/- 5.41 MPa) (P > .05). The LED is effective for bonding metal brackets to teeth, and the soft-start mode gives higher bond strengths than the fast mode. PMID:16283816

  7. Improved bivalent miniantibodies, with identical avidity as whole antibodies, produced by high cell density fermentation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pack, P; Kujau, M; Schroeckh, V; Knüpfer, U; Wenderoth, R; Riesenberg, D; Plückthun, A

    1993-11-01

    The combination of single-chain Fv-fragments (scFv) with a C-terminal, flexible linking region followed by a designed or natural dimerization domain provides a versatile system for targeted association of functional fragments in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli. For homodimerization in vivo, two scFv fragments with a C-terminal hinge followed by a helix-turn-helix motif form "miniantibodies" with significantly higher avidity than in the case of leucine zipper containing constructs. The favorable design probably results in an antiparallel four-helix bundle and brings the homodimer to the same avidity as the whole IgA antibody, from which the binding site was taken. The molecular weight of the bivalent miniantibody is almost the same as that of a monovalent Fab fragment. We report here a high-cell density fermentation of E. coli producing these miniantibodies and a work-up procedure suitable for large scale production. Without any need of subsequent chemical coupling in vitro, approximately 200 mg/l of functional dimeric miniantibodies can be directly obtained from the E. coli culture. PMID:7764189

  8. Multi-transgenic pigs expressing three fluorescent proteins produced with high efficiency by sperm mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole L; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura; Giovannoni, Roberto; Razzini, Riccardo; Fantinati, Paolo; Zannoni, Augusta; Fusetti, Lisa; Dalprà, Leda; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Papa, Michele; Seren, Eraldo; Sandrin, Mauro S; Mc Kenzie, Ian F C; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

    2005-09-01

    Multi-gene transgenic pigs would be of benefit for large animal models in medical, agricultural, and pharmaceutical applications; in particular for xenotransplantation, where extensive genetic manipulation of donor pigs is required to make them suitable for organ grafting to humans. We used the sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) method to produce with high efficiency multi-gene transgenic pigs using three genes coding for fluorescent proteins: enhanced blue (EBFP), green (EGFP), and red (DsRed2). All three fluorescent proteins were expressed in 171 out of 195 normally developed morula/blastocysts examined at day 6 post insemination (88%). Genomic DNA of 18 piglets born from two litters was screened by PCR, showing that all piglets were transgenic with at least one gene, 7/18 piglets were triple transgenic, 7/18 double transgenic, and 4/18 single transgenic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed multiple sites of integration of the transgenes. RNA and protein expression was found in muscle, heart, liver, hair, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These results show that SMGT is an effective method for introducing multiple genes into pigs as shown by the simultaneous expression of three fluorescent proteins. PMID:15906394

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION VARROA JACOBSONI DOES REPRODUCE IN WORKER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) reported that Varroa jacobsoni greatly prefers drone over worker brood, and only reproduces in the drone brood of Apis cerana colonies in Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In Apis mellifera the mites also prefer drone cells, but can reproduce effectively in both worker and drone cells. The capacity to reproduce in worker

  10. Trace elements determination in high salinity petroleum produced formation water by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after matrix separation using Chelex-100® resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Aline Soares; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a procedure used for the determination of trace metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) in high salinity petroleum produced formation water (PFW) employing high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for detection and Chelex-100® resin for matrix elimination and analytes preconcentration. Using 15.0 mL of PFW for the separation/preconcentration, detection limits of 0.006, 0.07, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.02 ?g L- 1 were obtained for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing three seawater certified reference materials and by recovery tests, and the data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to this kind of samples. The precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n = 10) for 2.0 ?g L- 1, were found to be 3.5, 4.0, 9.0, 5.3 and 5.9 for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied for the determination of these metals in medium and high salinity PFW samples obtained from Brazilian offshore petroleum exploration platforms.

