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1

The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies.  

PubMed

The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method using 2 protocols developed and implemented in a multicenter clinical trial-the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE). To document the longitudinal reproducibility of the DLW method, 2 protocols, 1 based on repeated analysis of dose dilutions over the course of the clinical trial (dose-dilution protocol) and 1 based on repeated but blinded analysis of randomly selected DLW studies (test-retest protocol), were carried out. The dose-dilution protocol showed that the theoretical fractional turnover rates for (2)H and (18)O and the difference between the 2 fractional turnover rates were reproducible to within 1% and 5%, respectively, over 4.5 y. The Bland-Altman pair-wise comparisons of the results generated from 50 test-retest DLW studies showed that the fractional turnover rates and isotope dilution spaces for (2)H and (18)O, and total energy expenditure, were highly reproducible over 2.4 y. Our results show that the DLW method is reproducible in longitudinal studies and confirm the validity of this method to measure energy expenditure, define energy intake prescriptions, and monitor adherence and body composition changes over the period of 2.5-4.4 y. The 2 protocols can be adopted by other laboratories to document the longitudinal reproducibility of their measurements to ensure the long-term outcomes of interest are meaningful biologically. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00427193. PMID:24523488

Wong, William W; Roberts, Susan B; Racette, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne M; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Clarke, Lucinda L; Kraus, William E

2014-05-01

2

The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

3

Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10 000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm-2. The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices.

Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

2014-02-01

4

Reproducible, high performance patch antenna array apparatus and method of fabrication  

DOEpatents

A reproducible, high-performance patch antenna array apparatus includes a patch antenna array provided on a unitary dielectric substrate, and a feed network provided on the same unitary substrate and proximity coupled to the patch antenna array. The reproducibility is enhanced by using photolithographic patterning and etching to produce both the patch antenna array and the feed network.

Strassner, II, Bernd H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-01-23

5

Reproducing kernel technique for high dimensional model representations (HDMR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easy and effective approach is proposed to estimate the arbitrary l order HDMR approximations for complex high dimensional physical systems on the basis of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). With the help of Fourier transform and Dirac delta function, the corresponding explicit reproducing kernel K(x,y) is first constructed to approximate the HDMR approximations by a linear combination of K(x,y). Then the computation of the l order HDMR approximations can be given in the form of solving a system of linear equations. It can be strictly proved that this linear system is just another equivalent definition of the lth order HDMR approximations by using the corresponding reproducing kernel. And the numerical examples provide a practical evidence for the rationality and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Luo, Xiaopeng; Lu, Zhenzhou; Xu, Xin

2014-12-01

6

PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

7

Highly reproducible Bragg grating acousto-ultrasonic contact transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic acousto-ultrasonic transducers offer numerous applications as embedded sensors for impact and damage detection in industrial and aerospace applications as well as non-destructive evaluation. Superficial contact transducers with a sheet of fiber optic Bragg gratings has been demonstrated for guided wave ultrasound based measurements. It is reported here that this method of measurement provides highly reproducible guided ultrasound data of the test composite component, despite the optical fiber transducers not being permanently embedded in it.

Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Guzman, Narciso; Lieberman, Robert A.

2014-09-01

8

Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.  

PubMed

Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

2014-06-01

9

Percolating silicon nanowire networks with highly reproducible electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report the morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled silicon nanowires networks, also called Si nanonets. At the macroscopic scale, the nanonets involve several millions of nanowires. So, the observed properties should result from large scale statistical averaging, minimizing thus the discrepancies that occur from one nanowire to another. Using a standard filtration procedure, the so-obtained Si nanonets are highly reproducible in terms of their morphology, with a Si nanowire density precisely controlled during the nanonet elaboration. In contrast to individual Si nanowires, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are highly consistent, as demonstrated here by the similar electrical properties obtained in hundreds of Si nanonet-based devices. The evolution of the Si nanonet conductance with Si nanowire density demonstrates that Si nanonets behave like standard percolating media despite the presence of numerous nanowire-nanowire intersecting junctions into the nanonets and the native oxide shell surrounding the Si nanowires. Moreover, when silicon oxidation is prevented or controlled, the electrical properties of Si nanonets are stable over many months. As a consequence, Si nanowire-based nanonets constitute a promising flexible material with stable and reproducible electrical properties at the macroscopic scale while being composed of nanoscale components, which confirms the Si nanonet potential for a wide range of applications including flexible electronic, sensing and photovoltaic applications.

Serre, Pauline; Mongillo, Massimo; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Ternon, Céline

2015-01-01

10

Highly reproducible SERS arrays directly written by inkjet printing.  

PubMed

SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks. PMID:25308163

Yang, Qiang; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Weizhi; Li, Yanan; Guo, Dan; Song, Yanlin

2015-01-14

11

Highly reproducible SERS arrays directly written by inkjet printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks.SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on the experimental details, gold nanoparticle characterization, and theoretical calculation for the diameters of contact area of droplets on substrates with different contact angles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04656k

Yang, Qiang; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Weizhi; Li, Yanan; Guo, Dan; Song, Yanlin

2014-12-01

12

High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories.  

PubMed

The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-? ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B) SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV) for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators. PMID:25585297

Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem; BenHamouda, Nadine; Gottwein, Judith; Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Levine, Steven M; Loffredo, John T; McArdle, Stephanie; Neudoerfl, Christine; Roen, Diana; Silina, Karina; Welch, Mackenzie; Lehmann, Paul V

2015-01-01

13

Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror He-Ne laser with a high frequency reproducibility.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the stabilization of an internal mirror He-Ne laser to achieve a high frequency reproducibility that is mainly influenced by the temperature of the stabilized laser. However, it is difficult to achieve a reproducible temperature in a short time under different ambient temperatures. In this paper, the He-Ne laser is stabilized based on the relationship between the laser mode number and the laser cavity temperature where a reproducible temperature can be rapidly achieved under different ambient temperatures, resulting in a high frequency reproducibility. Experiments have demonstrated that the He-Ne laser used can be stabilized in approximately 10 min, typically 6 min; the frequency stability is less than 2×10(-10); the frequency reproducibility is less than 1×10(-9). PMID:23338193

Diao, Xiaofei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Yang, Hongxing; Wang, Pengfei

2013-01-20

14

An improved and reproducible protocol for the extraction of high quality fungal RNA from plant biomass substrates.  

PubMed

Isolation of high quantity and quality RNA is a crucial step in the detection of meaningful gene expression data. Obtaining intact fungal RNA from complex lignocellulosic substrates is often difficult, producing low integrity RNA which perform poorly in downstream applications. In this study we developed an RNA extraction method using CsCl centrifugation procedure, modified from previous reports and adapted for isolation of RNA from plant biomass. This method provided high level of integrity and good quantity of RNA which were suitable for reliable analyses of gene expression and produced consistent and reproducible results. PMID:24951842

Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

2014-11-01

15

Highly reproducible quantification of apoptotic cells using micropatterned culture of neurons.  

PubMed

The quantification of apoptotic cells is an integral component of many cell-based assays in biological studies. However, current methods for quantifying apoptotic cells using conventional random cultures have shown great limitations, especially for the quantification of primary neurons. Randomly distributed neurons under primary culture conditions can lead to biased estimates, and vastly different estimates of cell numbers can be produced within the same experiment. In this study, we developed a simple, accurate, and reliable technique for quantifying apoptotic neurons by means of micropatterned cell cultures. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstencil was used as a physical mask for micropatterning cell cultures, and primary granular neurons (GNs) were successfully cultured within the micropattern-confined regions and homogeneously distributed over the entire field of each pattern. As compared with the conventional method based on random cultures, the micropatterned culture method allowed for highly reproducible quantification of apoptotic cells. These results were also confirmed by using GNs derived from mice with neurodegeneration. We hope that this micropatterning method based on the use of a PDMS microstencil can overcome the technical obstacles existing in current biological studies and will serve as a powerful tool for facilitating the study of apoptosis-involved diseases. PMID:25277814

Lee, Hyun; Kim, Gyu Man; Choi, Jin Ho; Lee, Jong Kil; Bae, Jae-Sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

2015-01-15

16

High Reproducibility of Histological Characterization by Whole Virtual Slide Quantification; An Example Using Carotid Plaque Specimens  

PubMed Central

Objective Tissue biobanks are an important source for discovery and validation studies aiming for new proteins that are causally related with disease development. There is an increasing demand for accurate and reproducible histological characterization, especially for subsequent analysis and interpretation of data in association studies. We assessed reproducibility of one semiquantative and two quantitative methods for histological tissue characterization. We introduce a new automated method for whole digital slide quantification. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were used to test reproducibility. Methods 50 atherosclerotic plaques that were obtained during carotid endarterectomy were analysed. For the semiquantitative analysis, 6 different plaque characteristics were scored in categories by two independent observers, and Cohen's ? was used to test intra- and interobserver reproducibility. The computer-aided method (assessed by two independent observers) and automated method were tested on CD68 (for macrophages) and ? smooth muscle actin (for smooth muscle cells) stainings. Agreement for these two methods (done on a continuous scale) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results For the semiquantitative analysis, ? values ranged from 0.55 to 0.69 for interobserver variability, and were slightly higher for intraobserver reproducibility in both observers. The computer-aided method yielded intra- and interobserver ICCs between 0.6 and 0.9. The new automated method performed most optimal regarding reproducibility, with ICCs ranging from 0.92 to 0.97. Conclusions The analysis of performance of three methods for histological slide characterization on carotid atherosclerotic plaques showed high precision and agreement in repeated measurements for the automated method for whole digital slide quantification. We suggest that this method can fulfill the need for reproducible histological quantification. PMID:25541691

Velema, Evelyn; Vons, Kristy; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Ruijter, Hester M. den.; de Borst, Gert Jan; Moll, Frans L.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

2014-01-01

17

Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude

Niles J. Batdorf; Alan H. Feiveson; Todd T. Schlegel

2004-01-01

18

Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

2004-01-01

19

Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals.  

PubMed

High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use. PMID:15484157

Batdorf, Niles J; Feiveson, Alan H; Schlegel, Todd T

2004-10-01

20

Reproducibility of Left Atrial Ablation with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Energy in a Calf Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Achieving transmural tissue ablation may be necessary for successful treatment of atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of transmural left atrial (LA) ablation using a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) energy system in a calf model. Methods Nine heparinized bovines underwent a beating-heart LA ablation with a single application of the HIFU device. All animals were acutely sacrificed and the LA was fixed in formalin. Protocolized histological sections (5?m) were obtained throughout each lesion and prepared with Masson's Trichrome and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining. Measurements were performed on a total of 359 slides from the nine lesions. In addition, fresh LA from 18 unused human donor hearts that did not meet criteria for cardiac transplantation were measured at the site where the HIFU device is normally applied. Results Calf LA thickness ranged between 2.5 and 20.1 mm, with a mean of 9.10 mm. HIFU ablation consistently produced a 100% transmural lesion in LA thickness up to 6mm. In addition, a transmural lesion was observed in 91% of tissues that were up to 10 mm thick and in 85% up to 15 mm of thickness. Human LA thickness ranged between 1.2 to 6 mm, with a mean of 3.7 mm. Conclusions Calf LA thickness in this study was greater than human LA thickness. Human LA thickness is generally less than 6mm, and in this range HIFU ablation achieved 100% transmurality. These histological results may correlate with a high success rate of atrial fibrillation ablation using the HIFU system. PMID:20934725

Villamizar, Nestor R.; Crow, Jennifer H.; III, Valentino Piacentino; DiBernardo, Louis R.; Daneshmand, Mani A.; Bowles, Dawn E.; Groh, Mark A.; Milano, Carmelo A.

2014-01-01

21

Exploring copper nanostructures as highly uniform and reproducible substrates for plasmon-enhanced fluorescence.  

PubMed

The unique properties of metallic nanostructures of coinage metals that can sustain localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) put them at the centre of plasmon-enhanced phenomena. The theory of plasmonic phenomena based on LSPR is well-established. However, the fabrication of plasmonic substrates, reproducibly, is still challenging for applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF). In this work we describe well-ordered copper nanostructures (CuNSs), produced by electrodeposition and nanosphere lithography, as active substrates for SEF. After a detailed spectroscopic and microscopic characterization, CuNSs are successfully applied as SEF-active substrates using a well-known perylene derivative as a target molecule. The signal reproducibility from CuNS substrates was established by comparing the results against those obtained from a simply roughened Cu substrate. Under optimal conditions, signal variability is around 4%. PMID:25416536

Volpati, D; Spada, E R; Cid, C C Plá; Sartorelli, M L; Aroca, R F; Constantino, C J L

2014-12-15

22

High efficiency and quantitatively reproducible protein digestion by trypsin-immobilized magnetic microspheres.  

PubMed

Aldehyde- and NHS-activated magnetic microspheres were used to immobilize trypsin (CHO-trypsin and NHS-trypsin), and their performance for protein digestion was evaluated by reversed phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an LTQ Orbitrap Velos instrument. NHS-trypsin provided greater sequence coverage and identified more peptides for the digestion of bovine serum albumin. A 1-min digestion at room temperature using the immobilized trypsin also identified more peptides (96±6 vs. 48±1) and produced higher sequence coverage (90±2% vs. 75±2%) than traditional free trypsin digestion for 12h at 37 °C. Analysis of 15 nM (0.001 mg/mL) BSA digested by NHS-trypsin in 1 min at room temperature consistently yielded one detected peptide; 150 nM BSA generated 22 peptides. Peptide intensity and protein spectral count were used to evaluate the run-to-run digestion reproducibility of NHS-trypsin with a three-protein-mixture. Three high intensity peptides for each protein generated intensity ratios from 0.70 to 1.09 and spectral count ratios from 0.78 to 1.18. Finally, RAW 264.7 cell lysates were digested by NHS-trypsin for 10 min and 30 min at room temperature, 604 and 697 protein groups, respectively, were identified by RPLC-ESI-MS/MS, with a peptide false discovery rate of less than 1%. Digestion by solution phase trypsin for 12h at 37 °C resulted in identification of 878 protein groups. PMID:22176736

Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

2012-01-13

23

Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

2006-01-01

24

Reproducibility of ductal lavage cytology and cellularity over a six month interval in high risk women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Ductal lavage (DL) allows repeat sampling of breast epithelium for serial observation in a chemoprevention setting; however,\\u000a the reproducibility of duct cannulation, cell yield and cytology has not been addressed. Methods We conducted a Phase 2 trial, wherein high risk women chose tamoxifen treatment or observation following an entry DL procedure.\\u000a We present data from the non-intervention arm of

Deepa B. Patil; Heather A. Lankes; Ritu Nayar; Shahla Masood; Michelle Bryk; Nanjiang Hou; Alfred Rademaker; Seema A. Khan

2008-01-01

25

Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

2014-07-01

26

Pronuclear injection-based mouse targeted transgenesis for reproducible and highly efficient transgene expression  

PubMed Central

Mouse transgenesis has proven invaluable for analysis of gene function and generation of human disease models. We describe here the development of a pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis (PITT) system, involving site-specific integration in fertilized eggs. The system was applied to two different genomic target loci to generate a series of transgenic lines including fluorescent mice, which reproducibly displayed strong, ubiquitous and stable transgene expression. We also demonstrated that knockdown mice could be readily generated by PITT by taking advantage of the reproducible and highly efficient expression system. The PITT system, which circumvents the problem of unpredictable and unstable transgene expression of conventional random-integration transgenic mice, reduces the time, cost and effort needed to generate transgenic mice, and is potentially applicable to both in vivo ‘gain-of-function’ and ‘loss-of-function’ studies. PMID:20880997

Ohtsuka, Masato; Ogiwara, Sanae; Miura, Hiromi; Mizutani, Akiko; Warita, Takayuki; Sato, Masahiro; Imai, Kenji; Hozumi, Katsuto; Sato, Takehito; Tanaka, Masafumi; Kimura, Minoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi

2010-01-01

27

Highly reproducible planar Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells based on atomic layer deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-quality Sb2S3 thin-absorber with controllable thickness was reproducibly formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Compared with conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD), the Sb2S3 absorber deposited by ALD did not contain oxide or oxygen impurities and showed a very uniform thickness of Sb2S3 absorbers formed on a rough surface of dense blocking TiO2/F-doped SnO2 (bl-TiO2/FTO) substrate. The planar ALD-Sb2S3 solar cells comprised of Au/Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ALD-Sb2S3/bl-TiO2/FTO showed significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 5.77% at 1 sun condition and narrow efficiency deviation, whereas the planar CBD-Sb2S3 solar cells exhibited 2.17% power conversion efficiency. The high efficiency and good reproducibility of ALD-Sb2S3 solar cell devices is attributed to reduced backward recombination because of the inhibition of oxide defects within ALD-Sb2S3 absorber and the conformal deposition of very uniform Sb2S3 absorbers on the blocking TiO2 surface by ALD process.A high-quality Sb2S3 thin-absorber with controllable thickness was reproducibly formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Compared with conventional chemical bath deposition (CBD), the Sb2S3 absorber deposited by ALD did not contain oxide or oxygen impurities and showed a very uniform thickness of Sb2S3 absorbers formed on a rough surface of dense blocking TiO2/F-doped SnO2 (bl-TiO2/FTO) substrate. The planar ALD-Sb2S3 solar cells comprised of Au/Poly-3-hexylthiophene/ALD-Sb2S3/bl-TiO2/FTO showed significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 5.77% at 1 sun condition and narrow efficiency deviation, whereas the planar CBD-Sb2S3 solar cells exhibited 2.17% power conversion efficiency. The high efficiency and good reproducibility of ALD-Sb2S3 solar cell devices is attributed to reduced backward recombination because of the inhibition of oxide defects within ALD-Sb2S3 absorber and the conformal deposition of very uniform Sb2S3 absorbers on the blocking TiO2 surface by ALD process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04148h

KimThese Two Authors Have Equally Contributed To This Work., Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ju; Park, Mi Sun; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Sung, Shi-Joon

2014-11-01

28

High reproducibility of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation of intact proteins using pH-driven fractionation with a  

E-print Network

High reproducibility of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation of intact proteins using p: frederic.pont@toulouse.inserm.fr Running title: two-dimensional liquid chromatography reproducibility of Chromatography B 2008;871(1):125-9" DOI : 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.06.043 #12;The abbreviations used are: 2D

Boyer, Edmond

29

High speed and reproducible analysis of nitrosamines by capillary electrophoresis with a sulfonated capillary.  

PubMed

Recently environmental control is regarded as important for good human health conditions, and toxic substances, including carcinogens and endocrine disruptors should be eliminated from our living environment. Hence easy quantitative methods are expected for a high level of environmental control. Our previous paper describes an easy quantitative analysis of nitrosamines (NAs) by capillary electrophoresis with an untreated fused silica capillary installed in an ordinary apparatus. In this paper, utilizing a novel type capillary column having sulfonated inner wall was investigated for improvements of separation performance and reproducibility. A sulfonated capillary causes fast and stabile electroosmotic flow because its inner wall is strongly negative charged. On a performance comparison of a sulfonated capillary with an untreated fused silica, analysis time reduction of c.a. forty percent was achieved, and relative standard deviations of migration times and peak responses were less than one third. In addition sample concentrations giving detection and quantitation limits were also reduced to a half. PMID:17898509

Taga, Atsushi; Nishi, Tomoko; Honda, Yoshitaka; Sato, Atsushi; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kodama, Shuji; Boki, Keito

2007-01-01

30

A Novel Highly Reproducible and Lethal Nonhuman Primate Model for Orthopox Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV) and Monkeypox virus (MPXV) cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. The efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. The existing nonhuman primate models, using VARV and MPXV, need very high viral doses that have to be applied intravenously or intratracheally to induce a lethal infection in macaques. To overcome these drawbacks, the infectivity and pathogenicity of a particular CPXV was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A CPXV named calpox virus was isolated from a lethal orthopox virus (OPV) outbreak in New World monkeys. We demonstrated that marmosets infected with calpox virus, not only via the intravenous but also the intranasal route, reproducibly develop symptoms resembling smallpox in humans. Infected animals died within 1–3 days after onset of symptoms, even when very low infectious viral doses of 5×102 pfu were applied intranasally. Infectious virus was demonstrated in blood, saliva and all organs analyzed. We present the first characterization of a new OPV infection model inducing a disease in common marmosets comparable to smallpox in humans. Intranasal virus inoculation mimicking the natural route of smallpox infection led to reproducible infection. In vivo titration resulted in an MID50 (minimal monkey infectious dose 50%) of 8.3×102 pfu of calpox virus which is approximately 10,000-fold lower than MPXV and VARV doses applied in the macaque models. Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis. PMID:20454688

Kramski, Marit; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Nitsche, Andreas; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz

2010-01-01

31

An attempt to reproduce high burn-up structure by ion irradiation of SIMFUEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments in IC-100 and U-400 cyclotrons were conducted with SIMFUEL pellets (11.47 wt.% of fission products simulators) to reproduce some aspects of the long-term irradiation conditions in epithermal reactors. Pellets were irradiated with Xe16+, Xe24+ and He+ at energies ranging from 20 keV (He+) to 320 keV (Xe16+) and 1-90 MeV (Xe24+). Some samples were subsequently annealed to obtain larger grain sizes and to study defects recovery. The major microstructural changes consisted in grain sub-division observed on SEM and AFM images and change in composition registered by EPMA (pellets irradiated with 1-90 MeV Xe24+ ions at fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2). Lattice distortion and increase in dislocation density is also noted according to X-ray data. At low energies and high fluences formation of bubbles (20 keV He+ at 5.5 × 1017 cm-2) was observed. Grain sub-division exhibits full coverage of the grain body and preservation of former grain boundaries. The size of sub-grains depends on local dislocation density and changes from 200 nm to 400 nm along the irradiated surface. Beneath it the size ranges from 150 to 600 nm. Sub-grains are not observed in samples irradiated by low-energy ions even at high dislocation densities.

Baranov, V. G.; Lunev, A. V.; Reutov, V. F.; Tenishev, A. V.; Isaenkova, M. G.; Khlunov, A. V.

2014-09-01

32

Effective and reproducible capillary electrophoretic separation of thiols under conditions where exceptionally high current is generated.  

PubMed

There is an escalating interest in the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in biological systems and how this chemical regulates physiology in normal and disease states. In biological systems, the cellular concentration can be estimated, in the simplest form, by accounting for NO and its common metabolites, nitrate and nitrite. However, since NO is also known to interact with other chemical entities, such as thiols, it would be valuable to have a rapid qualitative assay that could account for thiol binding and S-N bond cleavage in the presence of different reducing agents. A separation buffer consisting of 10 mM phosphate, 10 mM HCl, and 250 mM KCl is shown to be adequate for the separation of glutathione, nitrosylated glutathione, and glutathione disulfide solubilized in 2 M HCl. The current observed under these separation conditions (249 microA at 11 kV) is extremely high by capillary electrophoresis (CE) standards, with a total power (current x voltage/capillary length) calculated to be in excess of 7 W/m. While this exceeds the approximately 1.0 W/m recommended by previous studies as a maximum for CE-based separations, we demonstrate that effective CE separation of thiols can, in fact, be accomplished under these conditions with acceptable reproducibility, provided that buffer depletion issues are addressed. PMID:10624160

Trushina, E V; Oda, R P; McMurray, C T; Landers, J P

1999-12-15

33

High Interlaboratory Reproducibility of DNA Sequence-Based Typing of Bacteria in a Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

Current DNA amplification-based typing methods for bacterial pathogens often lack interlaboratory reproducibility. In this international study, DNA sequence-based typing of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene (spa, 110 to 422 bp) showed 100% intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility without extensive harmonization of protocols for 30 blind-coded S. aureus DNA samples sent to 10 laboratories. Specialized software for automated sequence analysis ensured a common typing nomenclature. PMID:16455927

Aires-de-Sousa, M.; Boye, K.; de Lencastre, H.; Deplano, A.; Enright, M. C.; Etienne, J.; Friedrich, A.; Harmsen, D.; Holmes, A.; Huijsdens, X. W.; Kearns, A. M.; Mellmann, A.; Meugnier, H.; Rasheed, J. K.; Spalburg, E.; Strommenger, B.; Struelens, M. J.; Tenover, F. C.; Thomas, J.; Vogel, U.; Westh, H.; Xu, J.; Witte, W.

2006-01-01

34

Accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scan lateral dimension measurements  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of measurement of lateral dimensions using the Artemis (Ultralink LLC) very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (US) arc scanner. Setting London Vision Clinic, London, United Kingdom. Methods A test object was measured first with a micrometer and then with the Artemis arc scanner. Five sets of 10 consecutive B-scans of the test object were performed with the scanner. The test object was removed from the system between each scan set. One expert observer and one newly trained observer separately measured the lateral dimension of the test object. Two-factor analysis of variance was performed. The accuracy was calculated as the average bias of the scan set averages. The repeatability and reproducibility coefficients were calculated. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for repeatability and reproducibility. Results The test object was measured to be 10.80 mm wide. The mean lateral dimension bias was 0.00 mm. The repeatability coefficient was 0.114 mm. The reproducibility coefficient was 0.026 mm. The repeatability CV was 0.38%, and the reproducibility CV was 0.09%. There was no statistically significant variation between observers (P = .0965). There was a statistically significant variation between scan sets (P = .0036) attributed to minor vertical changes in the alignment of the test object between consecutive scan sets. Conclusion The Artemis VHF digital US arc scanner obtained accurate, repeatable, and reproducible measurements of lateral dimensions of the size commonly found in the anterior segment. PMID:17081860

Reinstein, Dan Z.; Archer, Timothy J.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Coleman, D. Jackson

2008-01-01

35

Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

1982-03-04

36

Inter-session reproducibility measures for high-throughput data sources Milos Hauskrecht, PhD, Richard Pelikan, MSc  

E-print Network

to various sources of bias and noise2,3 . Naturally, these affect the quality of signals and their subsequent of these technologies prompts us to acknowledge and study new sources of noise and bias encountered in multiInter-session reproducibility measures for high-throughput data sources Milos Hauskrecht, Ph

Hauskrecht, Milos

37

Side-to-side alignment of gold nanorods with polarization-free characteristic for highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-batch method for fabricating large-area, low-cost, and flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) arrays with Au nanorods (NRs) using an inkjet printing technique was presented. The Raman mapping results of 441 points reveal clearly that the Au NRs arrays are a well reproducible SERS substrate for the detection of various chemicals. The neighbouring Au NRs aligned side-to-side nanoclusters were formed on printer paper as a highly reproducible SERS platform due to its polarization-free properties which were further confirmed by theoretical calculations of the electric field enhancement change about only two. Therefore, the SERS signals can be more evenly enhanced.

Dai, Zhigao; Xiao, Xiangheng; Wu, Wei; Liao, Lei; Mei, Fei; Yu, Xuefeng; Guo, Shishang; Ying, Jianjian; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

2014-11-01

38

Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment  

SciTech Connect

Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

Li, Wei [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J., E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei, E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-03-21

39

Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

Arnold, Jones B. (Knoxville, TN); Steger, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wright, Ralph R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01

40

A Highly Reproducible Bolus Immobilization Technique for the Treatment of Scalp Malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Radiation treatment of scalp malignancies can be a challenge due to the multiple curved surfaces to which homogenous dose must be delivered. The most readily available techniques utilize linear accelerator-based technique of opposed lateral electron field abutting opposed lateral photon field with central blocking. Bolus material is used to achieve adequate skin dose. Although plans to add bolus material often occur in the virtual setting during treatment planning, the practical aspects of reproducibly maintain the bolus material along curved surfaces during the day-to-day patient setup can be a challenge. We present a case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp with neck node involvement treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. We demonstrate a unique immobilization technique that maintains the bolus material on the aquaplast mesh adherent to the patient's scalp as well as the neck. TomoTherapy with daily megavoltage computed tomography (CT) scan was utilized to verify the daily bolus position. We were able to maintain a 95% reproducibility rate. This technique reliably maintains the bolus material on the desired locations with minimum adjustments and manipulation by the therapist and is a technique that can be universally adapatable for conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques.

Lin, Steven H.; Latronico, Diane; Teslow, Terrance [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bajaj, Gopal K. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)], E-mail: gbajaj1@jhmi.edu

2008-04-01

41

Highly reproducible synthesis of very large-scale tin oxide nanowires used for screen-printed gas sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A truly simple procedure was presented for highly reproducible synthesis of very large-scale SnO2 nanowires (NWs) on silicon and alumina substrates. The growth involves thermally evaporating SnO powder in a tube furnace with temperature, pressure, and O2 gas-flow controlled to 960°C, 0.5–5Torr, and 0.4–0.6sccm, respectively. The scanning- and transmission-electron-microscopic studies show that the diameter and length of the nanowires vary

Nguyen Van Hieu

2010-01-01

42

Volume based vs. time based chromatograms: reproducibility of data for gradient separations under high and low pressure conditions.  

PubMed

A critical aspect in fast gradient separations carried out under constant pressure, in the very high pressure liquid chromatography (VHPLC) mode is that time-based chromatograms may not yield highly reproducible separations. A proposed solution to improve the reproducibility of these separations involves plotting the chromatograms as functions of the volume eluted vs. UV absorbance instead of time vs. UV. To study the consequences of using the volume-based rather than the time-based chromatograms, separations were first performed under low pressures that do not generate significant amounts of heat and for which the variations of the eluent density along the columns are negligible. Secondly, they were performed under very high pressures that do generate heat and measurable variations of the local retention factor and eluent density along the column. Comparison of the results provides estimates of the improvements obtained when volume based chromatograms are used in gradient analyses. Using a column packed with fully porous particles, four different types of methods and several sets for each method were used to perform the gradient elution runs: two sets of constant flow rate operations, four sets of constant pressure operations, two sets of constant pressure operations with programmed flow rate, and one set using the constant heat loss approach. The differences between time-based and volume-based chromatograms are demonstrated by using eight replicates of early, middle, and last eluting peaks. The results show that volume-based chromatograms improve the retention time reproducibility of the four constant pressure methods by a factor of 3.7 on average. If the column is not thermally conditioned prior to performing a long series of separations, flow controlled methods (constant flow rate, programmed constant pressure, and constant wall heat approaches) are more precise. If one gradient run is used to bring the column to a relatively stable temperature, constant pressure separations have a factor of 3 times better reproducibility of retention times with respect to constant flow rate gradient separations. PMID:24717849

Stankovich, Joseph J; Gritti, Fabrice; Stevenson, Paul G; Vajda, Péter; Beaver, Lois Ann; Guiochon, Georges

2014-05-23

43

Two-dimensional correlation analysis of the reproducibility of high-performance liquid chromatography columns.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis is a well-established tool in spectroscopy. Despite its versatility in various measurement systems, 2D correlation has not yet become popular in separation science. 2D correlation is seldom used in chromatography; only a few a studies can be found on this topic and most of those publications report about gel chromatography. In the present study, 2D correlation analysis is applied to chromatograms. In this study, a simple method is built for studying the similarities and dissimilarities between a number of chromatograms. We present the applicability of the method by two examples, where the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical and nonlinear measurements in HPLC are evaluated and demonstrated. In order to validate the results of 2D correlation analysis, they are compared to principal component analysis (PCA). We confirm the equivalence in the interpretation of the results obtained with the two methods of calculation. The results confirm that 2D correlation can be a successful chemometric tool in chromatography. PMID:25660524

Simon, József; Felinger, Attila

2015-03-01

44

Paper-Based Microfluidic Approach for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Highly Reproducible Detection of Proteins beyond Picomolar Concentration.  

PubMed

Although microfluidic approach is widely used in various point of care diagnostics, its implementation in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based detection is challenging. This is because SERS signal depends on plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation induced generation of stable electromagnetic hot spots and in currently available microfluidic platform this condition is difficult to adapt. Here we show that SERS can be adapted using simple paper based microfluidic system where both the plasmonic nanomaterials and analyte are used in mobile phase. This approach allows analyte induced controlled particle aggregation and electromagnetic hot spot generation inside the microfluidic channel with the resultant SERS signal, which is highly reproducible and sensitive. This approach has been used for reproducible detection of protein in the pico to femtomolar concentration. Presented approach is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and requires low sample volume. Method can be extended for SERS-based detection of other biomolecules. PMID:25521159

Saha, Arindam; Jana, Nikhil R

2015-01-14

45

Elusive reproducibility.  

PubMed

Reproducibility remains a mirage for many biomedical studies because inherent experimental uncertainties generate idiosyncratic outcomes. The authentication and error rates of primary empirical data are often elusive, while multifactorial confounders beset experimental setups. Substantive methodological remedies are difficult to conceive, signifying that many biomedical studies yield more or less plausible results, depending on the attending uncertainties. Real life applications of those results remain problematic, with important exceptions for counterfactual field validations of strong experimental signals, notably for some vaccines and drugs, and for certain safety and occupational measures. It is argued that industrial, commercial and public policies and regulations could not ethically rely on unreliable biomedical results; rather, they should be rationally grounded on transparent cost-benefit tradeoffs. PMID:24882687

Gori, Gio Batta

2014-08-01

46

Experimentally reproduced textures and mineral chemistries of high-titanium mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the textures, morphologies, and mineral chemistries of the high-titanium mare basalts have been experimentally duplicated using single-stage cooling histories. Lunar high-titanium mare basalts are modeled in a 1 m thick gravitationally differentiating flow based on cooling rates, thermal models, and modal olivine contents. The low-pressure equilibrium phase relations of a synthetic high-titanium basalt composition were investigated as a function of oxygen fugacity, and petrographic criteria are developed for the recognition of phenocrysts which were present in the liquid at the time of eruption.

Usselman, T. M.; Lofgren, G. E.; Williams, R. J.; Donaldson, C. H.

1975-01-01

47

Reproducible Growth of High-Quality Cubic-SiC Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconductor electronic devices and circuits based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which devices made from conventional semiconductors cannot adequately perform. The ability of SiC-based devices to function under such extreme conditions is expected to enable significant improvements in a variety of applications and systems. These include greatly improved high-voltage switching for saving energy in public electric power distribution and electric motor drives; more powerful microwave electronic circuits for radar and communications; and sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines.

Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

2004-01-01

48

Iline lithography for highly reproducible fabrication of surface acoustic wave devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patterning process with a linewidth resolution of 0.4 micrometers using i-line lithography and liftoff technique is presented for the fabrication of surface acoustic wave components. Using two resists systems, the process is developed and optimized with regards to exposure latitude and high resolution. Furthermore, a method is shown to determine linewidth variations in the lithography process by frequency measurements

Stefan Berek; Ulrich Knauer; Helmut Zottl

1991-01-01

49

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOEpatents

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24

50

High reproducibility of adenosine stress cardiac MR myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of first-pass contrast-enhanced cardiac MR (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Single centre, tertiary care hospital. Participants 6 outpatient participants with NIDCM. Outcome Reproducibility of semiquantitative myocardial perfusion analysis by CMR. Method 6 patients with NIDCM were studied twice using first-pass of contrast transit through the left ventricular (LV) myocardium with a saturation-recovery gradient echo sequence at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia. The anterior wall was divided into endocardial (Endo) and epicardial (Epi) segments. The Myocardial Perfusion Index (MPI) was calculated as the myocardial signal augmentation rate normalised to the LV cavity rate. The Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index (MPRI) was calculated as hyperaemic/resting MPI. Results Between study 1 and 2, median MPI was similar for resting Endo (0.076 vs 0.077), hyperaemic Endo (0.143 vs 0.143), resting Epi (0.073 vs 0.074), and hyperaemic Epi (0.135 vs 0.134). Median MPRI was similar for Endo (1.84 vs 1.87) and Epi (1.90 vs 2.00). Combining Endo and Epi MPI (N=12), there was excellent agreement between Study 1 and 2 for resting MPI (r=0.998, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.998, coefficients of variation (CoV) 1.4%), hyperaemic MPI (r=0.979, ICC 0.963, CoV 3.3%) and MPRI (r=0.989, ICC 0.94, CoV 3.8%). Conclusions Resting and hyperaemic myocardial perfusion using a normalised upslope analysis during adenosine CMR is a highly reproducible technique in patients with NIDCM. Trial registration number Clinical Trials.Gov ID NCT00574119. PMID:25515841

Lawson, Mark A; Bell, Susan P; Adkisson, Douglas W; Wang, Li; Ooi, Henry; Sawyer, Douglas B; Kronenberg, Marvin W

2014-01-01

51

Highly controllable and reproducible ZnO nanowire arrays growth with focused ion beam and low-temperature hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, high-quality ZnO nanowire arrays with controllable degrees over size, orientation, uniformity and periodicity are fabricated on GaN substrates with focused ion beam etching and low-temperature hydrothermal method. Experimental results revealed that the patterned holes (i.e., shape, depth, size and period) have decisive impacts on the morphology of resulting arrays. Optimal conditions and ordered arrays are obtained in terms of functionality analysis for both patterned holes and hydrothermal method. A possible mechanism is proposed to interpret the growth process in and out of the pattern holes. Results show that this hybrid method exhibits good reproducibility for the fabrication of high-quality ZnO nanowire arrays with great potentials.

Diao, Kaidi; Zhang, Jicheng; Zhou, Minjie; Tang, Yongjian; Wang, Shuxia; Cui, Xudong

2014-10-01

52

Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves  

DOEpatents

A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-04-04

53

High Reproducibility of Adhesion Formation in Rat with Meso-Stitch Approximation of Injured Cecum and Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Objective: Peritoneal adhesions following surgery are a common, serious pathology with severe complications. Appropriate animal adhesion models are essential for the assessment of adhesion preventing medical devices. This study introduces a variation of an established rat model in which highest degree adhesions are induced with excellent reproducibility (OPAM = optimized peritoneal adhesion model). Thus, this model seems to be eligible to study effects of adhesion preventing devices. Methods: 24 Lewis male rats were divided into four groups (OPAM, WSFX, sham-OPAM, sham-WSFX). The OPAM technique comprised cecal abrasion, creation of an abdominal wall defect plus approximation of injured areas by a suture, which was compared to a setting of lesions without suture fixation (WSFX). All rats were sacrificed at day 7. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Dunnett's test. Results: In OPAM rats macroscopic analyses revealed a 90% incidence adhesion of cecum to the abdominal wall, all adhesions imposing as complete agglutination. In WSFX animals incidence of adhesions formation was 75%, while in both sham groups there were no adhesions at all. Histology showed the structure of adhesions with merged smooth muscle of colon and skeletal muscle of abdominal wall in all cases. Conclusion: OPAM technique provides adhesions of injured areas with a better probability than with conventional methods. All OPAM adhesions impressed as highest degree adhesions, i.e. agglutination. Due to high reproducibility in incidence and extend of adhesion formation, the OPAM is recommended for testing of adhesion prevention medical devices. PMID:25552912

Poehnert, Daniel; Abbas, Mahmoud; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Klempnauer, Juergen; Winny, Markus

2015-01-01

54

Highly reproducible laser beam scanning device for an internal source laser desorption microprobe Fourier transform mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (˜5 ?m/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ˜9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

2002-03-01

55

Highly Reproducible Laser Beam Scanning Device for an Internal Source Laser Desorption Microprobe Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, mass spectrometry has relied on manipulating the sample target to provide scanning capabilities for laser desorption microprobes. This has been problematic for an internal source laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LD-FTMS) because of the high magnetic field (7 Tesla) and geometric constraints of the superconducting magnet bore. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented a unique external laser scanning mechanism for an internal source LD-FTMS. This mechanism provides adjustable resolution enhancement so that the spatial resolution at the target is not limited to that of the stepper motors at the light source (~5 µm/step). The spatial resolution is now limited by the practical optical diffraction limit of the final focusing lens. The scanning mechanism employs a virtual source that is wavelength independent up to the final focusing lens, which can be controlled remotely to account for focal length dependence on wavelength. A binary index provides an automatic alignment feature. The virtual source is located ~9 ft from the sample; therefore, it is completely outside of the vacuum system and beyond the 50 G line of the fringing magnetic field. To eliminate reproducibility problems associated with vacuum pump vibrations, we have taken advantage of the magnetic field inherent to the FTMS to utilize Lenz's law for vibrational dampening. The LD-FTMS microprobe has exceptional reproducibility, which enables successive mapping sequences for depth-profiling studies.

Scott, Jill Rennee; Tremblay, Paul Leland

2002-03-01

56

High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 ?? cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach.

Tao, Yu; Tao, Yuxiao; Wang, Liuyang; Wang, Biaobing; Yang, Zhenguo; Tai, Yanlong

2013-03-01

57

High-reproducibility, flexible conductive patterns fabricated with silver nanowire by drop or fit-to-flow method  

PubMed Central

An unusual strategy was designed to fabricate conductive patterns with high reproducibility for flexible electronics by drop or fit-to-flow method. Silver nanowire (SNW) ink with surface tension of 36.9 mN/m and viscosity of 13.8 mPa s at 20°C was prepared and characterized using a field emission transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and four-point probe. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern as template was fabricated by spin coating (500 rpm), baking at 80°C for 3 h, and laser cutting. The prepared SNW ink can flow along the trench of the PDMS pattern spontaneously, especially after plasma treatment with oxygen, and show a low resistivity of 12.9 ?? cm after sintering at 125°C for 30 min. In addition, an antenna pattern was also prepared to prove the feasibility of the approach. PMID:23537333

2013-01-01

58

Repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of Artemis-2 high-frequency ultrasound in determination of human corneal thickness  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and limits of agreement of corneal thickness values measured by a high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis-2), hand-held ultrasound pachymeter (DGH-500) and a specular microscope (SP-3000P). Methods Central corneal thickness (CCT) was analyzed in this prospective randomized study that included 32 patients (18 men and 14 women) aged 21–24 years. Measurements were obtained in two sessions, one week apart, by two examiners with three devices in a randomized order. Nine measurements were taken (three with each device) on one randomly selected eye of each patient in each measurement session. The coefficient of repeatability and interobserver reproducibility for the values of each method were calculated. The limits of agreement between techniques were also evaluated. Results There were no significant differences in CCT values between sessions for each of the three devices (P > 0.05). The repeatability coefficients for the Artemis-2 (±8 ?m/±9 ?m) were superior to those of the SP-3000P (±9 ?m/±11 ?m) and DGH 500 (±12 ?m/±12 ?m) in session 1/session 2 respectively, while the interobserver reproducibility index (differences between session 1 and session 2) was superior for the SP-3000P (±17 ?m) with respect to DHG-500 (±29 ?m) and the Artemis-2 (±31 ?m). In session 1 and session 2, the limits of agreement between the techniques were 35 ?m to ?31 ?m and 34 to ?20 ?m, respectively, for DGH-500 versus Artemis-2, 73 ?m to 3 ?m and 60 ?m to 9 ?m for Artemis-2 versus SP-3000P, and 58 ?m to 22 ?m and 72 ?m to 10 ?m for DGH-500 versus SP-3000P comparisons. The DGH-500 and Artemis-2 gave similar values (P > 0.05) in both sessions, but both (Artemis-2 and DGH-500) values were significantly greater than that of the SP-3000P (P < 0.05) in both sessions. Conclusion Repeatability was comparably good for the three techniques. However, interobserver reproducibility was approximately twice as good with the SP-3000P compared with the other two devices. The Artemis-2 CCT values consistently agreed with the DGH-500 and less so with the SP-3000P. The Artemis-2 provided CCT values that were, on average, 38 ?m and 34 ?m greater than that of the SP-3000P in session 1 and session 2, respectively. PMID:22693418

Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

2012-01-01

59

Large-area fabrication of highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman substrate via a facile double sided tape-assisted transfer approach using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications.Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of ``hot spots'' exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10-8 M and 1 × 10-10 M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10-8 M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05840a

Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Chao; Shi, Xin; Yang, Zhongbo; Long, Yitao; Fang, Jixiang

2014-02-01

60

Large-area fabrication of highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman substrate via a facile double sided tape-assisted transfer approach using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins.  

PubMed

Ideally, a SERS substrate should possess super signal amplification, high uniformity and reproducibility. Up to now, an emphasis on reproducibility and uniformity has been crucial to ensure consistent chemical detection sensitivity across the surface of a SERS substrate. Here we demonstrate a simple and facile double sided tape-assisted transfer method to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with prominent performance using hollow Au-Ag alloy nanourchins (HAAA-NUs). Such a large area, closely-packed flat film of the HAAA-NUs with a high density of "hot spots" exhibits a high SERS activity and reproducibility, simultaneously. The AFM-correlated nano-Raman and the point by point scanning of SERS signals verify the excellent spatial uniformity and reproducibility with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15% using crystal violet as probe molecule at the concentrations of 1 × 10(-8) M and 1 × 10(-10) M. The SERS signals of Sudan dye at a 1 × 10(-8) M concentration also show high reproducibility with a low RSD of 13.8%. This facile protocol presented here could lead to a high quality SERS substrate and open tremendous potential for various applications. PMID:24463635

Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Chao; Shi, Xin; Yang, Zhongbo; Long, Yitao; Fang, Jixiang

2014-03-01

61

High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes  

SciTech Connect

Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

2013-06-10

62

Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates  

DOEpatents

A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

Strongin, Myron (Center Moriches, NY); Ruckman, Mark (Middle Island, NY); Strongin, Daniel (Port Jefferson, NY)

1994-01-01

63

Perovskite-based hybrid solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency with high reproducibility using a thin film sandwich approach.  

PubMed

Organometal halide perovskites have tremendous potential as light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. In this work we demonstrate hybrid solar cells based on the mixed perovskite CH3 NH3 PbI2 Cl in a thin film sandwich structure, with unprecedented reproducibility and generating efficiencies up to 10.8%. The successfulness of our approach is corroborated by the experimental electronic structure determination of this perovskite. PMID:24338932

Conings, Bert; Baeten, Linny; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; D'Haen, Jan; Manca, Jean; Boyen, Hans-Gerd

2014-04-01

64

Color holography to produce highly realistic three-dimensional images.  

PubMed

The 1964 publication by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1295 (1964)] introduced the possibility of using holograms to record three-dimensional (3D) objects. Since then, there has been an interest in creating display holograms, i.e., holograms primarily produced to show objects in 3D. More recently, full color holography has become a reality, which was predicted in the 1964 paper. To record a hologram in which both the 3D shape and the color of the object are accurately reproduced, at least three laser wavelengths are needed. By computer simulation of the holographic color rendering process, the required amount of laser wavelengths and their distribution within the visible electromagnetic spectrum have been investigated. The quality of a color hologram also depends on the properties of the recording material. The demand on a panchromatic material for color holography is described. Recording techniques for color holograms are presented as well as the future of color holography as the perfect 3D imaging technique. PMID:18239694

Bjelkhagen, Hans I; Mirlis, Evangelos

2008-02-01

65

High energy laser beam replica producing method and system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for producing from a laser beam source an attenuated fiducial replica of the high energy laser beam far field pattern is described, comprising first deflecting means for non-dissipatively deflecting a fraction of laser beam energy of the incident laser beam source in an angular direction with respect to the axis of the incident laser beam; means for transmitting

M. A. Cross; E. W. Nichols

1988-01-01

66

Novel methacrylated diamondoid to produce high-refractive index polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, high-refractive index, methacrylic monomer was produced by incorporating 1-diamantane-carboxylic acid (1-D2-CA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The resulting monomer was gently polymerized with organic peroxide, and was formed transparent polymer thin film. Physicochemical and optical properties were compared with isobornyl methacrylate (IBoMA) homo-polymer film. 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer reveals that the refractive index is 1.56, and the softening temperature is 107.8 °C. High thermal stability and high-refractive index of 1-D2-CA/GMA homo-polymer indicate the potential use in optical applications.

Takano, Tadashi; Lin, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Frank G.; Carlson, Bob; Sciamanna, Steven

2010-03-01

67

Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors  

DOEpatents

An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

1987-01-01

68

Highly reproducible SERS detection in sequential injection analysis: real time preparation and application of photo-reduced silver substrate in a moving flow-cell.  

PubMed

This paper reports an improved way for performing highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering of different analytes using an automated flow system. The method uses a confocal Raman microscope to prepare SERS active silver spots on the window of a flow cell by photo-reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of citrate. Placement of the flow cell on an automated x and y stages of the Raman microscope allows to prepare a fresh spot for every new measurement. This procedure thus efficiently avoids any carry over effects which might result from adsorption of the analyte on the SERS active material and enables highly reproducible SERS measurements. For reproducible liquid handling the used sequential injection analysis system as well as the Raman microscope was operated by the flexible LabVIEW based software ATLAS developed in our group. Quantitative aspects were investigated using Cu(PAR)2 as a model analyte. Concentration down to 5×10(-6) M provided clear SERS spectra, a linear concentration dependence of the SERS intensities at 1333 cm(-1) was obtained from 5×10(-5) to 1×10(-3) with a correlation coefficient r=0.999. The coefficient of variation of the method Vxo was found to be 5.6% and the calculated limit of detection 1.7×10(-5) M. The results demonstrate the potential of SERS spectroscopy to be used as a molecular specific detector in aqueous flow systems. PMID:24148503

El-Zahry, Marwa R; Genner, Andreas; Refaat, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Horria A; Lendl, Bernhard

2013-11-15

69

Very high coercivity magnetic stripes produced by particle rotation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a current research program at Sandia National Laboratories whereby magnetic stripes are produced through the use of a new particle rotation technology. This new process allows the stripes to be produced in bulk and then held in a latent state so that they may be encoded at a later date. Since particle rotation is less dependent on the type of magnetic particle used, very high coercivity particles could provide a way to increase both magnetic tamper-resistance and accidental erasure protection. This research was initially funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Safeguard and Security as a portion of their Science and Technology Base Development, Advanced Security Concepts program. Current program funding is being provided by Sandia National Laboratories as part of their Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Naylor, R.B.

1992-12-01

70

A thermo-mechanical numerical scenario aiming at reproducing the metamorphic record of high-P rocks in the Palaeoproterozoic Eburnean orogeny.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test a scenario of the evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Eburnean event characterising the Birimian Province (2.2-2.0 Ga, Western African Craton). A compilation of field data and petrological modeling indicates that an early thermal regime (M1, <10-15°/km) would have produced high-P greenschist to blueschist metamorphism assemblages, that most likely originated in thick sedimentary basins (depth>=20 km), and which would have formed above an original Birimian oceanic crust (possibly preaccreted forearc-backarcs systems). These assemblages record elevated pressures (P> 6-8 Kb) and are found in the thermal aureoles of CaO-poor granitoids. A second warmer, dominant geothermal gradient M2a (20-30°C/km) is found superimposed on M1, associated to greenschist-amphibolite metamorphic assemblages of moderate- to high-pressure rocks. We suggest that these rocks underwent exhumation processes in close association with continued regional shortening and granitoid intrusions. A thermo-mechanical model is proposed here for the Birimian crust, in which we choose an initial setting of oceanic arc resistant layer underlain by a layer of buoyant granitoids (CaO-rich TTGs). At the center of the model, this layer is itself overlain by a tectonically paired, mechanically weak basin several hundreds of kilometers wide (forearc-backarc system ?). Under applied compression, the model reproduces a mechanism of burial and distributed large-scale folding of this juvenile crust. As the oceanic arc and TTGs layers fold below the overlying hydrated sediments, their hinges deepen and they reach appropriate PT conditions to start melting and transform into a dominantly buoyant (CaO-poor) melt product, of lower viscosity and density (by ~5%). This newly formed material ascends and migrate laterally towards the upper parts of the buckle folds, and then pursues its ascension through the weak overlying sediments, within about 50 Myrs. This spatially periodical and "diapiric" mode of exhumation is capable to entrain preserved lower crustal material as well as re-heated sediments, upwards to about 10-15 km depth. A significant recycling of TTGs in the genesis of CaO-poor granitoid melts is thus expected. We suggest that final exhumation through the upper crust would have been completed by independent or subsequent transcurrent strike-slip zones along the mechanically weakened thermal aureoles of these granitoids. This scenario of exhumation significantly depends on initial layers thicknesses, viscosity and density contrasts, as well as on the timing of compression. These effects were numerically tested.

Gerbault, Muriel; Ganne, Jerome; Baratoux, Lenka; Dioh, Edmond; de Andrade, Vincent; Block, Sylvain; Perrouty, Stephane; Jessell, Marc

2013-04-01

71

Use of high hydrostatic pressure to produce high quality and safe fresh pork sausage  

E-print Network

USE OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TO PRODUCE HIGH QUALITY AND SAFE FRESH PORK SAUSAGE A Thesis by MEI HUANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering USE OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TO PRODUCE HIGH QUALITY AND SAFE FRESH PORK SAUSAGE A Thesis by MEI HUANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6'c...

Huang, Mei

2012-06-07

72

Effects produced by iodine irradiation on high resistivity silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of 5 × 1011 cm-2 6+I127 ions of 28 MeV kinetic energy on high resistivity (100) Si were studied. The profile of primary defects was simulated. The defects produced by irradiation which act as traps were investigated. Thermally stimulated current measurements without externally applied bias were used, and for this the traps were charged by illuminating samples with 1000, 800, and 400 nm wavelengths. The discharge currents were recorded and modeled, and therefore the parameters of the traps were determined. The presence of I ions, heavier than Si, stopped into the target was modeled as a temperature independent electric field.

Lazanu, S.; Slav, A.; Lepadatu, A.-M.; Stavarache, I.; Palade, C.; Iordache, G.; Ciurea, M. L.

2012-12-01

73

Single-step enrichment by Ti4+-IMAC and label-free quantitation enables in-depth monitoring of phosphorylation dynamics with high reproducibility and temporal resolution.  

PubMed

Quantitative phosphoproteomics workflows traditionally involve additional sample labeling and fractionation steps for accurate and in-depth analysis. Here we report a high-throughput, straightforward, and comprehensive label-free phosphoproteomics approach using the highly selective, reproducible, and sensitive Ti(4+)-IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment method. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach by monitoring the phosphoproteome dynamics of Jurkat T cells stimulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) over six different time points, measuring in total 108 snapshots of the phosphoproteome. In total, we quantitatively monitored 12,799 unique phosphosites over all time points with very high quantitative reproducibility (average r > 0.9 over 100 measurements and a median cv < 0.2). PGE2 is known to increase cellular cAMP levels, thereby activating PKA. The in-depth analysis revealed temporal regulation of a wide variety of phosphosites associated not only with PKA, but also with a variety of other classes of kinases. Following PGE2 stimulation, several pathways became only transiently activated, revealing that in-depth dynamic profiling requires techniques with high temporal resolution. Moreover, the large publicly available dataset provides a valuable resource for downstream PGE2 signaling dynamics in T cells, and cAMP-mediated signaling in particular. More generally, our method enables in-depth, quantitative, high-throughput phosphoproteome screening on any system, requiring very little sample, sample preparation, and analysis time. PMID:24850871

de Graaf, Erik L; Giansanti, Piero; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Heck, Albert J R

2014-09-01

74

High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2011-06-28

75

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOEpatents

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16

76

How Do Beetles Reproduce?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

Jenny Drnevich

77

Reproducible, Ultra High-Throughput Formation of Multicellular Organization from Single Cell Suspension-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cell Aggregates  

PubMed Central

Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) should enable novel insights into early human development and provide a renewable source of cells for regenerative medicine. However, because the three-dimensional hESC aggregates [embryoid bodies (hEB)] typically employed to reveal hESC developmental potential are heterogeneous and exhibit disorganized differentiation, progress in hESC technology development has been hindered. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a centrifugal forced-aggregation strategy in combination with a novel centrifugal-extraction approach as a foundation, we demonstrated that hESC input composition and inductive environment could be manipulated to form large numbers of well-defined aggregates exhibiting multi-lineage differentiation and substantially improved self-organization from single-cell suspensions. These aggregates exhibited coordinated bi-domain structures including contiguous regions of extraembryonic endoderm- and epiblast-like tissue. A silicon wafer-based microfabrication technology was used to generate surfaces that permit the production of hundreds to thousands of hEB per cm2. Conclusions/Significance The mechanisms of early human embryogenesis are poorly understood. We report an ultra high throughput (UHTP) approach for generating spatially and temporally synchronised hEB. Aggregates generated in this manner exhibited aspects of peri-implantation tissue-level morphogenesis. These results should advance fundamental studies into early human developmental processes, enable high-throughput screening strategies to identify conditions that specify hESC-derived cells and tissues, and accelerate the pre-clinical evaluation of hESC-derived cells. PMID:18270562

Ungrin, Mark D.; Joshi, Chirag; Nica, Andra; Bauwens, Céline; Zandstra, Peter W.

2008-01-01

78

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Remote sensing of the upper tropospheric state of storms using space-borne high spectral resoluti...  

E-print Network

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without of Wisconsin at Madison pg. n/a #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. #12;Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

79

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

1996-01-01

80

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

1998-06-16

81

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

1998-06-16

82

Hydrophilic functionalized silicon nanoparticles produced by high energy ball milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanochemical synthesis of functionalized silicon nanoparticles using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is described. This method facilitates the fragmentation of mono crystalline silicon into the nanometer regime and the simultaneous surface functionalization of the formed particles. The surface functionalization is induced by the reaction of an organic liquid, such as alkynes and alkenes with reactive silicon sites. This method can be applied to form water soluble silicon nanoparticles by lipid mediated micelle formation and the milling in organic liquids containing molecules with bi-functional groups, such as allyl alcohol. Furthermore, nanometer sized, chloroalkyl functionalized particles can be synthesized by milling the silicon precursor in the presence of an o-chloroalkyne with either alkenes or alkynes as coreactants. This process allows tuning of the concentration of the exposed, alkyl linked chloro groups, simply by varying the relative amounts of the coreactant. The silicon nanoparticles that are formed serve as the starting point for a wide variety of chemical reactions, which may be used to alter the surface properties of the functionalized nanoparticles. Finally, the use of functionalized silicon particles for the production of superhydrophobic films is described. Here HEBM proves to be an efficient method to produce functionalized silicon particles, which can be deposited to form a stable coating exhibiting superhydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the silicon film can be tuned by the milling time and thus the resulting surface roughness of the films.

Hallmann, Steffen

83

Optimization of reproduced Morpho-blue coloration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morpho butterfly's metallic blue luster, which is produced from the butterfly's scale, has a mysterious feature. Since the scale does not contain a blue pigment, the origin of the coloration is attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, it appears blue from wide angular range, which contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained with a peculiar nano-structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, optical properties of the fabricated film were found to contain still some differences with that of the Morpho-butterfly, although the basic characteristics of the Morpho-blue itself was reproduced. In order to make the artificial Morpho-blue closer to the natural one than the prototype, we attempted to optimize the artificial film structure by controlling fabrication parameters. In this process, optical simulations and micro-structural observations were taken in account. By comparing a series of films fabricated with different nano-patterns, optimized parameters were semi-empirically obtained. Also the relationship between the structural parameters and the optical properties was analyzed. The reflective characteristics of the optimized film were found to reproduce the optical properties more closely to the natural Morpho-blue than the prototypes.

Saito, Akira; Ishikawa, Yoko; Miyamura, Yusuke; Akai-Kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji

2007-09-01

84

A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The thermal efficiency is better than 67% operating at full load. This fuel processor has been integrated with a 5-kW fuel cell producing electricity and hot water.

Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

85

High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization  

DOEpatents

A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

2014-01-21

86

High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization  

DOEpatents

A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

2014-11-25

87

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

DOEpatents

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

88

A highly reproducible solenoid micropump system for the analysis of total inorganic carbon and ammonium using gas-diffusion with conductimetric detection.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple, economic, and miniaturized flow-based analyzer based on solenoid micropumps is presented. It was applied to determine two parameters of high environmental interest: ammonium and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in natural waters. The method is based on gas diffusion (GD) of CO? and NH3 through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an acidic or alkaline donor stream, respectively. The analytes are trapped in an acceptor solution, being slightly alkaline for CO? and slightly acidic for NH?. The analytes are quantified using a homemade stainless steel conductimetric cell. The proposed system required five solenoid micro-pumps, one for each reagent and sample. Two especially made air bubble traps were placed down-stream of the solendoid pumps, which provided the acceptor solutions, by this increasing the method's reproducibility. Values of RSD lower than 1% were obtained. Achieved limits of detection were 0.27 µmol L?¹ for NH?? and 50 µmol L?¹ for TIC. Add-recovery tests were used to prove the trueness of the method and recoveries of 99.5 ± 7.5% were obtained for both analytes. The proposed system proved to be adequate for monitoring purpose of TIC and NH?? due to its high sample throughput and repeatability. PMID:24274287

Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Víctor

2014-01-01

89

Identification of avermectin-high-producing strains by high-throughput screening methods.  

PubMed

Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are potent against a broad spectrum of nematode and arthropod parasites with low-level side effects on the host organisms. This study was designed to investigate a high-throughput screening strategy for the efficient identification of avermectin high-yield strains. The production protocol was miniaturized in 96 deep-well microplates. UV absorbance at 245 nm was used to monitor avermectin production. A good correlation between fermentation results in both 96 deep-well microplates and conventional Erlenmeyer flasks was observed. With this protocol, the production of avermectins was determined in less than 10 min for a full plate without compromising accuracy. The high-yield strain selected through this protocol was also tested in 360 m(3) batch fermentation with 1.6-fold improved outcome. Thus, the development of this protocol is expected to accelerate the selection of superior avermectin-producing strains. PMID:19957083

Gao, Hong; Liu, Mei; Zhou, Xianlong; Liu, Jintao; Zhuo, Ying; Gou, Zhongxuan; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Xiangyang; Luo, Aiqun; Zheng, Chuansen; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Lixin

2010-01-01

90

High capacity adsorption media and method of producing  

DOEpatents

A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-10-05

91

FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: miurah@m.tohoku.ac.j [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-08-10

92

Method of producing high surface area, low metal impurity  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing tantalum powder in a reactor vessel comprising: adding a quantity of an active ingredient to the reactor sufficient to remove a portion of the moisture and air in the reactor, said active ingredient having a higher thermodynamic potential and chemical activity than the reactor vessel, and reducing a tantalum compound with a reducing agent in the reactor to form tantalum powder.

Hongtu Chang.

1993-08-10

93

An in vitro biofilm model system maintaining a highly reproducible species and metabolic diversity approaching that of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background Our knowledge of microbial diversity in the human oral cavity has vastly expanded during the last two decades of research. However, much of what is known about the behavior of oral species to date derives from pure culture approaches and the studies combining several cultivated species, which likely does not fully reflect their function in complex microbial communities. It has been shown in studies with a limited number of cultivated species that early oral biofilm development occurs in a successional manner and that continuous low pH can lead to an enrichment of aciduric species. Observations that in vitro grown plaque biofilm microcosms can maintain similar pH profiles in response to carbohydrate addition as plaque in vivo suggests a complex microbial community can be established in the laboratory. In light of this, our primary goal was to develop a robust in vitro biofilm-model system from a pooled saliva inoculum in order to study the stability, reproducibility, and development of the oral microbiome, and its dynamic response to environmental changes from the community to the molecular level. Results Comparative metagenomic analyses confirmed a high similarity of metabolic potential in biofilms to recently available oral metagenomes from healthy subjects as part of the Human Microbiome Project. A time-series metagenomic analysis of the taxonomic community composition in biofilms revealed that the proportions of major species at 3 hours of growth are maintained during 48 hours of biofilm development. By employing deep pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate this biofilm model with regards to bacterial taxonomic diversity, we show a high reproducibility of the taxonomic carriage and proportions between: 1) individual biofilm samples; 2) biofilm batches grown at different dates; 3) DNA extraction techniques and 4) research laboratories. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that we now have the capability to grow stable oral microbial in vitro biofilms containing more than one hundred operational taxonomic units (OTU) which represent 60-80% of the original inoculum OTU richness. Previously uncultivated Human Oral Taxa (HOT) were identified in the biofilms and contributed to approximately one-third of the totally captured 16S rRNA gene diversity. To our knowledge, this represents the highest oral bacterial diversity reported for an in vitro model system so far. This robust model will help investigate currently uncultivated species and the known virulence properties for many oral pathogens not solely restricted to pure culture systems, but within multi-species biofilms. PMID:24451062

2013-01-01

94

Electrical detection of C-reactive protein using a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever for highly reproducible and accurate measurements.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays. PMID:23899933

Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

2013-01-01

95

Electrical Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using a Single Free-Standing, Thermally Controlled Piezoresistive Microcantilever for Highly Reproducible and Accurate Measurements  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 ?g/mL to 200 ?g/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD) of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 ?g/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays. PMID:23899933

Yen, Yi-Kuang; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Hong, Wei-Ting; Pheanpanitporn, Yotsapoom; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Huang, Long-Sun

2013-01-01

96

Viscoelastic Relaxation of Topographic Highs on Venus to Produce Coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronae on Venus are believed to result from the gravitationally driven relaxation of topography that was originally raised by mantle diapirs. We examine this relaxation using a viscoelastic finite element code, and show that an initially plateau shaped load will evolve to the characteristic corona topography of central raised bowl, annular rim, and surrounding moat. Stresses induced by the relaxation are consistent with the development of concentric extensional fracturing common on the outer margins of corona moats. However, relaxation is not expected to produce the concentric faulting often observed on the annular rim. The relaxation timescale is shorter than the diapir cooling timescale, so loss of thermal support controls the rate at which topography is reduced. The final corona shape is supported by buoyancy and flexural stresses and will persist through geologic time. Development of lower, flatter central bowls and narrower and more pronounced annular rims and moats enhanced by thicker crusts, higher thermal gradients, and crustal thinning over the diapir.

Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

1995-01-01

97

Equivalent ion temperature in Ta plasma produced by high energy laser ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy laser, 400 ps pulse duration, irradiating heavy targets in vacuum produce intense plasma and generate emission of various energetic ion groups. The ion intensity is high along the normal to the irradiated target surface and high charge state and high velocity ions are produced. The characteristics of the ion streams were investigated by using an electrostatic ion energy

L. Torrisi; S. Gammino; L. Andó; L. Laska; J. Krasa; K. Rohlena; J. Ullschmied; J. Wolowski; J. Badziak; P. Parys

2006-01-01

98

Simulation of neutrons produced by high-energy muons underground  

E-print Network

This article describes the Monte Carlo simulation used to interpret the measurement of the muon-induced neutron flux in the Boulby Underground Laboratory (North Yorkshire, UK), recently performed using a large scintillator veto deployed around the ZEPLIN-II WIMP detector. Version 8.2 of the GEANT4 toolkit was used after relevant benchmarking and validation of neutron production models. In the direct comparison between Monte Carlo and experimental data, we find that the simulation produces a 1.8 times higher neutron rate, which we interpret as over-production in lead by GEANT4. The dominance of this material in neutron production allows us to estimate the absolute neutron yield in lead as (1.31 +/- 0.06) x 10^(-3) neutrons/muon/(g/cm^2) for a mean muon energy of 260 GeV. Simulated nuclear recoils due to muon-induced neutrons in the ZEPLIN-II target volume (~1 year exposure) showed that, although a small rate of events is expected from this source of background in the energy range of interest for dark matter searches, no event survives an anti-coincidence cut with the veto.

A. Lindote; H. M. Araujo; V. A. Kudryavtsev; M. Robinson

2008-10-09

99

Simulation of neutrons produced by high-energy muons underground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the Monte Carlo simulation used to interpret the measurement of the muon-induced neutron flux in the Boulby Underground Laboratory (North Yorkshire, UK), recently performed using a large scintillator veto deployed around the ZEPLIN-II WIMP detector. Version 8.2 of the GEANT4 toolkit was used after relevant benchmarking and validation of neutron production models. In the direct comparison between Monte Carlo and experimental data, we find that the simulation produces a 1.8 times higher neutron rate, which we interpret as over-production in lead by GEANT4. The dominance of this material in neutron production allows us to estimate the absolute neutron yield in lead as (1.31 ± 0.06)×10 -3 neutrons/muon/(g/cm 2) for a mean muon energy of 260 GeV. Simulated nuclear recoils due to muon-induced neutrons in the ZEPLIN-II target volume (˜1-year exposure) showed that, although a small rate of events is expected from this source of background in the energy range of interest for dark matter searches, no event survives an anti-coincidence cut with the veto.

Lindote, A.; Araújo, H. M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Robinson, M.

2009-06-01

100

High-Calorific Gas Mixtures Produced from Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in the field of processing of different types of biomass into high calorific gas fuel are carried out in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS. Design of technology for effective processing of low-grade solid fuel to gas mixtures which can be used as fuel for power plants is rather actual problem both in the view of natural resources conservation and in the view of the development of autonomous energy unit for thermal and electric power supply. The experimental data on quantity and composition of the gaseous products formed in the process of peat pyrolysis are presented at various operating parameters of the process. It is shown that as a result of peat pyrolysis and the subsequent cracking of emanating products at temperature 1,000 °C it is possible to receive 1.4 m3 of gas with specific caloricity 11.7 MJ/m3 per 1 kg of original raw material.

Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Sinelschikov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

101

Tape high power neutron producing target for NCT V. Kononova  

E-print Network

therapy. Typical power of available proton beam is within 5 kW, the one of the accelerators under construction ­ 25 kW. Innovative lithium target using energy accumulation for more high power proton beams threshold 7 Li(p,n)7 Be reaction at proton beam with energies 1.915 MeV or 2.5 MeV. Stationary 25 kW neutron

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

102

Morpho-blue reproduced by nanocasting lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic blue in wings of Morpho butterflies has a mysterious feature. The blue luster is produced from the butterfly's scale, which does not contain a blue pigment at all. The origin of the coloration is then attributed to a microscopic structure that can also explain its high reflectivity. However, its optical characteristics on the scattered wavelength contradicts obviously the grating or multilayer, because it appears blue from wide angle. The mystery of the lack of multi-coloration has recently been explained using a model with a peculiar optical structure, and experimentally proven by fabricating the optical film by controlling the parameters in nanoscale. The reproduced Morpho-blue was found to be important from viewpoint of a wide variety of applications. However, the fabrication process of the nano- structure is too costly due to conventional lithography method. To solve the problem, nano-casting lithography (NCL) was newly applied using UV curable polymer to replicate the nanostructure and improve heat-resistance for the following process of deposition. After fabrication of the nano-patterned polymer structure by the NCL, TiO II and SiO II layers were deposited and the Morpho-blue structure was successfully replicated in low cost. The reflective characteristic of the replicated structure was found to reproduce the basic properties of the natural Morpho-blue, as well as the originally fabricated Morpho-blue.

Saito, Akira; Nakajima, Masaki; Miyamura, Yusuke; Sogo, Kenji; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hirai, Yoshihiko

2006-08-01

103

Do high impact exercises produce higher tibial strains than running?  

PubMed Central

Background—Bone must have sufficient strength to withstand both instantaneous forces and lower repetitive forces. Repetitive loading, especially when bone strain and/or strain rates are high, can create microdamage and result in stress fracture Aim—To measure in vivo strains and strain rates in human tibia during high impact and moderate impact exercises. Methods—Three strain gauged bone staples were mounted percutaneously in a rosette pattern in the mid diaphysis of the medial tibia in six normal subjects, and in vivo tibial strains were measured during running at 17 km/h and drop jumping from heights of 26, 39, and 52 cm. Results—Complete data for all three drop jumps were obtained for four of the six subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in compression, tension, or shear strains with increasing drop jump height, but, at the 52 cm height, shear strain rate was reduced by one third (p = 0.03). No relation was found between peak compression strain and calculated drop jump energy, indicating that subjects were able to dissipate part of the potential energy of successively higher drop jumps by increasing the range of motion of their knee and ankle joints and not transmitting the energy to their tibia. No statistically significant differences were found between the principal strains during running and drop jumping from 52 cm, but compression (p = 0.01) and tension (p = 0.004) strain rates were significantly higher during running. Conclusions—High impact exercises, as represented by drop jumping in this experiment, do not cause higher tibial strains and strain rates than running and therefore are unlikely to place an athlete who is accustomed to fast running at higher risk for bone fatigue. Key Words: bone; strain; biomechanics; stress fractures; impact PMID:10854019

Milgrom, C.; Finestone, A.; Levi, Y.; Simkin, A.; Ekenman, I.; Mendelson, S.; Millgram, M.; Nyska, M.; Benjuya, N.; Burr, D.

2000-01-01

104

Method of producing high T(subc) superconducting NBN films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin films of niobium nitride with high superconducting temperature (T sub c) of 15.7 K are deposited on substrates held at room temperature (approx 90 C) by heat sink throughout the sputtering process. Films deposited at P sub Ar 12.9 + or - 0.2 mTorr exhibit higher T sub c with increasing P sub N2,I with the highest T sub c achieved at P sub n2,I= 3.7 + or - 0.2 mTorr and total sputtering pressure P sub tot = 16.6 + or - 0.4. Further increase of N2 injection starts decreasing T sub c.

Thakoor, Sarita (inventor); Lamb, James L. (inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (inventor); Khanna, Satish K. (inventor)

1988-01-01

105

Process for producing a high emittance coating and resulting article  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for anodizing aluminum or its alloys to obtain a surface particularly having high infrared emittance by anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate surface in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution at elevated temperature and by a step-wise current density procedure, followed by sealing the resulting anodized surface. In a preferred embodiment the aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate is first alkaline cleaned and then chemically brightened in an acid bath The resulting cleaned substrate is anodized in a 15% by weight sulfuric acid bath maintained at a temperature of 30.degree. C. Anodizing is carried out by a step-wise current density procedure at 19 amperes per square ft. (ASF) for 20 minutes, 15 ASF for 20 minutes and 10 ASF for 20 minutes. After anodizing the sample is sealed by immersion in water at 200.degree. F. and then air dried. The resulting coating has a high infrared emissivity of about 0.92 and a solar absorptivity of about 0.2, for a 5657 aluminum alloy, and a relatively thick anodic coating of about 1 mil.

Le, Huong G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Dudley L. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

106

High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

107

High density THz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation  

E-print Network

Frequency combs (FC) have radically changed the landscape of frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy investigations extending tremendously the achievable resolution while increasing signal to noise ratio. Initially developed in the visible and near-IR spectral regions, the use of FC has been expanded to mid-IR, extreme ultra-violet and X-ray. Significant effort is presently dedicated to the generation of FC at THz frequencies. One solution based on converting a stabilized optical frequency comb using a photoconductive terahertz emitter, remains hampered by the low available THz power. Another approach is based on active mode locked THz quantum-cascade-lasers providing intense FC over a relatively limited spectral extension. Alternatively, here we show that dense powerful THz FC is generated over one decade of frequency by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this mode, the entire ring behaves in a similar fashion to a THz resonator wherein electron bunches emit powerful THz pulses quasi-synch...

Tammaro, S; Roy, P; Lampin, J -F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

2014-01-01

108

High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

109

A dynamical mechanism to produce high-inclinations TNOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the dynamical formation of small Solar System objects beyond Neptune. The discovery of the first trans-Neptunian object (TNO) - except for Pluto and Charon - is relatively recent (1992QB_1). Many unpredicted dynamical and physical features not predicted in past theoretical models and are now showing up. Among them, we note the existence of many high-inclined orbits with respect to the eclipitc plane (where all Solar System bodies supposedly have formed). The aim of this work is to show a dynamical pathway from the primordial planetesimal disk to high inclinations orbits in the trans-Neptunian region. The main mechanism requires that scattered planetesimals are captured into some exterior mean motion resonance (MMR) with Neptune and then be trapped into the Kozai resonance as well. After that, some planetesimals may access a resonance hibernating mode in which the planesimal is barely locked in resonance. We show that only a few percent of all scattered planetesimals would access the hibernating mode. But, once this mechanism is active, ˜ 100% of the particles would escape both resonances while Neptune is in its final migration stage (after the LHB phase). Our results could explain at least a portion (up to 80%) of the classical hot population, defined by a_{2:3}5^{o}, and q>36au. Previous results indicate that this mechanism is the most likely to form the detached objects close to MMR with Neptune as, for example, 2004XR_{190} (Gomes, 2011, Icarus 215, 661). We have determined the most probable regions, in the orbital elements space (a, e, i), where detached objects would form close to 2:5 and 1:3 MMRs (Brasil, Gomes & Soares, 2013 - submitted to A&A).

Brasil, P. I. O.; Gomes, R. S.; Nesvorý, D.

2014-10-01

110

Experimental challenges to reproduce seismic fault motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation briefly reviews scientific and technical development in the studies of intermediate to high-velocity frictional properties of faults and summarizes remaining technical challenges to reproduce nucleation to growth processes of large earthquakes in laboratory. Nearly 10 high-velocity or low to high-velocity friction apparatuses have been built in the last several years in the world and it has become possible now to produce sub-plate velocity to seismic slip rate in a single machine. Despite spreading of high-velocity friction studies, reproducing seismic fault motion at high P and T conditions to cover the entire seismogenic zone is still a big challenge. Previous studies focused on (1) frictional melting, (2) thermal pressurization, and (3) high-velocity gouge behavior without frictional melting. Frictional melting process was solved as a Stefan problem with very good agreement with experimental results. Thermal pressurization has been solved theoretically based on measured transport properties and has been included successfully in the modeling of earthquake generation. High-velocity gouge experiments in the last several years have revealed that a wide variety of gouges exhibit dramatic weakening at high velocities (e.g., Di Toro et al., 2011, Nature). Most gouge experiments were done under dry conditions partly to separate gouge friction from the involvement of thermal pressurization. However, recent studies demonstrated that dehydration or degassing due to mineral decomposition can occur during seismic fault motion. Those results not only provided a new view of looking at natural fault zones in search of geological evidence of seismic fault motion, but also indicated that thermal pressurization and gouge weakening can occur simultaneously even in initially dry gouge. Thus experiments with controlled pore pressure are needed. I have struggled to make a pressure vessel for wet high-velocity experiments in the last several years. A technical difficulty was how to absorb hydrodynamic shock due to abrupt fault motion in the vessel, and this was overcome by pressurizing water in the vessel, acting as pore fluid, using pressurized gas (in other words using gas as a cushion). I will report preliminary experimental results on high-velocity rock-on-rock friction under pore-water pressure. Other technical challenges are (i) how to produce step-change in velocity to see if the framework of rate-and-state friction law holds in high-velocity regime, (ii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments in hydrothermal conditions to study frictional properties relevant to slow slip and low-frequency tremors, and (iii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments at high normal stresses. The first task became possible with a low to high-velocity apparatus in Beijing and a few other machines, and I will show some preliminary results. There is no fundamental difficulty in (ii) since O-ring is enough to seal piston rotating at a high speed. However, (iii) will be the hardest because of severe thermal fracturing of host rocks that limits the axial stress. Use of aluminum sleeve made it possible to apply the normal stress to about 30 MPa, but new device and a high motor power is needed to go higher normal stress.

Shimamoto, T.

2011-12-01

111

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

Li, Shaofan

112

Reproducibility in a multiprocessor system  

DOEpatents

Fixing a problem is usually greatly aided if the problem is reproducible. To ensure reproducibility of a multiprocessor system, the following aspects are proposed; a deterministic system start state, a single system clock, phase alignment of clocks in the system, system-wide synchronization events, reproducible execution of system components, deterministic chip interfaces, zero-impact communication with the system, precise stop of the system and a scan of the system state.

Bellofatto, Ralph A; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M; Haring, Rudolf A; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V; Liebsch, Thomas A; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

2013-11-26

113

Heavily loaded ferrite-polymer composites to produce high refractive index materials at centimetre wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold-pressing technique has been developed for fabricating composites composed of a polytetrafluoroethylene-polymer matrix and a wide range of volume-fractions of MnZn-ferrite filler (0%-80%). The electromagnetic properties at centimetre wavelengths of all prepared composites exhibited good reproducibility, with the most heavily loaded composites possessing simultaneously high permittivity (180 ± 10) and permeability (23 ± 2). The natural logarithm of both the relative complex permittivity and permeability shows an approximately linear dependence with the volume fraction of ferrite. Thus, this simple method allows for the manufacture of bespoke materials required in the design and construction of devices based on the principles of transformation optics.

Parke, L.; Hooper, I. R.; Hicken, R. J.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Grant, P. S.; Youngs, I. J.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.

2013-10-01

114

Phase distortions of attosecond pulses produced by resonance-enhanced high harmonic generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation can be obtained in plasmas containing ions with strong radiative transitions resonant with harmonic orders. The mechanism for this enhancement is still debated. We perform the first temporal characterization of the attosecond emission from a tin plasma under near-resonant conditions for two different resonance detunings. We show that the resonance considerably changes the relative phase of neighboring harmonics. For very small detunings, their phase locking may even be lost, evidencing strong phase distortions in the emission process and a modified attosecond structure. These features are well reproduced by our simulations, allowing their interpretation in terms of the phase of the recombination dipole moment.

Haessler, S.; Strelkov, V.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Khokhlova, M.; Gobert, O.; Hergott, J.-F.; Lepetit, F.; Perdrix, M.; Ozaki, T.; Salières, P.

2013-01-01

115

Combined experimental and numerical approach to evaluate impact scaling relations and reproducibility of craters produced at the Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (E.P.I.C., Centro de Astrobiología, Spain.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber at Centro de Astrobiología, Spain, consists of a 7m wide, funnel-shaped test bed, and a 20.5mm caliber compressed N2 gas gun. The test bed can be filled with any type of target material, but is especially designed for wet target experiments. The shape and size aim to decrease disturbance from reflected surface waves in wet target experiments. Experiments are done under 1Atm pressure. The gas gun can launch projectiles of any material and dimensions <20mm (smaller diameters using sabots), and at any angle from vertical to near horizontal. The projectile velocities are of the order of a few hundreds of meters per second depending mainly on the gas pressure, as well as projectile diameter and density. When using a dry sand target a transient crater about 30cm wide is produced. Wet target experiments have not yet been performed in this newly installed test chamber, but transient cavities in water are expected to be in the order of 50-70cm wide. The large scale allows for detailed study of the dynamics of cratering motions during the stages of crater growth and subsequent collapse, especially in wet targets. These observations provide valuable benchmark data for numerical simulations and for comparison with field studies. Here we describe the results of ten impact experiments using three different gas pressures (100bar, 180bar, 200bar), two projectile compositions (20mm, 5.7g delrin; 20mm, 16.3g Al2O3), and two different impact angles (90? and 53? over the horizontal plane). Nine of the experiments were done in a quarter-space geometry using a specially designed camera tank with a 45mm thick glass window. One experiment was done in half-space geometry as reference. The experiments were recorded with a high-speed digital video camera, and the resulting craters were documented with a digital still frame camera. Projectile velocities are estimated with a combination of tracking software and a Shooting Chrony Alpha M-1 chronograph to be about 330m/s for delrin (100bar), 220m/s for Al2O3 (100bar), 400m/s for delrin (200bar), and 275m/s for Al2O3 (200bar). The velocities for the lighter delrin projectile and at the higher pressure are above the speed of sound in dry silica sand (243 m/s; Sandia report SAND2007-3524). The experimental set up (i.e. target material, projectile density and velocity, impact angle), as well as the dimensions of the resulting craters, are used as inputs in numerical simulation using the iSALE computational code. Results from these simulations will be presented and compared with the experiments.

Ormö, J.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G.; Melero Asensio, I.

2012-04-01

116

High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a  

E-print Network

High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis Han Zhang a , Jie nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis. The average tensile modulus of the SWNT nano-fibers is 265, respectively, from a SWNT bundle of 10 nm diameter and a SWNT nano- fiber of diameter 55 nm with a packing

Qin, Lu-Chang

117

ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Archaean high-K granitoids produced by remelting of earlier Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite are mostly composed of magmatic rocks of the Tonalite­Trondhjemite­Granodiorite (TTG e.g. Jahn et al. 1981

Siebel, Wolfgang

118

Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas  

E-print Network

Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph ...

Li, Chikang

119

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,  

E-print Network

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae to the physiological level, including photosynthesis, heat shock, neurobiology, sensory networks (vision, olfaction the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

Basu, Amar S.

120

How to produce personality neuroscience research with high statistical power and low additional cost  

E-print Network

How to produce personality neuroscience research with high statistical power and low additional # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013 Abstract Personality neuroscience involves examining rela- tions between are especially important to consider for personality neuroscience. In this article, we outline how low

Spreng, R. Nathan

121

Plant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high-diversity plant communities  

E-print Network

are important to productivity and plant community dynamics in both natural and managed ecosystems. Among soil varied with surrounding plant richness; above- ground biomass production varied with plant speciesPlant monocultures produce more antagonistic soil Streptomyces communities than high

Weiblen, George D

122

Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.  

PubMed

In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs. PMID:23885720

Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

2013-09-01

123

Parallel Reproducible Summation James Demmel  

E-print Network

, reproducibility is important, and sometimes required, for some applications. For example, in climate and weather modeling, N-body simulation, or other forward unstable simulations, a very small change in results at one. But it does not guarantee reproducibility, in particular for ill-conditioned inputs, or when the result

California at Berkeley, University of

124

ccsd00001731, Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF  

E-print Network

ccsd­00001731, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Study on high pressure plasma produced by ArF laser Norio side window of chamber. The high pressure ArF laser plasma develops symmetrically and the plasma energy of ArF laser light is higher than the XeCl laser. The transmittance of ArF laser light

125

The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1  

E-print Network

The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1 Frank J calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance 0.09) is approximately two times higher than aragonite and similar to the high magnesium calcite

Grosell, Martin

126

High-Power Characteristics of Pyramidal Absorber Produced by Roof Tile Smoking Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the high power characteristics of a pyramidal absorber produced by the traditional roof tile smoking technique. In the production process, the pyramid is sintered at about 1000°C that leads to the strong resistance against the temperature rising due to the high power microwave absorption.

Hatakeyama, Kennichi; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yoshiuchi, Satoshi; Hirose, Mika

127

High-Power Characteristics of Pyramidal Absorber Produced by Roof Tile Smoking Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the high power characteristics of a pyramidal absorber produced by the traditional roof tile smoking technique. In the production process, the pyramid is sintered at about 1000°C that leads to the strong resistance against the temperature rising due to the high power microwave absorption.

Kennichi Hatakeyama; Tatsuya Nakamura; Satoshi Yoshiuchi; Mika Hirose

2008-01-01

128

Lentiviral vectors containing an enhancer-less ubiquitously acting chromatin opening element (UCOE) provide highly reproducible and stable transgene expression in hematopoietic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitously acting chromatin opening elements (UCOEs) consist of methylation- free CpG islands encompassing dual diver- gently transcribed promoters of house- keeping genes that have been shown to confer resistance to transcriptional si- lencing and to produce consistent and stable transgene expression in tissue culture systems. To develop improved strat- egies for hematopoietic cell gene therapy, we have assessed the potential

Fang Zhang; Susannah I. Thornhill; Steven J. Howe; Meera Ulaganathan; Axel Schambach; Joanna Sinclair; Christine Kinnon; H. Bobby Gaspar; Michael Antoniou; Adrian J. Thrasher; R. S. Larson; B. P. Alter; G. M. Baerlocher; S. A. Savage; S. J. Chanock; B. B. Weksler; J. P. Willner; J. A. Peters; N. Giri; P. M. Lansdorp; F. Zhang

2007-01-01

129

Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending  

SciTech Connect

Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US); Koo, Y.-M. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

1996-08-01

130

Laser produced functionally graded tungsten carbide coatings on M2 high-speed tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the investigation was to produce functionally graded, carbide alloyed multilayer coatings on M2 high-speed steel by laser alloying with direct injection of WC powder into the melt pool. Single layer coatings with a wide alloying range corresponding to 12–58 wt.% W and 1.3–4.3 wt.% C, respectively, were produced by varying laser beam power and beam traverse velocity.

M Riabkina-Fishman; E Rabkin; P Levin; N Frage; M. P Dariel; A Weisheit; R Galun; B. L Mordike

2001-01-01

131

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOEpatents

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14

132

High-Titer Packaging Cells Producing Recombinant Retroviruses Resistant to Human Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel retroviral protein expression constructs were designed to retain minimal retroviral sequences and to express dominant selectable markers by reinitiation of translation after expression of the viral genes. HT1080 cells were selected as producer cells for their ability to release high-titer viruses that are resistant to inacti- vation by human serum. Two HT1080-based packaging cell lines which produce Moloney murine

FRANCOIS-LOIC COSSET; YASUHIRO TAKEUCHI; JEAN-LUC BATTINI; ROBIN A. WEISS; ANDMARY K. L. COLLINS

1995-01-01

133

Characterization of High-Hydrostatic-Pressure Effects on Fresh Produce Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure has the potential to affect food-related enzymes and microorganisms while retaining the produce’s\\u000a characteristic properties. Although many studies on effects of high pressure on quality attributes of fruit and vegetables\\u000a have been published, experimental results on the impact of high-pressure treatment on the physiological activity of products\\u000a are rare. To characterize changes of the samples fast and

Oliver Schlüter; Julia Foerster; Martin Geyer; Dietrich Knorr; Werner B. Herppich

2009-01-01

134

Utilizing high resolution and reconfigurable patterns in combination with inkjet printing to produce high performance circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inkjet printing on pre-fabricated high-resolution substrate is developed to improve the operational speed of printed organic transistors. The high-resolution features are designed to define transistor critical dimensions, while maintaining the flexibility to incorporate different circuit constructions. Logic gate and ring oscillator circuits fabricated by inkjet printing on the high-resolution substrate are demonstrated, to show that the same high resolution pattern can be adapted for constructing different electronic circuits.

Mei, P.; Ng, T. N.; Lujan, R. A.; Schwartz, D. E.; Kor, S.; Krusor, B. S.; Veres, J.

2014-09-01

135

High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same  

DOEpatents

A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2--4% by volume (ca. 1--4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T{sub m} of molybdenum. 10 figs.

Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Geller, C.B.

1999-02-09

136

High-strength, creep-resistant molybdenum alloy and process for producing the same  

DOEpatents

A wet-doping process for producing an oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS), creep-resistant molybdenum alloy is disclosed. The alloy is made by adding nitrate or acetate salts of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium to molybdenum oxide to produce a slurry, heating the slurry in a hydrogen atmosphere to produce a powder, mixing and cold isostatically pressing the powder, sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thermomechanically processing (swaging, extruding, cold drawing) the product. The ODS molybdenum alloy produced by the process contains 2-4% by volume (.about.1-4% by weight) of an oxide of lanthanum, cerium, thorium, or yttrium. The alloy has high strength and improved creep-resistance at temperatures greater than 0.55T.sub.m of molybdenum.

Bianco, Robert (Finleyville, PA); Buckman, Jr., R. William (Pittsburgh, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01

137

Comparability and reproducibility of biomedical data  

PubMed Central

With the development of novel assay technologies, biomedical experiments and analyses have gone through substantial evolution. Today, a typical experiment can simultaneously measure hundreds to thousands of individual features (e.g. genes) in dozens of biological conditions, resulting in gigabytes of data that need to be processed and analyzed. Because of the multiple steps involved in the data generation and analysis and the lack of details provided, it can be difficult for independent researchers to try to reproduce a published study. With the recent outrage following the halt of a cancer clinical trial due to the lack of reproducibility of the published study, researchers are now facing heavy pressure to ensure that their results are reproducible. Despite the global demand, too many published studies remain non-reproducible mainly due to the lack of availability of experimental protocol, data and/or computer code. Scientific discovery is an iterative process, where a published study generates new knowledge and data, resulting in new follow-up studies or clinical trials based on these results. As such, it is important for the results of a study to be quickly confirmed or discarded to avoid wasting time and money on novel projects. The availability of high-quality, reproducible data will also lead to more powerful analyses (or meta-analyses) where multiple data sets are combined to generate new knowledge. In this article, we review some of the recent developments regarding biomedical reproducibility and comparability and discuss some of the areas where the overall field could be improved. PMID:23193203

Huang, Yunda; Gottardo, Raphael

2013-01-01

138

Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

Park, J.H.

1998-06-23

139

Vitra-violet process for producing flame resistant polyamides and products produced thereby. [protective clothing for high oxygen environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aromatic polyamides with improved nonflammability characteristics are produced by contacting a polyamide substrate with a gaseous medium comprising a minor amount of a haloolefinic material and an inert diluent in the presence of light having sufficient energy to effect chemical addition of the haloolefin to the polyamide substrate.

Toy, M. S.; Stringham, R. S. (inventors)

1980-01-01

140

High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction  

DOEpatents

A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

1991-08-27

141

High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction  

DOEpatents

A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

1991-08-27

142

Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce from areas of high livestock production in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of fresh vegetables and soft fruit were collected from farmers' markets in the Lublin Area of Poland during 2006–2007; the produce was grown in areas of high to moderate livestock production. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were eluted from food surfaces, separated from residual food materials by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts

A. Rze?utka; R. A. B. Nichols; L. Connelly; A. Kaupke; I. Kozyra; N. Cook; S. Birrell; H. V. Smith

2010-01-01

143

innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells  

E-print Network

innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium--called CIGS cells-- that are different than conventional

144

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a

Kai W. Jansen; Nagi Maley

2001-01-01

145

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a

Kai W. Jansen; Nagi Maley

2000-01-01

146

Rotary head type reproducing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

Takayama, Nobutoshi (Kanagawa, JP); Edakubo, Hiroo (Tokyo, JP); Kozuki, Susumu (Tokyo, JP); Takei, Masahiro (Kanagawa, JP); Nagasawa, Kenichi (Kanagawa, JP)

1986-01-01

147

Reproducibility of high-resolution optical coherence tomography measurements of the nerve fibre layer with the new Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimConventional time-domain OCT technology for detection of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) neurodegeneration suffers from technical inaccuracy owing to a lack of exact scan centring around the optic disc as well as a true follow-up possibility. In this study, the authors evaluated a novel high-resolution spectral-domain OCT device (SD-OCT) with an incorporated eye-tracking feature in its ability to objectively measure

N Serbecic; S C Beutelspacher; F C Aboul-Enein; K Kircher; A Reitner; U Schmidt-Erfurth

2010-01-01

148

An organic surface modifier to produce a high work function transparent electrode for high performance polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

Modification of an ITO electrode with small-molecule organic surface modifier, 4-chloro-benzoic acid (CBA), via a simple spin-coating method produces a high-work-function electrode with high transparency and a hydrophobic surface. As an alternative to PEDOT:PSS, CBA modification achieves efficiency enhancement up to 8.5%, which is attributed to enhanced light absorption within the active layer and smooth hole transport from the active layer to the anode. PMID:25515353

Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Hak-Beom; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Heeger, Alan J

2015-02-01

149

Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers  

SciTech Connect

The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

Yamaura, Michiteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2006-06-19

150

Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

Yamaura, Michiteru

2006-06-01

151

Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

152

HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E. [and others

1997-04-01

153

Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

Lankford, Jr., James (San Antonio, TX)

1988-01-01

154

High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.

2014-02-01

155

Reproducible step-edge junction SQUIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-Tc superconducting YBCO SQUIDs have been developed based on step-edge junctions. The step-edges were fabricated by using electron-beam lithography and Ar-ion milling on SrTiO3 substrates. The V(?) peak-to-peak voltage is around 10 ?V, and the IcRn product is 150 ?V at 77 K. The SQUIDs prepared on the same substrate show reproducible parameters within 30%. At 77 K the noise

Y. Q. Shen; Z. J. Sun; R. Kromann; T. Holst; P. Vase; T. Freltoft

1995-01-01

156

Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

2009-12-01

157

ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science  

PubMed Central

Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

2014-01-01

158

High-resolution absorption and emission spectroscopy of high Z laser-produced plasmas (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to 7 kJ of 0.53 ?m laser light was used to irradiate solid and thin foil high Z disk targets. The 1 ns flat-topped laser pulses were focused to an intensity greater than 1016 W/cm2. The spectra were recorded on a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph. We have extended the range of ions observed to emit lines in the O-like, F-like, Na-like, and Cu-like isoelectronic sequences. In addition, layered targets and atomic mixtures have been used to study opacity effects and VUV line emission. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

Kania, D. R.; Hammel, B. A.; MacGowan, B. J.; Keane, C. J.; Seely, J. F.; Feldman, U.; Brown, C. M.; Reader, J.

1990-10-01

159

Method to Produce Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection System Resistant to High Aeroacoustic Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of producing a three dimensional angle interlock ceramic fiber which is stable to high aeroacoustic noise of about 170 decibels and to high temperatures of about 2500 F is disclosed. The method uses multiple separate strands of a ceramic fiber or ceramic tow suitable for weaving having multiple warp fibers and multiple fill fibers woven with a modified fly-shuttle loom or rapier shuttleless loom which has nip rolls, a modified fabric advancement mechanism and at least eight harnesses in connection with a Dobby pattern chain utilizing sufficient heddles for each warp fiber and a reed which accommodates at least 168 ends per inch. The method produces a multilayered top fabric, rib fabric and single-layered bottom fabric.

Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Calamito, Dominic P. (Inventor); Jong, Anthony (Inventor)

1997-01-01

160

Reproducibility of Functional Connectivity and Graph Measures Based on the Phase Lag Index (PLI) and Weighted Phase Lag Index (wPLI) Derived from High Resolution EEG  

PubMed Central

Functional connectivity (FC) and graph measures provide powerful means to analyze complex networks. The current study determines the inter-subject-variability using the coefficient of variation (CoV) and long-term test-retest-reliability (TRT) using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) in 44 healthy subjects with 35 having a follow-up at years 1 and 2. FC was estimated from 256-channel-EEG by the phase-lag-index (PLI) and weighted PLI (wPLI) during an eyes-closed resting state condition. PLI quantifies the asymmetry of the distribution of instantaneous phase differences of two time-series and signifies, whether a consistent non-zero phase lag exists. WPLI extends the PLI by additionally accounting for the magnitude of the phase difference. Signal-space global and regional PLI/wPLI and weighted first-order graph measures, i.e. normalized clustering coefficient (gamma), normalized average path length (lambda), and the small-world-index (SWI) were calculated for theta-, alpha1-, alpha2- and beta-frequency bands. Inter-subject variability of global PLI was low to moderate over frequency bands (0.12high-resolution EEG has apparently good reliability, which is one important requirement for longitudinal studies exploring the effects of chronic brain diseases over several years. PMID:25286380

Hardmeier, Martin; Hatz, Florian; Bousleiman, Habib; Schindler, Christian; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Fuhr, Peter

2014-01-01

161

Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 °C for 2 h and an ageing

P.. Cavaliere; P. P. De Marco

2007-01-01

162

High tensile modulus of carbon nanotube nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experimental measurement of the high tensile modulus of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles and SWNT nano-fibers produced by dielectrophoresis. The average tensile modulus of the SWNT nano-fibers is 265GPa, much higher than the carbon nanotube fibers spun by other techniques. The tensile modulus increases as the diameter of the fiber decreases due to changes in the dieletrophoretic

Han Zhang; Jie Tang; Pinwen Zhu; Jun Ma; Lu-Chang Qin

2009-01-01

163

Transmission electron microscope investigations on Cu-Ag alloys produced by high-pressure torsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu-Ag alloys in three different compositions (Cu - 25/50/75wt% Ag) were produced by powder consolidation followed by high-pressure torsion. Deformation was performed till a saturation regime was reached. The generated microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and vary from ultra-fine grained to nanocrystalline to even partially amorphous structures. Vickers hardness measurements show a strong increase in hardness compared with the pure metals, annealing at 130°C leads to an additional increase in hardness.

Kormout, K. S.; Yang, B.; Pippan, R.

2014-08-01

164

Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers  

DOEpatents

Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

1984-05-08

165

Polydiacetylene-Based High-Throughput Screen for Surfactin Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Although traditional mutation is still an attractive approach for strain improvement, it is tedious, time-consuming, and inefficient to screen for surfactin producing strains. To overcome this, we developed a high-throughput screening method for surfactin producing mutants by applying polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles as sensors with visible chromatic change from blue to red, detected as colorimetric response (CR%) signal, which can even semi-quantify the yields of surfactin. Bacillus subtilis 723 was used as parent strain and multiply mutated with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Mutants were cultured in MicroFlask by Duetz (24 square deepwell plates, Applikon Biotechnology) and surfactin titers were tested in 96-well plates with PDA vesicles. Mutants with surfactin titers above150 mg/L (CR% value above 26%) were selected as high-yield strains and further quantified by HPLC. By integrating MicroFlask cultivation and the PDA vesicles detection, we screened 27,000 mutants and found 37 high-yield strains. From these, one mutant produced 473.6 mg/L surfactin (including 353.1 mg/L C15 surfactin), which was 5.4-fold than that of the parent strain. This method is efficient, cost-effective and provides wider application in screening for various surfactants. PMID:24498439

Zhu, Lingyan; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

2014-01-01

166

Polydiacetylene-based high-throughput screen for surfactin producing strains of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Although traditional mutation is still an attractive approach for strain improvement, it is tedious, time-consuming, and inefficient to screen for surfactin producing strains. To overcome this, we developed a high-throughput screening method for surfactin producing mutants by applying polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles as sensors with visible chromatic change from blue to red, detected as colorimetric response (CR%) signal, which can even semi-quantify the yields of surfactin. Bacillus subtilis 723 was used as parent strain and multiply mutated with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Mutants were cultured in MicroFlask by Duetz (24 square deepwell plates, Applikon Biotechnology) and surfactin titers were tested in 96-well plates with PDA vesicles. Mutants with surfactin titers above150 mg/L (CR% value above 26%) were selected as high-yield strains and further quantified by HPLC. By integrating MicroFlask cultivation and the PDA vesicles detection, we screened 27,000 mutants and found 37 high-yield strains. From these, one mutant produced 473.6 mg/L surfactin (including 353.1 mg/L C15 surfactin), which was 5.4-fold than that of the parent strain. This method is efficient, cost-effective and provides wider application in screening for various surfactants. PMID:24498439

Zhu, Lingyan; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

2014-01-01

167

Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers  

DOEpatents

Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1984-01-01

168

Selection of a strain of Clostridium argentinense producing high titers of type G botulinal toxin.  

PubMed

The strain G89HT of Clostridium argentinense obtained by culture selection of the prototype G89 strain producing high titers of type G botulinal toxin was studied. Its cultural, biochemical and toxigenic characteristics and the presence of plasmids were tested. Both strains showed similar physiological features and carried a 83 MDa plasmid. A 170 MDa plasmid was also recognized in the G89HT strain. Notably, this strain was better sporulating and showed a higher toxigenicity than the prototype G89 C. argentinense strain. These two characteristics might permit a long term storage and perhaps yield high antitoxin titres. PMID:9361387

Puig de Centorbi, O; Quiroz, H M; Bogni, C; Calzolari, A; Centorbi, H J

1997-10-01

169

Structure of a novel highly branched alpha-glucan enzymatically produced from maltodextrin.  

PubMed

The bacterial strain PP710, isolated from soil and identified as Paenibacillus species, produced a low-digestibility alpha-glucan containing a large amylase-resistant portion. This alpha-glucan was obtained in high yields from maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 3) by using the condensed culture supernatant of the strain as the enzyme preparation. The water-soluble dietary fiber content of the low-digestibility alpha-glucan was 80.2%, and showed resistance to a rat intestinal enzyme preparation. The alpha-glucan was found to be a novel highly branched alpha-glucan by acid hydrolysis, NMR analysis, gel permeation chromatography, methylation analysis, and enzymatic digestion. PMID:19740459

Tsusaki, Keiji; Watanabe, Hikaru; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Takuo; Kubota, Michio; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

2009-11-01

170

Reproducing kernel element method. Part IV: Globally compatible Cn  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method. Part IV: Globally compatible Cn ðn P 1� triangular hierarchy Cn ðX� triangular element hierarchy is constructed in the framework of reproducing kernel element conforming element can be made arbitrarily high ðn P 1�. The triangle interpolation field can interpolate

Li, Shaofan

171

Modeling High-Energy Backlighters Produced by Intense Laser-Matter Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of reasonably monoenergetic, high frequency backlighters for radiographic use in high energy density physics experiments has been understood for a long time. A reasonable approach to generating these xrays is to use a high-intensity laser incident on suitable (typically mid-z) elements The deposition produces hot (non-thermal) electrons and ions, which ionize and excite inner shell electrons in a highly non-LTE environment Resulting xray generation often occurs in only a few bound-bound transitions. Because the hot electrons have substantial range, the lines can be optically thick. In this presentation, I use the radhydro code Lasnex to deposit both a prepulse and a main pulse of order 10^18 to 10^19 watts/cm^2 onto Ag and Sn substrates. The physical situation is then postprocessed using Plaspp, with an embedded DCA package to produce spectra. A unique feature of these simulations are the multiphoton inverse-bremstrallung and photoionization physics for deposition near the critical surface, as well as non-thermal collisional physics for the non-LTE spectra.

