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  1. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-05-01

    assigned as a take-home activity. JCE Classroom Activity #15, "Liver and Onions: DNA Extraction from Animal and Plant Tissues" (p 400A, March 1999) also integrates chemical and biological concepts. The JCE Software videotape HIV-1 Protease: An Enzyme at Work is another useful resource. It can be used in any classroom where kinetics, catalysis, proteins, or enzymes are discussed. Information about JCE Software products can be found in recent issues of the Journal or by accessing JCE Online (http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu). Because most high school students complete at least one year of biology before enrolling in chemistry, developing the connections between biology and chemistry can be especially productive. Connections between chemistry and biology often seem to be more real to students than do many of the phenomena we cite as applications. For example, students often are not able to make the connection between the excitation of electrons to produce electromagnetic radiation and anything that is personally relevant. The light given off by sodium or mercury vapor lights provides a common example of relating atomic emission to a useful process, but many students do not seem to find that particularly interesting. The need to make a connection between biology and chemistry becomes especially meaningful to students when the chemical change occurs within the human body. As an example, the interaction of emitted electromagnetic radiation with human cells to cause well-tanned skin seems more relevant to a greater number of students than the color of lights in a parking lot. This issue contains an article that describes a useful application of light to kill cancer cells through use of photosensitizers (p 592). The process of photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides another example that could help students make a connection between the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the challenge of killing cancer cells without harming healthy cells. Certainly this example is not a magic

  2. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-05-01

    assigned as a take-home activity. JCE Classroom Activity #15, "Liver and Onions: DNA Extraction from Animal and Plant Tissues" (p 400A, March 1999) also integrates chemical and biological concepts. The JCE Software videotape HIV-1 Protease: An Enzyme at Work is another useful resource. It can be used in any classroom where kinetics, catalysis, proteins, or enzymes are discussed. Information about JCE Software products can be found in recent issues of the Journal or by accessing JCE Online (http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu). Because most high school students complete at least one year of biology before enrolling in chemistry, developing the connections between biology and chemistry can be especially productive. Connections between chemistry and biology often seem to be more real to students than do many of the phenomena we cite as applications. For example, students often are not able to make the connection between the excitation of electrons to produce electromagnetic radiation and anything that is personally relevant. The light given off by sodium or mercury vapor lights provides a common example of relating atomic emission to a useful process, but many students do not seem to find that particularly interesting. The need to make a connection between biology and chemistry becomes especially meaningful to students when the chemical change occurs within the human body. As an example, the interaction of emitted electromagnetic radiation with human cells to cause well-tanned skin seems more relevant to a greater number of students than the color of lights in a parking lot. This issue contains an article that describes a useful application of light to kill cancer cells through use of photosensitizers (p 592). The process of photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides another example that could help students make a connection between the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the challenge of killing cancer cells without harming healthy cells. Certainly this example is not a magic

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-09-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students, by Annis Hapkiewicz, p 1212 * JCE Classroom Activity #19: Blueprint Photography by the Cyanotype Process, by Glen D. Lawrence and Stuart Fishelson, p 1216A Author Recognition A new program has been instituted to recognize high school teachers who are authors or coauthors of manuscripts published in the Journal. In May, letters were sent to teachers who wrote articles published in JCE beginning with Volume 74 (1997). If you were an author, you should have received a letter from us in late May or early June stating that your high school principal has been sent a Certificate of High School Author Recognition to be presented to you at a suitable occasion. Because the letters were sent late in the school year, you may not see the certificate until fall, or you may not receive your letter until then if we had only your school address. If you have authored or coauthored an article published in JCE and did not receive a letter, please contact me using the information about the Secondary School Chemistry Editor appearing on the Information Page in this issue. Syllabus Swap In the August issue, this column contained an invitation to exchange high school syllabi. The day after my copy of the August issue arrived, I received an email from a teacher indicating an interest in participating in an exchange. If you are interested, check the August "Especially for High School Chemistry Teachers" column for a brief discussion of the informal exchange program, or contact me. Research Conducted by High School Students In his June 1999 editorial "Learning Is a Do-It-Yourself Activity", p 725, John Moore wrote about the need to engage students actively in the learning process. As I have mentioned in this column previously, research conducted by students is one means of accomplishing this goal. In this issue, p 1212, Annis Hapkiewicz explains how she has drawn her Okemos [Michigan] High

  4. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-01-01

    Classroom Activity #23 (pp 40A-40B) and in an article by Robert Goldsmith (p 41). The 1999 Nobel Prize in chemistry and the research that led to the awards are discussed in an article beginning on p 14. An account of the 1998 winners appeared in last January's issue (5), providing the basis for another convenient resource file. Water droplets on a surface of Magic Sand. For many students electrochemistry is among the least favorite of the topics included in first- or second-year high school chemistry - despite the many interesting applications that students encounter every day. There are many reasons why students find the topic difficult, but misconceptions about current flow seem to present the largest obstacle to developing a conceptual understanding of electrochemical processes. Two university faculty members and a high school teacher, Huddle, White, and Rogers, have developed a teaching model to help students confront and overcome their misconceptions (pp 104-110). They have conducted studies of the impact of the model's use on student learning in both high school and introductory college chemistry courses. Particularly encouraging were the learning gains made by students with weak academic backgrounds. An action research project focused on student perspectives of small-group learning is described by Towns, Kreke, and Fields (pp 111-119). Although the project involved upper-division undergraduate university students, action research can be useful to any chemistry teacher who wishes to systematically examine and improve instructional methods and strategies. This article may be especially interesting to readers who frequently employ small-group learning techniques in their classroom. Advances in the technology of multimedia delivery are having an impact on the format in which new JCE Software releases are available. In particular, CD-ROM and Internet browsers are becoming increasingly important as the medium and method of access respectively. To better understand what is

  5. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    Secondary School Feature Article * JCE Classroom Activity #18: Photochemistry and Pinhole Photography: An Interdisciplinary Experiment, by Angeliki A. Rigos and Kevin Salemme, p 736A High School Program at Anaheim ACS Meeting Congratulations to Barbara Sitzman of Chatsworth High School (Los Angeles) and her committee for organizing an outstanding day of activities! With support from the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society and the encouragement of Tom Wildeman, CHED Program Committee Chair, the program attracted a large number of Southern California teachers and some from much greater distances. A synopsis of some of the day's activities is included in the Chemical Education Program Meeting Report, p 747. Other workshop topics included gel chromatography, forensic chemistry, art preservation and authentication, well water purification, and toxins in waste water. Also, a workshop on fitting polymers into the chemistry course was conducted by the Polymer Ambassadors. I thank Mickey Sarquis, founding editor of the JCE Secondary School Chemistry Section, for joining me in conducting an information workshop. The pictures appearing on this page were taken at the High School/College Interface Luncheon, which featured an address by Paul Boyer. In addition to the opportunity to visit with colleagues, enjoy a meal together, and win door prizes, those in attendance enjoyed a lively hands-on workshop led by Michael Tinnesand, Department Head of K-12 Science, ACS Education Division. Don't you wish you could have attended the High School Program? Plan Now: High School Program in New Orleans Mark your calendar for Sunday, August 22, 1999. The Fall ACS National Meeting will be held in New Orleans and the High School Program is scheduled on Sunday so that teachers will be able to avoid conflicts with the opening of the school year. Teachers in the Mid-South region are especially encouraged

  6. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-07-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location is fairly unimportant; but for most of us travel costs and time are both factors to consider when choosing a conference. The community of high school chemistry teachers is favored by the number of national conventions and conferences that are held each year in different locations. In 1999, for example, the spring National Meeting of the American Chemical Society was in Anaheim and the National Science Teachers Association National Convention was in Boston. This summer CHEMED '99 will be held in Fairfield, CT, August 1-5, and the fall National ACS Meeting will be in New Orleans. Teachers from the mid-South especially should consider attending the High School Program at New Orleans, described below by Lillie Tucker Akin, Chairperson of the Division's High School Program Committee. The event will be held on Sunday to minimize conflicts with the beginning of the school year. JCE at CHEMED '99 Stop by the JCE booth at CHEMED '99 in the exhibits area to learn more about the wide array of print and nonprint resources you can use in your classroom and laboratory. Members of the editorial staff will be on hand to talk with you. You are invited to participate in a workshop, "Promoting Active Learning through JCE Activity Sheets and Software", on Monday, August 1, 8:30-10:30. The free hands-on workshop is number WT11 and we encourage you to include it among your choices in the blanks provided on the third page of the registration form. We will also conduct an interactive session to listen to ideas for making the Journal more useful to you. Check the final program for location and time or inquire at the JCE

  7. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-01-01

    Classroom Activity #23 (pp 40A-40B) and in an article by Robert Goldsmith (p 41). The 1999 Nobel Prize in chemistry and the research that led to the awards are discussed in an article beginning on p 14. An account of the 1998 winners appeared in last January's issue (5), providing the basis for another convenient resource file. Water droplets on a surface of Magic Sand. For many students electrochemistry is among the least favorite of the topics included in first- or second-year high school chemistry - despite the many interesting applications that students encounter every day. There are many reasons why students find the topic difficult, but misconceptions about current flow seem to present the largest obstacle to developing a conceptual understanding of electrochemical processes. Two university faculty members and a high school teacher, Huddle, White, and Rogers, have developed a teaching model to help students confront and overcome their misconceptions (pp 104-110). They have conducted studies of the impact of the model's use on student learning in both high school and introductory college chemistry courses. Particularly encouraging were the learning gains made by students with weak academic backgrounds. An action research project focused on student perspectives of small-group learning is described by Towns, Kreke, and Fields (pp 111-119). Although the project involved upper-division undergraduate university students, action research can be useful to any chemistry teacher who wishes to systematically examine and improve instructional methods and strategies. This article may be especially interesting to readers who frequently employ small-group learning techniques in their classroom. Advances in the technology of multimedia delivery are having an impact on the format in which new JCE Software releases are available. In particular, CD-ROM and Internet browsers are becoming increasingly important as the medium and method of access respectively. To better understand what is

  8. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-07-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location is fairly unimportant; but for most of us travel costs and time are both factors to consider when choosing a conference. The community of high school chemistry teachers is favored by the number of national conventions and conferences that are held each year in different locations. In 1999, for example, the spring National Meeting of the American Chemical Society was in Anaheim and the National Science Teachers Association National Convention was in Boston. This summer CHEMED '99 will be held in Fairfield, CT, August 1-5, and the fall National ACS Meeting will be in New Orleans. Teachers from the mid-South especially should consider attending the High School Program at New Orleans, described below by Lillie Tucker Akin, Chairperson of the Division's High School Program Committee. The event will be held on Sunday to minimize conflicts with the beginning of the school year. JCE at CHEMED '99 Stop by the JCE booth at CHEMED '99 in the exhibits area to learn more about the wide array of print and nonprint resources you can use in your classroom and laboratory. Members of the editorial staff will be on hand to talk with you. You are invited to participate in a workshop, "Promoting Active Learning through JCE Activity Sheets and Software", on Monday, August 1, 8:30-10:30. The free hands-on workshop is number WT11 and we encourage you to include it among your choices in the blanks provided on the third page of the registration form. We will also conduct an interactive session to listen to ideas for making the Journal more useful to you. Check the final program for location and time or inquire at the JCE