  11. Feasibility of producing a short, high energy s-band linear accelerator using a klystron power source

    SciTech Connect

    Baillie, Devin [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Aubin, J. St. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Steciw, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To use a finite-element method (FEM) model to study the feasibility of producing a short s-band (2.9985 GHz) waveguide capable of producing x-rays energies up to 10 MV, for applications in a linac-MR, as well as conventional radiotherapy. Methods: An existing waveguide FEM model developed by the authors' group is used to simulate replacing the magnetron power source with a klystron. Peak fields within the waveguide are compared with a published experimental threshold for electric breakdown. The RF fields in the first accelerating cavity are scaled, approximating the effect of modifications to the first coupling cavity. Electron trajectories are calculated within the RF fields, and the energy spectrum, beam current, and focal spot of the electron beam are analyzed. One electron spectrum is selected for Monte Carlo simulations and the resulting PDD compared to measurement. Results: When the first cavity fields are scaled by a factor of 0.475, the peak magnitude of the electric fields within the waveguide are calculated to be 223.1 MV/m, 29% lower than the published threshold for breakdown at this operating frequency. Maximum electron energy increased from 6.2 to 10.4 MeV, and beam current increased from 134 to 170 mA. The focal spot FWHM is decreased slightly from 0.07 to 0.05 mm, and the width of the energy spectrum increased slightly from 0.44 to 0.70 MeV. Monte Carlo results show d{sub max} is at 2.15 cm for a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} field, compared with 2.3 cm for a Varian 10 MV linac, while the penumbral widths are 4.8 and 5.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The authors' simulation results show that a short, high-energy, s-band accelerator is feasible and electric breakdown is not expected to interfere with operation at these field strengths. With minor modifications to the first coupling cavity, all electron beam parameters are improved.

  12. Reproducible resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, S.; Lee, M. J.; Seo, D. H.; Jeoung, E. J.; Suh, D.-S.; Joung, Y. S.; Yoo, I. K.; Hwang, I. R.; Kim, S. H.; Byun, I. S.; Kim, J.-S.; Choi, J. S.; Park, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    Negative resistance behavior and reproducible resistance switching were found in polycrystalline NiO films deposited by dc magnetron reactive sputtering methods. Oxygen to argon gas ratio during deposition was critical in deciding the detailed switching characteristics of either bi-stable memory switching or mono-stable threshold switching. Both metallic nickel defects and nickel vacancies influenced the negative resistance and the switching characteristics. We obtained a distribution of low resistance values which were dependent on the compliance current of high-to-low resistance switching. At 200°C, the low-resistance state kept its initial resistance value while the high-resistance state reached 85% of its initial resistance value after 5×105s. We suggested that the negative resistance and the switching mechanism could be described by electron conduction related to metallic nickel defect states existing in deep levels and by small-polaron hole hopping conduction.

  13. Multi-parametric neuroimaging reproducibility: a 3-T resource study.

    PubMed

    Landman, Bennett A; Huang, Alan J; Gifford, Aliya; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Bogovic, John A; Hua, Jun; Chen, Min; Jarso, Samson; Smith, Seth A; Joel, Suresh; Mori, Susumu; Pekar, James J; Barker, Peter B; Prince, Jerry L; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2011-02-14

    Modern MRI image processing methods have yielded quantitative, morphometric, functional, and structural assessments of the human brain. These analyses typically exploit carefully optimized protocols for specific imaging targets. Algorithm investigators have several excellent public data resources to use to test, develop, and optimize their methods. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on combining MRI protocols in multi-parametric studies. Notably, these have included innovative approaches for fusing connectivity inferences with functional and/or anatomical characterizations. Yet, validation of the reproducibility of these interesting and novel methods has been severely hampered by the limited availability of appropriate multi-parametric data. We present an imaging protocol optimized to include state-of-the-art assessment of brain function, structure, micro-architecture, and quantitative parameters within a clinically feasible 60-min protocol on a 3-T MRI scanner. We present scan-rescan reproducibility of these imaging contrasts based on 21 healthy volunteers (11 M/10 F, 22-61 years old). The cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, thalamus, putamen, caudate, cerebellar gray matter, cerebellar white matter, and brainstem were identified with mean volume-wise reproducibility of 3.5%. We tabulate the mean intensity, variability, and reproducibility of each contrast in a region of interest approach, which is essential for prospective study planning and retrospective power analysis considerations. Anatomy was highly consistent on structural acquisition (~1-5% variability), while variation on diffusion and several other quantitative scans was higher (~<10%). Some sequences are particularly variable in specific structures (ASL exhibited variation of 28% in the cerebral white matter) or in thin structures (quantitative T2 varied by up to 73% in the caudate) due, in large part, to variability in automated ROI placement. The richness of the joint distribution of intensities across imaging methods can be best assessed within the context of a particular analysis approach as opposed to a summary table. As such, all imaging data and analysis routines have been made publicly and freely available. This effort provides the neuroimaging community with a resource for optimization of algorithms that exploit the diversity of modern MRI modalities. Additionally, it establishes a baseline for continuing development and optimization of multi-parametric imaging protocols. PMID:21094686