Pollak, Gregory

2007-11-01

172

Modeling High-Energy Backlighters Produced by Intense Laser-Matter Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of reasonably monoenergetic, high frequency backlighters for radiographic use in high energy density physics experiments has been understood for a long time. A reasonable approach to generating these xrays is to use a high-intensity laser incident on suitable (typically mid-z) elements. The deposition produces hot (non-thermal) electrons and ions, which ionize and excite inner shell electrons in a highly non-LTE environment. Resulting xray generation often occurs in only a few bound-bound transitions. Because the hot electrons have substantial range, the lines can be optically thick. In this presentation, I use the radhydro code Lasnex to deposit both a prepulse and a main pulse of order 10^18---10^19 watts/cm^2 onto Ag and Sn substrates. The physical situation is then postprocessed using Plaspp, with an embedded DCA package to produce spectra. A unique feature of these simulations are the multiphoton inverse- bremstrallung and photoionization physics for deposition near the critical surface, as well as non-thermal collisional physics for the non-LTE spectra.

Pollak, Gregory

2006-10-01

173

Estimating high mosquito-producing rice fields using spectral and spatial data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cultivation of irrigated rice provides ideal larval habitat for a number of anopheline vectors of malaria throughout the world. Anopheles freeborni, a potential vector of human malaria, is associated with the nearly 240,000 hectares of irrigated rice grown annually in Northern and Central California; therefore, this species can serve as a model for the study of rice field anopheline population dynamics. Analysis of field data revealed that rice fields with early season canopy development, that are located near bloodmeal sources (i.e., pastures with livestock) were more likely to produce anopheline larvae than fields with less developed canopies located further from pastures. Remote sensing reflectance measurements of early-season canopy development and geographic information system (GIS) measurements of distanes between rice fields and pastures with livestock were combined to distinguish between high and low mosquito-producing rice fields. Using spectral and distance measures in either a discriminant or Bayesian analysis, the identification of high mosquito-producing fields was made with 85 percent accuracy nearly two months before anopheline larval populations peaked. Since omission errors were also minimized by these approaches, they could provide a new basis for directing abatement techniques for the control of malaria vectors.

Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Washino, R. K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Salute, J. S.

1992-01-01

174

Comparative proteomics analysis of high n-butanol producing metabolically engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum.  

PubMed

The acidogenic Clostridium tyrobutyricum has recently been metabolically engineered to produce n-butanol. The objective of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding as to how butanol production was regulated in C. tyrobutyricum to guide the engineering of next-generation strains. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis, covering 78.1% of open reading frames and 95% of core enzymes, using wild type, ACKKO mutant (?ack) producing 37.30g/L of butyrate and ACKKO-adhE2 mutant (?ack-adhE2) producing 16.68g/L of butanol. In ACKKO-adhE2, the expression of most glycolytic enzymes was decreased, the thiolase (thl), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ato), 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (hbd) and crotonase (crt) that convert acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA were increased, and the heterologous bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) catalyzing butanol formation was highly expressed. The apparent imbalance of energy and redox was observed due to the downregulation of acids production and the addition of butanol synthesis pathway, which also resulted in increased expression of chaperone proteins and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA) and the silence of sporulation transcription factor Spo0A (spo0A) as the cellular responses to butanol production. This study revealed the mechanism of carbon redistribution, and limiting factors and rational metabolic cell and process engineering strategies to achieve high butanol production in C. tyrobutyricum. PMID:25449011

Ma, Chao; Kojima, Kyoko; Xu, Ningning; Mobley, James; Zhou, Lufang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

2015-01-10

175

High-Throughput Sorting of the Highest Producing Cell via a Transiently Protein-Anchored System  

PubMed Central

Developing a high-throughput method for the effecient selection of the highest producing cell is very important for the production of recombinant protein drugs. Here, we developed a novel transiently protein-anchored system coupled with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the efficient selection of the highest producing cell. A furin cleavage peptide (RAKR) was used to join a human anti-epithelial growth factor antibody (?EGFR Ab) and the extracellular-transmembrane-cytosolic domains of the mouse B7-1 antigen (B7). The furin inhibitor can transiently switch secreted ?EGFR Ab into a membrane-anchored form. After cell sorting, the level of membrane ?EGFR Ab-RAKR-B7 is proportional to the amount of secreted ?EGFR Ab in the medium. We further selected 23 ?EGFR Ab expressing cells and demonstrated a high correlation (R2?=?0.9165) between the secretion level and surface expression levels of ?EGFR Ab. These results suggested that the novel transiently protein-anchored system can easily and efficiently select the highest producing cells, reducing the cost for the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25036759

Chiang, I-Shiuan; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Kao, Chien-Han; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, Bing-Mae; Roffler, Steve R.; Huang, Ming-Yii; Cheng, Tian-Lu

2014-01-01

176

High stocking density produces crowding stress altering some physiological and biochemical parameters in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata , juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High stocking density has been shown to produce a wide variety of effects on cultured fish populations, such as alterations in behavior and poor feed utilization, resulting in mortality and poor growth. High stocking density has also been reported to produce chronic stress and mobilization of energy sources in fish. There are few studies focusing on the effect of high

D. Montero; M. S. Izquierdo; L. Tort; L. Robaina; J. M. Vergara

1999-01-01

177

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-24, NO. 2, MARCH 1977 Parylene as a Chronically Stable, Reproducible  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. BME-24, NO. 2, MARCH 1977 I * - Parylene as a Chronically Stable, Reproducible Microelectrode Insulator Abrtmct-One of the mjol problems in the design produces a high metal/electrolyte interface im- pedance(typically 1-10MS2at 1k

Loeb, Gerald E.

178

High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays  

SciTech Connect

Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

2007-04-17

179

High prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage in Dutch community patients with gastrointestinal complaints.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in the community in the Netherlands and to gain understanding of the epidemiology of these resistant strains. Faecal samples from 720 consecutive patients presenting to their general practitioner, obtained in May 2010, and between December 2010 and January 2011, were analysed for presence of ESBL-E. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed according to the Dutch national guidelines. PCR, sequencing and microarray were used to characterize the genes encoding for ESBL. Strain typing was performed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seventy-three of 720 (10.1%) samples yielded ESBL-producing organisms, predominantly E. coli. No carbapenemases were detected. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (34/73, 47%). Co-resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was found in (9/73) 12% of the ESBL-E strains. AFLP did not show any clusters, and MLST revealed that CTX-M-15-producing E. coli belonged to various clonal complexes. Clonal complex ST10 was predominant. This study showed a high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Dutch primary care patients with presumed gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, also in the Netherlands, a country with a low rate of consumption of antibiotics in humans, resistance due to the expansion of CTX-M ESBLs, in particular CTX-M-15, is emerging. The majority of ESBL-producing strains do not appear to be related to the international clonal complex ST131. PMID:22757622

Reuland, E A; Overdevest, I T M A; Al Naiemi, N; Kalpoe, J S; Rijnsburger, M C; Raadsen, S A; Ligtenberg-Burgman, I; van der Zwaluw, K W; Heck, M; Savelkoul, P H M; Kluytmans, J A J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

2013-06-01

180

Clonal diversity in populations of Daphnia pulex reproducing by obligate parthenogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme studies of Daphnia pulex populations in southern Ontario revealed marked Hardy–Weinberg deviations, complete gametic phase imbalance, and high heterozygosity values. These genotypic characteristics reflect the loss of sexual reproduction; individuals reproduce by obligate parthenogenesis. Thirty-nine clones were identified in the twenty-one habitats surveyed; a few of these clones retained the ability to produce male offspring. Several clones were present

Paul D N Hebert; Teri Crease

1983-01-01

181

An International Ki67 Reproducibility Study  

PubMed Central

Background In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67’s value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study. Methods Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays—one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided. Results Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation. Conclusions Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world’s most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without standardizing scoring methodology because analytical validity is limited. PMID:24203987

2013-01-01

182

High-resolution music with inaudible high-frequency components produces a lagged effect on human electroencephalographic activities.  

PubMed

High-quality digital sound sources with inaudible high-frequency components (above 20 kHz) have become available because of recent advances in information technology. Listening to such sounds has been shown to increase the ?-band power of an electroencephalogram (EEG). The present study scrutinized the time course of this effect by recording EEG along with autonomic measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) and facial electromyograms (corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major). Twenty university students (19-24 years old) listened to two types of a 200-s musical excerpt (J. S. Bach's French Suite No. 5) with or without inaudible high-frequency components using a double-blind method. They were asked to rate the sound quality and to judge which excerpt contained high-frequency components. High-? EEG power (10.5-13 Hz) was larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. This effect was statistically significant only in the last quarter of the period (150-200 s). Participants were not able to distinguish between the excerpts, which did not produce any discernible differences in subjective, autonomic, and facial muscle measures. This study shows that inaudible high-frequency components have an impact on human brain activity without conscious awareness. Unlike a standard test for sound quality, at least 150 s of exposure is required to examine this effect in future research. PMID:24722228

Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Nittono, Hiroshi

2014-06-18

183

Robust Reproducible Resting State Networks in the Awake Rodent Brain  

PubMed Central

Resting state networks (RSNs) have been studied extensively with functional MRI in humans in health and disease to reflect brain function in the un-stimulated state as well as reveal how the brain is altered with disease. Rodent models of disease have been used comprehensively to understand the biology of the disease as well as in the development of new therapies. RSN reported studies in rodents, however, are few, and most studies are performed with anesthetized rodents that might alter networks and differ from their non-anesthetized state. Acquiring RSN data in the awake rodent avoids the issues of anesthesia effects on brain function. Using high field fMRI we determined RSNs in awake rats using an independent component analysis (ICA) approach, however, ICA analysis can produce a large number of components, some with biological relevance (networks). We further have applied a novel method to determine networks that are robust and reproducible among all the components found with ICA. This analysis indicates that 7 networks are robust and reproducible in the rat and their putative role is discussed. PMID:22028788

Becerra, Lino; Pendse, Gautam; Chang, Pei-Ching; Bishop, James; Borsook, David

2011-01-01

184

Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.  

PubMed

We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar ? phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar ? phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 ?A peak short-circuit current output. PMID:25133594

Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

2014-09-23

185

HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges  

SciTech Connect

The presence of ionization associated with high-altitude discharges has been detected using an HF radar operating at 2.2, 2.5, and 2.8 MHz. On several occasions, oblique echoes lasting several hundred ms at night and 1{r_arrow}10s during the day were observed. The echoes turned on in several interpulse times of 70 ms and were generally correlated with strong lightning activity prior to onset. The angles of arrival of sferics detected at three goniometer stations were used to determine the distance to thunderstorms. The data are consistent with specular reflections from columns of ionization produced at 55{endash}65 km altitude and having minimum electron densities of 6{times}10{sup 4}{endash}10{sup 5}cm{sup {minus}3}. The source of the ionization is believed to be high-altitude discharges.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

Roussel-Dupre, R.A. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Blanc, E. [Laboratoire de Detection et de Geophysique, Commissariat a LEnergie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [Laboratoire de Detection et de Geophysique, Commissariat a LEnergie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

1997-03-01

186

Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ?734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424). Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below 5 years, 15 were lysogenized by the ?734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ?734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ?734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced) produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60%) was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak.

Iversen, Hildegunn; L' Abée-Lund, Trine M.; Aspholm, Marina; Arnesen, Lotte P. S.; Lindbäck, Toril

2015-01-01

187

High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens  

PubMed Central

Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

2013-01-01

188

Utilisation of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.  

PubMed

This work aims to utilise wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content while Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimise the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40 °C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp.. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared to the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing. PMID:25189407

Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

2014-09-01

189

A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

Fertility in dairy cows has declined over the past five decades as milk production per cow has increased. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this including issues of genetics, physiology, nutrition and management, and these factors have been investigated at the animal, organ and cellular level at critical time points of the productive life of dairy cows. This paper reviews the physiological events and their causes and consequences affecting fertility in dairy cows and summarises these in a downloadable poster. We consider the following points to have the greatest negative impact on fertility and that they need to be prioritised in efforts to ameliorate the problem (others have been included in the review). Firstly, minimise negative energy balance and resolve any infection of the post partum uterus. Secondly, expression and detection of oestrus followed by insemination with high quality semen (day 0). Thirdly, ovulation and fertilisation of a high quality oocyte (day 1). Fourthly, an early increase in progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum (days 3-7). Fifthly, the uterine endometrium must produce an early and appropriate environment to stimulate embryo development (days 6-13). This leads to sixthly, a large embryo producing adequate quantities of interferon tau (days 14-18) that alters uterine prostaglandin secretion and signals maternal recognition of pregnancy (days 16-18). Future strategies to improve dairy cow fertility are needed for the benefit of the dairy industry and for cow welfare and should be based upon an integrative approach of these events. PMID:21255947

Walsh, S W; Williams, E J; Evans, A C O

2011-02-01

190

Improvement of compactin (ML-236B) production by genetic engineering in compactin high-producing Penicillium citrinum.  

PubMed

An increase in compactin (ML-236B) production was achieved by introducing a whole compactin biosynthetic gene cluster or the regulatory gene mlcR into compactin high-producing Penicillium citrinum. In the previous report, we introduced mlcR encoding the positive regulator of compactin biosynthetic genes into compactin high-producing strain no. 41520, and most of the transformants produced higher amounts of compactin. Here, we characterize one of the resulting high producers (strain TIR-35, which produced 50% more compactin) and reveal that TIR-35 contained five copies of mlcR and that early, enhanced expression of mlcR caused compactin overproduction. Similarly, the introduction of mlcR into strain T48.19, which was created previously from strain no. 41520 by introducing a partial compactin biosynthetic gene cluster, enhanced compactin production further. Our results indicated that genetic engineering is an effective tool to improve compactin production, even in compactin high producers. PMID:19277641

Baba, S; Abe, Y; Suzuki, T; Ono, C; Iwamoto, K; Nihira, T; Hosobuchi, M

2009-06-01

191

Quantizations from reproducing kernel spaces  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to explore the existence and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert subspaces of L{sup 2}(C,d{sup 2}z/?) based on subsets of complex Hermite polynomials. The resulting coherent states (CS) form a family depending on a nonnegative parameter s. We examine some interesting issues, mainly related to CS quantization, like the existence of the usual harmonic oscillator spectrum despite the absence of canonical commutation rules. The question of mathematical and physical equivalences between the s-dependent quantizations is also considered. -- Highlights: ? We discuss in detail an interesting decomposition of L{sup 2}, in terms of ladder operators. ? We consider coherent states on this structure and we use them for quantization. ? We show how this structure is related with non hermitian quantum mechanics. ? We consider the relation between different schemes of quantizations.

Twareque Ali, S., E-mail: stali@mathstat.concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dieetcam, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Pierre Gazeau, Jean, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Laboratoire APC, Université Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2013-05-15

192

An experimental model of reproducible liver trauma.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to create an experimental model of reproducible and controllable liver trauma in pigs. The few reported experimental models of liver trauma use the "clamp and crush" mechanism of injury and do not cause reproducible liver injury. In the present study, force was applied through the thoracic wall to mimic a chest injury. Nine pigs were used as experimental animals. In anaesthetised animals, blunt liver trauma was caused with a crossbow using an arrow with a spherical aluminium head as a projectile. Liver injuries of stages II to III according to liver injury scale were inflicted on all the animals. The stage of liver trauma was proportional to the pressure impulse (ratio between the product of the arrow's mass (m) and the velocity (v) and the contact surface area of the arrow (S)). The presented model of controllable liver injury will enable the study of various aspects of liver trauma since the experiment can be designed in such a way to produce a spectrum of liver injuries. PMID:15993882

Wahl, Milos; Gadzijev, Eldar M; Wahl, Jana; Ravnik, Dean; Pecar, Jani; Pleskovic, Alojz

2005-08-01

193

Nonequiatomic NiTi Alloy Produced by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape memory alloy NiTi in porous form is of high interest as implantable material, as low apparent elastic modulus, comparable to that of bone, can be achieved. This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Porous NiTi can be produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from mixed powders of pure Ni and Ti. Process parameters, among which powder compaction degree and preheating temperature, strongly influence the reaction temperature and the resulting product: at low reaction temperatures, high quantity of secondary phases are formed, which are generally considered detrimental for biocompatibility. On the contrary, at higher reaction temperatures, the powders melt and crystallize in ingots. The porous structure is lost and huge pores are formed. Mechanical activation of powders through ball milling and addition of TiH x are investigated as means to reduce reaction temperature and overheating, in order to preserve high porosity and limit secondary phases content. Both processes affect SHS reaction, and require adjustment of parameters such as heating rate. Changes in porous shape and size were observed especially for TiH x additions: the latter could be a promising route to obtain shaped porous products of improved quality.

Bassani, P.; Bassani, E.; Tuissi, A.; Giuliani, P.; Zanotti, C.

2014-07-01

194

Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions  

SciTech Connect

Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator`s localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a {open_quotes}Coulomb explosion{close_quotes} forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions.

Stockli, M.P. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1994-12-31

195

High performance carbon fibers from mesophases produced by supercritical fluid extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for the production of an improved precursor for the manufacture of high thermal conductivity carbon fibers. Mesophase pitch fractions were produced by the continuous fractionation of an isotropic petroleum-based pitch with supercritical toluene in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium. A statistical experimental design was used to investigate a region of extraction operating conditions from which the fractions were expected to exhibit superior spinnability. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed on the fractions, and the results were used to explore the effect of the extraction conditions on the mesophase properties. DRIFT data were shown to be particularly useful for characterizing the chemical composition of the mesophase fractions produced, and GPC was successfully used to determine their molecular weight distribution. Two thermodynamic models based on the SAFT equation together with (1) the concepts of continuous thermodynamics (2) molecular weight information on the oligomeric nature of the feed pitch were used to correlate the measured results. By using three adjustable parameters, solvent compositions and molecular weight distributions in each phase were calculated. Although the oligomeric model is able to qualitatively represent trends observed in the data, it cannot as yet be used to quantitatively predict phase compositions. Based on the characterizations of the supercritically extracted mesophases produced, selected fractions were melt-spun into round- and ribbon-shaped fibers using a laboratory-scale melt-spinning apparatus. It was found that a relatively narrow window of mesophase properties and compositions allowed fiber making without off-gassing. For a given spinnable mesophase, wide angle X-ray diffraction was used on as-spun fibers produced over a wide range of spinning temperatures to evaluate their potential to yield, after proper heat treatment, carbon fibers exhibiting superior transport properties. True statistical differences in the as-spun orientation (Z value) of two fiber sets spun from the same mesophase yielded, upon identical heat treatment, true differences in tensile moduli, electrical resistivity, and crystallographic parameters. Even though the heat treatment of the as-spun fibers was not optimized, final fibers with properties equal to those exhibited by Amoco's P-120 fibers were produced.

Dauche, Franck Michel

196

Photon dose produced by a high-intensity laser on a solid target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a high-intensity laser pulse hits a solid target, its pedestal creates a preplasma. The interaction of the main laser pulse, linearly polarized, with this preplasma produces relativistic electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the target, with high atomic number, and produce bremsstrahlung emission, which constitutes an x-ray source that may be used in various applications such as radiography of high area density objects, photonuclear studies or positron production. This x-ray source is mainly defined by its photon dose, which depends upon the laser, preplasma and target characteristics. In new facilities the radioprotection layout design can be obtained by numerical simulations, which are somewhat tedious. A simple model giving the photon dose per laser energy unit is obtained by using the mean bremsstrahlung cross section of electrons interacting with the atoms of the conversion target. It is expressed versus the fraction ?el of the laser energy absorbed into the forward hot electrons, their mean kinetic energy E, the photon lobe emission mean angular aperture \\bar{{\\theta}} and the target characteristics, i.e. thickness, element, atomic mass and atomic number. The parameters ?el, E and \\bar{{\\theta}} are analysed by applying the energy and momentum flux conservation laws during the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic regime in an underdense and overdense plasma, including the hole-boring effect. In addition, these quantities are parametrized versus the normalized laser vector potential a0 and the preplasma scale length Lp by using a full set of numerical simulations, in the laser intensity domain 1018-1021 W cm-2 and preplasma scale length range 0.03-400µm. These simulations are done in two- and three-dimensional geometry with the CALDER particle-in-cell code, which computes the laser-plasma interaction, and with the MCNP Monte Carlo code, which calculates the bremsstrahlung emission. The present model is compared with the simulations and with experimental results.

Compant La Fontaine, A.

2014-08-01

197

Reproducing the kinematics of damped Lyman ? systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the kinematic structure of damped Lyman ? systems (DLAs) in a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using the AREPO code. We are able to match the distribution of velocity widths of associated low-ionization metal absorbers substantially better than earlier work. Our simulations produce a population of DLAs dominated by haloes with virial velocities around 70 km s-1, consistent with a picture of relatively small, faint objects. In addition, we reproduce the observed correlation between velocity width and metallicity and the equivalent width distribution of Si II. Some discrepancies of moderate statistical significance remain; too many of our spectra show absorption concentrated at the edge of the profile and there are slight differences in the exact shape of the velocity width distribution. We show that the improvement over previous work is mostly due to our strong feedback from star formation and our detailed modelling of the metal ionization state.

Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin; Neeleman, Marcel; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

2015-02-01

198

Simultaneous suppression of TGF-? and ERK signaling contributes to the highly efficient and reproducible generation of mouse embryonic stem cells from previously considered refractory and non-permissive strains.  

PubMed

Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cell lines derived from pre-implantation embryos. The efficiency of mESC generation is affected by genetic variation in mice; that is, some mouse strains are refractory or non-permissive to ESC establishment. Developing an efficient method to derive mESCs from strains of various genetic backgrounds should be valuable for establishment of ESCs in various mammalian species. In the present study, we identified dual inhibition of TGF-? and ERK1/2, by SB431542 and PD0325901, respectively led to the highly efficient and reproducible generation of mESC lines from NMRI, C57BL/6, BALB/c, DBA/2, and FVB/N strains, which previously considered refractory or non-permissive for ESC establishment. These mESCs expressed pluripotency markers and retained the capacity to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. The evaluated lines exhibited high rates of chimerism when reintroduced into blastocysts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of efficient (100%) mESC lines generation from different genetic backgrounds. The application of these two inhibitors will not only solve the problems of mESC derivation but also clarifies new signaling pathways in pluripotent mESCs. PMID:21814763

Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Farrokhi, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein

2012-06-01

199

Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield  

PubMed Central

We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50°C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37°C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms. PMID:18779592

Shaw, A. Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K.; Desai, Sunil G.; Bardsley, John S.; Rogers, Stephen R.; Thorne, Philip G.; Hogsett, David A.; Lynd, Lee R.

2008-01-01

200

Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

1992-04-01

201

Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

Westover, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Beg, F. N., E-mail: fbeg@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2014-03-15

202

Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on the Titan laser (˜150 J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 1020 W cm-2) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2 MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5 MeV and 4 MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

Westover, B.; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

2014-03-01

203

Application of Reverse Genetics for Producing Attenuated Vaccine Strains against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In this study, reverse genetics was applied to produce vaccine candidate strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N1 subtype. The H5 subtype vaccine strains were generated by a reverse genetics method in a biosafety level 2 facility. The strain contained the HA gene from the H5N1 subtype HPAIV attenuated by genetic modification at the cleavage site, the NA gene derived from the H5N1 subtype HPAI or the H5N3 subtype of avian influenza virus and internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Vaccination with an inactivated recombinant virus with oil-emulsion completely protected chickens from a homologous viral challenge with a 640 HAU or 3,200 HAU/vaccination dose. Vaccination with a higher dose of antigen, 3,200 HAU, was effective at increasing survival and efficiently reduced viral shedding even when challenged by a virus of a different HA clade. The feasibility of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was demonstrated against a challenge with H5N1 HPAIVs when the recombinant H5N3 subtype viruses were used as the antigens of the vaccine. Our study demonstrated that the use of reverse genetics would be an option to promptly produce an inactivated vaccine with better matching of antigenicity to a circulating strain. PMID:24805906

UCHIDA, Yuko; TAKEMAE, Nobuhiro; SAITO, Takehiko

2014-01-01

204

High Producing Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene Alleles in Protection against Severe Manifestations of Dengue  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV) infection usually presents with mild self-limiting dengue fever (DF). Few however, would present with the more severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In the present study, the association between IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? gene polymorphisms and dengue severity was investigated. Methods: A case-control study was performed on a total of 120 unrelated controls, 86 DF patients and 196 DHF/DSS patients. The polymorphisms in IL-12B, IL-10 and TNF-? genes were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Results: A protective association of TNF-? -308A allele and -308GA genotype against DHF/DSS was observed, while TNF-? -238A allele and -238GA genotype were associated with DHF/DSS. A combination of TNF-? -308GA+AA genotype and IL-10 non-GCC haplotypes, IL-12B pro homozygotes (pro1/pro1, pro2/pro2) and IL-12B 3'UTR AC were significantly correlated with protective effects against DHF/DSS. An association between the cytokine gene polymorphisms and protection against the clinical features of severe dengue including thrombocytopenia and increased liver enzymes was observed in this study. Conclusion: The overall findings of the study support the correlation of high-producer TNF-? genotypes combined with low-producer IL-10 haplotypes and IL-12B genotypes in reduced risk of DHF/DSS. PMID:25589894

Sam, Sing-Sin; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Chinna, Karuthan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

2015-01-01

205

Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.  

PubMed

In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

2011-11-01

206

3-D simulations of magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas, in a regime characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations, with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments, identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), and strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1]. We present results from extending the previous simulations to 3-d, and discuss 3-d effects in the experiments, including instabilities in the reconnection layer, the topological skeleton of null-null lines, and field-generation from the Biermann battery effect. [4pt] [1] W. Fox, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).

Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

2012-10-01

207

Observation of Neutron Bursts Produced by Laboratory High-Voltage Atmospheric Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time the emission of neutron bursts in the process of high-voltage discharge in air was observed. Experiments were carried out at an average electric field strength of ˜1MV·m-1 and discharge current of ˜10kA. Two independent methods (CR-39 track detectors and plastic scintillation detectors) registered neutrons within the range from thermal energies up to energies above 10 MeV and with an average flux density of ?106cm-2 per shot inside the discharge zone. Neutron generation occurs at the initial phase of the discharge and correlates with x-ray generation. The data obtained allow us to assume that during the discharge fast neutrons are mainly produced.

Agafonov, A. V.; Bagulya, A. V.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Negodaev, M. A.; Oginov, A. V.; Rusetskiy, A. S.; Ryabov, V. A.; Shpakov, K. V.

2013-09-01

208

Testing Different Materials to Produce Gas Gaps in High Rate RPCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory uses polarized proton-proton collisions to study the spin of the proton. This study is made by reconstructing muons produced in the proton collisions. As RHIC moves to higher energies, the existing trigger is not sufficient to select the events of interest such as single high pT muons that are a result of W-Boson production. To aid the current muon triggering system, fast Resistive Plate Chambers made from Italian Bakelite are being added to the detector system. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, a test stand has been built to help understand different factors that affect the RPCs performance and rate capabilities. The test stand uses open gas gap RPCs which are ideal for testing different materials and their rate capabilities of these different materials. Various materials and their data will be presented.

Wright, Ryan

2008-10-01

209

Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions  

DOEpatents

A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.

Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

1988-01-01

210

Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium  

DOEpatents

A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)

1999-01-01

211

Monitoring of overmodulation effect in high efficient transmission gratings produced in photopolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our laboratory, we deal with characterization of diffraction gratings produced in photopolymers. In such recording systems, the diffraction of light is induced via spatial modulation of refractive index and the diffraction efficiency of transmission gratings can reach values close to 100% due to relatively high values of this modulation. Depending on the exposure condition, the refractive index modulation can reach higher value than its optimum and the efficiency drops. This is an unwanted effect. It is called an overmodulation and it is relatively complicated to find out whether under- or over- modulation occurs. To measure and evaluate this overmodulation effect in transmission gratings we propose a simple method based on multiple/two-wavelength measurement of diffraction efficiency. In this contribution, we would like to present the theoretical idea of the method and also experimental results obtained on photopolymer Bayfol HX.

Vojtíšek, Petr; Kv?to?, Milan

2015-01-01

212

Fatigue behaviour of friction stir processed AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting  

SciTech Connect

The room temperature fatigue properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC) as cast, heat treated, friction stir processed (FSP) and FSP and heat treated were studied. The fatigue properties of the material were evaluated for the HPDC magnesium alloy in the as-received state and after a solution treatment at 415 deg. C for 2 h and an ageing treatment at 220 deg. C for 4 h. The heat treatment resulted in a significant increase in the fatigue properties of the HPDC material, while no significance influence of heat treatment was recorded in the FSP condition. The morphology of fracture surfaces was examined by employing a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM)

Cavaliere, P. [INFM-Dept. of 'Ingegneria dell'Innovazione', Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, 73100, Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; De Marco, P.P. [INFM-Dept. of 'Ingegneria dell'Innovazione', Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, 73100, Lecce (Italy)

2007-03-15

213

7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

2011-01-01

214

7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

2013-01-01

215

7 CFR 800.166 - Reproducing certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Certificates § 800.166 Reproducing certificates. Official certificates may be photo copied or similarly reproduced. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0580-0011)...

2010-01-01

216

ReCrash: Making Crashes Reproducible  

E-print Network

It is difficult to fix a problem without being able to reproduce it.However, reproducing a problem is often difficult and time-consuming.This paper proposes a novel algorithm, ReCrash, that generatesmultiple unit tests ...

Kim, Sunghun

2007-11-20

217

Producing high pressure pseudotachylytes: implications for the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gabbro- and peridotite-hosted blueschist facies pseudotachylytes (PST) from Cima di Gratera, Corsica, previously determined to have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions (1.8 - 2.6 GPa, 1400 °C), have been causally linked to the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Detailed petrographic and microtextural analyses of these PST indicate that their initiation is controlled by a thermally activated shear runaway process that is controlled by rheology rather than mineralogy (as with dehydration embrittlement or transformational faulting), such that the rock behaves as a viscoelastic material. This is evidenced by sheared out, prolate, kinked and twinned wallrock clasts that have been peeled off and entrained into the PST vein as sigmoids. The presence of gouge and wallrock grains that have undergone crystal plastic behaviour that increases towards PST are suggestive of a high temperature shear localization mechanism. The presence of metastable high temperature crystallisation products from the PST such as hoppers and dendrites of olivine (Mg# 84), enstatite and diopside (peridotite), and Al-rich omphacite and Fe-rich anorthite (gabbro) support the hypothesis of a short-lived high temperature event resulting from thermal runaway. Overprinting of these high temperature mineral assemblages by ones indicating lower temperatures, but still high pressures, such as glaucophane, albite and epidote (gabbro) and clinochore, fine-grained granoblastic olivine, enstatite and diopside (peridotite) are further support of this. The detailed study of two different lithologies (peridotite and gabbro) that were exposed to similarly high PST-producing P-T conditions are used to corroborate the proposed runaway process. This work provides the first detailed observations from natural samples indicating that intermediate-depth seismicity may be generated by thermal runaway. Detailed microprobe analyses and BSE imaging of the PST vein matrix (comprising glass, the crystallisation products and entrained wallrock material) show that the PST melt ranges in water content from 0 - 14 wt%. This water is derived internally within the shear system due to the wholesale fusion of hydrous wallrock minerals (glaucophane, tremolite, clinochlore and serpentine) rather than dehydration. These observations, together with the microtextures, preclude local dehydration embrittlement, transformational faulting and purely ductile models such as self-localizing runaway (as proposed by Kelemen and Hirth, 2007 and John et al., 2009) as sources of intermediate-depth seismicity.

Deseta, Natalie; Ashwal, Lewis; Andersen, Torgeir

2013-04-01

218

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae.  

PubMed

It is well known that biological systems respond to chemical signals as well as physical stimuli. The workhorses of high throughput screening, microplates and pipetting robots, are well suited for screening chemical stimuli; however, there are fewer options for screening physical stimuli, particularly those which involve temporal patterns. This paper presents an optical microplate for photonic high-throughput screening. The system provides addressable intensity and temporal control of LED light emission in each well, and operates on standard black-wall clear-bottom 96-well microplates, which prevent light spillover. Light intensity can be controlled to 7-bit resolution (128 levels), with a maximum intensity of 120 mE cm(-2). The temporal resolution, useful for studying dynamics of light-driven bioprocesses, can be as low as 10 ?s. The microplate is used for high-throughput studies of light-dependent growth rates and photosynthetic efficiency in the model organism Dunaliella tertiolecta, a lipid-producing algae of interest in 2(nd) generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance studies, which would require 2 years using conventional tools, can be completed in <2 weeks. In a 12 day culture, algal growth rates increase with total photon flux, as expected. Interestingly, the lipid production efficiency, defined as lipid production per unit photon flux per capita, increases nearly 5 fold at low light intensity (constant light) and at low duty cycle (pulsed light). High throughput protocols enabled by this system are conducive to systematic studies and discovery in the fields of photobiology and photochemistry. PMID:22971571

Chen, Meng; Mertiri, Taulant; Holland, Thomas; Basu, Amar S

2012-10-21

219

Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.  

PubMed

This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 ?g Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 ?g Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se. PMID:21553810

Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

2011-06-01

220

Reproducibility of pain measurement and pain perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproducibility of both the conscious experience of pain and the reproducibility of psychophysical assessments of pain remain critical, yet poorly characterized factors in pain research and treatment. To assess the reproducibility of both the pain experience and two methods of pain assessment, 15 subjects evaluated experimental heat pain during four weekly sessions. In each session, both brief (5s) and

Elisa M. Rosier; Michael J. Iadarola; Robert C. Coghill

2002-01-01

221

Development of high-emittance scales on thoriated nickel-chromium-aluminum-base alloys. [produced by high temperature oxidation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface regions of a DSNiCrAl alloy have been doped, by a pack diffusion process, with small amounts of Mn, Fe, or Co, and the effect of these dopants on the total normal emissivity of the scales produced by subsequent high temperature oxidation has been measured. While all three elements lead to a modest increase in emissivity, (up to 23% greater than the undoped alloy) only the change caused by manganese is thermally stable. However, this increased emissivity is within 85 percent of that of TDNiCr oxidized to form a chromia scale. The maganese-doped alloy is some 50 percent weaker than undoped DSNiCrAl after the doping treatment, and approximately 30 percent weaker after oxidation.

Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, I. G.; Wilcox, B. A.