  9. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-06-01

    Secondary School Feature Article * JCE Classroom Activity #18: Photochemistry and Pinhole Photography: An Interdisciplinary Experiment, by Angeliki A. Rigos and Kevin Salemme, p 736A High School Program at Anaheim ACS Meeting Congratulations to Barbara Sitzman of Chatsworth High School (Los Angeles) and her committee for organizing an outstanding day of activities! With support from the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society and the encouragement of Tom Wildeman, CHED Program Committee Chair, the program attracted a large number of Southern California teachers and some from much greater distances. A synopsis of some of the day's activities is included in the Chemical Education Program Meeting Report, p 747. Other workshop topics included gel chromatography, forensic chemistry, art preservation and authentication, well water purification, and toxins in waste water. Also, a workshop on fitting polymers into the chemistry course was conducted by the Polymer Ambassadors. I thank Mickey Sarquis, founding editor of the JCE Secondary School Chemistry Section, for joining me in conducting an information workshop. The pictures appearing on this page were taken at the High School/College Interface Luncheon, which featured an address by Paul Boyer. In addition to the opportunity to visit with colleagues, enjoy a meal together, and win door prizes, those in attendance enjoyed a lively hands-on workshop led by Michael Tinnesand, Department Head of K-12 Science, ACS Education Division. Don't you wish you could have attended the High School Program? Plan Now: High School Program in New Orleans Mark your calendar for Sunday, August 22, 1999. The Fall ACS National Meeting will be held in New Orleans and the High School Program is scheduled on Sunday so that teachers will be able to avoid conflicts with the opening of the school year. Teachers in the Mid-South region are especially encouraged

  10. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-09-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students, by Annis Hapkiewicz, p 1212 * JCE Classroom Activity #19: Blueprint Photography by the Cyanotype Process, by Glen D. Lawrence and Stuart Fishelson, p 1216A Author Recognition A new program has been instituted to recognize high school teachers who are authors or coauthors of manuscripts published in the Journal. In May, letters were sent to teachers who wrote articles published in JCE beginning with Volume 74 (1997). If you were an author, you should have received a letter from us in late May or early June stating that your high school principal has been sent a Certificate of High School Author Recognition to be presented to you at a suitable occasion. Because the letters were sent late in the school year, you may not see the certificate until fall, or you may not receive your letter until then if we had only your school address. If you have authored or coauthored an article published in JCE and did not receive a letter, please contact me using the information about the Secondary School Chemistry Editor appearing on the Information Page in this issue. Syllabus Swap In the August issue, this column contained an invitation to exchange high school syllabi. The day after my copy of the August issue arrived, I received an email from a teacher indicating an interest in participating in an exchange. If you are interested, check the August "Especially for High School Chemistry Teachers" column for a brief discussion of the informal exchange program, or contact me. Research Conducted by High School Students In his June 1999 editorial "Learning Is a Do-It-Yourself Activity", p 725, John Moore wrote about the need to engage students actively in the learning process. As I have mentioned in this column previously, research conducted by students is one means of accomplishing this goal. In this issue, p 1212, Annis Hapkiewicz explains how she has drawn her Okemos [Michigan] High

  11. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-12-01

    published in a feature titled the 50-Minute Experiment. Block scheduling has brought an end to the 50-minute period in many classrooms, but the experiment is valid and potentially useful in providing experience with real-world samples. Write Now! With the coming of December days are shorter and nights are longer, and for many readers in the United States and Canada winter weather has set in. If you have been thinking about writing an article for JCE perhaps now is a good time to be doing it. I would like to call your attention to four feature columns designed especially for high school teachers: Chemical Principles Revisited Cary Kilner, Editor Exeter High School, 7 Salmon Street, Newmarket, NH 03857 Phone: 603/659-6825; Fax: 603/772-8287; email: CaryPQ@aol.com Interdisciplinary Connections Mark Alber, Editor Darlington School, 1014 Cave Spring Road, Rome, GA 30161 Phone: 706/236-0442; Fax: 706/236-0443; email: malber@darlington.rome.ga.us Second Year and Advanced Placement Chemistry John Fischer, Editor Ashwaubenon High School, 2391 Ridge Road, Green Bay, WI 54304 Phone: 414/492-2955 ext 2020; email: fischer@netnet.net View from My Classroom David Byrum, Editor Flowing Wells High School, 3301 E. Ft. Lowell Rd., Tucson, AZ 85716 Phone: 520/795-2928; email: DavidB1032@aol.com The titles are descriptive of the content sought for each feature, whose mission statement can be found at the JCE Web site, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. Click on "Features" in the left-hand frame on your screen. All these editors will be happy to discuss your ideas for an article. Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity #22: Colors to Dye for: Preparation of Natural Dyes, p 1688A Applications of Biocatalysis to Industrial Processes, by John T. Sime, p 1658

  12. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially for ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  13. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  14. Especial skills: specificity embedded within generality.

    PubMed

    Keetch, Katherine M; Lee, Timothy D; Schmidt, Richard A

    2008-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that massive amounts of practice of the basketball free throw (a "set shot") results in the development of a specific memory representation that is unique to this one shot distance and angle, and that is distinct from set shots taken at locations other than the free throw line. We termed this unique capability an especial skill. In this article, we review the evidence and provide new data regarding the existence of especial skills. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for motor control theory and in terms of the broader context of specificity versus generality in the learning of motor skills. PMID:19164838

  15. Visual uncertainty influences the extent of an especial skill.

    PubMed

    Czyż, S H; Kwon, O-S; Marzec, J; Styrkowiec, P; Breslin, G

    2015-12-01

    An especial skill in basketball emerges through highly repetitive practice at the 15 ft free throw line. The extent of the role vision plays in the emergence of an especial skill is unknown. We examined the especial skills of ten skilled basketball players in normal and blurred vision conditions where participants wore corrective lenses. As such, we selectively manipulated visual information without affecting the participants' explicit knowledge that they were shooting free throws. We found that shot efficiency was significantly lower in blurred vision conditions as expected, and that the concave shape of shot proficiency function in normal vision conditions became approximately linear in blurred vision conditions. By applying a recently proposed generalization model of especial skills, we suggest that the linearity of shot proficiency function reflects the participants' lesser dependence on especial skill in blurred vision conditions. The findings further characterize the role of visual context in the emergence of an especial skill. PMID:26342796

  16. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING SW. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 & BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING NE. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  18. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MEDICAL CENTER (ESPECIALLY BUILDING 2 & BUILDING 1) FROM THE 'CAMPUS' GROUNDS; LOOKING NW. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  19. An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J; Kennedy, Rodney; Hanlon, Michael; Williams, A Mark

    2010-05-01

    We tested the 'learned parameters' hypothesis as an explanation of the 'especial skill effect'. Outcome attainment and movement kinematics were recorded for 10 expert and 10 novice players performing basketball free-throw shots at five distances (11-19 ft) with a regular and heavy weight basketball. As predicted, experts performed better than expected relative to the regression equation at the 15 ft, free-throw line with the regular basketball, supporting the 'especial skill effect'. This effect was not present for the experts when shooting with the heavy ball. Novices did not show an advantage at the free-throw line when performing with either ball. Although the outcome attainment scores support the 'learned parameters' hypotheses, kinematic analysis failed to identify differences in the movement pattern for the especial skill, suggesting that these skills (i.e., shooting at different distances) are not governed by separate motor programs. PMID:20045100

  20. Constant or variable practice: recreating the especial skill effect.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J; Steenson, Andrew; Williams, A Mark

    2012-06-01

    An especial skill occurs when performance of a single action from within a class of actions produces an advantage in performance. This advantage in a single action over others in the class is presumed to result from large amounts of practice performing the specific action (Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, & Young, 2005). In an experiment involving the learning of a basketball set shot, practice was manipulated to identify whether an especial skill effect emerges at the free-throw line as a result of constant practice conditions in novice performers. After a pretest, which involved set shots across five distances, participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. A constant practice group (n=10) performed 300 trials of the set shot at the 15 ft free throw line only, whereas a variable practice group (n=10) performed 300 trials across five distances. Shot accuracy increased for both groups as a result of practice at the 15' distance. However, on the posttest, a significant difference was reported between actual and expected scores for the constant practice group only. This finding provided evidence that an effect similar to that seen for especial skills emerges as a result of constant practice. Although an especial skill effect could result from massive amounts of practice, we show it can emerge as a result of short term repetitive practice, indicating that the type, rather than amount, of practice is important. PMID:22627159

  1. An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Breslin, G; Czyż, S H; Pizlo, Z

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p<.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p<.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines. PMID:23981485

  2. Specificity vs. Generalizability: Emergence of Especial Skills in Classical Archery

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Stanisław H.; Moss, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the recall schema becomes more refined after constant practice. It is also believed that massive amounts of constant practice eventually leads to the emergence of especial skills, i.e., skills that have an advantage in performance over other actions from within the same class of actions. This advantage in performance was noticed when one-criterion practice, e.g., basketball free throws, was compared to non-practiced variations of the skill. However, there is no evidence whether multi-criterion massive amounts of practice would give an advantage to the trained variations of the skill over non-trained, i.e., whether such practice would eventually lead to the development of (multi)-especial skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether massive amount of practice involving four criterion variations of the skill will give an advantage in performance to the criterions over the class of actions. In two experiments, we analyzed data from female (n = 8) and male classical archers (n = 10), who were required to shoot 30 shots from four accustomed distances, i.e., males at 30, 50, 70, and 90 m and females at 30, 50, 60, and 70 m. The shooting accuracy for the untrained distances (16 distances in men and 14 in women) was used to compile a regression line for distance over shooting accuracy. Regression determined (expected) values were then compared to the shooting accuracy of the trained distances. Data revealed no significant differences between real and expected results at trained distances, except for the 70 m shooting distance in men. The F-test for lack of fit showed that the regression computed for trained and non-trained shooting distances was linear. It can be concluded that especial skills emerge only after very specific practice, i.e., constant practice limited to only one variation of the skill. PMID:27547196

  3. Specificity vs. Generalizability: Emergence of Especial Skills in Classical Archery.

    PubMed

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Moss, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the recall schema becomes more refined after constant practice. It is also believed that massive amounts of constant practice eventually leads to the emergence of especial skills, i.e., skills that have an advantage in performance over other actions from within the same class of actions. This advantage in performance was noticed when one-criterion practice, e.g., basketball free throws, was compared to non-practiced variations of the skill. However, there is no evidence whether multi-criterion massive amounts of practice would give an advantage to the trained variations of the skill over non-trained, i.e., whether such practice would eventually lead to the development of (multi)-especial skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether massive amount of practice involving four criterion variations of the skill will give an advantage in performance to the criterions over the class of actions. In two experiments, we analyzed data from female (n = 8) and male classical archers (n = 10), who were required to shoot 30 shots from four accustomed distances, i.e., males at 30, 50, 70, and 90 m and females at 30, 50, 60, and 70 m. The shooting accuracy for the untrained distances (16 distances in men and 14 in women) was used to compile a regression line for distance over shooting accuracy. Regression determined (expected) values were then compared to the shooting accuracy of the trained distances. Data revealed no significant differences between real and expected results at trained distances, except for the 70 m shooting distance in men. The F-test for lack of fit showed that the regression computed for trained and non-trained shooting distances was linear. It can be concluded that especial skills emerge only after very specific practice, i.e., constant practice limited to only one variation of the skill. PMID:27547196

  4. Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945.

  5. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  6. Nuclear Planetology: Especially Concerning the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    2012-10-01

    To approach basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of planetary bodies such as planets, their satellites and asteroids, one needs data on their chemical composition. The measurements of gamma-rays, X-rays and neutrons emitted from their surface materials provide information on abundances of major elements and naturally radioactive gamma-ray emitters. Neutron spectroscopy can provide sensitive maps of hydrogen- and carbon-containing compounds, even if buried, and can uniquely identify layers of carbon-dioxide frost. Nuclear spectroscopy, as a means of compositional analysis, has been applied via orbital and lander spacecraft to extraterrestrial planetary bodies: the Moon, Venus, Mars, Mercury and asteroids. The knowledge of their chemical abundances, especially concerning the Moon and Mars, has greatly increased in recent years. This paper describes the principle of nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear planetary instruments carried on planetary missions so far, and the nature of observational results and findings of the Moon and Mars, recently obtained by nuclear spectroscopy.