  14. Towards interoperable and reproducible QSAR analyses: Exchange of datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background QSAR is a widely used method to relate chemical structures to responses or properties based on experimental observations. Much effort has been made to evaluate and validate the statistical modeling in QSAR, but these analyses treat the dataset as fixed. An overlooked but highly important issue is the validation of the setup of the dataset, which comprises addition of chemical structures as well as selection of descriptors and software implementations prior to calculations. This process is hampered by the lack of standards and exchange formats in the field, making it virtually impossible to reproduce and validate analyses and drastically constrain collaborations and re-use of data. Results We present a step towards standardizing QSAR analyses by defining interoperable and reproducible QSAR datasets, consisting of an open XML format (QSAR-ML) which builds on an open and extensible descriptor ontology. The ontology provides an extensible way of uniquely defining descriptors for use in QSAR experiments, and the exchange format supports multiple versioned implementations of these descriptors. Hence, a dataset described by QSAR-ML makes its setup completely reproducible. We also provide a reference implementation as a set of plugins for Bioclipse which simplifies setup of QSAR datasets, and allows for exporting in QSAR-ML as well as old-fashioned CSV formats. The implementation facilitates addition of new descriptor implementations from locally installed software and remote Web services; the latter is demonstrated with REST and XMPP Web services. Conclusions Standardized QSAR datasets open up new ways to store, query, and exchange data for subsequent analyses. QSAR-ML supports completely reproducible creation of datasets, solving the problems of defining which software components were used and their versions, and the descriptor ontology eliminates confusions regarding descriptors by defining them crisply. This makes is easy to join, extend, combine datasets and hence work collectively, but also allows for analyzing the effect descriptors have on the statistical model's performance. The presented Bioclipse plugins equip scientists with graphical tools that make QSAR-ML easily accessible for the community. PMID:20591161

  15. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  16. An Improved, High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germinati...

  17. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  18. An improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A Kimbrel; Scott A Givan; Anne B Halgren; Allison L Creason; Dallice I Mills; Gary M Banowetz; Donald J Armstrong; Jeff H Chang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino acid analog with herbicidal activity that specifically inhibits germination

  19. Reproducibility of the mechanical properties of Vivostat ® system patient-derived fibrin sealant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose L. Velada; Derek A. Hollingsbee; Alan R. Menzies; Richard Cornwell; Richard A. Dodd

    2002-01-01

    Conventional “autologous” fibrin sealants, prepared from fibrinogen concentrates are inconsistent in their physical properties; this reflects the wide variation in the fibrinogen level of the single donor plasma from which they are made. In contrast, the Vivostat® System produces a fibrin sealant of reproducible concentration and mechanical properties that are independent of the source plasma fibrinogen concentration. Fibrin solution concentrations

  20. On-board analog reproducer unit for ocean-bottom seismometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, E.A.

    1981-10-20

    An analog reproducer unit for a seismic exploration vessel includes a discriminator for checking the repetition rate of recorded strobe pulses to discriminate valid strobe pulses from noise. The valid strobe pulses are used to store digital samples in a digital memory. These digital samples are retrieved from a magnetic record produced in an on-bottom seismometer unit.