1973-01-01

222

Method and source for producing a high concentration of positively charged molecular hydrogen or deuterium ions  

DOEpatents

One principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel method and apparatus for generating a high concentration of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions by using a new and improved multicusp ion source. The basic principle in achieving a high percentage of H/sub 2//sup +/ or D/sub 2//sup +/ ions is to extract them from the source as soon as they are produced. Otherwise they will react with background gas molecules to form tri-atomic ions H/sub 3//sup +/ or D/sub 3//sup +/ or be dissociated by electrons. The former reaction H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 3//sup +/ + H can have a very short mean free path length lambda. Assuming a background neutral gas density of approximately 3.3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ and a cross-section sigma of approximately 6 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/, lambda = (n/sub 0/ sigma)/sup -1/ is estimated to be about 5 cm. Thus the distance traversed by the H/sub 2//sup +/ ion before it arrives at the extractor electrode cannot exceed this value. This in turn sets a limit on the length of the source chamber.

Ehlers, K.W.; Leung, K.N.

1983-07-26

223

Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

1990-01-01

224

Trigeminal high-frequency stimulation produces short- and long-term modification of reflex blink gain.  

PubMed

Reflex blinks provide a model system for investigating motor learning in normal and pathological states. We investigated whether high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the supraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve before the R2 blink component (HFS-B) decreases reflex blink gain in alert rats. As with humans (Mao JB, Evinger C. J Neurosci 21: RC151, 2001), HFS-B significantly reduced blink size in the first hour after treatment for rats. Repeated days of HFS-B treatment produced long-term depression of blink circuits. Blink gain decreased exponentially across days, indicating a long-term depression of blink circuits. Additionally, the HFS-B protocol became more effective at depressing blink amplitude across days of treatment. This depression was not habituation, because neither long- nor short-term blink changes occurred when HFS was presented after the R2. To investigate whether gain modifications produced by HFS-B involved cerebellar networks, we trained rats in a delay eyelid conditioning paradigm using HFS-B as the unconditioned stimulus and a tone as the conditioned stimulus. As HFS-B depresses blink circuits and delay conditioning enhances blink circuit activity, occlusion should occur if they share neural networks. Rats acquiring robust eyelid conditioning did not exhibit decreases in blink gain, whereas rats developing low levels of eyelid conditioning exhibited weak, short-term reductions in blink gain. These results suggested that delay eyelid conditioning and long-term HFS-B utilize some of the same cerebellar circuits. The ability of repeated HFS-B treatment to depress trigeminal blink circuit activity long term implied that it may be a useful protocol to reduce hyperexcitable blink circuits that underlie diseases like benign essential blepharospasm. PMID:24285868

Ryan, Michael; Kaminer, Jaime; Enmore, Patricia; Evinger, Craig

2014-02-01

225

High-Energy Neutrinos Produced by Interactions of Relativistic Protons in Shocked Pulsar Winds  

E-print Network

We have estimated fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays that are generated from decays of charged and neutral pions from a pulsar surrounded by supernova ejecta in our galaxy, including an effect that has not been taken into consideration, that is, interactions between high energy cosmic rays themselves in the nebula flow, assuming that hadronic components are the energetically dominant species in the pulsar wind. Bulk flow is assumed to be randomized by passing through the termination shock and energy distribution functions of protons and electrons behind the termination shock are assumed to obey the relativistic Maxwellians. We have found that fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays depend very sensitively on the wind luminosity, which is assumed to be comparable to the spin-downluminosity. In the case where B=10^{12}G and P=1ms, neutrinos should be detected by km^3 high-energy neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and IceCube. Also, gamma-rays should be detected by Cherenkov telescopes such as CANGAROO and H.E.S.S. as well as by gamma-ray satellites such as GLAST. On the other hand, in the case where B=10^{12}G and P=5ms, fluxes of neutrinos and gamma-rays will be too low to be detected even by the next-generation detectors. However, even in the case where B=10^{12}G and P=5ms, there is a possibility that very high fluxes of neutrinos may be realized at early stage of a supernova explosion (t \\le 1yr), where the location of the termination shock is very near to the pulsar. We also found that there is a possibility that protons with energies \\sim 10^5 GeV in the nebula flow may interact with the photon field from surface of the pulsar and produce much pions, which enhances the intensity of resulting neutrinos and gamma-rays.

S. Nagataki

2003-09-26

226

Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

2010-03-01

227

Effect of Initial Conditions on Reproducibility of Scientific Research  

PubMed Central

Background: It is estimated that about half of currently published research cannot be reproduced. Many reasons have been offered as explanations for failure to reproduce scientific research findings- from fraud to the issues related to design, conduct, analysis, or publishing scientific research. We also postulate a sensitive dependency on initial conditions by which small changes can result in the large differences in the research findings when attempted to be reproduced at later times. Methods: We employed a simple logistic regression equation to model the effect of covariates on the initial study findings. We then fed the input from the logistic equation into a logistic map function to model stability of the results in repeated experiments over time. We illustrate the approach by modeling effects of different factors on the choice of correct treatment. Results: We found that reproducibility of the study findings depended both on the initial values of all independent variables and the rate of change in the baseline conditions, the latter being more important. When the changes in the baseline conditions vary by about 3.5 to about 4 in between experiments, no research findings could be reproduced. However, when the rate of change between the experiments is ?2.5 the results become highly predictable between the experiments. Conclusions: Many results cannot be reproduced because of the changes in the initial conditions between the experiments. Better control of the baseline conditions in-between the experiments may help improve reproducibility of scientific findings. PMID:25132705

Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

2014-01-01

228

Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high-density plasmas suitable for the propagation of large-amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20-kV arc-driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 < Mach < 60) in argon gas, which leaves in its wake a high-density plasma (np > 1017

R. L. Williams

1993-01-01

229

Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

Kim, Yong W.

1990-01-01

230

Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

231

Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ˜100 ?s or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 ?m of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 ?s. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Stesmans, A.; Poortmans, J.

2014-10-01

232

Application of dielectric spectroscopy for monitoring high cell density in monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell cultivations.  

PubMed

The application of dielectric spectroscopy was frequently investigated as an on-line cell culture monitoring tool; however, it still requires supportive data and experience in order to become a robust technique. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy was used to predict viable cell density (VCD) at industrially relevant high levels in concentrated fed-batch culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing a monoclonal antibody for pharmaceutical purposes. For on-line dielectric spectroscopy measurements, capacitance was scanned within a wide range of frequency values (100-19,490 kHz) in six parallel cell cultivation batches. Prior to detailed mathematical analysis of the collected data, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to compare dielectric behavior of the cultivations. PCA analysis resulted in detecting measurement disturbances. By using the measured spectroscopic data, partial least squares regression (PLS), Cole-Cole, and linear modeling were applied and compared in order to predict VCD. The Cole-Cole and the PLS model provided reliable prediction over the entire cultivation including both the early and decline phases of cell growth, while the linear model failed to estimate VCD in the later, declining cultivation phase. In regards to the measurement error sensitivity, remarkable differences were shown among PLS, Cole-Cole, and linear modeling. VCD prediction accuracy could be improved in the runs with measurement disturbances by first derivative pre-treatment in PLS and by parameter optimization of the Cole-Cole modeling. PMID:23801499

Párta, László; Zalai, Dénes; Borbély, Sándor; Putics, Akos

2014-02-01

233

Bacillus sporothermodurans, a new species producing highly heat-resistant endospores.  

PubMed

Bacteria that differentiate into highly heat-resistant endospores (HHRS strains) may survive ultrahigh-temperature treatment of milk and germinate in the final product. They do not noticeably spoil the milk and are nonpathogenic. The complete (>96%) 16S rRNA genes from three HHRS strains were identical, and phylogenetic analysis placed them alongside Bacillus firmus in the B. megaterium group of the genus Bacillus. Moreover, the approximately 550 nucleotides between regions U2 and U5 were invariant for seven HHRS strains. However, three cloned 16S rRNA genes from one HHRS strain, M215, showed marked size and sequence variations within the V1 and V2 regions. DNA reassociation assays confirmed the distinction between a reference HHRS strain and closely related members of the B. megaterium group, notably, B. firmus (30%), B. benzoevorans (28%), and B. circulans (20%). Ribotyping and pyrolysis mass spectrometry both indicated that the HHRS strains belong to a homogeneous, species-ranked taxon, an exception being strain TP1248, which is slightly atypical. The HHRS strains are unusual in that they grow poorly, if at all, on nutrient agar; good growth is obtained on brain heart infusion agar. On subculture, most HHRS strains form long, filamentous rods which stain unevenly in the Gram reaction. They are strictly aerobic and do not produce acid from sugars. We propose the name Bacillus sporothermodurans for these bacteria, which are phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct from other Bacillus species. The type strain is M215 (= DSMZ 10599). PMID:8782686

Pettersson, B; Lembke, F; Hammer, P; Stackebrandt, E; Priest, F G

1996-07-01

234

Measurements of neutrons produced by high-energy muons at the Boulby Underground Laboratory  

E-print Network

We present the first measurements of the muon-induced neutron flux at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. The experiment was carried out with an 0.73 tonne liquid scintillator that also served as an anticoincidence system for the ZEPLIN-II direct dark matter search. The experimental method exploited the delayed coincidences between high-energy muon signals and gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture on hydrogen or other elements. The muon-induced neutron rate, defined as the average number of detected neutrons per detected muon, was measured as $0.079 \\pm 0.003$ (stat.) neutrons/muon using neutron-capture signals above 0.55 MeV in a time window of 40-190 $\\mu$s after the muon trigger. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron production, transport and detection in a precisely modeled laboratory and experimental setup using the GEANT4 toolkit gave a result 1.8 times higher than the measured value. The difference greatly exceeds all statistical and systematic uncertainties. As the vast majority of neutrons detected in the current setup were produced in lead we evaluated from our measurements the neutron yield in lead as $(1.31 \\pm 0.06) \\times 10^{-3}$ neutrons/muon/(g/cm$^2$) for a mean muon energy of about 260 GeV.

H. M. Araujo; J. Blockley; C. Bungau; M. J. Carson; H. Chagani; E. Daw; B. Edwards; C. Ghag; E. V. Korolkova; V. A. Kudryavtsev; P. K. Lightfoot; A. Lindote; I. Liubarsky; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; K. Mavrokoridis; J. E. McMillan; A. St. J. Murphy; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; R. M. Preece; M. Robinson; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; R. J. Walker; H. Wang; J. White

2008-05-20

235

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOEpatents

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2001-01-01

236

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOEpatents

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2000-01-01

237

Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil- and natural gas-producing region of the western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional-scale air quality model (WRF-Chem) to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high-resolution meteorological simulations are able qualitatively to reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and the accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on estimates of methane (CH4) emissions derived from in situ aircraft measurements and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than in the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. The model simulation using the top-down emission case captures the buildup and afternoon peaks observed during high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive within the UB. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. The model analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover.

Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

2015-01-01

238

Extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium and neodymium ions in the Large Helical Device and laser produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd) and neodymium (Nd) ions produced in two different types of light sources for comparative studies. Only broad quasicontinuum feature arising from unresolved transition array was observed in high-density laser produced plasmas of pure/diluted Gd and Nd targets at the University College Dublin, and the spectral feature largely depends on electron temperature in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The difference in spectral feature among a number of spectra can be qualitatively interpreted by considering dominant ion stages and opacity effects in the plasmas.

Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; O'Gorman, C.; Li, B.; Harte, C. S.; Donnelly, T.; O'Sullivan, G.

2013-09-01

239

Poor Reproducibility of Allergic Rhinitis SNP Associations  

PubMed Central

Replication of reported associations is crucial to the investigation of complex disease. More than 100 SNPs have previously been reported as associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), but few of these have been replicated successfully. To investigate the general reproducibility of reported AR-associations in candidate gene studies, one Swedish (352 AR-cases, 709 controls) and one Singapore Chinese population (948 AR-cases, 580 controls) were analyzed using 49 AR-associated SNPs. The overall pattern of P-values indicated that very few of the investigated SNPs were associated with AR. Given published odds ratios (ORs) most SNPs showed high power to detect an association, but no correlations were found between the ORs of the two study populations or with published ORs. None of the association signals were in common to the two genome-wide association studies published in AR, indicating that the associations represent false positives or have much lower effect-sizes than reported. PMID:23382861

Nilsson, Daniel; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Halldén, Christer; Tim, Chew Fook; Säll, Torbjörn

2013-01-01

240

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic  

E-print Network

Reproducible EnzymeReproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticAssembly and Catalytic Activity Accomplishments #12;Reproducible Enzyme Assembly and CatalyticReproducible Enzyme Assembly and Catalytic Activity in Reusable BioMEMSActivity in Reusable BioMEMS Accomplishment Pro-tagged Pfs enzymes are spatially assembled

Rubloff, Gary W.

241

Time Series of High Resolution Satellite Data as a Means to Produce and Validate Biogeophysical Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retrieval of biogeophysical parameters time series from space has up to now concerned mostly low or medium resolution satellite data, the highest resolution being on the order of 250 m with MODIS or MERIS observations. However, the forthcoming of new satellite data at high resolution and high revisit frequency such as the Sentinel-2 satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA) may induce new efforts to process time series of biogeophysical variables at higher spatial resolution. Sentinel-2 will produce data at 10-20 m resolution in the visible and near infrared and data at 60 m resolution in the blue and middle infrared with a wide field of view allowing a repetitiveness of 10 days with 1 satellite and 5 days with two satellites at the Equator. The expected launch dates of the two Sentinel-2 satellites are 2014 and end of 2015. Orthorectified top of atmosphere reflectances will be delivered globally free of charge within 24 hour delay after acquisition by ESA. The Sentinel-2 data will offer great opportunities to generate time series of biogeophysical variables exhaustively over the world with high spatial resolution, in particular Essential Climate Variables over land such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR). Algorithms are currently being developed to transform such data into products ready to be used by the community. To validate the corresponding products it is important to build appropriate satellite data sets of high spatial resolution and high temporal frequencies well before launch along with the associated ground measurements. CNES, CESBIO and INRA have been active these last ten years in building such data sets. Over the last ten years, the Kalideos program of CNES has provided time series of SPOT data over 3 sites in France and 1 site in Romania to the scientific community. CESBIO has gathered over 800 Landsat images and 400 Formosat-2 images (multispectral imagery at 8 m resolution, 1 day repetitiveness) over the South of France for the years 2002, 2003, 2006 to 2011. These data have served as a platform for the test and validation of an atmospheric correction scheme based on both the multispectral and multitemporal dimensions of the signal. Their use for the validation of biophysical variable retrieval has also started. To anticipate the massive coming of these high spatial resolution time series of biophysical products, a validation strategy should be designed and implemented. It should capitalize on the experience gained with the validation of medium spatial resolution products, in order to reach stage 4 of the validation, i.e. "Quantify uncertainties in the product and its associated structure with systematic updates when new product versions are released and as the time-series expand". For this a collection of satellite data and ground data on a variety of sites and ecoclimatic situations should be progressively built with an easy and transparent access for the community. The data sets described above could be part of such a collection.

Leroy, M.; Hagolle, O.; Demarez, V.; Claverie, M.; Baret, F.

2012-12-01

242

Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOEpatents

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1999-08-24

243

Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOEpatents

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1997-07-08

244

Effects of rumen-inert fat on lactation, reproduction, and health of high producing Holstein herds.  

PubMed

Two hundred twenty of 443 cows freshening between June 1989 and March 1990 in five commercial Holstein herds were fed .45 kg/d of rumen-inert fat from calving until 200 DIM. Control diets were fed as TMR and contained, on average, 3.7 to 4.8% supplemental fat (DM basis). Test herds had rolling herd averages of 9300 to 13,250 kg of milk. Production of 4% FCM and milk increased 1.01 (3.3%) and 1.50 kg/d (4.6%), respectively, for primiparous cows fed additional fat. Multiparous cows from four herds demonstrated no response; multiparous cows in one herd increased production of 4% FCM by 2.88 kg/d (8.2%), milk by 2.45 kg/d (6.4%), and milk fat by .14kg/d (10.6%) in response to additional fat. An explanation of response differences among herd for multiparous cows was not possible. For primiparous and multiparous cows, increased genetic potential increased treatment response. Increased body condition score at calving influenced treatment response of multiparous cows. Thinner cows produced more milk and less milk fat in response to additional dietary fat than did fatter cows. Most reproductive indices were unaffected by treatment. Cows receiving additional fat had lower, but nonsignificantly lower, incidences of most health disorders. Responses to rumen-inert fat by cows receiving high concentrations of dietary fat were marginal and were affected by body condition score at calving and by genetic potential. PMID:8747335

Scott, T A; Shaver, R D; Zepeda, L; Yandell, B; Smith, T R

1995-11-01

245

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.  

PubMed

Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7?±?26.6 and 184.5?±?22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8?±?39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6?±?2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3?±?15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate. PMID:22350320

Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

2012-08-01

246

Data reproducibility from an inertial kinetic exercise machine.  

PubMed

An inertial kinetic exercise (IKE, Oconomowoc, WI, USA) machine was created that permits high-velocity workouts suited for injury rehabilitation and speed development in athletes. In addition, its design does not entail the movement of resistance against Earth's gravitational pull. Thus, the design and operation associated with the IKE may be incorporated into novel environments such as space flight. Yet before it can be used for such reasons, IKE data reproducibility must first be ascertained, which serves as the present study's purpose. Methods to assess data reproducibility required subjects (n = 42) to perform 2 IKE elbow flexor trials, each comprising two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest. Preceded by a familiarization session on the IKE, subjects were instructed to perform high-speed elbow flexor trial repetitions in good form. Instrumentation entailed an accelerometer and a computer interfaced with software. Maximum and average forces (MF, AF), as well as work (W), were examined for reproducibility with several test-retest measures. Results showed high reproducibility, yet intertrial variability was greater due in part to the length of time between exercise sessions. It was concluded that MF reproducibility was inherently less partly due to the nature of the variable, which entailed a single instantaneous expression over each 60-second set. In contrast, AF and W denoted a cumulative, and thus better overall, representation of total exercise performance. Based on our high reproducibility values, present IKE instrumentation methods appear to be appropriate. Practical applications suggest that coaches and therapists may want to employ an IKE as instrumented in the present study to derive reproducible performance data on people who may use the device under their supervision. PMID:20168257

Caruso, John F; Kucera, Sam C; Hari, Parmeswar K; Mc Lagan, Jessica R; Olson, Nathan M; Shepherd, Catherine M; Marshall, Mallory R

2010-11-01

247

A New Strategy to Deliver Synthetic Protein Drugs: Self-reproducible Biologics Using Minicircles  

PubMed Central

Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics. PMID:25091294

Yi, Hyoju; Kim, Youngkyun; Kim, Juryun; Jung, Hyerin; Rim, Yeri Alice; Jung, Seung Min; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

2014-01-01

248

A new strategy to deliver synthetic protein drugs: self-reproducible biologics using minicircles.  

PubMed

Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics. PMID:25091294

Yi, Hyoju; Kim, Youngkyun; Kim, Juryun; Jung, Hyerin; Rim, Yeri Alice; Jung, Seung Min; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

2014-01-01

249

Viability of seed produced on highly sodic coal-mine spoils. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

An adapted plant species must not only grow on a particular site, but also produce viable seeds capable of germination and establishment on the site. Ten species of rangeland grasses had been successfully used to revegetate sodic mine spoils at the Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana. However, the effect of the sodic spoils on seed viability, and hence the potential for regeneration, was unknown. Seeds produced by these plants were tested for viability and germination.

Richardson, B.Z.; McDonough, W.T.; Farmer, E.E.

1984-10-01

250

Theoretical and Experimental Databases for High Average Power EUV Light Source by Laser Produced Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from laser-produced plasma has been thoroughly studied for application in mass-production of the next generation semiconductor devices. Comprehensive experimental databases are provided for a wide range of parameters of lasers and targets. The atomic models are benchmarked with spectroscopic measurements not only for laser-produced plasma (LPP) but also for EUV emissions from magnetic-confinement plasmas or the

H. Nishimura; K. Nishihara; S. Fujioka; T. Aota; T. Ando; M. Shimomura; K. Sakaguchi; Y. Simada; M. Yamaura; K. Nagai; T. Norimatsu; A. Sunahara; M. Murakami; A. Sasaki; H. Tanuma; F. Koike; K. Fuijma; C. Suzuki; S. Morita; T. Kato; T. Kagawa; T. Nishikawa; N. Miyanaga; Y. Izawa; K. Mima

2007-01-01

251

Development of a high-titer retrovirus producer cell line capable of gene transfer into rhesus monkey hematopoietic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells has been difficult to achieve in large-animal models. The authors have developed an amphotropic producer clone that generates >10{sup 10} recombinant retroviral particles (colony-forming units) per ml of culture medium. Autologous rhesus monkey bone marrow cells were cocultured with either high or low titer producer clones for 4-6 days and reinfused into sublethally irradiated animals. The proviral genome was detected in blood and bone-marrow cells from all three animals reconstituted with cells cocultured with the high-titer producer cells. In contrast, three animals reconstituted with bone marrow cocultured with the low-titer producer clone exhibited no evidence of gene transfer.

Bodine, D.M.; McDonagh, K.T.; Brandt, S.J.; Ney, P.A.; Agricola, B.; Byrne, E.; Nienhuis, A.W. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

252

Reproducibility of Research Algorithms in GOES-R Operational Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research to operations transition for satellite observations is an area of active interest as identified by The National Research Council Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations. Their report recommends improved transitional processes for bridging technology from research to operations. Assuring the accuracy of operational algorithm results as compared to research baselines, called reproducibility in this paper, is a critical step in the GOES-R transition process. This paper defines reproducibility methods and measurements for verifying that operationally implemented algorithms conform to research baselines, demonstrated with examples from GOES-R software development. The approach defines reproducibility for implemented algorithms that produce continuous data in terms of a traditional goodness-of-fit measure (i.e., correlation coefficient), while the reproducibility for discrete categorical data is measured using a classification matrix. These reproducibility metrics have been incorporated in a set of Test Tools developed for GOES-R and the software processes have been developed to include these metrics to validate both the scientific and numerical implementation of the GOES-R algorithms. In this work, we outline the test and validation processes and summarize the current results for GOES-R Level 2+ algorithms.

Kennelly, E.; Botos, C.; Snell, H. E.; Steinfelt, E.; Khanna, R.; Zaccheo, T.

2012-12-01

253

KALMAN FILTERING REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES  

E-print Network

KALMAN FILTERING IN REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES Pingping Zhu #12;Outline · Introduction · Related Work · A Novel Extended Kernel Recursive Least Squares · Kernel Kalman Filter based on Conditional · Develop a Kalman filter in the Reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) Motivation · Kernel methods can

Slatton, Clint

254

A simple and cost-effective method for producing small interfering RNAs with high efficacy.  

PubMed

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are powerful RNA interference (RNAi) reagents for directed post- transcriptional gene silencing. Exogenous siRNA is frequently used in RNAi studies. However, due to profound differences in the activity of siRNAs targeted to different regions of a gene, several reagents may have to be screened for optimal activity. This approach is expensive due to the cost of chemical synthesis of RNAs. We report a technically simple, quick and cost-effective method for the production of siRNAs that makes use of in vitro transcription and deoxyribozyme digestion of the transcripts to produce the desired sequence and length. The method allows for several siRNAs to be produced in parallel at much reduced costs. The siRNAs produced with this method were tested in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells for efficacy against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) mRNA and they caused dose-dependent inhibition of IGF1R expression comparable to that induced by chemically synthesised siRNAs of the same sequence. This method is also useful for producing long RNA fragments of defined length and sequence that may be difficult to synthesise chemically, and also for producing large quantities of RNAs for applications including structural studies and the study of interactions between RNA and other molecules, such as proteins, other nucleic acids and drugs. PMID:12655026

Sohail, Muhammad; Doran, Graeme; Riedemann, Johann; Macaulay, Val; Southern, Edwin M

2003-04-01

255

Reproducing or Challenging Power in the Questions We Ask and the Methods We Use: A Framework for Activist Research in Urban Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many have argued that educational research does little to change (and may actually reproduce) the social-structural inequalities shaping the quality of high-poverty urban schools. Building from this premise, this paper asks: How can university-based scholars of urban education do research that encourages, produces, or informs change in urban…

Nygreen, Kysa

2006-01-01

256

Reproducibility of +Gz tolerance testing.  

PubMed

The +Gz tolerance of USAF aircrewmen undergoing medical evaluation has been tested at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine since 1973. For various reasons, the test protocol can usually be carried out only once on these patients. Accurate determination of the +Gz tolerance of aircrewmen who fly high performance fighter aircraft is very important in assuring aero-medical safety, since loss of consciousness as a result of exceeding a pilot's G tolerance may result in loss of life and loss of aircraft. It is, therefore, necessary to estimate the variability associated with each profile of the test so that a more accurate assessment of +Gz tolerance can be made. Multiple repeat medical evaluation test protocols were performed on 17 centrifuge acceleration panel members. The standard deviations in the +Gz measurements for the four centrifuge profiles were GOR(1) = 0.38 Gz, ROR=0.22 Gz, GOR(2)=0.34 Gz, and GOR(S)=0.39 Gz. A statistically significant learning effect, which increases +Gz tolerance, was observed in both experienced and inexperienced subjects. Knowledge of the variability associated with each test profile will allow a more accurate definition of an individual +Gz tolerance when only a single centrifuge test protocol can be performed. In addition, possible future use of this centrifuge protocol in the selection of individuals with above- or below-average +Gz tolerance is facilitated with an accurate assessment of the variability associated with the test. PMID:496752

Whinnery, J E; Jackson, W G

1979-08-01

257

Commercial Broth Microdilution Panel Validation and Reproducibility Trials for Garenoxacin (BMS-284756), a Novel Desfluoroquinolone  

PubMed Central

Results from garenoxacin dry-form broth microdilution MIC panels prepared commercially (Sensititre, TREK Diagnostics) were compared to reference frozen-form MICs to ensure the validity of the longer-shelf-life product. A total of 1,078 organisms from seven major organism groups were used in this trial. All commercial MIC results were within ± one log2 dilution of reference garenoxacin values, and reproducibility trials produced identical MIC results for 90.5 to 92.1% of garenoxacin MIC comparisons. Control quinolones (ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin) also performed at a similarly high level of accuracy. PMID:12904431

Gordon, Kelley A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.

2003-01-01

258

New Approach to Increasing Rice Lodging Resistance and Biomass Yield Through the Use of High Gibberellin Producing Varieties  

PubMed Central

Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass. PMID:24586255

Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

2014-01-01

259

Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings per inch (.28 openings per centimeter)] and is used in conjunction with the press-piston head. Supporting equipment includes a soy-milk heat exchanger for maintaining selected coagulation temperatures, a filter system for separating okara from other particulate matter and from soy milk, two pumps, and various thermocouples, flowmeters, level indicators, pressure sensors, valves, tubes, and sample ports

Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

2005-01-01

260

Applications that utilize the observables produced by high-energy laser interactions with targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of a laser beam with a target produces transient observables that can be measured and interpreted to yield important information about the interaction and the target. It is found that for interaction monitoring, standard infrared radiometry can provide adequate assessment information in the thermal effects regime and specified events at the target (eg, melt, burnthrough) can be detected.

V. R. Stull

1979-01-01

261

Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

262

Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free solution capacity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea to produce natural superabsorbent gels. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) reveal chemical changes from the reaction. Temperatures above 120°C and dry conditions create the op...

263

Producing Success: The Culture of Personal Advancement in an American High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle- and upper-middle-class students continue to outpace those from less privileged backgrounds. Most attempts to redress this inequality focus on the issue of access to financial resources, but as "Producing Success" makes clear, the problem goes beyond mere economics. In this eye-opening study, Peter Demerath examines a typical suburban…

Demerath, Peter

2009-01-01

264

Assessment of Early Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Two High Producing Estonian Dairy Herds  

PubMed Central

Early postpartum (6 weeks) ovarian activity, hormonal profiles, uterine involution, uterine infections, serum electrolytes, glucose, milk acetoacetate and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were studied in 2 Estonian high producing dairy herd with annual milk production of 7688 (Farm A) and 9425 (Farm B). From each farm 10 cows, with normal calving performance were used. Blood samples for the hormonal (PGF2?-metabolite, progesterone) analyses were withdrawn. On day 25 PP blood serum samples were taken for the evaluation of metabolic/electrolyte status. On the same day estimation of milk acetoacetate values was done. The ultrasound (US) was started on day 7 PP and was performed every 3rd day until the end of experiment. Uterine content, follicular activity and sizes of the largest follicle and corpus luteum were monitored and measured. Vaginal discharge and uterine tone were recorded during the rectal palpation. Each animal in the study was sampled for bacteriological examination using endometrial biopsies once a week. Two types of PGF2?-metabolite patterns were detected: elevated levels during 14 days PP, then decline to the basal level and then a second small elevation at the time of final elimination of the bacteria from the uterus; or elevated levels during first 7 days PP, then decline to the basal level and a second small elevation before the final elimination of bacteria. Endometritis was diagnosed in 5 cows in farm A and in 3 cows in farm B respectively. In farm A, 5 cows out of 10 ovulated during experimental period and in 1 cow cystic ovaries were found. In farm B, 3 cows out of 10 ovulated. In 3 cows cystic ovaries were found. Altogether 40% of cows had their first ovulation during the experimental period. Three cows in farm A and 5 cows in farm B were totally bacteria negative during the experimental period. The most frequent bacteria found were A. pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., E. coli., F. necrophorum and Bacteroides spp. The highest incidence of bacteriological species was found during the first 3 weeks in both farms. All animals were free from bacteria after 5th week PP in farm A and after 4th week in farm B respectively. Serum electrolytes and glucose levels were found to be within the reference limits for the cows in both farms. No significant difference was found between farms (p > 0.05). Low phosphorus levels were found in both farms. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was found in BUN levels between farms. In both farms milk acetoacetate values were staying within the reference range given for the used test (<100 ?mol/l). The uterine involution and bacterial elimination in the investigated cows could consider as normal but more profound metabolic studies could be needed to find reasons for later resumption of ovarian activity. Some recommendations to changing feeding regimes and strategies should also be given. PMID:15074626

Kask, K; Kurykin, J; Lindjärv, R; Kask, A; Kindahl, H

2003-01-01

265

Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution meteorological simulations are able to qualitatively reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on the previously derived estimates of methane (CH4) emissions and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. WRF-Chem simulations using the two emission data sets resulted in significant differences for concentrations of most gas-phase species. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. Comparison of simulations using the two emission data sets reveals that the top-down case captures the high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation case using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that the UB O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. We also present modeling results for winter of 2012, when high O3 levels were not observed in the UB. The air quality model together with the top-down emission framework presented here may help to address the emerging science and policy related questions surrounding the environmental impact of oil and NG drilling in western US.

Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

2014-08-01

266

Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations  

SciTech Connect

We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)

Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

2013-07-01

267

Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.  

PubMed

The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. PMID:23260272

Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

2013-05-01

268

A method of producing high quality oxide and related films on surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum oxide or aluminum nitride films were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaAS(100) using a novel cryogenic-based reactive thin film deposition technique. The process involves the condensation of molecular oxygen, ammonia, or other gases normally used for reactive thin film deposition on the substrate before the metal is deposited. The metal vapor is deposited into this layer and reacts with the molecular solid to form the desired compound or a precursor that can be thermally decomposed to generate the desired compound. The films produced by this method are free of impurities, and the low temperatures can be used to control the film and interfacial structure. The process can be easily integrated with existing MBE systems. Ongoing research using the same apparatus suggests that photon or electron irradiation could be used to promote the reactions needed to produce the intended material.

Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yongli

1991-01-01

269

High field-effect mobility zinc oxide thin film transistors produced at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the first results of thin film transistors produced completely at room temperature using ZnO as the active channel and silicon oxynitride as the gate dielectric. The ZnO-based thin film transistors (ZnO-TFT) present an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 84% in the visible part of the spectrum. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement

E. Fortunato; A. Pimentel; L. Pereira; A. Gonçalves; G. Lavareda; H. Águas; I. Ferreira; C. N. Carvalho; R. Martins

2004-01-01

270

The large plasmids of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are highly variable genetic elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of different serotypes are known to harbour large plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the example of the plasmid-encoded serine protease EspP, whether these plasmids are a uniform genetic element present in STEC. Examination of 201 diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains using a newly developed espP-specific PCR showed that espP is specific for

Werner Brunder; Herbert Schmidt; Matthias Frosch; Helge Karch

1999-01-01

271

Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization  

SciTech Connect

Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality.

Silvey, Andrea B. [Quality Improvement, Health Services Advisory Group, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Warrick, Louise H. [Healthcare Consultant, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: lwarrick@cox.net

2008-05-01

272

Thermodynamic Calculation on the Vaporization of Fission-Produced Noble Metal System in Vacuum and Oxidative Atmosphere at High Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vaporization behavior of fission-produced noble metal system (Mo-Ru-Pd, Mo-Ru-Rh and Mo-Tc-Pd) in vacuum and oxidative atmosphere at high temperatures was investigated by the thermodynamic calculation on the basis of the regular solution model and the available experimental data. The palladium and rhodium in the allyoys, and molybdenum and ruthenium in the alloys vaporize preferentially at high temperature in vacuum

Tsuneo MATSUI; Keiji NAITO

1989-01-01

273

Possibility of compaction of explosion-produced high-velocity metal elements moving in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of microdamage due to intense plastic deformation results in a decrease in the average density of high-velocity elements formed by explosive compression of shaped metal liners. For compaction of such elements in tests of the reliability of meteoroid protection, it is suggested that the elements be exposed to a magnetic field produced on their motion trajectory before interaction

S. V. Fedorov

2005-01-01

274

Fish Offal Recycling by the Black Soldier Fly Produces a Foodstuff High in Omega3 Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, has the potential to reduce animal waste on livestock facilities and produce an animal-grade feedstuff high in protein and fat. The lipid content of insects is largely dependent on their diet. Data from this study suggest that black soldier fly prepupae incorporate a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapen- taenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when

Sophie St-Hilaire; Katie Cranfill; Mark A. McGuire; Erin E. Mosley; Jeffery K. Tomberlin; Larry Newton; Wendy Sealey; Craig Sheppard; Stephen Irving

2007-01-01

275

Laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements: physical properties and compressive strength of mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the production of laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements. The effect of grinding of the Portland cement clinker, fly ash, and gypsum with or without a superplasticizer on the physical properties of the cements, and the compressive strength of the mortars made with the resulting blended cements, is discussed. The use of ground fly ash compared with

N. Bouzoubaa; M. H. Zhang; A. Bilodeau; V. M. Malhotra

1998-01-01

276

Highly Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Produced by Sewing Textile Electrodes on Cloth  

PubMed Central

Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices. PMID:24957920

Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

2014-01-01

277

Some characteristics of speech produced under high G-force and pressure breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of speech recognisers in a combat aircraft is degraded seriously by the extreme physical stresses to which the crew are subjected. This paper describes measurements of first and second formant frequencies of nine vowels from one speaker recorded under high levels of acceleration, with and without positive pressure breathing. Under acceleration alone, F2 is reduced for high front

A. J. South

1999-01-01

278

Improvement on the technology of producing high quality seawater shrimp broodstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater shrimps are high economic valued species. Their natural catch has reached its maximum yield, about 1.6 - 1.8 million ton a year. Shrimp culture is an effective solution to satisfy the continued increasing demand of global markets on this valuable seafood. Shrimp culture, especially the culture of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), is a high profit business, but there are

Nguyen Tac An

2004-01-01

279

Highly flexible dye-sensitized solar cells produced by sewing textile electrodes on cloth.  