  7. A randomized RSA study concentrating especially on continuous migration.

    PubMed

    Molt, Mats; Ryd, Leif; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up. Patients and methods - 60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. Results - There was no statistically significant difference in maximum total point motion (MTPM) between the 2 groups (p = 0.1). The mean MTPM at 5 years for the Duracon was 1.10 (SD 1.21) mm and for the Triathlon it was 0.66 (SD 0.38) mm. The numbers of continuously migrating prostheses were similar in the groups at the fifth year of follow-up; 6 of 21 prostheses in the Duracon group and 3 of 21 in the Triathlon group had migrated more than 0.3 mm between the second year and the fifth year of follow-up (p = 0.2). Interpretation - The Triathlon has a micromotion pattern similar to that of the Duracon total knee system at both short-term and medium-term follow-up, and may therefore, over time, show the same good long-term mechanical stability. PMID:27088580

  8. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  9. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  10. [SOME ASPECTS OF NON-SPECIFIC PROPHYLAXIS AND THERAPY OF ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Filippenko, A V; Omelchenko, N D; Ivanova, I A; Bespalova, I A; Doroshenko, E P; Galicheva, A L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due to spread of dangerous and especially dangerous infections much attention is given to development of complex approaches to their prophylaxis and therapy. Data on use of immune modulators, cytokines, probiotics, preparations of plant origin for non-specific prophylaxis of especially dangerous infections are analyzed in the review, and expediency of their combined use with specific and emergency prophlaxis of these diseases is evaluated. PMID:26829862

  11. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  12. Paraneoplastic downbeat nystagmus associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism especially in the nodulus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Young; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2014-08-15

    A 52-year-old man with vertigo and imbalance for two weeks showed spontaneous downbeat (DBN), horizontal gaze-evoked, and positional apogeotropic nystagmus along with severe limb and truncal ataxia. Gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI was normal, but whole body and brain 2-deoxy-2-[F18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography revealed hypermetabolism in the right lower lobe of the lung and the cerebellum, especially in the nodulus. The lesion in the lung was confirmed as mixed cell carcinoma. Paraneoplastic DBN may be associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism, especially in the nodulus. PMID:24928076

  13. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  14. 25 CFR 213.45 - Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands. 213.45 Section 213.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS... Interior (54 L.D. 382; 10 F. (2d), 487). Lands acquired prior to the passage of the act of January 27,...

  15. 25 CFR 213.45 - Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions especially continued as to certain lands. 213.45 Section 213.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.45 Restrictions...

  16. Drug interactions with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, especially with other psychotropics.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    (1) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are involved in many drug interactions with potentially serious clinical consequences. (2) These interactions involve all SSRIs but particularly fluoxetine, which is the best-studied antidepressant in this family. (3) Because of their long elimination half-life (particularly fluoxetine) the risk of interactions persists for several days or even weeks after SSRI withdrawal. (4) Drug interactions with clinical consequences usually involve combinations of an SSRI with other psychotropics, especially monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and tricyclic antidepressants, clozapine, lithium, methadone, etc. (5) The clinical consequences of drug interactions with SSRI are either due to overdosing of the drug combined, or to a serotonin syndrome with neuromuscular and vegetative (autonomic) symptoms. (6) Interactions with a number of other drugs have been reported, especially carbamazepine, phenytoin and oral anticoagulants, with a risk of overdose of these drugs. (7) The risk of hyponatraemia linked to SSRIs seems to be increased during concomitant treatment with diuretics. PMID:11503857

  17. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  18. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  19. The Arctic is especially sensitive to black carbon emissions from within the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; Seland; Kristjansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic has warmed twice as fast as the global average over the past century and is likely to be especially sensitive to black carbon aerosols. Black carbon warm the air by absorbing solar radiation and can promote snow melt when deposited in snow. In this study we address the question of how sensitive the Arctic climate is to black carbon emitted within the Arctic compared to black carbon emitted at mid-latitudes. We consider the emission-climate response spectrum and present a set of experiments using a coupled global climate model. The climate model includes a snow model to simulate the climate effect of BC deposited on snow. A new emission data set including BC emissions from flaring and a seasonal variation in the domestic sector has been used. The dominating BC emissions in the Arctic is related to oil and gas fields in north western Russia. We find that most of the BC-induced warming in the Arctic is caused by black carbon deposited on snow, rather than in the atmosphere. Black carbon emitted in the Arctic is more likely to get deposited at the surface since most of the concentrations stay at lower altitudes. Especially during winter, BC emitted in North-Eurasia is transported into the high Arctic at low altitudes. We find that BC emitted within the Arctic has an almost 5-times larger Arctic surface temperature response (per unit of emitted mass) compared to emissions at mid-latitudes. Today there are few within-Arctic sources of BC, but the emissions are expected to grow due to increased human activity in the Arctic. There is a great need to improve cleaner technologies if further development is to take place in the Arctic, especially since the Arctic has a significantly higher sensitivity to BC emitted within the Arctic compared to BC emitted at mid-latitudes.

  20. Complications in Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy(LASH), especially the morcellation related.

    PubMed

    Krentel, H; De Wilde, R L

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LASH) is an alternative minimally invasive approach to total laparoscopic hysterectomy or laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. It is a safe and effective treatment of bleeding disorders and dysmenorrhoea in uterine myomatosis and/or adenomyosis. LASH has a low rate of major and minor complications, and patient satisfaction is very high. In order to extract the transected tissue from the abdomen, one essential condition for LASH is the intra-abdominal disruption of the uterine tissue by transabdominal, transcervical or transvaginal morcellation. In the following, complications in LASH, especially those related to electronic power morcellation, are described evaluating the recent literature. PMID:26694587

  1. The Present Status of Airship Construction, Especially of Airship-framing Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, Hans

    1938-01-01

    This work proposes to sketch, in broad outline, the status of airship construction in the various countries, at a time when commerce over great distances might be finally opened up to the airship through the performances of the "Graf Zeppelin." After a short historical review, a survey of the most important rigid and semirigid airships built since 1925, their differences and special problems, is made. In more detailed treatment, the framing construction of the more recent rigid airships and some especially interesting structural questions are investigated.

  2. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  3. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  4. Inappropriate management conditions, especially for the regressed class, are related to sperm quality in Prochilodus lineatus.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Thiago G; Hainfellner, Patrick; Kuradomi, Rafael Y; Muñoz, Mario E; Honji, Renato M; Moreira, Renata G; Batlouni, Sergio R

    2015-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the characteristics of the reproductive classes and semen quality in curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus) breeders maintained in two different rearing systems. To achieve this goal, cages (Cs) and earthen ponds (EPs) were used as experimental systems to provide unsuitable and suitable conditions, respectively. The fish were maintained under the experimental conditions for 18 months. During this period, males were randomly sampled every 2 months for biometric analysis (n = 30 per sample) and for an evaluation of selected characteristics of the testes (n = 5 per sample). After this period, males maintained in EPs and males maintained in Cs (CMs) were evaluated in induced breeding experiments. We observed that rearing P. lineatus in a C at a high stocking density for the long 18-month period of study produced reductions in growth, testis development, gonadosomatic index values, and sperm quality in the fish. We found differences between the groups in all the reproductive classes examined, especially in the regression class, which showed a pronounced accumulation of immature germ cells in the CMs. In this group, we also noted a less intense transition from a continuous to discontinuous germinal epithelium, with an extended and abnormal but less intense spermatogenic period resulting in decreases in semen volume and sperm concentration in the breeding season. Together, such dysfunctions resulted in the production of low-quality sperm in the CMs, as demonstrated by lower-quality DNA (as evaluated by the comet assay), low fertilization success, and low hatching success. In conclusion, to ensure high-quality semen in P. lineatus, appropriate management conditions must be provided throughout the reproductive cycle, especially for the regressed class, even in winter, two seasons before the breeding season. PMID:25515362

  5. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    PubMed

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

  6. [Baking ingredients, especially alpha-amylase, as occupational inhalation allergens in the baking industry].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B; Baur, X

    1990-03-31

    Baker's asthma is the most frequent occupational lung disease in Switzerland and West Germany. Cereal flours, and more rarely flour parasites, are implicated as the responsible allergens. Based on an observation of a case of baker's asthma due to monovalent sensitization to alpha-amylase used as additive to flour, 31 bakers with occupational asthma and/or rhinitis were routinely tested by skin tests and serological RAST examinations for allergic sensitivity to flour, alpha-amylase and other bakery additives. 17/31 subjects (55%) reacted positively in scratch tests to a commercial powdered alpha-amylase and 13/20 (65%) to a lecithin preparation. 23/31 (74%) and 19/31 (61%) were RAST positive to wheat and to rye flour respectively. 32% had RAST specific IgE to alpha-amylase (from Aspergillus oryzae), 19.3% to soya bean flour and 16% to malt. 7/12 and 5/12 respectively reacted to trypsin inhibitor and lipoxidase, the main allergens in soya bean. In two patients monosensitization to alpha-amylase was present. In accordance with other reports we recommend that baking additives, especially alpha-amylase, should be tested in allergological diagnosis of occupational diseases in flour processing workers. Full declaration of all additives used in the bakery industry is needed. PMID:2326614

  7. Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35‧N, 8°43‧E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

  8. A new specific method to detect cyanide in body fluids, especially whole blood, by fluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Felscher, D; Wulfmeyer, M

    1998-09-01

    This study shows a simple, rapid, and specific method for the quantitative determination of cyanide ion in body fluids, especially blood, by fluorimetry. It is based upon the transformation of cyanide ion into hydrocyanic acid, which then reacts with 2,3-naphthalenedialdehyde and taurine in a self-contained system. The 1-cyano-2-benzoisoindole derivate thus formed is suitable for fluorimetric measurement (lambdaEX = 418 nm; lambdaEM = 460 nm). The fluorescence intensity can be determined by spectrophotometry or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The detection limit is 0.002 microg/mL. Linearity was excellent from 0.002 to 1 microg/mL for spectrophotometry and from 0.002 to 5 microg/mL for HPLC with fluorescence detection. The coefficient of variation for repeatability was 8% or less. Thiocyanate and sulfide did not interfere, even at high concentrations (200 microg/mL). The method was applicable to whole blood, so it should be suitable for both clinical and forensic purposes. PMID:9737330

  9. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    PubMed

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  10. Size and Depth Determination of Defects in Plastic Materials, Especially in CFRP, by Means of Shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendorfer, G.; Reiter, C.; Mayr, G.

    2009-03-01

    Interferometric methods are known to be very sensitive, allowing metrology with resolutions better than the wavelength of the light used for illumination. On the other hand, those methods are susceptible to environmental and mechanical noise, usually. We use Shearography, a version of Speckle interferometry, which, in contrast, is a robust method, resistant to noise and vibrations and compatible to industrial applications. We survey thermally-induced Shearography in order to detect defects in plastic materials, especially in carbon fiber reinforced plastics. We show that by analyzing out-of-plane-deformations, it is possible to evaluate those data quantitatively, enabling the determination of the size as well as the depth of defects. The method of depth determination is based on a gray-scale evaluation with respect to the deformations induced. It has been applied for defects localized in depths up to 10 mm, so far. The method of size determination is based on modeling the dependence of the apparent defect size as a function of the amount of shearing. Simulations of the out-of-plane-deformations for specific defects in different materials have been performed as well. The simulations' results help to understand how to interpret the experimental data. In addition they suggest that the sensitivity for the detection of defects is essentially higher in thermally-induced shearography- than in thermography-experiments.

  11. Genetic biases for showy males: Are some genetic systems especially conducive to sexual selection?

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Hudson Kern; Pfennig, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals, colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection. Here, we present theory and simulation results demonstrating that rare alleles encoding either male ornaments or female preferences for those ornaments are better protected against random loss in species with ZZ/ZW or ZZ/ZO sex chromosome systems (male homogamety) than in species with XX/XY or XX/XO systems (male heterogamety). Moreover, this protection is much stronger in diploid than haplodiploid species. We also present empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better developed in diploid than haplodiploid species and in diploid species with male homogamety than in those with male heterogamety. Thus, taxonomic biases for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems. PMID:12540829

  12. (Re)cognizing postmodernity: helps for historians--of science especially.

    PubMed

    Forman, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Postmodernity, a historical era demarcated from modernity by a broad reversal in cultural presuppositions, is distinguished from postmodernism, an intellectual posture adopted by self-identified postmodernists early in postmodernity. Two principal features of postmodernity are addressed: first, the downgrading of science and the upgrading of technology in cultural rank--on which postmodernity and postmodernism are in accord; second, the displacement of the methodical, disinterested scientist, modernity's beau ideal, not by a fragmented subject as postmodernism claims, but by the single-minded entrepreneur, resourcefully pursuing his self-interest in disregard of all rules. The reversal in rank and role as between science and technology, setting in circa 1980, is a marker of the transition from modernity to postmodernity. That reversal is to be cognized primarily as rejection of rule-following, of proceeding methodically--'methodism' being the cultural perspective that uniquely distinguished modernity--but also as rejection of disinterestedness, the quality of mind especially highly esteemed in modernity. Postmodernity is constituted by this transvaluation of values, whose well-spring is the egocentric, transgressive (hence 'risk taking'), postmodern personality and its anti-social presumptions regarding personhood. Within the history of science itself there has been since circa 1980 a corresponding turn of scholarly attention away from science to technology, and a growing distaste for social perspectives, reflected, i.a., in the rejection of causalist 'influence' explanations in favor of voluntarist 'resource' explanations. PMID:20695412

  13. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  14. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. On the Chemical Synthesis and Physical Properties of Iron Pyrite, Especially the (100) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, Hector Alexander

    Given that iron pyrite (cubic FeS2, fool's gold) is a semiconductor with a ˜1 eV band gap, it has long been investigated for use in technological applications, especially photovoltaics. Unfortunately, numerous measurements indicate that it's properties, as currently synthesized at least, do not allow for effective devices. Photovoltages far below theoretical expectation are found as well as below band gap optical absorption. From a scientific standpoint, our understanding of the cause of these observations, the form of the density of states for instance, remains mired in uncertainty. In this work we have attempted to gain insight into this problem by creating ensembles of pyrite nanocrystals that can then be treated and measured with well-developed wet-chemical nanocrystal techniques. Specifically, we interpret the existing literature to advocate that the surface states of this material dominate its observed electrical properties. In an effort to better understand the most prevalent surface, the (100) face, we developed a synthesis that nucleates small (< 20 nm) pyrite nanoparticles and then changes chemical conditions to grow all other faces besides {100} to extinction, creating ˜37 nm nanocubes. The optical properties of these nanocubes are measured and the phenomenon of resonance light scattering (RLS) is observed. This phenomenon, along with the poor colloidal dispersibility of these nanocubes is then used to promote the idea that an unusual dynamic electronic phenomenon exists on these surfaces. This phenomenon is found to be passivated by introducing charged ligands to the surfaces of these particles. Additionally, after this surface treatment, two very sharp absorption features are observed at 0.73 and 0.88 eV. In connection with recent theoretical work, these transitions are taken as evidence that the (100) surface of pyrite is spin-polarized with each absorption peak being the signal of band edge absorption across a spin-selected direct band gap. A

  17. Negative association between metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density in Koreans, especially in men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Young; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Hong Kyu; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom Jun; Lee, Seung Hun; Koh, Jung-Min; Han, Ki Ok; Park, Hyoung Moo; Kim, Ghi Su

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are thought to share common risk factors, and metabolic syndrome (MS) is composed of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between specific MS components and bone mineral density (BMD). BMD was measured at the femoral neck of Korean men aged 40 years or more (n = 1,780) and postmenopausal women (n = 1,108) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We identified subjects with MS as defined by two criteria, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI). Body fat and lean mass were measured via bioimpedance analysis. The prevalence of MS was 19.8% and 7.7% in men and 20.8% and 11.6% in postmenopausal women according to the AHA/NHLBI definition and the IDF definition, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in subjects with MS regardless of diagnostic criteria. BMD decreased as the number of MS components increased (P < 0.001 for trends in both sexes). Among MS components, waist circumference was the most important factor in this negative association. When multiple linear regression models were applied to each 5-kg weight stratum to test for a linear trend, waist circumference and fat mass were negatively associated with BMD and lean mass was positively associated with BMD in men but not in women. MS was associated with a lower BMD in Korean men and postmenopausal women, suggesting that visceral fat may lead to bone loss, especially in men. PMID:20354685

  18. Effect of different agronomic practises on greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2014-05-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, management practises need to be adapted by implementing sustainable land use. At first, reliable field data are required to assess the effect of different farming practises on greenhouse gas budgets. The conducted field experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system, implementing additionally the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practises. Furthermore, the analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties enables a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the monitored cycle of matter, especially the nitrogen cycle. Measurements were carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then, parcels in a field (each around 0,2-0,4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted. So the 20 years impacts of different tillage and fertilisation practises on soil properties including trace gases were examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 are monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (per point: 4 chambers, each covering 0,4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit (Flessa et al. 2002). Each chamber is sampled 3-4 times in 24 hours. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes as influenced by management practice events (fertilisation and tillage) and weather effects (drying-rewetting, freezing-thawing, intense rainfall and dry periods

  19. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  20. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  1. Process for the removal of radioactive iodine from a liquid, especially urine, and apparatus to carry out the process

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, I.; Heinzel, F.; Muller-Duysing, W.

    1980-10-21

    Apparatus for removing radioactive iodine from a liquid, especially urine, having a collecting means, a treating tank with a mixer-pump, a filter, and a catch basin in which radiation is detected. The apparatus includes various control means and magnetic values to provide automatic operation.

  2. Methyl Eugenol: Its Occurrence, Distribution, and Role in Nature, Especially in Relation to Insect Behavior and Pollination

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Keng Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the occurrence and distribution (within a plant) of methyl eugenol in different plant species (> 450) from 80 families spanning many plant orders, as well as various roles this chemical plays in nature, especially in the interactions between tephritid fruit flies and plants. PMID:22963669

  3. Gadolinium and ruthenium red attenuate remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection: possible role of TRP and especially TRPV channels.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is a well reported therapeutic strategy that induces cardioprotective effects but the underlying intracellular mechanisms have not been widely explored. The current study was designed to investigate the involvement of TRP and especially TRPV channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 alternate cycles of inflation and deflation of 5 min each) was delivered using a blood pressure cuff tied on the hind limb of the anesthetized rat. Using Langendorff's system, the heart was perfused and subjected to 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. The myocardial injury was assessed by measuring infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, and coronary flow rate. Gadolinium, TRP blocker, and ruthenium red, TRPV channel blocker, were employed as pharmacological tools. Remote hind limb preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size, LDH release, CK release and improved coronary flow rate, hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, and heart rate. However, gadolinium (7.5 and 15 mg kg(-1)) and ruthenium red (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects suggesting the involvement of TRP especially TRPV channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV channels on the heart or sensory nerve fibers innervating the heart to induce cardioprotective effects. Alternatively, remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus may also activate the mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels on the sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeletal muscles to trigger cardioprotective neurogenic signaling cascade. The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning may be mediated via activation of mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels. PMID:27118661

  4. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  5. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  6. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation. PMID:26528968

  7. Energy Metabolism of the Brain, Including the Cooperation between Astrocytes and Neurons, Especially in the Context of Glycogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Goschorska, Marta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Chlubek, Dariusz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has important implications for the functioning of the brain, especially the cooperation between astrocytes and neurons. According to various research data, in a glycogen deficiency (for example during hypoglycemia) glycogen supplies are used to generate lactate, which is then transported to neighboring neurons. Likewise, during periods of intense activity of the nervous system, when the energy demand exceeds supply, astrocyte glycogen is immediately converted to lactate, some of which is transported to the neurons. Thus, glycogen from astrocytes functions as a kind of protection against hypoglycemia, ensuring preservation of neuronal function. The neuroprotective effect of lactate during hypoglycemia or cerebral ischemia has been reported in literature. This review goes on to emphasize that while neurons and astrocytes differ in metabolic profile, they interact to form a common metabolic cooperation. PMID:26528968

  8. Gesturing during mental problem solving reduces eye movements, especially for individuals with lower visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Wim T J L; Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Non-communicative hand gestures have been found to benefit problem-solving performance. These gestures seem to compensate for limited internal cognitive capacities, such as visual working memory capacity. Yet, it is not clear how gestures might perform this cognitive function. One hypothesis is that gesturing is a means to spatially index mental simulations, thereby reducing the need for visually projecting the mental simulation onto the visual presentation of the task. If that hypothesis is correct, less eye movements should be made when participants gesture during problem solving than when they do not gesture. We therefore used mobile eye tracking to investigate the effect of co-thought gesturing and visual working memory capacity on eye movements during mental solving of the Tower of Hanoi problem. Results revealed that gesturing indeed reduced the number of eye movements (lower saccade counts), especially for participants with a relatively lower visual working memory capacity. Subsequent problem-solving performance was not affected by having (not) gestured during the mental solving phase. The current findings suggest that our understanding of gestures in problem solving could be improved by taking into account eye movements during gesturing. PMID:26993293

  9. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30-55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  10. Single-Unit Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Reflects Sleep Apnea Severity, Especially in Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoka, Takuto; Murai, Hisayoshi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Usui, Soichiro; Okabe, Yoshitaka; Tokuhisa, Hideki; Kato, Takeshi; Furusho, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Yu; Nakatsumi, Yasuto; Takata, Shigeo; Takamura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with augmented sympathetic nerve activity, as assessed by multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, it is still unclear whether single-unit MSNA is a better reflection of sleep apnea severity according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). One hundred and two OSAS patients underwent full polysomnography and single- and multi-unit MSNA measurements. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to determine which parameters correlated with OSAS severity, which was defined by the AHI. Single- and multi-unit MSNA were significantly and positively correlated with AHI severity. The AHI was also significantly correlated with multi-unit MSNA burst frequency (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001) and single-unit MSNA spike frequency (r = 0.632, p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis revealed that SF was correlated most significantly with AHI (T = 7.27, p < 0.0001). The distributions of multiple single-unit spikes per one cardiac interval did not differ between patients with an AHI of <30 and those with and AHI of 30–55 events/h; however, the pattern of each multiple spike firing were significantly higher in patients with an AHI of >55. These results suggest that sympathetic nerve activity is associated with sleep apnea severity. In addition, single-unit MSNA is a more accurate reflection of sleep apnea severity with alternation of the firing pattern, especially in patients with very severe OSAS. PMID:26973534

  11. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. PMID:27199282

  12. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  13. Within-hemifield posture changes affect tactile-visual exogenous spatial cueing without spatial precision, especially in the dark.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Steffan; Driver, Jon

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the effects of seen and unseen within-hemifield posture changes on crossmodal visual-tactile links in covert spatial attention. In all experiments, a spatially nonpredictive tactile cue was presented to the left or the right hand, with the two hands placed symmetrically across the midline. Shortly after a tactile cue, a visual target appeared at one of two eccentricities within either of the hemifields. For half of the trial blocks, the hands were aligned with the inner visual target locations, and for the remainder, the hands were aligned with the outer target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inner and outer eccentricities were 17.5º and 52.5º, respectively. In Experiment 1, the arms were completely covered, and visual up-down judgments were better when on the same side as the preceding tactile cue. Cueing effects were not significantly affected by hand or target alignment. In Experiment 2, the arms were in view, and now some target responses were affected by cue alignment: Cueing for outer targets was only significant when the hands were aligned with them. In Experiment 3, we tested whether any unseen posture changes could alter the cueing effects, by widely separating the inner and outer target eccentricities (now 10º and 86º). In this case, hand alignment did affect some of the cueing effects: Cueing for outer targets was now only significant when the hands were in the outer position. Although these results confirm that proprioception can, in some cases, influence tactile-visual links in exogenous spatial attention, they also show that spatial precision is severely limited, especially when posture is unseen. PMID:24470256