PubMed

Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices. PMID:24957920

Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

2014-01-01

280

Organic salt-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to produce high-quality graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain ordinary organic salts, such as edetate disodium, sodium tartrate, potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate were found to have universal and efficient assistant effect for liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in common organic solvents to produce pristine graphene. Up to 123 times enhanced exfoliation efficiency was observed when sodium citrate was introduced into an exfoliation system consisting of natural graphite powder and dimethyl sulfoxide. TEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, EDX, TGA, and FTIR analysis showed graphite was successfully exfoliated into single or few-layer graphene nanosheets which were free of defects and oxides. The method is simple, effective, safe and economical.

Du, Wencheng; Lu, Jie; Sun, Peipei; Zhu, Yinyan; Jiang, Xiaoqing

2013-05-01

281

High frequency transformation of the industrial erythromycin-producing bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea.  

PubMed

The DNA transformation in the industrial erythromycin-producing Saccharopolyspora erythraea was investigated as standard protoplast transformation methods are ineffective. Intergeneric conjugal transfer of DNA from E. coli demonstrated transformation efficiencies from 0.05 x 10(-8) to 7.2 x 10(-8) exconjugants generated per recipient. Electroporation-mediated methodologies were also established. More than 10(5) transformants were acquired per mug DNA. The proposed protocol provides an alternative route for the introduction of DNA into industrial strains. PMID:17922209

Wang, Yong; Wang, YiGuang; Zhang, Siliang

2008-02-01

282

Observation of Dust Stream Formation Produced by Low Current, High Voltage Cathode Spots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Macro-particle acceleration driven by low current, high voltage cathode spots has been investigated. The phenomenon was observed to occur when nanometer and micrometer-sized particles in the presence of a discharge plasma were exposed to a high voltage pulse. The negative voltage pulse initiates the formation of multiple, high voltage, low current cathode spots which provides the mechanism of actual acceleration of the charged dust particles. Dust streams generated by this process were detected using laser scattering techniques. The particle impact craters observed at the surface of downstream witness badges were documented using SEM and light microscopy.

Foster, John E.

2004-01-01

283

Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high ?-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.  

PubMed

Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including ?-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84?±?1.12, 48.02?±?2.53, and 30.10?±?1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more ?-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field. PMID:25129039

Okeke, Benedict C

2014-10-01

284

High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein  

PubMed Central

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

285

High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

286

Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOEpatents

A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

Huckabee, Marvin (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

1991-01-01

287

Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOEpatents

A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

1991-09-10

288

The microalga Parachlorella kessleri--a novel highly efficient lipid producer.  

PubMed

The alga Parachlorella kessleri, strain CCALA 255, grown under optimal conditions, is characterized by storage of energy in the form of starch rather than lipids. If grown in the complete medium, the cultures grew rapidly, producing large amounts of biomass in a relatively short time. The cells, however, contained negligible lipid reserves (1-10% of DW). Treatments inducing hyperproduction of storage lipids in P. kessleri biomass were described. The cultures were grown in the absence or fivefold decreased concentration of either nitrogen or phosphorus or sulfur. Limitation by all elements using fivefold or 10-fold diluted mineral medium was also tested. Limitation with any macroelement (nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus) led to an increase in the amount of lipids; nitrogen limitation was the most effective. Diluted nutrient media (5- or 10-fold) were identified as the best method to stimulate lipid overproduction (60% of DW). The strategy for lipid overproduction consists of the fast growth of P. kessleri culture grown in the complete medium to produce sufficient biomass (DW more than 10 g/L) followed by the dilution of nutrient medium to stop growth and cell division by limitation of all elements, leading to induction of lipid production and accumulation up to 60% DW. Cultivation conditions necessary for maximizing lipid content in P. kessleri biomass generated in a scale-up solar open thin-layer photobioreactor were described. PMID:22766749

Li, Xiuling; P?ibyl, Pavel; Bišová, Kate?ina; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Cepák, Vladislav; Zachleder, Vilém; ?ížková, Mária; Brányiková, Irena; Vítová, Milada

2013-01-01

289

Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.  

PubMed

Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis. PMID:21561165

Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

2011-06-22

290

High Rate of Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) was studied in stool samples from 125 8- to 16-month-old healthy children. Twenty-four percent of them and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples studied yielded extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, with the types being SHV-12, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-14, and TEM-52, the most common types of ?-lactamases. This high prevalence of ESBLPE in healthy people, which is to our knowledge the highest currently reported in Europe, may represent a risk for increased infections by these organisms in the future. PMID:24395224

Fernández-Reyes, María; Vicente, Diego; Gomariz, María; Esnal, Olatz; Landa, Joseba; Oñate, Eider

2014-01-01

291

Measuring user innovation in Dutch high tech SMEs: Frequency, nature and transfer to producers  

E-print Network

A detailed survey of 498 “high tech” SMEs in the Netherlands shows process innovation by user firms to be common practice. Fifty four percent of these relatively small firms reported developing entirely novel process ...

de Jong, Jeroen P.J.

2009-02-27

292

Evaluation of the high temperature electrolysis of steam to produce hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can be effectively used for hydrogen production through several CO2-free alternative technologies, such as the Sulfur–Iodine (SI) cycle, the high temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES), and others. In our current study, the electrochemical thermodynamic properties and the overall thermal efficiency of the VHTR-assisted hydrogen production system by using the HTES technology have been

Youngjoon Shin; Wonseok Park; Jonghwa Chang

2007-01-01

293

Development of Compton radiography using high-Z backlighters produced by ultra-intense lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy x-ray backlighters will be valuable for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and for radiography of imploded inertial confinement fusion cores using Compton scattering to observe cold, dense plasma. Key considerations are the available backlight brightness, and the backlight size. To quantify these parameters we have characterized the emission from low- and high-Z planar foils irradiated by

Riccardo Tommasini; Hye-Sook Park; Prav Patel; Brian Maddox; Sebastien Le Pape; Stephen P. Hatchett; Bruce A. Remington; Michael H. Key; Nobuhiko Izumi; Max Tabak; Jeffrey A. Koch; Otto L. Landen; Dan Hey; Andy MacKinnon; John Seely; Glenn Holland; Larry Hudson; Csilla Szabo

2007-01-01

294

Extending the laserspray ionization concept to produce highly charged ions at high vacuum on a time-of-flight mass analyzer.  

PubMed

A new matrix compound, 2-nitrophloroglucinol, is reported which not only produces highly charged ions similar to electrospray ionization (ESI) under atmospheric pressure (AP) and intermediate pressure (IP) laserspray ionization (LSI) conditions but also the most highly charged ions so far observed for small proteins in mass spectrometry (MS) under high vacuum (HV) conditions. This new matrix extends the compounds that can successfully be employed as matrixes with LSI, as demonstrated on an LTQ Velos (Thermo) at AP, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) time-of-flight (TOF) SYNAPT G2 (Waters) at IP, and MALDI-TOF Ultraflex, UltrafleXtreme, and Autoflex Speed (Bruker) mass spectrometers at HV. Measurements show that stable multiple charged molecular ions of proteins are formed under all pressure conditions indicating softer ionization than MALDI, which suffers a high degree of metastable fragmentation when multiply charged ions are produced. An important analytical advantage of this new LSI matrix are the potential for high sensitivity equivalent or better than AP-LSI and vacuum MALDI and the potential for enhanced mass selected fragmentation of the abundant highly charged protein ions. A second new LSI matrix, 4,6-dinitropyrogallol, produces abundant multiply charged ions at AP but not under HV conditions. The differences in these similar compounds ability to produce multiply charged ions under HV conditions is believed to be related to their relative ability to evaporate from charged matrix/analyte clusters. PMID:21678939

Trimpin, Sarah; Ren, Yue; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Richards, Alicia L; Marshall, Darrell D; Inutan, Ellen D

2011-07-15

295

Producing Persistent, High-Current, High-Duty-Factor H- Beams for Routine 1 MW Operation of SNS  

SciTech Connect

Since 2009, SNS has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ~50 mA H- ions from the ion source with a ~5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ~3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ~170 C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H- beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 C.

Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

2012-01-01

296

Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmasa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ˜10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)], 10.1007/s10509-010-0525-5. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.175002.

Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Tanji, H.; Sano, T.; Shiroshita, A.; Waugh, J. N.; Gregory, C. D.; Woolsey, N. C.; Takabe, H.

2012-10-01

297

CVD aluminiding process for producing a modified platinum aluminide bond coat for improved high temperature performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of depositing by chemical vapor deposition a modified platinum aluminide diffusion coating onto a superalloy substrate comprising the steps of applying a layer of a platinum group metal to the superalloy substrate; passing an externally generated aluminum halide gas through an internal gas generator which is integral with a retort, the internal gas generator generating a modified halide gas; and co-depositing aluminum and modifier onto the superalloy substrate. In one form, the modified halide gas is hafnium chloride and the modifier is hafnium with the modified platinum aluminum bond coat comprising a single phase additive layer of platinum aluminide with at least about 0.5 percent hafnium by weight percent and about 1 to about 15 weight percent of hafnium in the boundary between a diffusion layer and the additive layer. The bond coat produced by this method is also claimed.

Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

298

A Process for Producing Highly Wettable Aluminum 6061 Surfaces Compatible with Hydrazine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. The space-based portion of the mission architecture consists of a primary or core spacecraft and a constellation of NASA and contributed spacecrafts. The efforts described in this paper refer to the core spacecraft (hereafter referred to as simply GPM) which is to be fabricated at GSFC. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design-for-demise-spacecraft." This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. Composite overwrapped aluminum lined propellant tanks with aluminum propellant management devices (PMD) were shown by analyses to demise and thus became the baseline configuration for GPM. As part of the GPM tank development effort, long term compatibility and wettability testing with hydrazine was performed on Al6061 and 2219 coupons fabricated and cleaned by conventional processes. Long term compatibility was confirmed. However, the wettability of the aluminum as measured by contact angle produced higher than desired angles (greater than 30 deg.) with excessive scatter. The availability of PMD materials exhibiting consistently low contact angles aids in the design of simple PMDs. Two efforts performed by Angeles Crest Engineering and funded by GSFC were undertaken to reduce the risk of using aluminum for the GPM PMD. The goal of the first effort was to develop a cleaning or treatment process to produce consistently low contact angles. The goal of the second effort was to prove via testing that the processed aluminum would retain compatibility with hydrazine and retain low contact angle after long term exposure to hydrazine. Both goals were achieved. This paper describes both efforts and the results achieved.

Moore, N. R.; Ferraro, N. W.; Yue, A. F.; Estes, R. H.

2007-01-01

299

High intracolonic acetaldehyde values produced by a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation in piglets.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human colonic contents and many colonic microbes produce considerable amounts of acetaldehyde from ethanol in vitro. AIMS: To examine in piglets if acetaldehyde is produced in the colon also in vivo, and if so, what is the fate of intracolonically formed acetaldehyde. ANIMALS: Seventeen native, non-fasted female piglets (20-25 kg) were used. METHODS: Six piglets received either 1.5 g/kg bw or 2.5 g/kg bw of ethanol intravenously. In seven piglets, 0.7 g or 1.75 g of ethanol/kg bw was administered intravenously, followed by a subsequent intragastric ethanol infusion of 1.8 g/kg bw and 4.5 g/kg bw, respectively. The samples of colonic contents for the assessment of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were obtained up to seven hours. In four additional piglets, the intracolonic values of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate were observed for 60 minutes after an intracolonic infusion of acetaldehyde solution. RESULTS: A raised intracolonic, endogenous acetaldehyde concentration (mean (SEM); 36 (9) microM) was found in all piglets before ethanol infusion. After the infusion of ethanol, intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values increased in parallel, reaching the peak values 57 (4) mM of ethanol and 271 (20) microM of acetaldehyde in the group that received the highest dose of ethanol. A positive correlation (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) was found between intracolonic ethanol and acetaldehyde values. Acetaldehyde administered intracolonically was mainly metabolised to acetate but also to ethanol in the colon. CONCLUSIONS: Significant endogenous intracolonic acetaldehyde values can be found in the normal porcine colon. Furthermore, our results suggest the existence of a bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. Increased amounts of acetaldehyde are formed intracolonically from ingested ethanol by this pathway. PMID:8881818

Jokelainen, K; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Mäkisalo, H; Höckerstedt, K; Salaspuro, M

1996-01-01

300

High spectral contrast filtering produced by multiple pass reflections from paired Bragg gratings in PTR glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of multiple reflections from narrow bandwidth reflection Bragg gratings are presented. The use of multiple reflections serves to increase the suppression ratio of the out-of-band spectral content such that contributions of grating sidelobes can be mitigated. The result is a device which retains spectral and angular selectivity in a single high efficiency diffraction order but reshapes spectral/angular response to achieve higher signal to noise ratios (SNR). The material for recording these high suppression devices is photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. PTR is a highly homogeneous photosensitive glass with features such as low losses and high laser damage threshold. It has recently been used with good success to record permanent volume Bragg gratings with high efficiency and narrow band selectivity for use in laser cavities. Multiple reflections from the grating surface are achieved using several different arrangements. The multiple pass grating reflections are demonstrated and compared to the performance of a single reflection from a volume Bragg grating.

Ott, Daniel; SeGall, Marc; Divliansky, Ivan; Venus, George; Glebov, Leonid

2014-03-01

301

A review of research and methods for producing high-consequence software  

SciTech Connect

The development of software for use in high-consequence systems mandates rigorous (formal) processes, methods, and techniques to improve the safety characteristics of those systems. This paper provides a brief overview of current research and practices in high-consequence software, including applied design methods. Some of the practices that are discussed include: fault tree analysis, failure mode effects analysis, petri nets, both hardware and software interlocks, n-version programming, Independent Vulnerability Analyses, and watchdogs. Techniques that offer improvement in the dependability of software in high-consequence systems applications are identified and discussed. Limitations of these techniques are also explored. Research in formal methods, the cleanroom process, and reliability models are reviewed. In addition, current work by several leading researchers as well as approaches being used by leading practitioners are examined.

Collins, E.; Dalton, L.; Peercy, D.; Pollock, G.; Sicking, C.

1994-12-31

302

Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.

Kameyama, Ikuya

1997-01-01

303

Magnet driver for producing ultra-high gradient magnetic fields for magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed gradient magnetic fields are required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many imaging sequences (e.g., echo planar imaging, diffusion tensor imaging) could be improved with shorter gradient pulses. MRI systems currently available typically require ramp times of hundreds of microseconds. The goal of the work described here is to achieve very high gradient fields, with very short rise times to

Howard D. Sanders; Steven C. Glidden; Daniel M. Warnow; Irving N. Weinberg; Pavel Stepanov; Roland Probst; Alan McMillan; Rao Gullapalli; Piotr M. Starewicz; William F. B. Punchard; Kai-Ming Lo; Stanley Thomas Fricke

2011-01-01

304

High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced by ozonation of limonenew  

E-print Network

from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene is characterized by high-resolution electrospray during the ozonation of limonene. In addition, it includes isomerization and decomposition pathways of D-limonene, Leungsakul et al.24 recently described a semi-empirical me- chanism that correctly

Nizkorodov, Sergey

305

A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

306

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOEpatents

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1996-02-20

307

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOEpatents

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01

308

Streptomyces sp. JS520 produces exceptionally high quantities of undecylprodigiosin with antibacterial, antioxidative, and UV-protective properties.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, red-pigment-producing bacterial strain, designated JS520 was isolated from the pristine sediment from the cave on mountain Miroc in Serbia. Strain was confirmed to belong to Streptomyces genus based on phenotypic and genetic analysis. Streptomyces sp. JS520 has the ability to produce exceptionally high amounts of deep red pigment into both solid and liquid media. Liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy of the purified pigments revealed the major component to be undecylprodigiosin (93 %) with minor component being oxidatively cyclized derivative. The pigment production was affected by medium composition, temperature, pH, and the aeration rate. By medium optimization, yields of undecylprodigiosin of 138 mg l(-1) were achieved, what is the highest level of undecylprodigiosin production reported for the members of Gram-positive Streptomyces genus. Purified pigment had antimicrobial properties against bacterial Bacillus and Micrococcus species (50 ?g ml(-1)) and against Candida albicans species (100-200 ?g ml(-1) range). The ability to affect auto-oxidation of the linoleic acid was demonstrated for the purified undecylprodigiosin, suggesting antioxidative properties of this pigment. Multiple ecophysiological roles of the pigment were revealed by comparing cultures grown under pigment-producing and pigment-nonproducing conditions. Cells grown under undecylprodigiosin-producing conditions could tolerate presence of hydrogen peroxide exhibiting three times smaller zones of inhibition at 100 mM H(2)O(2). Undecylprodigiosin-producing cells were also less susceptible to tetracycline, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. While the growth of the cells not producing pigment was completely inhibited by 15 min of exposure to ultraviolet light (254 nm), cells producing undecylprodigiosin and cells supplied with purified pigment in vitro showed survival rates at 22 and 8 %, respectively. PMID:22767180

Stankovic, Nada; Radulovic, Vanja; Petkovic, Milos; Vuckovic, Ivan; Jadranin, Milka; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

2012-12-01

309

Relevance relations for the concept of reproducibility  

PubMed Central

The concept of reproducibility is widely considered a cornerstone of scientific methodology. However, recent problems with the reproducibility of empirical results in large-scale systems and in biomedical research have cast doubts on its universal and rigid applicability beyond the so-called basic sciences. Reproducibility is a particularly difficult issue in interdisciplinary work where the results to be reproduced typically refer to different levels of description of the system considered. In such cases, it is mandatory to distinguish between more and less relevant features, attributes or observables of the system, depending on the level at which they are described. For this reason, we propose a scheme for a general ‘relation of relevance’ between the level of complexity at which a system is considered and the granularity of its description. This relation implies relevance criteria for particular selected aspects of a system and its description, which can be operationally implemented by an interlevel relation called ‘contextual emergence’. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels and thus construct level-specific criteria for reproducibility in an overall consistent fashion. Relevance relations merged with contextual emergence challenge the old idea of one fundamental ontology from which everything else derives. At the same time, our proposal is specific enough to resist the backlash into a relativist patchwork of unconnected model fragments. PMID:24554574

Atmanspacher, H.; Bezzola Lambert, L.; Folkers, G.; Schubiger, P. A.

2014-01-01

310

Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N.sub.n H.sub.(n+m) wherein: n=1-4 and m=2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si-N-H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics.

Pugar, Eloise A. (Isla Vista, CA); Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1990-01-01

311

Process for producing high purity silicon nitride by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and nitrogen-hydrogen liquid reactants  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, nitrogen, and hydrogen which can then be heated to produce a high purity alpha silicon nitride. The process comprises: reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity nitrogen-hydrogen reactant in its liquid state (such as ammonia or hydrazine) having the formula: N/sub n/H/sub (n+m)/ wherein: n = 1--4 and m = 2 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is straight chain, and 0 when the nitrogen-hydrogen reactant is cyclic. High purity silicon nitride can be formed from this intermediate product by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200--1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours to form a high purity alpha silicon nitride product. The discovery of the existence of a soluble Si/endash/N/endash/H intermediate enables chemical pathways to be explored previously unavailable in conventional solid-state approaches to silicon-nitrogen ceramics

Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

1987-09-15

312

Stressed mothers lay eggs with high corticosterone levels which produce low-quality offspring.  

PubMed

Organisms frequently encounter stressful ecological conditions. In vertebrates, a major mechanism of physiological response to stress is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and results in increased secretion of glucocorticosteroids, which can have adverse consequences on diverse phenotypic traits affecting fitness. Maternal stress may thus have carry-over effects on progeny if it influences pre-natal offspring environment in terms of glucocorticosteroid concentration, although this hypothesis has never been tested in any species under field conditions. We manipulated stress experienced by female barn swallows Hirundo rustica, by exposing them to a predator during laying and measured egg corticosterone concentration. Stressed females laid eggs with greater corticosterone concentration than controls exposed to a herbivore. In another experiment, we injected physiological doses of corticosterone in the egg albumen and compared the phenotype of offspring originating from these eggs with their control siblings originating from either sham-inoculated or unmanipulated eggs and reared in the same nest. Eggs injected with corticosterone had lower hatchability and produced fledglings with smaller body size and slower plumage development than did control eggs. Nestling body size in our study population predicts long-term survival. Thus, maternal stress impaired offspring phenotype and viability by increasing transmission of glucocorticosteroids to the eggs. This study identifies a novel mechanism mediating early maternal effects whereby maternal stress affects offspring quality. These results are relevant to biological conservation because they disclose a mechanism that can link environmental conditions to population productivity and viability. PMID:16217808

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Ferrari, Raffaella Paola; Martinelli, Roberta; Møller, Anders Pape

2005-11-01

313

Novel APP/A? mutation K16N produces highly toxic heteromeric A? oligomers  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe a novel missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) causing a lysine-to-asparagine substitution at position 687 (APP770; herein, referred to as K16N according to amyloid-? (A?) numbering) resulting in an early onset dementia with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The K16N mutation is located exactly at the ?-secretase cleavage site and influences both APP and A?. First, due to the K16N mutation APP secretion is affected and a higher amount of A? peptides is being produced. Second, A? peptides carrying the K16N mutation are unique in that the peptide itself is not harmful to neuronal cells. Severe toxicity, however, is evident upon equimolar mixture of wt and mutant peptides, mimicking the heterozygous state of the subject. Furthermore, A?42 K16N inhibits fibril formation of A?42 wild-type. Even more, A?42 K16N peptides are protected against clearance activity by the major A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Thus the mutation characterized here harbours a combination of risk factors that synergistically may contribute to the development of early onset Alzheimer disease. PMID:22514144

Kaden, Daniela; Harmeier, Anja; Weise, Christoph; Munter, Lisa M; Althoff, Veit; Rost, Benjamin R; Hildebrand, Peter W; Schmitz, Dietmar; Schaefer, Michael; Lurz, Rudi; Skodda, Sabine; Yamamoto, Raina; Arlt, Sönke; Finckh, Ulrich; Multhaup, Gerd

2012-01-01

314

Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests  

SciTech Connect

We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01

315

A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Insulin-resistant, ‘type 2’ diabetes (T2D) results from a complex interplay between genes and environment. In particular, both caloric excess and obesity are strongly associated with T2D across many genetic backgrounds. To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae reared on a high-sugar diet were hyperglycemic, insulin resistant and accumulated fat – hallmarks of T2D – compared with those reared on control diets. Excess dietary sugars, but not fats or proteins, elicited insulin-resistant phenotypes. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and ?-oxidation was upregulated in high-sugar-fed larvae, as were FOXO targets, consistent with known mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans. These data establish a novel Drosophila model of diet-induced insulin resistance that bears strong similarity to the pathophysiology of T2D in humans. PMID:21719444

Musselman, Laura Palanker; Fink, Jill L.; Narzinski, Kirk; Ramachandran, Prasanna Venkatesh; Hathiramani, Sumitha Sukumar; Cagan, Ross L.; Baranski, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

316

Inverse Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching Produces Smooth High Aspect Ratio InP Nanostructures.  

PubMed

Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods. PMID:25521615

Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

2015-01-14

317

High-performance liquid chromatographic screening of chlorophyll derivatives produced during fruit storage.  

PubMed

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection was applied to the systematic screening of chlorophylls and derivative pigments. The chromatographic procedure proposed made it possible to successfully separate and identify eight chlorophyll derivatives (the a and b forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyllide, pheophytin and pheophorbide) by using a linear gradient of methanol, acetone and ammonium acetate. The method has been routinely applied to study chlorophyll degradation during the postharvest storage of cherimoya (Annona cherimola, Mill.) fruits. The brilliant green colour even at maturity, and its high chlorophyllase and Mg-dechelating activities, indicate that this plant material might be suitable for investigating the as yet not well known chlorophyll breakdown processes. PMID:10722106

Almela, L; Fernández-López, J A; Roca, M J

2000-02-18

318

Reproducibility of odor maps by fMRI in rodents.  

PubMed

The interactions of volatile odorants with the approximately 1000 types of olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa are represented in the olfactory bulb by glomerular spatial activity maps. If these spatial maps underlie the perceptual identification of odorants then, for a given organism, they must be both specific and reproducible. However, this intra-organism reproducibility need not be present between organisms because genetic and developmental studies of olfactory bulb wiring suggest that there is substantial variation between the glomerular arrangements of closely related organisms and even between the two bulbs in a given animal. The ability of functional MRI (fMRI) to record responses of the entire rodent olfactory bulb repeatedly within the same subject has made it possible to assess the reproducibility of odor-induced spatial activity maps both within and between subjects exposed to equivalent stimuli. For a range of odorants, representing multiple chemical classes, a level of fMRI reproducibility (at 7.0 T and 9.4 T) comparable or superior to other cortical regions was demonstrated. While the responses of different bulbs to the same odorant could be localized within the same broad regions of the glomerular sheet, the precise magnitude and topology of the response within those regions were both often highly variable. These results demonstrate the robustness of high-field fMRI as a tool for assaying olfactory bulb function and provide evidence that equivalent perceptual outcomes may arise from divergent neural substrates. PMID:16632382

Schafer, James R; Kida, Ikuhiro; Xu, Fuqiang; Rothman, Douglas L; Hyder, Fahmeed

2006-07-01

319

Data elaboration of proton beams produced by high-energy laser-generated plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton beam production from high-energy laser-generated plasma is increasingly becoming of special interest for investigations in the field of new techniques of ion acceleration, nuclear physics, astrophysics and radiotherapy. The evolution of short-pulsed lasers, from the nanosecond to the femtosecond pulse scale, has allowed for an increase in intensity from about 10 W\\/cm to about 10 W\\/cm with a consequent increase

L. Torrisi; T. Minniti; L. Giuffrida

2010-01-01

320

A simple approach for producing highly efficient DNA carriers with reduced toxicity based on modified polyallylamine.  

PubMed

Nowadays gene delivery is a topic in many research studies. Non-viral vectors have many advantages over viral vectors in terms of safety, immunogenicity and gene carrying capacity but they suffer from low transfection efficiency and high toxicity. In this study, polyallylamine (PAA), the cationic polymer, has been modified with hydrophobic branches to increase the transfection efficiency of the polymer. Polyallylamine with molecular weights of 15 and 65kDa was selected and grafted with butyl, hexyl and decyl acrylate at percentages of 10, 30 and 50. The ability of the modified polymer to condense DNA was examined by ethidium bromide test. The complex of modified polymer and DNA (polyplex) was characterized for size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity in Neuro2A cell lines. The results of ethidium bromide test showed that grafting of PAA decreased its ability for DNA condensation but vectors could still condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to DNA ratios. Most of polyplexes had particle size between 150 and 250nm. The prepared vectors mainly showed positive zeta potential but carriers composed of PAA with high percentage of grafting had negative zeta potential. The best transfection activity was observed in vectors with hexyl acrylate chain. Grafting of polymer reduced its cytotoxicity especially at percentages of 30 and 50. The vectors based of PAA 15kDa had better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65kDa. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that grafting PAA 15kDa with high percentages of hexyl acrylate can help to prepare vectors with better transfection efficiency and less cytotoxicity. PMID:25686952

Oskuee, Reza Kazemi; Dosti, Fatemeh; Gholami, Leila; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan

2015-04-01

321

NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

Not Available

2012-09-01

322

Development of Compton radiography using high-Z backlighters produced by ultra-intense lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy x-ray backlighters will be valuable for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and for radiography of imploded inertial confinement fusion cores using Compton scattering to observe cold, dense plasma. Key considerations are the available backlight brightness, and the backlight size. To quantify these parameters we have characterized the emission from low- and high-Z planar foils irradiated by intense picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses from the TITAN laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Spectra generated by a sequence of elements from Mo to Pb, spanning the x-ray energy range from 17 keV to 75 keV, have been recorded using a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) in single hit regime and a Dual Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). High-resolution point-projection 2D radiographs have also been recorded on Fuji BaFBr:Eu2 image plates using calibrated resolution grids. We discuss the results in light of the requirements for applications at NIF.

Tommasini, Riccardo; Park, Hye-Sook; Patel, Prav; Maddox, Brian; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hatchett, Stephen P.; Remington, Bruce A.; Key, Michael H.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Tabak, Max; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Landen, Otto L.; Hey, Dan; MacKinnon, Andy; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry; Szabo, Csilla

2007-08-01

323

Producing high sugar concentrations from loblolly pine using wet explosion pretreatment.  

PubMed

We present quantitative analysis of pretreatment for obtaining high conversion and release of sugars from loblolly pine. We use wet explosion (WEx): wet oxidation followed by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) at high dry matter to solubilize sugars. WEx was conducted at 25% (w/w) solids in presence of oxygen at pressures 6.5-7.2 bar, temperatures 170-175°C and residence time from 20 to 22.5 min. EH of pretreated samples was performed by Cellic® Ctec2 (60 mg protein/g cellulose) and Cellic® Htec2 enzymes (10% of Ctec2) at 50°C for 72 h. At the optimal WEx condition 96% cellulose and nearly 100% hemicellulose yield were obtained. The final concentrations of monomeric sugars were 152 g/L of glucose, 67 g/L of xylose, and 67 g/L of minor sugars (galactose, arabinose and mannose). Compared to previous work WEx seems to be superior for releasing high concentrations of monomeric sugars. PMID:22854131

Rana, Diwakar; Rana, Vandana; Ahring, Birgitte K

2012-10-01

324

Development of Compton radiography using high-Z backlighters produced by ultra-intense lasers  

SciTech Connect

High-energy x-ray backlighters will be valuable for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and for radiography of imploded inertial confinement fusion cores using Compton scattering to observe cold, dense plasma. Key considerations are the available backlight brightness, and the backlight size. To quantify these parameters we have characterized the emission from low- and high-Z planar foils irradiated by intense picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses from the TITAN laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Spectra generated by a sequence of elements from Mo to Pb, spanning the x-ray energy range from 17 keV to 75 keV, have been recorded using a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) in single hit regime and a Dual Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). High-resolution point-projection 2D radiographs have also been recorded on Fuji BaFBr:Eu2 image plates using calibrated resolution grids. We discuss the results in light of the requirements for applications at NIF.

Tommasini, Riccardo; Park, Hye-Sook; Patel, Prav; Maddox, Brian; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hatchett, Stephen P.; Remington, Bruce A.; Key, Michael H.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Tabak, Max; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Landen, Otto L.; Hey, Dan; MacKinnon, Andy; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry; Szabo, Csilla [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

2007-08-02

325

MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS  

ScienceCinema

As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the ?Reproducible Research Standard? (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

None

2011-10-06

326

High-strain-rate superplasticity at low temperature in a ZK61 magnesium alloy produced by powder metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, superplastic behavior of a pseudo single phase magnesium alloy, ZK61, was investigated at about half the absolute melting point. The material was produced by the P\\/M route, and had a fine grain size of [approximately]500 nm. It is demonstrated that the P\\/M ZK61 alloy can behave in a superplastic manner at a high strain rate of

Hiroyuki Watanabe; Toshiji Mukai; Mamoru Mabuchi; Kenji Higashi

1999-01-01

327

High-Critical-Temperature Sm and Nd-Based Superconductors Produced by Metal Organic Deposition Using Trifluoroacetates and Pentafluoropropionates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting films for wire, tape, and microwave filter applications require a high critical temperature (Tc) and current density (Jc). Therefore, superconducting systems based on La, Nd, and Sm produced by low-cost non-vacuum metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) are eagerly awaited. These systems are reported to have excellent Tc values of over 94 K, but esterification between trifluoroacetates and methanol

Takeshi Araki; Izumi Hirabayashi

2005-01-01

328

Effect of Crude Protein on Reproductive Efficiency, Serum Total Protein, and Albumin in the High-Producing Dairy Cow1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five high-producing dairy cows were assigned randomly in equal numbers and fed one of three isocaloric rations of 12.7, 16.3, or 19.3% crude protein starting at 4 days postpartum and con- tinuing for 91 days. The 19.3% group had fewer days to first observed estrus (27 days) than the 16.3 and 12.7% groups (41 days). The 12.7 and 16.3% groups

E. R. Jordan; L. V. Swanson

1979-01-01

329

Impacts of dietary fat level and saturation when feeding distillers grains to high producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine whether increasing the net energy (NEL ) of a total mixed ration (TMR) with mainly unsaturated fat from corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. rumen inert (RI)-saturated fat has similar impacts on animal performance. The experiment was an incomplete Youden square with three treatments and four 28-days periods, completed on a large commercial dairy using three early lactation pens each with approximately 380 multiparity cows. The TMR for all treatments was the same, except for 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) of each TMR which contained 90 g/kg high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS) and 60 g/kg beet pulp (i.e. low-fat control diet; LFC); 150 g/kg DDGS (i.e. high-fat diet with unsaturated fat; HFU); or 111 g/kg HPDDGS, 20 g/kg beet pulp and 19 g/kg RI fat (i.e. high-fat diet with saturated fat; HFS). The DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for HFU-fed cows. Milk, fat and true protein yields, as well as milk energy output, were higher (p < 0.01) when cows were fed HFS vs. HFU and LFC diets. Milk true protein concentration was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows, but milk fat % was lowest (p < 0.01) for HFU and highest (p < 0.01) for HFS-fed cows. There were numerous differences (p < 0.01) in milk fatty acid levels amongst diets. The increase in body condition score was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC. Whole tract digestibility of acid detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.01) for LFC vs. HFS cows, and fat digestion was lowest (p < 0.01) for LFC-fed cows. This DDGS, high in unsaturated fatty acids, was fed at high levels (i.e. 152 g/kg DM) with little impact on animal performance vs. a lower fat control diet, although addition of an RI-saturated fat to create a diet with a similarly higher fat level resulted in higher animal productivity. PMID:25040565

Havlin, J M; Robinson, P H; Karges, K

2014-07-01

330

Digital Science: reproducibility and visibility in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the science done in Astronomy is digital science, from observing proposals to final publications, data and software used: each of the elements and actions involved in the overall process could be recorded in electronic format. This fact does not prevent that the final result of an experiment is still difficult to reproduce. At the same time, we have a rich infrastructure of observational data and publications. This could be used more efficiently if greater visibility of the scientific production is achieved and seamless reproducibility guaranteed, which would avoid duplication of effort and reinvention. We present the current results of the Wf4Ever project. In particular, how the use of scientific workflows as the digital characterization of the methodology may boost visibility and reproducibility of the scientific outcome, hence its discovery, re-use and a more efficient exploitation of present astronomical archives, computational infrastructures and observational facilities.

Ruiz, J. E.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sánchez, S.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Garrido, J.

2013-05-01

331

Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25°C).  

PubMed

The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19°C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25°C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17°C and 25°C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25°C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are promising for further fine mapping purpose. PMID:25234739

Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

2014-12-01

332

The effect of space charge produced by corona at ground level on lightning attachment to high objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the corona space charge layer created at ground level on lightning attachment to high (20-100 m) slender objects is numerically studied. The shielding effect of corona space charge produced near the object tip on the electric field at ground level is considered. The behavior of a non-stationary streamer-free corona developed from ground irregularities in a time-varying thundercloud electric field is discussed. The initiation of an upward leader from the tip of a high grounded object is simulated in the electric field created by a storm-cloud, approaching downward leader and space charge produced by corona at ground level and near the object tip. The corona space charge produced on the ground surface is shown to affect only slightly the inception of an upward connecting leader from the object when the local electric field near the object tip rises rapidly due to an approaching downward leader. The effect of neutral aerosol particles on lightning attachment to high grounded slender objects is also small.

Bazelyan, E. M.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Aleksandrov, N. L.

2015-02-01

333

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number and particularly lead free gasoline, from olefininc c3-c4 cuts  

SciTech Connect

Lead free gasoline of high octane number is obtained from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts as follows: propylene contained in the C/sub 3/ cut is oligomerized, at least 80% of the isobutene and less than 40% of the n-butenes of the C/sub 4/ cut are oligomerized to form an oligomerizate distilling in the gasoline range, which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, the latter are subsequently alkylated to form a gasoline fraction which can be admixed with the oligomerizates of the Cnumber and the C/sub 4/ cuts to produce the desired high octane gasoline.

Hellin, M.; Juguin, B.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q. D.

1981-05-19

334

Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications  

SciTech Connect

Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2011-01-01

335

First experiment on fission transients in highly fissile spherical nuclei produced by fragmentation of radioactive beams.  

PubMed

We report on a novel experimental approach for studying the dissipative spreading of collective motion in a metastable nuclear system, using, for the first time, highly fissile nuclei with spherical shape. This was achieved by fragmentation of 45 radioactive heavy-ion beams at GSI, Darmstadt. The use of inverse kinematics and a dedicated experimental setup allowed for the identification in atomic number of both fission fragments. From the width of their nuclear-charge distributions, a transient time of (3.3+/-0.7)x10(-21) s is deduced for initially spherical nuclei. PMID:17678357

Schmitt, C; Nadtochy, P N; Heinz, A; Jurado, B; Keli?, A; Schmidt, K-H

2007-07-27

336

Some coatings of high cavitation resistance produced by CO2 laser beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An influence of laser beam surface alloying of such substrates as Armco iron as well as the structural carbon steel (45) and the corrosion resistant chromium steel (2Cr13) on their performance under the cavitation erosion conditions was investigated. The powders of various additives were melted and alloyed by means of CO2 laser beam, and subsequently subjected to cavitation loading at the rotating disc facility. As a result of assays carried out four coatings of high (Co) or contributing to the increase in the impact toughness (Ni, Mn) were indicated as the responsible for the substantial improvement of the material wear properties.

Giren, Boleslaw G.; Szkodo, Marek

2003-11-01

337

Reproducible measurements of MPI performance characteristics.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe the difficulties inherent in making accurate, reproducible measurements of message-passing performance. We describe some of the mistakes often made in attempting such measurements and the consequences of such mistakes. We describe mpptest, a suite of performance measurement programs developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that attempts to avoid such mistakes and obtain reproducible measures of MPI performance that can be useful to both MPI implementers and MPI application writers. We include a number of illustrative examples of its use.

Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

1999-06-25

338

The thermal properties of high purity and fully dense tungsten produced by chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultra-high purity (>99.9999 wt.%) and fully dense (19.23 g/cm3) tungsten (W) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was prepared with the deposition rate higher than 0.6 mm/h. The thermal diffusivity, specific heat, heat conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of CVD-W at the temperature range of 473-1273 K were measured. Thermal shock tests were carried out on a 60 kW electron-beam material testing scenario to investigate the crack-resistant performance of CVD-W, and the crack initiation threshold energies of CVD-W were achieved in 5 ms heating duration. Compared to forged-W, the higher heat conductivity (160.5-111 W/(m K)) and threshold energy of crack initiation (1.1-1.65 MJ/m2) of CVD-W can be attributed to the material characteristics including high purity, fully dense, rough surface composed of pyramid-like grains, and the columnar grain structures.

Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng; Lian, Youyun; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xiang; Zhuang, Zhigang

2015-02-01

339

Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.  

PubMed

Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation. PMID:23733838

Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

2014-03-01

340

High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced by Ozonation of Limonene  

SciTech Connect

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from the ozone-initiated oxidation of limonene are characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in both the positive and negative ion modes. The mass spectra reveal a large number of both monomeric (m/z < 300) and oligomeric (m/z > 300) products of oxidation. A combination of high resolving power (m/?m ~60,000) and Kendrick mass defect analysis makes it possible to unambiguously determine the composition for hundreds of individual compounds in SOA samples. Van Krevelen analysis shows that the SOA compounds are heavily oxidized, with average O:C ratios of 0.43 and 0.50 determined from the positive and negative ion mode spectra, respectively. An extended reaction mechanism for the formation of the first generation SOA molecular components is proposed. The mechanism includes known isomerization and addition reactions of the carbonyl oxide intermediates generated during the ozonation of limonene, and numerous isomerization pathways for alkoxy radicals resulting from the decomposition of unstable carbonyl oxides. The isomerization reactions yield numerous products with a progressively increasing number of alcohol and carbonyl groups, whereas C-C bond scission reactions in alkoxy radicals shorten the carbon chain. Together these reactions yield a large number of isomeric products with broadly distributed masses. A qualitative agreement is found between the number and degree of oxidation of the predicted and measured reaction products in the monomer range.

Walser, Maggie L.; Dessiaterik, Yury; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

2008-02-08

341

Application of High-Density DNA Resequencing Microarray for Detection and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Clostridia  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium botulinum and related clostridia express extremely potent toxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause severe, potentially lethal intoxications in humans. These BoNT-producing bacteria are categorized in seven major toxinotypes (A through G) and several subtypes. The high diversity in nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the gene cluster encoding the BoNT components poses a great challenge for the screening and characterization of BoNT-producing strains. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we designed and evaluated the performances of a resequencing microarray (RMA), the PathogenId v2.0, combined with an automated data approach for the simultaneous detection and characterization of BoNT-producing clostridia. The unique design of the PathogenID v2.0 array allows the simultaneous detection and characterization of 48 sequences targeting the BoNT gene cluster components. This approach allowed successful identification and typing of representative strains of the different toxinotypes and subtypes, as well as the neurotoxin-producing C. botulinum strain in a naturally contaminated food sample. Moreover, the method allowed fine characterization of the different neurotoxin gene cluster components of all studied strains, including genomic regions exhibiting up to 24.65% divergence with the sequences tiled on the arrays. Conclusions/Significance The severity of the disease demands rapid and accurate means for performing risk assessments of BoNT-producing clostridia and for tracing potentials sources of contamination in outbreak situations. The RMA approach constitutes an essential higher echelon component in a diagnostics and surveillance pipeline. In addition, it is an important asset to characterise potential outbreak related strains, but also environment isolates, in order to obtain a better picture of the molecular epidemiology of BoNT-producing clostridia. PMID:23818983

Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Berthet, Nicolas; Mazuet, Christelle; Guigon, Ghislaine; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Stamboliyska, Rayna; Dubois, Philippe; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Popoff, Michel-Robert

2013-01-01

342

Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2005-01-01

343

Intense high-frequency pressure waves produced with low laser fluences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure waves generated by laser pulses can permeabilize biological barriers, such as the skin or cellular membranes. The characteristics of the absorbing materials are decisive in determining the shape and amplitude of pressure impulse transients. Based on the physics and photochemistry of light-to-pressure conversion, we generate high intensity broadband ultrasound capable of transiently permeabilizing biological barriers. We show evidence that no damage is done to cells exposed to such pressure waves and that skin recovers its protective function some minutes after exposure to the pressure waves. The ability of the pressure waves to promote transient skin permeabilization is assessed by the increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) immediately after the application of pressure waves, and by the full recovery of the skin to the normal TEWL values in the following minutes.

Serpa, Carlos; Sá, Gonçalo F. F.; Arnaut, Luis G.

2012-02-01

344

Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2014-01-01

345

Intense THz radiation produced in organic salt crystals for high-field applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic stilbazolium salt crystals pumped by intense, ultrashort mid-infrared laser have been investigated for efficient THz generation by optical rectification. In this paper we present our latest results in view of the generation of single-cycle and high-field THz transient in the THz gap (0.1-10 THz). The organic rectifiers like DAST, OH1 and DSTMS combine extremely large optical susceptibility with excellent velocity matching between the infrared pump and the THz radiation. Our simple collinear conversion scheme provides THz beams with excellent focusing properties and single cycle electric field larger than 1.5 MV/cm and magnetic field strength beyond 0.5 Tesla. The source can potentially cover the full THz gap at field strength which is barely provided by other THz sources. The THz pulse is carrier-envelope phase stable and the polarity of the field can be easily inverted.

Vicario, C.; Ruchert, C.; Hauri, C. P.

2013-03-01

346

Exploiting highly ordered subnanoliter volume microcapillaries as microtools for the analysis of antibody producing cells.  

PubMed

The interrogation of highly diverse repertoires of heterogeneous cell populations on a single cell basis increases the likelihood that a cell with unique characteristics will be identified. We have developed a new single cell analysis system comprising millions of bundled subnanoliter volume bioincubation chambers for the identification and recovery of target specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). This platform integrates dual surface screening with dedicated user driven data analysis and automated cell recovery enabling multiple biophysical parameters to be tracked for millions of antibody leads in parallel. This direct clone analysis and selection technology is a clear deviation from current microfabricated well-based approaches and offers drastically enhanced screening throughput, simultaneous dual surface analysis, and rapid automated single cell recovery. The technology is also applicable to screening both bacterial and mammalian antibody secreting cells. We demonstrate the implementation and feasibility of this platform in identifying target specific antibodies from bacterial, hybridoma, and B cell libraries. PMID:25479183

Fitzgerald, Valerie; Manning, Brian; O'Donnell, Barry; O'Reilly, Brian; O'Sullivan, Dermot; O'Kennedy, Richard; Leonard, Paul

2015-01-20

347

Structural modifications during heating of bulk nanocrystalline FeAl produced by high-pressure torsion  

PubMed Central

The deformation-induced nanostructure developed during high-pressure torsion of B2 long-range ordered FeAl is shown to be unstable upon heating. The structural changes were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and microhardness measurements. Heating up to 220 °C leads to the recurrence of the chemical long-range order that is destroyed during deformation. It is shown that the transition to the long-range-ordered phase evolves in the form of small ordered domains homogeneously distributed inside the nanosized grains. At temperatures between 220 and 370 °C recovery of dislocations and antiphase boundary faults cause a reduction in the grain size from 77 to 35 nm. Grain growth occurs at temperatures above 370 °C. The evolution of the strength monitored by microhardness is discussed in the framework of grain-size hardening and hardening by defect recovery. PMID:20953414

Mangler, C.; Gammer, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.; Rentenberger, C.

2010-01-01

348

New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors  

SciTech Connect

This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.

Boatner, L.A.

2008-06-24

349

Batch-to-batch reproducibility of Transferon™.  

PubMed

Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that modulate immune responses in various diseases. Due their complexity, standardized methods to identify their physicochemical properties and determine that production batches are biologically active must be established. We aimed to develop and validate a size exclusion ultra performance chromatographic (SE-UPLC) method to characterize Transferon™, a DLE that is produced under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). We analyzed an internal human DLE standard and 10 representative batches of Transferon™, all of which had a chromatographic profile characterized by 8 main peaks and a molecular weight range between 17.0 and 0.2kDa. There was high homogeneity between batches with regard to retention times and area percentages, varying by less than 0.2% and 30%, respectively, and the control chart was within 3 standard deviations. To analyze the biological activity of the batches, we studied the ability of Transferon™ to stimulate IFN-? production in vitro. Transferon™ consistently induced IFN-? production in Jurkat cells, demonstrating that this method can be included as a quality control step in releasing Transferon™ batches. Because all analyzed batches complied with the quality attributes that were evaluated, we conclude that the DLE Transferon™ is produced with high homogeneity. PMID:24099727

Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Merchand-Reyes, Giovanna; Pavón, Lenin; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

2014-01-01

350

High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in an urban river sediment habitat.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of ARB in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. We isolated 56 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in China. All strains were confirmed for ESBL-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and MIC determination. Of the isolated strains, 39 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae (consisting of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Aeromonas) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical analysis. The present study identifies, for the first time, ESBL-producing strains from the families Brucellaceae and Moraxellaceae. The bla(CTX-M) gene was the most dominant of the ESBL genes (45 strains), while the bla(TEM) gene was the second-most dominant (22 strains). A total of five types of bla(CTX-M) fragments were identified, with both known and novel sequences. A library of bla(CTX-M) cloned from the sediment DNA showed an even higher diversity of bla(CTX-M) sequences. The discovery of highly diverse ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, particularly bla(CTX), in urban river sediment raises alarms for potential dissemination of ARB in communities through river environments. PMID:20639374

Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Li; Geng, Sui-Na; Li, Tian-Yu; Ye, Zhuo-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Zou, Fei; Zhou, Hong-Wei

2010-09-01

351

Exome capture from saliva produces high quality genomic and metagenomic data  

PubMed Central

Background Targeted capture of genomic regions reduces sequencing cost while generating higher coverage by allowing biomedical researchers to focus on specific loci of interest, such as exons. Targeted capture also has the potential to facilitate the generation of genomic data from DNA collected via saliva or buccal cells. DNA samples derived from these cell types tend to have a lower human DNA yield, may be degraded from age and/or have contamination from bacteria or other ambient oral microbiota. However, thousands of samples have been previously collected from these cell types, and saliva collection has the advantage that it is a non-invasive and appropriate for a wide variety of research. Results We demonstrate successful enrichment and sequencing of 15 South African KhoeSan exomes and 2 full genomes with samples initially derived from saliva. The expanded exome dataset enables us to characterize genetic diversity free from ascertainment bias for multiple KhoeSan populations, including new exome data from six HGDP Namibian San, revealing substantial population structure across the Kalahari Desert region. Additionally, we discover and independently verify thirty-one previously unknown KIR alleles using methods we developed to accurately map and call the highly polymorphic HLA and KIR loci from exome capture data. Finally, we show that exome capture of saliva-derived DNA yields sufficient non-human sequences to characterize oral microbial communities, including detection of bacteria linked to oral disease (e.g. Prevotella melaninogenica). For comparison, two samples were sequenced using standard full genome library preparation without exome capture and we found no systematic bias of metagenomic information between exome-captured and non-captured data. Conclusions DNA from human saliva samples, collected and extracted using standard procedures, can be used to successfully sequence high quality human exomes, and metagenomic data can be derived from non-human reads. We find that individuals from the Kalahari carry a higher oral pathogenic microbial load than samples surveyed in the Human Microbiome Project. Additionally, rare variants present in the exomes suggest strong population structure across different KhoeSan populations. PMID:24708091

2014-01-01

352

Study of near surface layer of graphite produced by nitrogen ion bombardment at high doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the modified surface layers of graphites and deposited films of sputtered material, the dependences of sputtering yield Y, and ion-electron emission coefficient gamma on ion incidence angle and target temperature under high dose 30 keV N-2(+) ion irradiation have been measured. In the angular range theta=0-80degrees Y and gamma increase approximately as inverse costheta, Y of POCO-AXF-5Q are 1.5 times larger than of MPG-LT. The dependences of gamma (T) manifests a step-like behaviour typical for the radiation induced phase transitions. EPR analysis shows that at near room temperatures the point electron defects are typical of carbon and the defects due to carbon atoms interacting with N-14 nuclei. At elevated temperatures (greater than or equal to300 degreesC) there are the defects typical of graphite-like structures. The films deposited on glass collectors shows for cold targets only the defects typical of carbon, for the heated graphites - also the defects associated with C-N-14 nuclei interaction.

Bogomolova, L. D.; Borisov, A. M.; Krasil'Nikova, N. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Nemov, A. S.; Tarasova, V. V.

353

Effect of high SARs produced by cell phone like radiofrequency fields on mollusk single neuron.  

PubMed

During exposure to the cell phone electromagnetic field (EMF), some neurons in the brain at areas of peak specific absorption rate (SAR) absorb more electromagnetic energy than is permitted by existing guidelines. The goal of the present work was to investigate the influence of cell phone-like EMF signal on excitability and memory processes in single neurons. A Transverse Electromagnetic Cell (TEM Cell) was used to expose single neurons of mollusk to the EMF. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method was used for modeling the TEM Cell and the EMF interactions with living nerve ganglion and neurons. Neuron electrophysiology was investigated using standard microelectrode technique. SAR deposited into the single neuron was calculated to be 8.2 W/kg with a temperature increment of 1.21°C. After acute exposure, the threshold of firing of action potentials (AP) was significantly decreased (p ? 0.001). Time of habituation to stimulation with the intracellular current injection was increased (p ? 0.003). These results indicate that acute exposure to EMF at high SARs impairs the ability of neurons to store information. PMID:23046101

Partsvania, B; Sulaberidze, T; Shoshiashvili, L

2013-03-01

354

Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.  

PubMed

The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of fac?ade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration. PMID:23556582

Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

2013-04-01

355

Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA.  

PubMed

Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L:<2 ng/L) > imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source. PMID:25042208

Hladik, Michelle L; Kolpin, Dana W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

2014-10-01

356

Reproducing American Sign Language sentences: cognitive scaffolding in working memory  

PubMed Central

The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects' recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies when they failed to recall the sentence correctly. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are considered. PMID:25152744

Supalla, Ted; Hauser, Peter C.; Bavelier, Daphne

2014-01-01

357

On a Method of reproducing Astronomical Photographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. MAX WÖLF, in his excellent article on the `` Reflector and Portrait Lens in Celestial Photography,'' published in your issue of April 22 last, mentions a method of ``reproducing nebulous masses'' from original negatives, and refers to my reproduction of a photograph of the nebula M. 8, done in collaboration with Mr. Lunt.

K. D. Naegamvala

1897-01-01

358

This essay has been reproduced from the  

E-print Network

genes into tk­ mouse fibroblasts by injecting DNA directly into their nuclei (Capecchi, 1980 in foster mothers (see Great Experiments : Transgenic Mice: Expression of Foreign Genes in AnimalsThis essay has been reproduced from the Great Experiments section of http://www.ergito.com Gene

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

359

Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

Lobb, Nancy

360

rbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) reproduce asexually,  

E-print Network

A rbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) reproduce asexually, are multinucleate, and have that there is fusion of fungal hyphae. This analysis, together with complementary findings2­4 , suggests that AM fungi fungi are both haploid and have no hyphal fusion. However, we cannot reject the possi- bility that AM

Wang, Mei

361

Reproducibility of Emergent Plant Mapping on Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulrushes Schoenoplectus spp. are widely distributed emergent plants that provide important fish habitat. Despite their importance, the precision of aquatic plant surveys conducted within lakes is rarely studied. Reproducibility of field-based bulrush stand coverage was assessed by using three different surveyors to conduct repeated delineations of bulrush stands in five north-central Minnesota lakes. Lakes were mapped by means of Global

Paul Radomski; Kevin Woizeschke; Kristin Carlson; Donna Perleberg

2011-01-01

362

High-antibody-producing chinese hamster ovary cells up-regulate intracellular protein transport and glutathione synthesis.  

PubMed

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) due to their ability to perform post-translational modifications and their successful approval history. The completion of the genome sequence for CHO cells has reignited interest in using quantitative proteomics to identify markers of good production lines. Here we applied two different proteomic techniques, iTRAQ and SWATH, for the identification of expression differences between a high- and low-antibody-producing CHO cell lines derived from the same transfection. More than 2000 proteins were quantified with 70 of them classified as differentially expressed in both techniques. Two biological processes were identified as differentially regulated by both methods: up-regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and down-regulation of DNA replication. Metabolomic analysis confirmed that the high producing cell line displayed higher intracellular levels of glutathione. SWATH further identified up-regulation of actin filament processes and intracellular transport and down regulation of several growth-related processes. These processes may be important for conferring high mAb production and as such are promising candidates for targeted engineering of high-expression cell lines. PMID:25495469

Orellana, Camila A; Marcellin, Esteban; Schulz, Benjamin L; Nouwens, Amanda S; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K

2015-02-01

363

Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis  

PubMed Central

Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

2008-01-01

364

Using a hybrid Monte Carlo/Genetic Algorithm Slip Estimator to produce high resolution models of paleoearthquakes from geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying fault sections where slip deficits have accumulated may provide a means for understanding sequences of large megathrust earthquakes. Stress accumulated during the interseismic period on locked sections of an active fault is stored as potential slip. Where this potential slip remains unreleased during earthquakes, a slip deficit can be said to have accrued. Analysis of the spatial distribution of slip during antecedent events along the fault will show where the locked plate has spent its stored slip and indicate where the potential for large events remains. The location of recent earthquakes and their distribution of slip can be estimated instrumentally. To develop the idea of long-term slip-deficit modelling it is necessary to constrain the size and distribution of slip for pre-instrumental events dating back hundreds of years covering more than one ';seismic cycle'. This requires the exploitation of proxy sources of data. Coral microatolls, growing in the intertidal zone of the outer island arc of the Sunda trench, present the possibility of producing high resolution reconstructions of slip for a number of pre-instrumental earthquakes. Their growth is influenced by tectonic flexing of the continental plate beneath them allows them to act as long term geodetic recorders. However, the sparse distribution of data available using coral geodesy results in a under determined problem with non-unique solutions. Instead of producing one definite model satisfying the observed corals displacements, a Monte Carlo Slip Estimator based on a Genetic Algorithm (MCSE-GA) accelerating the rate of convergence is used to identify a suite of models consistent with the data. Successive iterations of the MCSE-GA sample different displacements at each coral location, from within the spread of associated uncertainties, producing a catalog of models from the full range of possibilities. The suite of best slip distributions are weighted according to their fitness and stacked to produce a final estimate of the distribution of slip for a particular earthquake. Examination of the slip values in the stacked models allows areas of high confidence to be identified where the standard deviation is low. Similarly, areas of low confidence will be found where standard deviations are high. These high resolution models can be used to reconstruct a history of slip along the fault, both identifying and quantifying of slip deficits and constraining confidence in the accuracy of the modelled information. This presentation will demonstrate the ability of the MCSE-GA to produce accurate models of slip for instrumentally recorded earthquakes and show estimates for slip during paleoearthquakes along the Sunda Megathrust.

Lindsay, A.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.; Simao, N.; Murphy, S.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Steacy, S.

2013-12-01

365

Practical experience with passenger car engine blocks produced in high quality compacted graphite iron  

SciTech Connect

Although the superior properties of compacted graphite iron (CGI) are well known, its application to the series production of complex castings such as passenger car engine blocks has been precluded by the absence of a reliable foundry production technique. Despite the narrow chemistry range over which high quality CGI is stable, recent advances in cast iron foundry process control technology now serve as the starting point for a comprehensive CGI engine development program at Adam Opel AG. The Opel CGI program originated with the 2.5 liter V6 DTM racing engine which now delivers 2.7 times more power and weights 20% less than the standard grey iron production. Acoustical evaluations were then performed on identically designed 2.0 liter Family 2 engines to show that the audible noise level of the CGI engine was 1.1 to 1.5 dB(A) less than that of the grey iron engine. Simultaneously the 35% higher elastic modulus of CGI relative to conventional grey iron resulted in a 7% increase of the torsional vibration frequency. Other benefits realized from the CGI studies include a 70% reduction in bore distortion, 44% improvement in honed surface roughness (Ra) and more than 40% improvement in cylinder bore wear resistance. As a result of these positive results Opel has recently undertaken a complete redesign of its 1.4/1.6 liter Family 1 gasoline engine block for series production. The new CGI block is 29.4% lighter than its grey iron predecessor while providing the same power output (105 hp). The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the compacted graphite iron engine development programs at Adam Opel AG.

Tholl, M.; Magata, A.; Dawson, S.

1996-09-01

366

Living with high putrescine: expression of ornithine and arginine biosynthetic pathway genes in high and low putrescine producing poplar cells.  

PubMed

Arginine (Arg) and ornithine (Orn), both derived from glutamate (Glu), are the primary substrates for polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, and also play important roles as substrates and intermediates of overall N metabolism in plants. Their cellular homeostasis is subject to multiple levels of regulation. Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we studied changes in the expression of all genes of the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway in response to up-regulation [via transgenic expression of mouse Orn decarboxylase (mODC)] of PA biosynthesis in poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) cells grown in culture. Cloning and sequencing of poplar genes involved in the Orn/Arg biosynthetic pathway showed that they have high homology with similar genes in other plants. The expression of the genes of Orn, Arg and PA biosynthetic pathway fell into two hierarchical clusters; expression of one did not change in response to high putrescine, while members of the other cluster showed a shift in expression pattern during the 7-day culture cycle. Gene expression of branch point enzymes (N-acetyl-Glu synthase, Orn aminotransferase, Arg decarboxylase, and spermidine synthase) in the sub-pathways, constituted a separate cluster from those involved in intermediary reactions of the pathway (N-acetyl-Glu kinase, N-acetyl-Glu-5-P reductase, N-acetyl-Orn aminotransferase, N (2)-acetylOrn:N-acetyl-Glu acetyltransferase, N (2)-acetyl-Orn deacetylase, Orn transcarbamylase, argininosuccinate synthase, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermine synthase). We postulate that expression of all genes of the Glu-Orn-Arg pathway is constitutively coordinated and is not influenced by the increase in flux rate through this pathway in response to increased utilization of Orn by mODC; thus the pathway involves mostly biochemical regulation rather than changes in gene expression. We further suggest that Orn itself plays a major role in the regulation of this pathway. PMID:21082203

Page, Andrew F; Minocha, Rakesh; Minocha, Subhash C

2012-01-01

367

Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 administration reduces the lifespan of aged high antibody producer mice  

PubMed Central

Background Aging process may result in immune modifications that lead to disruption of innate and acquired immunity mechanisms that may induce chronic-degenerative events. The heat shock proteins (Hsp), phylogeneticaly conserved among organisms, present as main function the ability of folding and refolding proteins, but they also are associated with chronic-degenerative disorders. Here were evaluated the role of M. leprae native Hsp65 (WT) and its point-mutated (K409A) on survival and anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 antibody production of aged genetically selected mice for high (HIII) and low (LIII) antibody production; data from 120- and 270-days old mice (named “adult” or “aged”, respectively) were compared. Results WT Hsp65 administration induces reduction in the mean survival time of adult and aged female HIII mice, this effect being stronger in aged individuals. Surprisingly, the native protein administration increased the survival of aged female LIII when compared to K409A and control groups. No survival differences were observed in aged male mice after Hsp65 proteins inoculation. We observed increase in IgG1 anti-Hsp65 in WT and K409A aged HIII female mice groups and no marked changes in the anti-DNA (adult and aged HIII) and anti-Hsp65 IgG1 or IgG2a isotypes production in adult HIII female and aged male mice. LIII male mice presented increased anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 IgG2a isotype production after WT or K409A injection, and LIII female groups showed no alterations. Conclusions The results revealed that the WT Hsp65 interferes with survival of aged HIII female mice without involvement of a remarkable IgG1 and IgG2a anti-DNA and anti-Hsp65 antibodies production. The deleterious effects of Hsp65 on survival time in aged HIII female mice could be linked to a gender-effect and are in agreement with those previously reported in lupus-prone mice. PMID:24669842

2014-01-01

368

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

369

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

370

Direct observation of microscopic inhomogeneities in high {Tc} superconductors using energy-dispersive diffraction of synchrotron produced x-rays  

SciTech Connect

Evidence of micron-sized structural inhomogeneities in several high transition temperature ({Tc}) superconductors is presented. By illuminating samples with high energy, highly collimated x-rays produced on a synchrotron wiggler, small changes in the lattice were detected over a spatial scale as small as 10 {micro}m. In the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} crystals, these changes are interpreted as evidence of variations in the oxygen content and in the Nd{sub 2{minus}x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4{minus}y} crystal, as a variation in the cerium content. Each type of inhomogeneity can affect the superconducting properties.

Skelton, E.F.; Qadri, S.B.; Osofsky, M.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

371

Comparable High Rates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Birds of Prey from Germany and Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas blaCTX-M-1 predominated among German isolates (100%), blaCTX-M-9 was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23300857

Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

2012-01-01

372

Unacceptably high error rates in Vitek 2 testing of cefepime susceptibility in extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

While a lack of concordance is known between gold standard MIC determinations and Vitek 2, the magnitude of the discrepancy and its impact on treatment decisions for extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are not. Clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from blood, tissue, and body fluid samples from January 2003 to July 2009. Resistance genotypes were identified by PCR. Primary analyses evaluated the discordance between Vitek 2 and gold standard methods using cefepime susceptibility breakpoint cutoff values of 8, 4, and 2 ?g/ml. The discrepancies in MICs between the methods were classified per convention as very major, major, and minor errors. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for susceptibility classifications were calculated. A total of 304 isolates were identified; 59% (179) of the isolates carried blaCTX-M, 47% (143) carried blaTEM, and 4% (12) carried blaSHV. At a breakpoint MIC of 8 ?g/ml, Vitek 2 produced a categorical agreement of 66.8% and exhibited very major, major, and minor error rates of 23% (20/87 isolates), 5.1% (8/157 isolates), and 24% (73/304), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for a susceptibility breakpoint of 8 ?g/ml were 94.9%, 61.2%, 72.3%, and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for a susceptibility breakpoint of 2 ?g/ml were 83.8%, 65.3%, 41%, and 93.3%, respectively. Vitek 2 results in unacceptably high error rates for cefepime compared to those of agar dilution for ESBL-producing E. coli. Clinicians should be wary of making treatment decisions on the basis of Vitek 2 susceptibility results for ESBL-producing E. coli. PMID:24752253

Rhodes, Nathaniel J; Richardson, Chad L; Heraty, Ryan; Liu, Jiajun; Malczynski, Michael; Qi, Chao; Scheetz, Marc H

2014-07-01

373

Unacceptably High Error Rates in Vitek 2 Testing of Cefepime Susceptibility in Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

While a lack of concordance is known between gold standard MIC determinations and Vitek 2, the magnitude of the discrepancy and its impact on treatment decisions for extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are not. Clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from blood, tissue, and body fluid samples from January 2003 to July 2009. Resistance genotypes were identified by PCR. Primary analyses evaluated the discordance between Vitek 2 and gold standard methods using cefepime susceptibility breakpoint cutoff values of 8, 4, and 2 ?g/ml. The discrepancies in MICs between the methods were classified per convention as very major, major, and minor errors. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for susceptibility classifications were calculated. A total of 304 isolates were identified; 59% (179) of the isolates carried blaCTX-M, 47% (143) carried blaTEM, and 4% (12) carried blaSHV. At a breakpoint MIC of 8 ?g/ml, Vitek 2 produced a categorical agreement of 66.8% and exhibited very major, major, and minor error rates of 23% (20/87 isolates), 5.1% (8/157 isolates), and 24% (73/304), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for a susceptibility breakpoint of 8 ?g/ml were 94.9%, 61.2%, 72.3%, and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for a susceptibility breakpoint of 2 ?g/ml were 83.8%, 65.3%, 41%, and 93.3%, respectively. Vitek 2 results in unacceptably high error rates for cefepime compared to those of agar dilution for ESBL-producing E. coli. Clinicians should be wary of making treatment decisions on the basis of Vitek 2 susceptibility results for ESBL-producing E. coli. PMID:24752253

Rhodes, Nathaniel J.; Richardson, Chad L.; Heraty, Ryan; Liu, Jiajun; Malczynski, Michael; Qi, Chao

2014-01-01

374

IFN?/IL-10 Co-producing Cells Dominate the CD4 Response to Malaria in Highly Exposed Children  

PubMed Central

Although evidence suggests that T cells are critical for immunity to malaria, reliable T cell correlates of exposure to and protection from malaria among children living in endemic areas are lacking. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to perform a detailed functional characterization of malaria-specific T cells in 78 four-year-old children enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in Tororo, Uganda, a highly malaria-endemic region. More than 1800 episodes of malaria were observed in this cohort, with no cases of severe malaria. We quantified production of IFN?, TNF?, and IL-10 (alone or in combination) by malaria-specific T cells, and analyzed the relationship of this response to past and future malaria incidence. CD4+ T cell responses were measurable in nearly all children, with the majority of children having CD4+ T cells producing both IFN? and IL-10 in response to malaria-infected red blood cells. Frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4+ T cells, which express the Th1 transcription factor T-bet, were significantly higher in children with ?2 prior episodes/year compared to children with <2 episodes/year (P<0.001) and inversely correlated with duration since malaria (Rho?=??0.39, P<0.001). Notably, frequencies of IFN?/IL10 co-producing cells were not associated with protection from future malaria after controlling for prior malaria incidence. In contrast, children with <2 prior episodes/year were significantly more likely to exhibit antigen-specific production of TNF? without IL-10 (P?=?0.003). While TNF?-producing CD4+ T cells were not independently associated with future protection, the absence of cells producing this inflammatory cytokine was associated with the phenotype of asymptomatic infection. Together these data indicate that the functional phenotype of the malaria-specific T cell response is heavily influenced by malaria exposure intensity, with IFN?/IL10 co-producing CD4+ T cells dominating this response among highly exposed children. These CD4+ T cells may play important modulatory roles in the development of antimalarial immunity. PMID:24415936

Jagannathan, Prasanna; Eccles-James, Ijeoma; Bowen, Katherine; Nankya, Felistas; Auma, Ann; Wamala, Samuel; Ebusu, Charles; Muhindo, Mary K.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Briggs, Jessica; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tappero, Jordan W.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant; Feeney, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

375

Experiences with a new generation of electrically produced radiation sources: High energy, high power electron linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

AECL Accelerators has built the three highest power 10 MeV industrial electron accelerators in the world. Two are in commercial use, one is operating under demanding conditions in AECL`s laboratories. The new IMPELA{reg_sign}{sup 2} technology is proving more than adequately rugged for industrial use. Experience in financing, facility design, construction, licensing, commissioning and early operation of the IMPELA accelerators is reviewed. The availability of the IMPELA prototype has been 99% over the past 12 months. The first commercial IMPELA has had an availability of 95% in its first six months of operation. Mean-time-to-repair has been four hours. IMPELA`s high power level opens new horizons for the use of electron beams. Currently being treated are medical devices, plastic pellets and formed plastic parts. Future applications will likely include cellulose pulp, wood chips, animal feed, and spices. A large future market in irradiating food awaits commercial development. Similarly large opportunities may exist in the disinfection of medical wastes and the destruction of chemical and biological weapons.