  14. Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Darabpour, Esmaeil; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Motamedi, Hossein; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonaspiscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

  15. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashiya; Amitava, Abadan Khan; Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Siddiqui, Ziya; Kumari, Namita; Grover, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery. Aims: To compare the cost effectiveness of phacoemulsification (PE) versus manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Settings and Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: A total of 52 consenting patients with age-related cataracts, were prospectively recruited, and block randomized to PE or MSICS group. Preoperative and postoperative LogMAR visual acuity (VA), visual function-14 (VF-14) score and their quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were obtained, and the change in their values calculated. These were divided by the total cost incurred in the surgery to calculate and compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility. Surgery duration was also compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Two group comparison with Student's t-test. Significance set at P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) quoted where appropriate. Results: Both the MSICS and PE groups achieved comparative outcomes in terms of change (difference in mean [95% CI]) in LogMAR VA (0.03 [−0.05−0.11]), VF-14 score (7.92 [−1.03−16.86]) and QALYs (1.14 [−0.89−3.16]). However, with significantly lower costs (INR 3228 [2700–3756]), MSICS was more cost effective, with superior cost utility value. MSICS was also significantly quicker (10.58 min [6.85–14.30]) than PE. Conclusions: MSICS provides comparable visual and QALY improvement, yet takes less time, and is significantly more cost-effective, compared with PE. Greater push and penetration of MSICS, by the government, is justifiably warranted in our country. PMID:26265639

  17. Simultaneous Multi-Antibody Staining in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Strengthens Diagnostic Accuracy Especially in Small Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Gian; Csanadi, Agnes; Otto, Claudia; Plönes, Till; Bittermann, Nicola; Rawluk, Justyna; Passlick, Bernward; Werner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Histological subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has growing therapeutic impact. In advanced cancer stages tissue specimens are usually bioptically collected. These small samples are of extraordinary value since molecular analyses are gaining importance for targeted therapies. We therefore studied the feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, economic and prognostic effects of a tissue sparing simultaneous multi-antibody assay for subclassification of NSCLC. Of 265 NSCLC patients tissue multi arrays (TMA) were constructed to simulate biopsy samples. TMAs were stained by a simultaneous bi-color multi-antibody assay consisting of TTF1, Vimentin, p63 and neuroendocrine markers (CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin). Classification was based mainly on the current proposal of the IASLC with a hierarchical decision tree for subclassification into adenocarcinoma (LAC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and NSCLC not otherwise specified. Investigation of tumor heterogeneity showed an explicit lower variation for immunohistochemical analyses compared to conventional classification. Furthermore, survival analysis of our combined immunohistochemical classification revealed distinct separation of each entity's survival curve. This was statistically significant for therapeutically important subgroups (p = 0.045). As morphological and molecular cancer testing is emerging, our multi-antibody assay in combination with standardized classification delivers accurate and reliable separation of histomorphological diagnoses. Additionally, it permits clinically relevant subtyping of NSCLC including LCNEC. Our multi-antibody assay may therefore be of special value, especially in diagnosing small biopsies. It futher delivers substantial prognostic information with therapeutic consequences. Integration of immunohistochemical subtyping including investigation of neuroendocrine differentiation into standard histopathological

  18. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24204633

  19. Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent

  20. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  3. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  4. CSF levels of prostaglandins, especially the level of prostaglandin D2, are correlated with increasing propensity towards sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Ram, A; Pandey, H P; Matsumura, H; Kasahara-Orita, K; Nakajima, T; Takahata, R; Satoh, S; Terao, A; Hayaishi, O

    1997-03-14

    -established awaking effect of the same prostaglandin demonstrated in the hypothalamic region in a series of previous studies. Based on these results, we conclude that increases in CSF levels of prostaglandins, especially that of PGD2, are correlated in rats with heightened propensity towards sleep and further with the depth of sleep under normal as well as SD conditions. PMID:9098570

  5. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  6. Neisseria meningitidis Lacking the Major Porins PorA and PorB Is Viable and Modulates Apoptosis and the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Chen, Adrienne; Jen, Freda E-C; Jennings, Courtney; Schulz, Benjamin L; Saunders, Nigel J; Khan, Arshad; Seifert, H Steven; Jennings, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses two major outer-membrane porins. PorA expression is subject to phase-variation (high frequency, random, on-off switching), and both PorA and PorB are antigenically variable between strains. PorA expression is variable and not correlated with meningococcal colonisation or invasive disease, whereas all naturally-occurring strains express PorB suggesting strong selection for expression. We have generated N. meningitidis strains lacking expression of both major porins, demonstrating that they are dispensable for bacterial growth in vitro. The porAB mutant strain has an exponential growth rate similar to the parental strain, as do the single porA or porB mutants, but the porAB mutant strain does not reach the same cell density in stationary phase. Proteomic analysis suggests that the double mutant strain exhibits compensatory expression changes in proteins associated with cellular redox state, energy/nutrient metabolism, and membrane stability. On solid media, there is obvious growth impairment that is rescued by addition of blood or serum from mammalian species, particularly heme. These porin mutants are not impaired in their capacity to inhibit both staurosporine-induced apoptosis and a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced oxidative burst in human neutrophils suggesting that the porins are not the only bacterial factors that can modulate these processes in host cells. PMID:26562068

  7. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-01-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia, by Doris Kimbrough, p 48. * The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales, by Gavin Peckham, p 49. * Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance, by Adolf Cortel, p 61. * Toward More Performance Evaluation in Chemistry, by Sharon Rasp, p 64. A Wealth of Useful Information

  8. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-02-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages 176A-176B. Addressing Some Specialized Interests As in any issue of the Journal, there are several articles that are not designated with the secondary school mark (?) but are likely to be of interest to some high school teachers. For example, if you are interested in staying abreast of educational applications of computational chemistry, the articles on pages 199-221 will be among those you will wish to examine even though the focus is on meeting the learning needs of college students. For those with an interest in electronics, there are several articles on pages 252-262, on building on modifying useful devices. Among the topics: building a digital monitor for analyzing spectrophotometer signals, building a digital interface for a graphing calculator, and using an inexpensive commercial analog-to-digital converter. JCE Reviewers The standard of quality in JCE articles is due in great measure to the careful scrutiny and helpful suggestions of reviewers. I am proud to note that the names of several high school teachers are in the list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for JCE recently. This month's list, which appears on page 152, is a continuation from page 24 of the January issue. Keep watching if your name has not yet appeared. If you are not currently serving as a reviewer, I encourage you to sign up today. As a reviewer, you would review potential articles that have been submitted to the Journal. You may choose from a variety of subject areas to review and choose as few or as many manuscripts as you can handle. To find out how to become a reviewer, read the information on page 162 or visit our Web site at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Reviewers. NACS 3/2000 Reminder NACS 3/2000 is the heading Carolyn Abbott uses in email correspondence about the High School Day program, which be held Monday, March 27, 2000, at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco. Carolyn is High School Program Chair and she and her committee have assembled a full day of interesting and useful sessions for teachers. Among the sessions will be three worksh

  9. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-06-01

    It Was Nice to See You It was great to meet and talk to so many high school chemistry teachers who attended the High School Program at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco or attended the NSTA National Convention in Orlando. Thank you to every teacher who visited the JCE Booth at either meeting and to the approximately 100 individuals who attended the JCE workshop early Monday morning at the ACS. At the NSTA meeting, the Mole Day Breakfast was a special occasion that was made very enjoyable by National Mole Day Foundation leaders Art Logan and Maury Oehler and the enthusiasm and camaraderie of the audience. For more about NMDF activities check out the website http://gamstcweb.gisd.k12.mi.us/~nmdf. Bringing Quality Visualization into the Classroom Turn to page 799 of this issue to learn about the release of Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 4. The Chemistry Comes Alive! series of CD-ROMs are packed with Quicktime movies and still photos depicting chemical reactions, many of which are too hazardous or expensive to carry out in the classroom or laboratory. Many of the demonstrations are accompanied by background information, and they are also correlated with popular chemistry textbooks. An innovation appearing in Volume 4 is an interactive section on reactions in aqueous solution. Among the appealing features of the CCA! series is the ability to incorporate QuickTime movies of these demonstrations into your own presentations. The Reprise of Chemical Principles Revisited I am very pleased that Cary Kilner has agreed to edit the Chemical Principles Revisited feature. Please read his Mission Statement below. If you have an idea for a manuscript that fits this feature, now is the time to take action either by discussing it with Cary or by submitting a manuscript for review. This feature has the potential to be very useful to teachers, but it can reach its potential only through your suggestions and submissions. Let us hear from you soon. Scenes from High School Day at the ACS meeting in San Francisco. (Top photo, left to right) Carolyn Abbott, chair of the program, with Michael Tinnesand and Mare Taagepera. (Bottom photo) Michael Tinnesand speaking at the Luncheon. Photo by Morton Z. Hoffman. Mission Statement for Chemical Principles Revisited W. Cary Kilner, Feature Editor Exeter High School, 7 Salmon Street, Newmarket, NH 03857; 603/659-6825; CaryPQ@aol.com Through this feature, teachers are invited to share how they introduce and present a specific chemical principle, how students investigate the principle or its applications in the laboratory, and how student understanding of this principle is assessed. In most cases the principle would be one that is difficult for students to learn or apply, or one in which chemical research has led to a new understanding that has not yet appeared in textbooks. Discussion of content underlying the principle should provide insight that goes beyond the treatment of high school or general chemistry texts, providing depth that will enable the teacher to become confident in his or her understanding. The account may be a brief vignette that will inspire the reader to try something new and that can be easily implemented. Alternatively, it may be a longer discussion of phenomena that have been neglected or misinterpreted and to which a fresh, reflective, and informed view is provided. An example of a brief article is "The Disappearing Act: Teaching Students to Expect the Unexpected" (J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155). An example of a longer article is "Studying the Activity Series of Metals" (J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 51), although a current submission should also include discussion of assessment and actual outcomes whenever possible. Teachers who have an idea for an article that fits this mission may contact the feature editor if they have questions.

  10. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-10-01

    Garfield, the feline creation of comic strip artist Jim Davis, hates Mondays with a passion. Many individuals-including chemistry teachers and their students-can identify with Garfield's animosity toward Mondays. But October 23 is a Monday that everyone should look forward to because it is Mole Day. This year's theme is Celebrate the MOLEnnium, and as anticipated, CEO Maury Oheler, President Art Logan, and the foundation board members have done their usual great job of planning an event for building student interest. Check out the National Mole Day Foundation Web site to find more information about the MOLEnnium Celebration and obtain a membership form so that you may obtain the full packet of Mole Day activities. If you do not have access to the Web, you may send 15 new membership (or 10 renewal) with your name, address, telephone number, and email address to National Mole Day Foundation, Inc., 1220 South 5th Street, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin 53821.

  11. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... which controls the function of female reproductive organs. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pelvic Exam: ...

  12. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-05-01

    * Low-Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children, by. H.O. Gupta and Rakshpal Singh, p 610. * Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory, by Otto Phanstiel IV, Eric Dueno, and Queenie Xianghong Wang, p 612.

  13. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-02-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages 176A-176B. Addressing Some Specialized Interests As in any issue of the Journal, there are several articles that are not designated with the secondary school mark (?) but are likely to be of interest to some high school teachers. For example, if you are interested in staying abreast of educational applications of computational chemistry, the articles on pages 199-221 will be among those you will wish to examine even though the focus is on meeting the learning needs of college students. For those with an interest in electronics, there are several articles on pages 252-262, on building on modifying useful devices. Among the topics: building a digital monitor for analyzing spectrophotometer signals, building a digital interface for a graphing calculator, and using an inexpensive commercial analog-to-digital converter. JCE Reviewers The standard of quality in JCE articles is due in great measure to the careful scrutiny and helpful suggestions of reviewers. I am proud to note that the names of several high school teachers are in the list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for JCE recently. This month's list, which appears on page 152, is a continuation from page 24 of the January issue. Keep watching if your name has not yet appeared. If you are not currently serving as a reviewer, I encourage you to sign up today. As a reviewer, you would review potential articles that have been submitted to the Journal. You may choose from a variety of subject areas to review and choose as few or as many manuscripts as you can handle. To find out how to become a reviewer, read the information on page 162 or visit our Web site at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Reviewers. NACS 3/2000 Reminder NACS 3/2000 is the heading Carolyn Abbott uses in email correspondence about the High School Day program, which be held Monday, March 27, 2000, at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco. Carolyn is High School Program Chair and she and her committee have assembled a full day of interesting and useful sessions for teachers. Among the sessions will be three workshops: CBL (John Heil), Laboratory Safety (James Kaufman), and ICE: Chemistry and Material Science (Kathleen Shanks and David Shaw). John Moore and I will conduct a session in which you are invited to share your thoughts about how the Journal could be made more useful to you. We will also provide an update on the breadth of resources available through JCE. The High School/College Interface Luncheon will feature Michael Tinnesand speaking about teaching resources available from the American Chemical Society. Also, there will be sessions on teaching organic and polymer chemistry, developing survival skills for teaching, and "Living by Chemistry". Several outstanding California teachers are among the presenters of these sessions. NACS 3/2000 is a concise way of reminding those of you who can attend, particularly those teaching in the San Francisco Bay area, to put this important date on the calendar now. More details about the High School Day program, as well as other Division of Chemical Education sessions, will appear in the March issue of JCE.

  14. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-05-01

    JCE Classroom Activity: #27. How Does Your Garden Grow? Investigating the "Magic Salt Crystal Garden", edited by Nancy S. Gettys and Erica K. Jacobsen, p 624A. Some Articles of Interest photos by Jerrold J. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys This month's issue covers a wide variety of topics, from historical notes to the latest software from JCE. Gas burners are such familiar items in the laboratory that little thought is given to their development. An interesting article by Kathryn Williams (pp 558-559) explains how these humble devices came into being, beginning with Robert Bunsen's invention in 1857, through their adaptation in the United States in the 1930s to burn natural gas. Bunsen, in collaboration with Gustav Kirchhoff, used his invention in constructing an emission spectrometer that could be used in chemical analysis. A drawing of the instrument appears in the Williams article. The spectrometer is described in more detail in an article titled "A Brief History of Atomic Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 1666-1950". Author Richard Jarrell traces the history of this important and lasting method of analysis from Isaac Newton's discovery of the visible spectrum to the development of the powerful analytical instruments that were in use in the 1950s. For readers who have a deeper interest in atomic emission spectroscopy, Jarrell's article is the first of five that are based on a symposium conducted in 1999 (pp 573-607). Visualizing the structure of ionic crystals is the topic of articles by Keenan Dungey (pp 618-619), Bruce Mattson (pp 622-623), and J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek (pp 623-624). The ionic crystal theme is also carried out in JCE Classroom Activity #27 (pp 624A-B) and a demonstration on the preparation of sodium iodide, written by Zelek Herman (pp 619-621). Together, the five articles provide an interesting combination of ideas for investigating and describing both the macroscopic and the submicroscopic views of ionic crystals. Is It the "Write" Time for You? The end of the school year is approaching quickly. In previous years, several readers have submitted manuscripts soon after the end of the school year, while ideas were fresh in their mind and there was relief from the demands of daily classes. If you have an idea for an article, I encourage you to think about writing as soon as the school term ends. I can probably guess what you are saying, "I don't have anything that readers would be interested in." This is a common reaction, to which we frequently respond by reminding high school teachers that this is "your journal" and the only way to ensure that topics of interest to you are considered or published is by your active participation. In this presidential election year I am reminded of the familiar sentiment, "I voted in the election, so I have earned the right to complain about the politicians." I do not wish to encourage complaining, but there is a relevant correlation. By submitting manuscripts to the Journal, you are ensuring that you will continue to get your money's worth because it will include topics of interest to you. When considering a submission, many prospective authors are overwhelmed at the thought of preparing a complete manuscript. Don't let that stop you. If you have an idea, an outline, or a rough draft, any of the feature editors or I would be happy to discuss it with you. This one-on-one interaction during the development process will help you express your ideas more effectively. Many teachers across the country who are faced with similar situations and problems each day would benefit from an article discussing innovative teaching strategies or a new way to look at principles we teach every year. As you begin to formulate your ideas, I would like to emphasize five features whose editors are fellow teachers:

    • JCE Classroom Activities. An invitation for contributions was issued in the April issue of this column (JCE, 2000, 77, 431).
    • Chemical Principles Revisited, edited by Cary Kilner
    • Interdisciplinary Connections, edited by Mark Alber
    • Second Year and Advanced Placement Chemistry, edited by John Fischer
    • View From My Classroom, edited by David Byrum
    Information about the expectations for each feature and contact information for each feature editor may be found online, http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/AboutJCE/Features/index.html. So review the various features today, and drop one of the editors or me an email briefly discussing your idea. We will begin a dialogue to explore the topic more thoroughly and do our best to provide feedback to help you submit the best possible manuscript. If you have selected a topic and are ready to prepare a manuscript for submission, be sure to consult the Guide to Submissions (JCE 2000, 77, 29-30 or http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Authors/Guidelines.html). If you are considering writing about a laboratory experiment, consult Supplemental Guidelines, JCE Lab-Experiment Manuscripts ( this issue, p 562). We look forward to hearing from you soon.

  15. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-06-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 723. * Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory, by Kent W. Piepgrass, p 724. * Using Balls from Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes, by Gabriel Pinto, p 725. * The Convergent Evolution of a Chemistry Project: Using Laboratory Posters as a Platform for Web Page Construction, by Sally Rigeman, p 727. * Process Development in the Teaching Laboratory, by Leonard C. Klein and Susanne M. Dana, p 745.

  16. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-10-01

    Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context for constructivist approaches. In the section titled "What Research Has Revealed", the authors provide a succinct summary of specific research findings under three tantalizing subheadings: "What You Think You Know May Not Be the Way It Is", "Learning Is Not a Spectator Sport!", and "Appropriate Outcomes Must Be Identified and Measured". The authors' insight into future research challenges is detailed in a sidebar. ChemEd'99: A Great Success The 1999 ChemEd Conference was a great success, judging by the many very favorable comments of high school teachers who attended. Thanks and congratulations go to Babu George and to the many volunteers who made this event possible through a great deal of hard work, ingenuity, and creativity. Many of the volunteers who gave so generously of their time, before and during the conference, are high school teachers. The program reflected the broad range of needs and interests of high school teachers. Credit for the success also should go to the many presenters. The workshops, demonstrations, papers, and posters that I attended were of high quality and useful to teachers. Conversation with other attendees convinced me that the same degree of quality and utility was characteristic of the entire conference program. Demonstrations are always an outstanding feature of ChemEd conferences and the Signature Demonstrations continued this tradition, as did the large number of demonstration sessions scheduled throughout the general program. The Reg Friesen Memorial Lecture, delivered by Steve Spangler, featured spectacular and stimulating demonstrations in the context of building connections between chemical concepts and real-world applications. Some other themes that permeated the general program were Internet applications, methods of assessment, safety and waste disposal, calculator and computer based laboratory methods, and ideas for making classroom instruction interesting and effective. Thank you to each reader who visited the JCE Exhibit or participated in our workshop on using JCE Activities. We e

  17. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-09-01

    Alternative Assessment The trend in several states to use high-stakes achievement test scores to evaluate districts, schools, and teachers appears to be at odds with the intent of the National Science Education Assessment Standards. Recently I read several postings on an Internet discussion list in which several high school teachers expressed differing opinions on how to deal with the situation. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that as increased emphasis is placed on preparation for high-stakes end-of-course examinations it becomes more difficult to assess conceptual understanding. High school chemistry teachers are an innovative lot, and I am confident that ways will be found to evaluate understanding no matter what. This month's issue contains two examples of using student-constructed posters as a means of assessment. Although we most often associate poster presentations with research, such as a science fair project, these articles show that posters may also be used to assess student learning in class settings. The examples are from lower-division college courses, but they may be equally useful in high school chemistry courses. An article titled Using Poster Sessions as an Alternative to Written ExaminationsThe Poster Exam by Pamela Mills and four co-authors contains a detailed explanation of how student-constructed posters can be used to assess student learning. A number of related articles are listed in the Literature Cited section. Another example is found in A Poster Session in Organic Chemistry That Markedly Enhanced Student Learning by P. A. Huddle. The same author also contributed the article How to Present a Paper or Poster in which useful, straightforward suggestions for communicating information and ideas clearly are provided.

  18. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-02-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Building the Interest of High School Students for Science-A PACT Ambassador Program To Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry, by Matthew Lynch, Nicholas Geary, Karen Hagaman, Ann Munson, and Mark Sabo, p 191. * Promoting Chemistry at the Elementary Level, by Larry L. Louters and Richard D. Huisman, p 196. * Is It Real Gold? by Harold H. Harris, p 198. * The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 206. * The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics, by Reed A. Howald, p 208. Staying on Top: Curricular Projects, Relativistic Effects, and Standard-State Pressure You may wonder why some articles are identified with the Secondary School Chemistry logo (*) this month even though at first glance they appear to be of greater interest to college faculty.1 The three articles discussed below are representative of three broad categories: (i) the interrelatedness of science teaching and learning, K-16+; (ii) new understandings of chemical phenomena; and (iii) information about the use of SI units. For each article I have highlighted the major point(s) and the reasons it may be of interest to high school teachers. First, the article "The NSF 'Systemic' Projects- A New Tradition" (G. M. Barrow, p 158) is a commentary on changes in post-secondary introductory chemistry courses in which a distinction is drawn between information management and individual understanding. The author is of the opinion that most students expect the former and that the NSF-funded systemic projects "will thrive only if they are consistent with their information-management mission". Three individuals provided responses to the commentary from their perspective. Has a student asked you why mercury is a liquid, or why gold is the most electronegative metal? "Gold Chemistry: The Aurophilic Attraction" by J. Bardají and A. Laguna (p 201) and "Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not" by A. H. Guerreor, H. J. Fasoli, and J. L. Costa (p 200) provide useful information in answering these questions. Have you thought about the effect of changing the standard-state pressure from 1 atm to the SI unit of 1 bar? The question is addressed in "How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar" by R. S. Treptow (p 212). The author points out that although textbook authors have not yet abandoned use of 1 atm as standard-state pressure, thermodynamic data are reported in the research literature on the basis of 1 bar standard-state pressure. The author provides the information needed to readily convert thermodynamic data from one standard to the other. These articles represent just a few that may be of interest to you. I encourage you to explore other articles within the Journal that are not noted with the secondary school section logo. As we each continue to broaden our knowledge of chemistry and chemical education, JCE will continue to serve as an invaluable resource in our educational quest. Anaheim and Boston in March; Fairfield in August JCE will have a booth in the exhibition hall both at the ACS National Meeting in Anaheim, March 21-24, and at the NSTA National Convention in Boston, March 25-29. Additionally, the all-day High School Program on Monday, March 22, will be held as part of the ACS meeting. More details will be provided in the March issue of JCE. Make your plans to attend now. Registration information may be found at http://www.acs.org/meetings/anaheim/welcome.htm and http://www.nsta.org/conv/natgen.htm. Another outstanding event, ChemEd '99, will held on the campus of Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT, August 1-5, 1999. Information, including a call for presentation proposals, is available at http://www.sacredheart.edu/chemed/. The deadline for abstracts is March 1, 1999, so don't delay. Chemistry for Kids-Looking for New Ideas Over the life of the Chemistry for Kids (CFK) feature a relatively large number of articles have been published that describe outreach by college or high school faculty and students. The majority of these have dwelt on the details of delivery-be it demonstrations or hands-on activities. An article in this issue, "Promoting Chemistry at the Elementary Level: A Low-Maintenance Program of Chemical Demonstration" by Larry L. Louters and Richard D. Huisman (p 196), details an on-campus program that could be a model for others to use. We believe that almost every combination of interaction has been described in CFK articles. What we would like now are more CFK articles with an emphasis on science instruction in the elementary classroom. Learner-centered activities and teaching strategies that integrate chemistry into the curriculum, successful curricula, and applications of software or other technological innovations are among topics that could be of interest to readers. If you have an idea for a manuscript, the co-editors of the CFK feature would be happy to discuss it with you. Any suggestions regarding types of articles that you think would be helpful within this section are welcomed too. To contact the CFK feature editors: John T. Moore, Stephen F. Austin State University Department of Chemistry, Box 13006 SFA Station, Nacogdoches, TX 75962; 409/468-2384; jmoore@sfasu.edu; David Tolar, Ennis Intermediate School, Ennis, TX 75120; 903/872-5364; TolarD@ennis.ednet10.net. Note 1. Comments from readers regarding the appropriateness of the recommendations are always welcome (j.e.howell@usm.edu).