Stirling, A.J.

1994-12-31

376

High Strength and High Ductility of Ultrafine-Grained, Interstitial-Free Steel Produced by ECAE and Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial-free steel (IF steel) underwent severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular extrusion/pressing (ECAE/P) to improve its strength, and then it was annealed to achieve a good strength-ductility balance. The coarse-grained microstructure of IF steel was refined down to the submicron level after eight-pass ECAE. The ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure with high dislocation density brought about substantially improved strength but limited tensile ductility. The limited ductility was attributed to the small, uniform elongation caused by early plastic instability. The annealing at temperatures below 723 K (450 °C) for 1 hour did not lead to remarkable softening, whereas annealing at temperatures up to 923 K (650 °C) resulted in complete softening depending on the development of recrystallization. Therefore, the temperature of approximately 923 K (650 °C) can be considered as a critical recrystallization temperature for UFG IF steel. The annealing at 873 K (600 °C) for different time intervals resulted in different stress-strain response. Uniform tensile elongation increased at the expense of strength with annealing time intervals. After annealing at 873 K (600 °C) for 60 minutes, the yield strength, tensile strength, uniform elongation, and total elongation were found to be 320 MPa, 485 MPa, 15.1 pct, and 33.7 pct, respectively, showing the better combination of strength and ductility compared with cold-rolled samples.

Purcek, Gencaga; Saray, Onur; Karaman, Ibrahim; Maier, Hans J.

2012-06-01

377

Potential for green microalgae to produce hydrogen, pharmaceuticals and other high value products in a combined process  

PubMed Central

Green microalgae for several decades have been produced for commercial exploitation, with applications ranging from health food for human consumption, aquaculture and animal feed, to coloring agents, cosmetics and others. Several products from green algae which are used today consist of secondary metabolites that can be extracted from the algal biomass. The best known examples are the carotenoids astaxanthin and ?-carotene, which are used as coloring agents and for health-promoting purposes. Many species of green algae are able to produce valuable metabolites for different uses; examples are antioxidants, several different carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, anticancer and antiviral drugs. In many cases, these substances are secondary metabolites that are produced when the algae are exposed to stress conditions linked to nutrient deprivation, light intensity, temperature, salinity and pH. In other cases, the metabolites have been detected in algae grown under optimal conditions, and little is known about optimization of the production of each product, or the effects of stress conditions on their production. Some green algae have shown the ability to produce significant amounts of hydrogen gas during sulfur deprivation, a process which is currently studied extensively worldwide. At the moment, the majority of research in this field has focused on the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but other species of green algae also have this ability. Currently there is little information available regarding the possibility for producing hydrogen and other valuable metabolites in the same process. This study aims to explore which stress conditions are known to induce the production of different valuable products in comparison to stress reactions leading to hydrogen production. Wild type species of green microalgae with known ability to produce high amounts of certain valuable metabolites are listed and linked to species with ability to produce hydrogen during general anaerobic conditions, and during sulfur deprivation. Species used today for commercial purposes are also described. This information is analyzed in order to form a basis for selection of wild type species for a future multi-step process, where hydrogen production from solar energy is combined with the production of valuable metabolites and other commercial uses of the algal biomass. PMID:22765907

2013-01-01

378

Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC  

PubMed Central

In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18?MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18?MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

2014-01-01

379

Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

1996-01-01

380

Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

2014-11-01

381

Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility  

PubMed Central

Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

2014-01-01

382

Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility.  

PubMed

Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

2014-01-01

383

A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

2013-10-01

384

High-order harmonic generation during propagation of femtosecond pulses through the laser-produced plasmas of semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of high-order harmonics of the ultrashort pulses of Ti:sapphire laser in the plasma plumes produced during laser ablation of various semiconductors (Te, Se, Si, As, Sb, and Ge) is reported. Application of two-color pump allowed the generation of enhanced odd and even harmonics. The resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonics was observed in the Ge, Se, Sb, As, and Te plasmas. The enhanced 35th harmonic obtained from selenium plasma was twelve times stronger than the neighboring harmonics. We also demonstrate the quasi-phase-matching of the harmonics generated in the As plasma.

Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

2015-01-01

385

Molecular basis of ML-236B production in the high-producing mutant No. 41520 of Penicillium citrinum.  

PubMed

Strain improvement through random mutagenesis, screening and selection has provided us with spontaneous mutants which could produce more ML-236B than the original isolate, Penicillium citrinum SANK18767. The objective of the present study is to clarify how a high-producing mutant No. 41520 acquired the ability to produce 500 times more ML-236B than the original isolate on a molecular basis. Southern blot analysis and sequence comparison revealed that amplification of the ML-236B biosynthetic gene cluster and alteration of nucleotides within the loci had not occurred in the genome of No. 41520. On the other hand, a differential hybridization and Northern blot analysis showed that expression levels of the nine biosynthetic genes mlcA to mlcH and mlcR in No. 41520 increased greatly as compared to those in the original isolate. These data suggested that the increase in ML-236B production was partly due to increased expression of genes involved in ML-236B biosynthesis. Morphological differences and higher consumption of carbon source would also affect ML-236B production in No. 41520. Functional analysis revealed that a gene, orf1 next to mlcR, was not involved in the ML-236B biosynthesis, but it was involved in the transcriptional activation of genes along with the ML-236B gene cluster. Titer enhanced mutations might have occurred in the regulation system for transcription activation of the ML-236B biosynthetic genes in the mutants of P. citrinum. PMID:15486826

Abe, Yuki; Baba, Satoshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ono, Chiho; Iwamoto, Kohji; Hosobuchi, Masahiko

2004-06-01

386

Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level.  

PubMed

This study isolated a novel erythritol-producing yeast strain, which is capable of growth at high osmolarity. Characteristics of the strain include asexual reproduction by multilateral budding, absence of extracellular starch-like compounds, and a negative Diazonium blue B color reaction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the species Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and has been named P. tsukubaensis KN75. When P. tsukubaensis KN75 was cultured aerobically in a fed-batch culture with glucose as a carbon source, it produced 245 g/L of erythritol, corresponding to 2.86 g/L/h productivity and 61% yield, the highest erythritol yield ever reported by an erythritol-producing microorganism. Erythritol production was scaled up from a laboratory scale (7 L fermenter) to pilot (300 L) and plant (50,000 L) scales using the dissolved oxygen as a scale-up parameter. Erythritol production at the pilot and plant scales was similar to that at the laboratory scale, indicating that the production of erythritol by P. tsukubaensis KN75 holds commercial potential. PMID:19169680

Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kim, Jung-Soo; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

2009-05-01

387

Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

1996-03-01

388

Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

2014-06-01

389

High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

2014-09-01

390

Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N2 or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

Antunes, E. F.; de Resende, V. G.; Mengui, U. A.; Cunha, J. B. M.; Corat, E. J.; Massi, M.

2011-07-01

391

A Transforming Marker That Produces Merodiploids with High Efficiency and Stable Transformants with Low Efficiency in Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

A mutation (ery-r8) conferring a high level of resistance to erythromycin in the Challis strain of Streptoccus sanguis can be transferred to wild-type erythromycin-sensitive recipients via single molecules of donor DNA. The transformants thus produced are of two types: (1) cells slightly more resistant to erythromycin than wild-type and capable of segregating (at a frequency of 2 x 10-4/bacterium/generation) either wild-type or highly-resistant cells like the original donor type; (2) cells phenotypically and genotypically identical to the original donor type. The unstable diploids (ery-r8/+) occur with a frequency equivalent to that obtained with high-efficiency (HE) markers, whereas the stable donor-type (ery-r8) transformants occur with about five hundred times lower frequency. Penetration of the wild-type recipient by more than one molecule of DNA bearing the ery-r8 marker increases by as much as seven times the incidence of stable transformants. UV-irradiation of molecules bearing the ery-r8 marker diminishes their ability to cooperate in producing a stable transformant, although the UV sensitivity of stable transformant production by a single DNA molecule is not different from that of diploid production. Hence, stable transformants do not appear to be produced by a process typical of low efficiency (LE) markers, which are generally highly sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation. Moreover, stable ery-r8 transformants are produced with equally low frequencies in strains of S. pneumoniae that discriminate (hex+) and fail to discriminate (hex -) between HE and LE markers. We postulate that all transformations by the ery-r8 marker result in ery-r8/+ diploids, and that segregation results in the infrequent stable transformants of the original donor type. This hypothesis is supported by the observations that rifampin treatment of ery-r8/+ populations increases the frequency of segregation and similar treatment of wild-type recipients undergoing transformation by the ery-r8 marker increases the frequency of stable transformants.—In producing the ery-r8/+ transformant the r8 allele is integrated close to the site of its wild-type homolog, since single molecules of DNA from this transformant can be shown to carry both alleles. Segregation of either the ery-r8 or + allele is not detectably enhanced by acridine orange or thymidine deprivation.—The ery-r8 marker occurs close to a site of mutation (ery-r2) which confers erythromycin resistance upon ribosomes. When the r2 and r8 markers are jointly transferred, ery-r2-r8/+ genomes are produced in which the r2 marker is stably integrated but the r8 marker is unstably adjoined to its wild-type homolog. Thus, the duplicated region can be quite short. When the ery-r8 marker is stably integrated, the region of the marker is refractory to subsequent transformation. Markers with properties like ery-r8 are not particularly rare, being found with a frequency of about 4% among spontaneous mutations to erythromycin resistance. PMID:1232022

Ravin, Arnold W.; Ma, Michael

1975-01-01

392

Recovery of high purity zinc from filter ash produced during the thermal treatment of waste and inerting of residual materials.  

PubMed

The method described below recovers zinc, a valuable metal that is present in high concentrations in filter ash from the thermal treatment of waste, and returns the filter ash stripped of heavy metals to the combustion process in order to destroy organic substances. On an industrial scale, the heavy metals in the filter ash were mobilized by means of hydrochloric acid in the acidic fluids produced in the flue-gas scrubbing process without the addition of further chemicals. A pilot plant for implementing the selective reactive extraction (SRE) method on the ash extracts, using a highly selective complexant, was operated over a period of several months in order to obtain a concentrated, high-purity zinc salt solution (mono metal solution). A zinc depletion rate of 99.8% in the aqueous extract was achieved using mixer-settler units. The residual zinc concentration in the waste water was then < 2 mg L(-1). By stripping the loaded organic phase, a concentrated, high-purity mono metal solution with 190 g L(-1) zinc was obtained. Zinc metal with a purity > 99.99% is then separated by means of electrolysis. To destroy organic substances present in the filter ash, particularly dioxins and furans, the extracted filter ash cake was returned to the combustion process together with household waste. Plant operation, raw and pure gas parameters, and quality of the bottom ash produced were not impacted by such recirculation. The profitability of the overall process is attributable both to the recovery of valuable zinc metal and to the cost savings made in waste water treatment and in the disposal of the waste combustion residues because the remaining mixture of filter ash and bottom ash can be reused in a combined form. This method therefore supports the sustainable and economically viable reuse of filter ash. PMID:18229749

Schlumberger, Stefan; Schuster, Michael; Ringmann, Stefan; Koralewska, Ralf

2007-12-01

393

High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

394

Pseudomonas Strains Naturally Associated with Potato Plants Produce Volatiles with High Potential for Inhibition of Phytophthora infestans.  

PubMed

Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan; Weisskopf, Laure

2015-02-01

395

GMR Biosensor Arrays: Correction Techniques for Reproducibility and Enhanced Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Giant magnetoresistive biosensors possess great potential in biomedical applications for quantitatively detecting magnetically tagged biomolecules. Magnetic sensing does not suffer from the high background levels found in optical sensing modalities such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay translating into a technology with higher sensitivity. However, to reveal the full potential of these sensors and compensate for non-idealities such as temperature dependence, digital correction and calibration techniques are not only useful but imperative. Using these calibration techniques to correct for process variations and dynamic changes in the sensing environment (such as temperature and magnetic field), we are able to obtain extremely sensitive and, more importantly, reproducible results for quantifiable biomolecular reorganization. The reproducibility of the system was improved by over 3× using digital correction techniques and the sensors are made temperature independent by using a novel background correction technique. PMID:20219342

Hall, D. A.; Gaster, R. S.; Osterfeld, S. J.; Murmann, B.; Wang, S. X.

2010-01-01

396

Chemical Fabrication Used to Produce Thin-Film Materials for High Power-to- Weight-Ratio Space Photovoltaic Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key to achieving high specific power (watts per kilogram) space solar arrays is the development of a high-efficiency, thin-film solar cell that can be fabricated directly on a flexible, lightweight, space-qualified durable substrate such as Kapton (DuPont) or other polyimide or suitable polymer film. Cell efficiencies approaching 20 percent at AM0 (air mass zero) are required. Current thin-film cell fabrication approaches are limited by either (1) the ultimate efficiency that can be achieved with the device material and structure or (2) the requirement for high-temperature deposition processes that are incompatible with all presently known flexible polyimide or other polymer substrate materials. Cell fabrication processes must be developed that will produce high-efficiency cells at temperatures below 400 degrees Celsius, and preferably below 300 degress Celsius to minimize the problems associated with the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrate and thin-film solar cell and/or the decomposition of the substrate.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Rybicki, George C.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Junek, William; Gorse, Joseph; Thompson, Tracy L.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.

2000-01-01

397

High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Feldman, Uri [ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Holland, Glenn E. [SFA Inc., 2200 Defense Highway, Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States); Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA and Universities Space Research Associates, Columbia, Maryland 21044 (United States); Fielding, Drew [Commonwealth Technologies Inc., 5775 Barclay Drive, Alexandria, Virginia 22315 (United States)

2008-10-15

398

Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in strawberry puree.  

PubMed

Most fresh produce, such as strawberries, receives minimal processing and is often eaten raw. Contamination of produce with pathogenic bacteria may occur during growth, harvest, processing, transportation, and storage (abuse temperature) and presents a serious public health risk. Strawberries have been implicated in an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection that sickened 15 people, including one death. Strawberries may also be contaminated by other serogroups of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145, which have become known as the "Big Six" or "Top Six" non-O157 STECs. The objective of this research was to explore the potential application of high pressure processing (HPP) treatment to reduce or eliminate STECs in fresh strawberry puree (FSP). FSP, inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of the "Big Six" non-O157 STEC strains or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum-sealed packages, were pressure-treated at 150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 MPa (1 MPa = 10(6) N/m(2)) for 5, 15, and 30 min. HPP treatment, at 350 MPa for ?5 min, significantly reduced STECs in FSP by about 6-log CFU/g from the initial cell population of ca. 8-log CFU/g. Cell rupture, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), demonstrated that the HPP treatments can be potentially used to control both non-O157 and O157:H7 STECs in heat sensitive products. PMID:24549194

Hsu, HsinYun; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Sites, Joseph; Huang, Lihan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

2014-06-01

399

Queer nuclear families? Reproducing and transgressing heteronormativity.  

PubMed

During the past decade the public debate on gay and lesbian adoptive rights has been extensive in the Norwegian media. The debate illustrates how women and men planning to raise children in homosexual family constellations challenge prevailing cultural norms and existing concepts of kinship and family. The article discusses how lesbian mothers and gay fathers understand and redefine their own family practices. An essential point in this article is the fundamental ambiguity in these families' accounts of themselves-how they simultaneously transgress and reproduce heteronormative assumptions about childhood, fatherhood, motherhood, family and kinship. PMID:18771116

Folgerø, Tor

2008-01-01

400

Contributions to reproducible CPV outdoor power ratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies that aim to obtain a reproducible power rating are still under discussion at the WG7 of the IEC and there is a need for feedback from real field application in order to validate or improve these methods. These procedures are evaluated through the outdoor rating of seven modules from four different CPV technologies, which have been measured at the CEA outdoor monitoring bench at the Institut National de l'Energie Solaire (INES) site. The benefit of introducing other procedural considerations is analyzed, namely the inclusion of spectrally-corrected irradiance, the utilization of lens temperature as a new parameter for regressions and the optimization of dataset filtering.

Besson, Pierre; Domínguez, César; Baudrit, Mathieu

2014-09-01

401

High-level expression and purification of recombinant human growth hormone produced in soluble form in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Human growth hormone (hGH) was one of the first recombinant proteins approved for the treatment of human growth disorders. Its small size (191 amino acids), possession of only 2 disulphide bonds and absence of posttranslational modifications make Escherichia coli the host of choice for its production on any scale. In this work, we have utilized an efficient T7 based expression system to produce high levels of soluble thioredoxin-hGH (Trx-hGH) fusion protein. We outline a relatively simple three step purification process employing two immobilized metal-affinity chromatography and one anion-exchange steps and removal of fusion partner by enterokinase cleavage yielding native hGH. The ability of cell populations to produce quantities of up to 1 g/L of the soluble Trx-hGH fusion protein has been tested in flask cultivations as well as in batch and fed-batch bioreactor runs. The sequence and structure of derived hGH were confirmed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism and its native function, to induce cell proliferation, was confirmed by employing a Nb2 cell line proliferation assay. PMID:24859479

Levarski, Zdenko; Šoltýsová, Andrea; Krahulec, Ján; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Tur?a, Ján

2014-08-01

402

A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions—dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions—that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

Wang, Jie-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Le, Yuan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Jian-Feng

2011-07-01

403

Screening of lipid high producing mutant from rhodotorula glutinis by low ion implantation and study on optimization of fermentation medium.  

PubMed

In order to obtain lipid producing strain with high-yield, the wild type stain Rhodotorula glutinis was treated by low ion implantation, and optimization of fermentation medium for higher lipid yield was carried out using mutant strain. It was found that the strain had a higher positive mutation rate when the output power was 10 keV and the dose of N(+) implantation was 80 × 2.6 × 10(13) ions/cm(2). Then a high-yield mutant strain D30 was obtained through cid-heating coupling ultrasonic method and lipid yield was 3.10 g/L. Additionally, the surface response method was used to optimize fermentation medium. The three significant factors (glucose, peptone, KH2PO4) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized parameters of fermentation medium were as follows: glucose 73.40 g/L, peptone 1.06 g/L and KH2PO4 3.56 g/L. Finally the fermentation characteristic of high-yield mutation strain D30 was studied, when fermentation time was 10 days, which lipid yield increased to 7.81 g/L. Fatty acid composition of the lipid was determined by GC, and the most represented fatty acids of mutant D30 were C16:0 (11.4 %), C16:1 (5.66 %), C18:1 (49.3 %), and C18:2 (27.0 %). PMID:24426135

Shichang, Li; Pengpeng, Zhang; Shaobin, Gu; Hongxia, Liu; Ya, Liu; Shengnan, Liu

2013-09-01

404

High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

2008-05-21

405

Reporting research antibody use: how to increase experimental reproducibility.  

PubMed

Research antibodies are used in a wide range of bioscience disciplines, yet it is common to hear dissatisfaction amongst researchers with respect to their quality. Although blame is often attributed to the manufacturers, scientists are not doing all they can to help themselves. One example of this is in the reporting of research antibody use. Publications routinely lack key details, including the host species, code number and even the company who supplied the antibody. Authors also fail to demonstrate that validation of the antibodies has taken place. These omissions make it harder for reviewers to establish the likely reliability of the results and for researchers to reproduce the experiments. The scale of this problem, combined with high profile concerns about experimental reproducibility, has caused the Nature Publishing Group to include a section on antibody information in their recent Reporting Checklist for Life Science Articles. In this commentary we consider the issue of reporting research antibody use and ask what details authors should be including in their publications to improve experimental reproducibility. PMID:24358895

Helsby, Matthew A; Fenn, Joe R; Chalmers, Andrew D

2013-01-01

406

Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on luteal function and reproductive performance of high-producing lactating Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives were to evaluate effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3,300 IU i.m.) administered on d 5 after AI on CL number, plasma progesterone concentration, conception rate, and pregnancy loss in high-producing dairy cows. Following the synchronization of estrus and AI, 406 cows were injected with either hCG or saline on d 5 after AI in a randomized complete block design. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted once between d 11 and 16 after AI. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 28 by ultrasonography and on d 45 and 90 after AI by rectal palpation. Treatment with hCG on d 5 resulted in 86.2% of the cows with more than one CL compared with 23.2% in controls. Plasma progesterone concentrations were increased by 5.0 ng/mL in hCG-treated cows. The presence of more than one CL increased progesterone concentration in hCG-treated cows but not in controls. Conception rates were higher for hCG-treated cows on d 28 (45.8 > 38.7%), 45 (40.4 > 36.3%), and 90 (38.4 > 31.9%) after AI. Treatment with hCG improved conception rate in cows losing body condition between AI and d 28 after Al. Pregnancy losses were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with hCG on d 5 after AI induces accessory CL, enhances plasma progesterone concentration, and improves conception rate of high-producing dairy cows. PMID:11768118

Santos, J E; Thatcher, W W; Pool, L; Overton, M W

2001-11-01

407

High throughput quantitative expression screening and purification applied to recombinant disulfide-rich venom proteins produced in E. coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays. PMID:25146501

Saez, Natalie J; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

2014-01-01

408

Technique for the efficient and reproducible fabrication of electromagnetic levitation coils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique has been developed for fabricating electromagnetic induction coils in a reproducible manner. The process utilizes a split mandrel that can be disassembled to remove the mandrel from the coil. The technique has increased coil production rates by a factor of 8 over the freehand winding method. The success rate for producing a functional levitation coil has been increased from 50 percent to 95 percent. The levitation coil designed during this work has successfully levitated and melted a variety of alloys including Cu, Ag, Ag-Ni, Cu-Fe, Fe-C, and Nb-Ge. W was also levitated but not melted at temperatures as high as 2700 C. The highest sample melt temperature achieved was 2400 C for the Nb-Ge samples.

Ethridge, E. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Theiss, J.; Abbaschian, G. J.

1984-01-01

409

Process for reproducibly preparing titanium subhydride  

DOEpatents

Titanium subhydride is produced in a reactor by heating a selected amount of finely divided titanium compound at a selected temperature for a selected period of time under dynamic vacuum conditions. Hydrogen is removed substantially uniformly from each powder grain and there is produced a subhydride of substantially uniform titanium-hydrogen composition. Selection of the amount, temperature and time produces a subhydride of selected titanium-hydrogen composition.

Carlson, Richard S. (West Alexandria, OH)

1982-01-01

410

Reproducibility Data on SUMMiT  

SciTech Connect

SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology) at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL (Microelectronics Development Laboratory) is a standardized MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers (with the third oxide layer being planarized) to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SWiT run to obtain post-processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

Irwin, Lloyd; Jakubczak, Jay; Limary, Siv; McBrayer, John; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James; Sniegowski, Jeffry; Stewart, Harold; de Boer, Maarten

1999-07-16

411

Measurements of electrical resistivity of heavy ion beam produced high energy density matter: Latest results for lead and tungsten  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-intensity heavy ion beams provided by the accelerator facilities of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt are an excellent tool to produce large volumes of high energy density (HED) matter. Thermophysical and transport properties of HED matter states are of interest for fundamental as well as for applied research. During the last few years development of new diagnostic techniques allowed for a series of measurements of the electrical resistivity of heavy ion beam generated HED matter. In this report we present the most recent results on electrical resistivity of HED matter at GSI. The experiments on which we report have been performed with targets consisting of tungsten wires and lead foils, respectively. Uranium and argon beam pulses with durations of a few hundred ns, intensities of about 2×109 and 1×1011 ions/bunch, respectively, and an initial ion energy of 300-350 A MeV have been used as a driver. An energy density deposition of about 1 kJ/g has been achieved by focusing the ion beam down to 1 mm FWHM or less.

Udrea, Serban; Ternovoi, Vladimir; Shilkin, Nikolay; Fertman, Alexander; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Hug, Alexander; Kulish, Michail I.; Mintsev, Victor; Ni, Pavel; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Tahir, Naeem A.; Turtikov, Vladimir; Varentsov, Dmitry; Yuriev, Denis

2007-07-01

412

Plasmidome-Analysis of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Using Conventional Typing and High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli are an emerging global problem, threatening the effectiveness of the extensively used ?-lactam antibiotics. ESBL dissemination is facilitated by plasmids, transposons, and other mobile elements. We have characterized the plasmid content of ESBL-producing E. coli from human urinary tract infections. Ten diverse isolates were selected; they had unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (<90% similarity), were from geographically dispersed locations and had diverging antibiotic resistance profiles. Three isolates belonged to the globally disseminated sequence type ST131. ESBL-genes of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 phylogroups were identified in all ten isolates. The plasmid content (plasmidome) of each strain was analyzed using a combination of molecular methods and high-throughput sequencing. Hidden Markov Model-based analysis of unassembled sequencing reads was used to analyze the genetic diversity of the plasmid samples and to detect resistance genes. Each isolate contained between two and eight distinct plasmids, and at least 22 large plasmids were identified overall. The plasmids were variants of pUTI89, pKF3-70, pEK499, pKF3-140, pKF3-70, p1ESCUM, pEK204, pHK17a, p083CORR, R64, pLF82, pSFO157, and R721. In addition, small cryptic high copy-number plasmids were frequent, containing one to seven open reading frames per plasmid. Three clustered groups of such small cryptic plasmids could be distinguished based on sequence similarity. Extrachromosomal prophages were found in three isolates. Two of them resembled the E. coli P1 phage and one was previously unknown. The present study confirms plasmid multiplicity in multi-resistant E. coli. We conclude that high-throughput sequencing successfully provides information on the extrachromosomal gene content and can be used to generate a genetic fingerprint of possible use in epidemiology. This could be a valuable tool for tracing plasmids in outbreaks. PMID:23785449

Brolund, Alma; Franzén, Oscar; Melefors, Öjar; Tegmark-Wisell, Karin; Sandegren, Linus

2013-01-01

413

Plasmidome-analysis of ESBL-producing escherichia coli using conventional typing and high-throughput sequencing.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli are an emerging global problem, threatening the effectiveness of the extensively used ?-lactam antibiotics. ESBL dissemination is facilitated by plasmids, transposons, and other mobile elements. We have characterized the plasmid content of ESBL-producing E. coli from human urinary tract infections. Ten diverse isolates were selected; they had unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (<90% similarity), were from geographically dispersed locations and had diverging antibiotic resistance profiles. Three isolates belonged to the globally disseminated sequence type ST131. ESBL-genes of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 phylogroups were identified in all ten isolates. The plasmid content (plasmidome) of each strain was analyzed using a combination of molecular methods and high-throughput sequencing. Hidden Markov Model-based analysis of unassembled sequencing reads was used to analyze the genetic diversity of the plasmid samples and to detect resistance genes. Each isolate contained between two and eight distinct plasmids, and at least 22 large plasmids were identified overall. The plasmids were variants of pUTI89, pKF3-70, pEK499, pKF3-140, pKF3-70, p1ESCUM, pEK204, pHK17a, p083CORR, R64, pLF82, pSFO157, and R721. In addition, small cryptic high copy-number plasmids were frequent, containing one to seven open reading frames per plasmid. Three clustered groups of such small cryptic plasmids could be distinguished based on sequence similarity. Extrachromosomal prophages were found in three isolates. Two of them resembled the E. coli P1 phage and one was previously unknown. The present study confirms plasmid multiplicity in multi-resistant E. coli. We conclude that high-throughput sequencing successfully provides information on the extrachromosomal gene content and can be used to generate a genetic fingerprint of possible use in epidemiology. This could be a valuable tool for tracing plasmids in outbreaks. PMID:23785449

Brolund, Alma; Franzén, Oscar; Melefors, Ojar; Tegmark-Wisell, Karin; Sandegren, Linus

2013-01-01

414

Producing high pressure pseudotachylytes in the ductile regime: implications for the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gabbro- and peridotite-hosted blueschist facies pseudotachylytes (PST) from Cima di Gratera, Corsica previously determined to have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions (1.8 - 2.6 GPa, 1400 C), have been causally linked to the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Detailed petrographic and microtextural analyses of these PST indicate that their initiation is controlled by a thermally activated shear runaway process that is controlled by rheology rather than mineralogy (as with dehydration embrittlement or transformational faulting), such that the rock behaves as a viscoelastic material. This is evidenced by sheared out, prolate, kinked and twinned wallrock clasts that have been peeled off and entrained into the PST vein as sigmoid clasts. The presence of micro-ultramylonites at the boundary between the wallrock and vein proper are also indicative of a dominant ductile control. The presence of metastable high temperature crystallisation products from the PST such as hoppers and dendrites of olivine (Mg# 84), enstatite and diopside (peridotite); and Al-rich omphacite and Fe-rich anorthite (gabbro) support the hypothesis of a short-lived high temperature event resulting from thermal runaway. Overprinting of these high temperature mineral assemblages by ones indicating lower temperatures, but still high pressures, such as glaucophane, albite and epidote (gabbro) and clinochore, fine-grained granoblastic olivine, enstatite and diopside (peridotite) are further support of this. The detailed study of two different lithologies that were exposed to similarly high P-T conditions that produced PST are used to corroborate the runaway process proposed in this article. This work provides the first detailed observations from natural samples that intermediate-depth seismicity may be generated by a thermal runaway process. Detailed EPMA analyses and BSE imaging of the PST vein matrix ( comprising glass, the crystallisation products and entrained wallrock material) show that the PST melt ranges in water water content from 0 - 14 wt%. This water is derived internally within the shear system due to the wholesale fusion of hydrous wallrock minerals (glaucophane, tremolite, clinochlore and serpentine) rather than dehydration. These observations together with the microtextures preclude local dehydration embrittlement and transformational faulting as sources of intermediate-depth seismicity.

Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.

2012-12-01

415

REPRODUCIBILITY OF FMRI ACTIVATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AUDITORY SENTENCE COMPREHENSION  

PubMed Central

Reproducibility of three different aspects of fMRI activations—namely binary activation maps, effect size and spatial distribution of local maxima—was evaluated for an auditory sentence comprehension task with high attention demand on a group of 17 subjects that were scanned on five different occasions. While in the scanner subjects were asked to listen to series of six short everyday sentences from the CUNY sentence test. Comprehension and attention to the stimuli was monitored after each listen condition epoch by having subjects answer a series of multiple choice questions. Statistical maps of activation for the listen condition were computed at three different levels: overall results for all imaging sessions, group-level/single-session results for each of the five imaging occasions, and single-subject/single-session results computed for each subject and each scanning occasion independently. The experimental task recruited a distributed bilateral network with processing nodes located in lateral temporal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, medial BA6, medial occipital cortex and subcortical structures such as the putamen and the thalamus. Reproducibility of these activations at the group level was high (83.95% of the imaged volume was consistently classified as active/inactive across all five imaging sessions), indicating that sites of neuronal activity associated with auditory comprehension can reliably be detected with fMRI in healthy subjects, across repeated measures after group averaging. At the single-subject level reproducibility ranged from moderate to high, although no significant differences were found on behavioral measures across subjects or sessions. This result suggests that contextual differences—i.e., those specific to each imaging session, can modulate our ability to detect fMRI activations associated with speech comprehension in individual subjects. PMID:20933093

Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Talavage, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

416

A sub-50-nm monosized superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 T2-weighted MRI contrast agent: highly reproducible synthesis of uniform single-loaded core-shell nanostructures.  

PubMed

Oleic acid stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) were selected as the cores for fabrication of sub-50-nm monodisperse single-loaded SPION@SiO2 core-shell nanostructures. Parameters that influence the formation of SPION@SiO2 in the water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system have been systematically investigated. The sufficiently high concentration of well-dispersed SPION, together with an appropriately low injection rate of tetraethoxysilane, were found to be the keys to efficiently prevent the homogeneous nucleation of silica and obtain a high-quality single-loaded core-shell nanocomposite. A more detailed mechanism for incorporating oleic acid capped inorganic functional nanoparticles into silica is proposed on the basis of previous reports and our new experimental results. Finally, the as-synthesized SPION@SiO2 nanospheres are exploited as an MRI-enhanced contrast agent, and their contrast effect in solution is tested by using a clinical MRI instrument. PMID:19902450

Chen, Feng; Bu, Wenbo; Chen, Yu; Fan, Yuchi; He, Qianjun; Zhu, Min; Liu, Xiaohang; Zhou, Liangping; Zhang, Shengjian; Peng, Weijun; Shi, Jianlin

2009-12-01

417

A Bacillus thuringiensis isolation method utilizing a novel stain, low selection and high throughput produced atypical results  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium known for producing protein crystals with insecticidal properties. These toxins are widely sought after for controlling agricultural pests due to both their specificity and their applicability in transgenic plants. There is great interest in isolating strains with improved or novel toxin characteristics, however isolating B. thuringiensis from the environment is time consuming and yields relatively few isolates of interest. New approaches to B. thuringiensis isolation have been, and continue to be sought. In this report, candidate B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from environmental samples using a combination of a novel stain, high throughput and reduced selection. Isolates were further characterized by SDS-PAGE, light microscopy, PCR, probe hybridization, and with selected isolates, DNA sequencing, bioassay or Electron Microscopy. Results Based on SDS-PAGE patterns and the presence of cry genes or a crystal, 79 candidate, non-clonal isolates of B. thuringiensis were identified from 84 samples and over 10,000 colonies. Although only 16/79 (20%) of the isolates showed DNA homology by Probe Hybridization or PCR to common cry genes, initial characterization revealed a surprisingly rich library that included a putative nematocidal gene, a novel filamentous structure associated with a crystal, a spore with spikes originating from a very small parasporal body and isolates with unusually small crystals. When compared to reports of other screens, this screen was also atypical in that only 3/79 isolates (3.8%) produced a bipyramidal crystal and 24/79 (30%) of the isolates' spores possessed an attached, dark-staining body. Conclusion Results suggest that the screening methodology adopted in this study might deliver a vastly richer and potentially more useful library of B. thuringiensis isolates as compared to that obtained with commonly reported methodologies, and that by extension, methodologies fundamentally different from current methods should also be explored. PMID:16181492

Rampersad, Joanne; Ammons, David

2005-01-01

418

Practical Ideas to Address High Feed and Production Costs Pork producers are facing a period of rapidly increasing feed and production costs. The  

E-print Network

1 Practical Ideas to Address High Feed and Production Costs Pork producers are facing a period compiled by the Pork Checkoff to assist producers in identifying opportunities to increase efficiencies of these tips are supported by fact sheets and references that can be found on the Pork Information Gateway (PIG

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

419

Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

High ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. PMID:25497828

Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P