  19. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-12-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number, by Damon Diemente, p 1565. * The Egg in the Bottle Revisited: Air Pressure and Amontons' Law (Charles' Law), by Louis H. Adcock, p 1567 * CD-ROM Spectroscope: A Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Classroom Demonstrations on Chemical Spectroscopy, by Fumitaka Wakabayashi, Kiyohito Hamada, Kozo Sone, p 1569 Environmental Chemistry Resources

  20. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-12-01

    Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory experiments if desired, discuss their findings, and make a recommendation regarding which of two road deicers should be used on the bridge. The article Pesticides in Drinking Water: Project-Based Learning within the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum (pp 1673-1667) describes class involvement in field data collection and analysis. Since more sophisticated instrumentation than is possessed by many schools is required, 6th grade science and high school chemistry classes work with a college class to obtain and analyze data. Everyone involved in this approach wins. The 6th graders, high school students, and college students all gain experience in sampling, preparing samples for analysis, determining pollutant levels, and drawing conclusions, each at an appropriate level of understanding. Plus, the high school students are exposed to instrumentation that otherwise would not be accessible, such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the project described was started by the college faculty members who wrote the article, such an approach to many interesting environmental chemistry problems could be initiated by a high school teacher by seeking out a nearby college or university with whom to partner. An article that probably would not have received the SSC mark had I not noticed that two of the coauthors are high school students, is titled Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye (pp 1680-1683). In addition to being interesting, the article is a good reminder that research opportunities for high school students exist. Still another article that received the SSC mark because of a high school connection is Chemical Analysis of Soils (pp 1693-1694). The authors mention that with modification their techniques could be used in high school chemistry. They cite a reference to an article published several years ago, titled Soil Analysis for High School Chemistry Students (J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897-899). It was published in a feature titled the 50-Minute Experiment. Block scheduling has brought

  1. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-08-01

    Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered if it would be possible to develop a way in which different secondary chemistry syllabi could easily be exchanged. It is likely that readers from other states and countries are involved in a similar process and might also be interested in exchanging syllabi. Many states do not use the term syllabus to describe their guiding curricular document for chemistry but rather refer to it as a framework or as guidelines. In most cases, the document includes a list of key ideas or topics, performance indicators, and the major understandings associated with each key idea. Such documents would be appropriate for exchange among those of you involved in the revision process. If you are interested in arranging an exchange please contact me by email at j.e.howell@usm.edu or by mail at J. E. Howell, Box 5043, USM, Hattiesburg, MS39406-5043, USA. High School Day Information The High School Chemistry Program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana will be held Sunday, August 22, 1999, at the Doubletree Hotel, 300 Canal Street. If you wish to register only for the High School Day activities, which includes a pass to the ACS Exposition, a special registration form is available from Lillie Tucker-Akin, 2800 Reynard Dr., Tupelo, MS38801; sci4me@aol.com; fax: 662/566-7906. Advance registration is 25 and the cost of the High School Luncheon is 12. Register in advance by August 1, 1999, or from 7:45 to 8:30 a.m. at the High School Day table in the conference room area of the Doubletree. The workshop schedule is shown below. Secondary School Feature Articles * Exploring the Ocean-Stating the Case for Chemistry, by Paul J. Scheuer, p 1075 * Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items, by Danielle R. D. Campanizzi, Brenda Mason, Christine K. F. Hermann, p 1079 New Orleans Concurrent Workshops, High School Program 8:30 a.m.-9:20 a.m. A. A Teaching Resource for You: The Journal of Chemical Education, J. E. Howell, J. W. Moore, and A. M. Sarquis B. Electrical Conductivity, J. M. Manion and P. F. Krause, and The Properties of Gases, J.-M. Whitfield and K. A. Woodling C. Chemistry with Calculators for Beginners, P. Sconzo (3 hours) D. Spectrum of Activities for Chemistry Teachers, Carolina Biological Supply, S. Mitchell, F. Cherry, and L. Akin (3 hours) 9:30 a.m.-10:20 a.m. A. Applying Chemical Education Research to the Classroom, L. Akin and J. Valasek B. Another Look at the Deflection of Falling Liquids, H. H. Harris and J. Newstrum, and Encouraging Students to Investigate Acids and Bases Using Plant Indicators, P. K. Kerrigan C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. Science Education for Public Understanding (SEPUP) and Chemistry, Health, Environment, and Me, M. Koker and L. Akin (2 hours) 10:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. A. Increasing Aptitude and Interest of High School Students through Summer Camp, C. E. Fulton, and Energy Teaching Introduction to High School Chemistry, L.-M. Trejo B. Chemistry in Science Museum Exhibits: Opportunities and Challenges and Cooking with Chemistry, D. Katz C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. SEPUP (continued) 12:00 noon-1:15 p.m., High School Luncheon Educating High School Teachers for the 21st Century, Glenn Crosby 1:30 p.m.-2:20 p.m. A. Customized Mastery Learning in First-Year Chemistry and Computer Software for Chemistry Teachers Who Require Mastery Learning of Their Students, J. Bedenbaugh and A. Bedenbaugh B. Can One Teach Chemistry with Everyday Substances? A. Sae, and SourceBook Activities Using Everyday Substances, C. Ayers, J

  2. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2001-09-01

    Looking for great National Chemistry Week 2001 resources on Chemistry and Art? Watch for the October and November issues of JCE. For more details about what to expect see pages 1158 and 1194 of this issue. Note 1. Solid State Model Kit. Available from the Institute for Chemical Education, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706-1396; phone 608/262-3033; fax 608/265-8094. Literature Cited 1. Cady, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 794. 2. Laing, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 795. 3. Mattson, B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 622.

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emory Howell, J.

    1999-11-01

    More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of

  4. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1999-04-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Amino Acid Wordsearch, by Terry L. Helser, p 495. Games, Puzzles, and Humor In honor of April Fools' Day this issue contains 22 pages devoted to games and puzzles that can be used to teach aspects of chemistry. Most are designed for high school and first-year college students. The lead article, p 481, contains an annotated bibliography of chemistry games, complete with a vendor list. Many of the annotated games must be purchased, but the other articles that follow in this issue describe some games and puzzles that require minimal preparation using a word processor and readily available materials. Actually, JCE has a long tradition of publishing games and puzzles for chemistry teachers and their students. Read the letter by Helser and the Editor's response, p 468, for some recent background. Not having counted articles over past years, I became curious and turned to the online index, accessed by way of http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/. Because I wanted to search the entire 75-year life of the Journal, I searched titles for the words "game", "puzzle", and "humor" and obtained a total of 85 hits from the three searches. After eliminating titles of articles that were not applicable, I found that at least 25 games, 48 puzzles, and 5 humor articles have appeared during the past 75 years. At an average of one per year, the JCE editors hardly can be accused of frivolity, but game, puzzle, and humor articles have been published. The term "game" did not appear in any titles during 1945-1970, "puzzle" did not appear from 1927 to 1953, and there was no mention of humor (in the titles) prior to 1974. What appears to be the earliest article (1929) about a game was authored by an undergraduate student at the University of Colorado (1). It was titled "Chemical Bank", and the game pieces were tokens cut from cork stoppers. Wire hooks were inserted in the side of the token to represent valence electrons available for bonding. Carbon contained 4 hooks at 90° relative to each other, nitrogen contained three hooks at 120°, etc. The wires were sufficiently long and flexible that multiple bonding could be represented. Each player was dealt several game pieces and the first player received an extra carbon. The objective was to hook pieces together to make an acceptable molecule. Players took turns and the first player to use all his or her pieces was declared the winner. The first crossword puzzle to appear in JCE was written by a high school teacher from Hollywood, California (2). Ruth Van Vleet had observed that her students were caught up in the popularity of crossword puzzles of the time (1925) and used that interest to help students learn chemical facts. The puzzle published in the article was submitted by one of her students after completing one year of chemistry. The first article which carried the term "humor" in the title was published in 1974 (3). To meet the requirements of a class assignment to compare two elements, one student wrote an imaginary dialog between ytterbium and lutetium. Word play and puns were used to described similar and differing properties of the two elements. This article, however, was not the first account of using humor as a vehicle for stimulating student interest. Games, puzzles, and humor certainly can be overused. Usually they do not lead to the development of conceptual understanding. However, appropriate use, as many JCE readers have discovered, can stimulate student interest and reinforce factual knowledge. Some strategy games may help develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. The games, humor, and puzzles published in JCE are peer-reviewed so that inaccuracies and errors are not perpetuated. So why not take advantage of this resource? And look forward to next April, or whenever, for more games, puzzles, and humor. Feedback Requested for View from My Classroom Feature David Byrum, editor of the View From My Classroom feature, requests the assistance of readers. During a recent conference o

  5. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2000-05-01

    JCE Classroom Activity: #27. How Does Your Garden Grow? Investigating the "Magic Salt Crystal Garden", edited by Nancy S. Gettys and Erica K. Jacobsen, p 624A. Some Articles of Interest photos by Jerrold J. Jacobsen and Nancy S. Gettys This month's issue covers a wide variety of topics, from historical notes to the latest software from JCE. Gas burners are such familiar items in the laboratory that little thought is given to their development. An interesting article by Kathryn Williams (pp 558-559) explains how these humble devices came into being, beginning with Robert Bunsen's invention in 1857, through their adaptation in the United States in the 1930s to burn natural gas. Bunsen, in collaboration with Gustav Kirchhoff, used his invention in constructing an emission spectrometer that could be used in chemical analysis. A drawing of the instrument appears in the Williams article. The spectrometer is described in more detail in an article titled "A Brief History of Atomic Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, 1666-1950". Author Richard Jarrell traces the history of this important and lasting method of analysis from Isaac Newton's discovery of the visible spectrum to the development of the powerful analytical instruments that were in use in the 1950s. For readers who have a deeper interest in atomic emission spectroscopy, Jarrell's article is the first of five that are based on a symposium conducted in 1999 (pp 573-607). Visualizing the structure of ionic crystals is the topic of articles by Keenan Dungey (pp 618-619), Bruce Mattson (pp 622-623), and J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek (pp 623-624). The ionic crystal theme is also carried out in JCE Classroom Activity #27 (pp 624A-B) and a demonstration on the preparation of sodium iodide, written by Zelek Herman (pp 619-621). Together, the five articles provide an interesting combination of ideas for investigating and describing both the macroscopic and the submicroscopic views of ionic crystals. Is It the "Write" Time for You? The end of the school year is approaching quickly. In previous years, several readers have submitted manuscripts soon after the end of the school year, while ideas were fresh in their mind and there was relief from the demands of daily classes. If you have an idea for an article, I encourage you to think about writing as soon as the school term ends. I can probably guess what you are saying, "I don't have anything that readers would be interested in." This is a common reaction, to which we frequently respond by reminding high school teachers that this is "your journal" and the only way to ensure that topics of interest to you are considered or published is by your active participation. In this presidential election year I am reminded of the familiar sentiment, "I voted in the election, so I have earned the right to complain about the politicians." I do not wish to encourage complaining, but there is a relevant correlation. By submitting manuscripts to the Journal, you are ensuring that you will continue to get your money's worth because it will include topics of interest to you. When considering a submission, many prospective authors are overwhelmed at the thought of preparing a complete manuscript. Don't let that stop you. If you have an idea, an outline, or a rough draft, any of the feature editors or I would be happy to discuss it with you. This one-on-one interaction during the development process will help you express your ideas more effectively. Many teachers across the country who are faced with similar situations and problems each day would benefit from an article discussing innovative teaching strategies or a new way to look at principles we teach every year. As you begin to formulate your ideas, I would like to emphasize five features whose editors are fellow teachers:

    • JCE Classroom Activities. An invitation for contributions was issued in the April issue of this column (JCE, 2000, 77, 431).
    • Chemical Principles Revisited,

    • Especially for High School Teachers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Howell, J. Emory

      1999-08-01

      Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered if it would be possible to develop a way in which different secondary chemistry syllabi could easily be exchanged. It is likely that readers from other states and countries are involved in a similar process and might also be interested in exchanging syllabi. Many states do not use the term syllabus to describe their guiding curricular document for chemistry but rather refer to it as a framework or as guidelines. In most cases, the document includes a list of key ideas or topics, performance indicators, and the major understandings associated with each key idea. Such documents would be appropriate for exchange among those of you involved in the revision process. If you are interested in arranging an exchange please contact me by email at j.e.howell@usm.edu or by mail at J. E. Howell, Box 5043, USM, Hattiesburg, MS39406-5043, USA. High School Day Information The High School Chemistry Program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana will be held Sunday, August 22, 1999, at the Doubletree Hotel, 300 Canal Street. If you wish to register only for the High School Day activities, which includes a pass to the ACS Exposition, a special registration form is available from Lillie Tucker-Akin, 2800 Reynard Dr., Tupelo, MS38801; sci4me@aol.com; fax: 662/566-7906. Advance registration is 25 and the cost of the High School Luncheon is 12. Register in advance by August 1, 1999, or from 7:45 to 8:30 a.m. at the High School Day table in the conference room area of the Doubletree. The workshop schedule is shown below. Secondary School Feature Articles * Exploring the Ocean-Stating the Case for Chemistry, by Paul J. Scheuer, p 1075 * Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items, by Danielle R. D. Campanizzi, Brenda Mason, Christine K. F. Hermann, p 1079 New Orleans Concurrent Workshops, High School Program 8:30 a.m.-9:20 a.m. A. A Teaching Resource for You: The Journal of Chemical Education, J. E. Howell, J. W. Moore, and A. M. Sarquis B. Electrical Conductivity, J. M. Manion and P. F. Krause, and The Properties of Gases, J.-M. Whitfield and K. A. Woodling C. Chemistry with Calculators for Beginners, P. Sconzo (3 hours) D. Spectrum of Activities for Chemistry Teachers, Carolina Biological Supply, S. Mitchell, F. Cherry, and L. Akin (3 hours) 9:30 a.m.-10:20 a.m. A. Applying Chemical Education Research to the Classroom, L. Akin and J. Valasek B. Another Look at the Deflection of Falling Liquids, H. H. Harris and J. Newstrum, and Encouraging Students to Investigate Acids and Bases Using Plant Indicators, P. K. Kerrigan C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. Science Education for Public Understanding (SEPUP) and Chemistry, Health, Environment, and Me, M. Koker and L. Akin (2 hours) 10:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. A. Increasing Aptitude and Interest of High School Students through Summer Camp, C. E. Fulton, and Energy Teaching Introduction to High School Chemistry, L.-M. Trejo B. Chemistry in Science Museum Exhibits: Opportunities and Challenges and Cooking with Chemistry, D. Katz C. Chemistry with Calculators (continued) D. Spectrum of Activities (continued) E. SEPUP (continued) 12:00 noon-1:15 p.m., High School Luncheon Educating High School Teachers for the 21st Century, Glenn Crosby 1:30 p.m.-2:20 p.m. A. Customized Mastery Learning in First-Year Chemistry and Computer Software for Chemistry Teachers Who Require Mastery Learning of Their Students, J. Bedenbaugh and A. Bedenbaugh B. Can One Teach Chemistry with Everyday Substances? A. Sae, and SourceBook Activities Using Everyday Substances, C. Ayers, J. Schreck, and M. V. Orna C. Chemistry with Calculators II, P. Sconzo (3 hours) D. An Enlightening Afternoon of Lab Safety, Carolina Biological Supply, J. Kaufman E. Alabama Science in Motion, T. Boman and C. Nassar (90 minutes) 2:30 p.m.-3:20 p.m. A. An Activity to Show Chemistry Students How to Organize Experimentally Determined Information and Using Chemistry to Teach Reasoning Skills, A. Bedenbaugh B. Demonstrations with Gases, M. D. Alexander, and The Ring of Fire with Rubbing Alcohol and a Couple of Others, W. Deese C. Chemistry with Calculators II (continued) D. An Enlightening Afternoon of Lab Safety (continued) E. Alabama Science in Motion (continued) and Buck Scientific, J. DeMenna 3:30 p.m.-4:30 p.m. A. How Flawed Textbook Experiment Can Lead to an Opportunity for Guided Discovery by Students and a Simpler, Better Experiment, J. Bedenbaugh B. Demonstrating Applications of Chemistry with Everyday Substances, D. Katz C. Chemistry with Calculators II (continued) D. An Enlightening Afternoon of Lab Safety (continued) E. Buck Scientific (continued)

    • Especially for High School Teachers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Emory Howell, J.

      1999-11-01

      More Feature Articles This Month This issue contains a larger-than-usual number of Secondary School Chemistry feature articles (see side-bar). Mary Harris, who teaches in St. Louis, Missouri, and her student, Lauren Picard, contributed an account of student research on the cuprammonium rayon process (p 1512). In addition to being informative and interesting, the article provides a model for student-teacher interaction in carrying out an independent research project. Two North Carolina teachers, Charles Roser and Catherine McCluskey, describe how to use a Calculator Based Laboratory (interface) to measure the kinetics of the reaction that occurs when a lightstick is activated (p 1514). The method and the easy-to-construct device they made could be used with other systems, as well. Don't Throw Away the Carrier Sheet All areas of JCE Online are now accessible to all JCE subscribers. To find out how you can benefit, read the article appearing on p 1599, Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It? Jon Holmes, Editor of JCE Online, explains in the article how you can use this resource most effectively. Access to several areas, such as full text access to articles, requires that you log in. The mailing label on the carrier sheet that accompanies your Journal each month contains a password that you need to log in. That is why you need to keep the carrier sheet, at least until you have logged in for the first time and either memorized the number or written it in a safe place. Detailed instructions for logging on are found by clicking on the "How to Log On" link, which appears near the upper left corner of the JCE Online Home Page, jchemed.chem.wisc.edu. If you read a school library copy you need to ask your librarian what password you need to log in. Congratulations Among the recipients of the most prestigious American Society Awards (p 1481) are two individuals who have given generously of their time and energy to the cause of chemical education. Both are familiar names to many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of Ann Arbor in providing support for high school teachers to attend the conference. High school teachers who wish to attend, whether within the 300-mile radius or beyond, are encouraged to contact their local section of the ACS. Information about local sections can be found on the Web at www.acs.org. See p 1482 for more information about the conference, including deadlines for proposals and abstracts and for the conference Web site address. Secondary School Feature Articles * The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials, by John W. Nicholson and H. Mary Anstice, p 1497 * JCE Classroom Activity #21: Hunting for Chemicals in Consumer Products, p 1504A, by Arthur M. Last * Science for Kids Outreach Programs, by Birgit G. Koehler, Lee Y. Park, and Lawrence J. Kaplan, p 1505 *Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles by Doris R. Kimbrough, p 1509 *Investigating the Cuprammonium Rayon Process in a High School Laboratory, by Lauren J. Pickard and Mary E. Harris, p 1512 * Lightstick Kinetics, by Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey, p 1514

    • Especially for High School Teachers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Howell, J. Emory

      1999-04-01

      Secondary School Feature Articles * Amino Acid Wordsearch, by Terry L. Helser, p 495. Games, Puzzles, and Humor In honor of April Fools' Day this issue contains 22 pages devoted to games and puzzles that can be used to teach aspects of chemistry. Most are designed for high school and first-year college students. The lead article, p 481, contains an annotated bibliography of chemistry games, complete with a vendor list. Many of the annotated games must be purchased, but the other articles that follow in this issue describe some games and puzzles that require minimal preparation using a word processor and readily available materials. Actually, JCE has a long tradition of publishing games and puzzles for chemistry teachers and their students. Read the letter by Helser and the Editor's response, p 468, for some recent background. Not having counted articles over past years, I became curious and turned to the online index, accessed by way of http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/. Because I wanted to search the entire 75-year life of the Journal, I searched titles for the words "game", "puzzle", and "humor" and obtained a total of 85 hits from the three searches. After eliminating titles of articles that were not applicable, I found that at least 25 games, 48 puzzles, and 5 humor articles have appeared during the past 75 years. At an average of one per year, the JCE editors hardly can be accused of frivolity, but game, puzzle, and humor articles have been published. The term "game" did not appear in any titles during 1945-1970, "puzzle" did not appear from 1927 to 1953, and there was no mention of humor (in the titles) prior to 1974. What appears to be the earliest article (1929) about a game was authored by an undergraduate student at the University of Colorado (1). It was titled "Chemical Bank", and the game pieces were tokens cut from cork stoppers. Wire hooks were inserted in the side of the token to represent valence electrons available for bonding. Carbon contained 4 hooks at 90° relative to each other, nitrogen contained three hooks at 120°, etc. The wires were sufficiently long and flexible that multiple bonding could be represented. Each player was dealt several game pieces and the first player received an extra carbon. The objective was to hook pieces together to make an acceptable molecule. Players took turns and the first player to use all his or her pieces was declared the winner. The first crossword puzzle to appear in JCE was written by a high school teacher from Hollywood, California (2). Ruth Van Vleet had observed that her students were caught up in the popularity of crossword puzzles of the time (1925) and used that interest to help students learn chemical facts. The puzzle published in the article was submitted by one of her students after completing one year of chemistry. The first article which carried the term "humor" in the title was published in 1974 (3). To meet the requirements of a class assignment to compare two elements, one student wrote an imaginary dialog between ytterbium and lutetium. Word play and puns were used to described similar and differing properties of the two elements. This article, however, was not the first account of using humor as a vehicle for stimulating student interest. Games, puzzles, and humor certainly can be overused. Usually they do not lead to the development of conceptual understanding. However, appropriate use, as many JCE readers have discovered, can stimulate student interest and reinforce factual knowledge. Some strategy games may help develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. The games, humor, and puzzles published in JCE are peer-reviewed so that inaccuracies and errors are not perpetuated. So why not take advantage of this resource? And look forward to next April, or whenever, for more games, puzzles, and humor. Feedback Requested for View from My Classroom Feature David Byrum, editor of the View From My Classroom feature, requests the assistance of readers. During a recent conference on the preparation of new teachers, a question was asked about what specific ideas, procedures, concepts, and skills teachers wished that they had known more about as they started their first job. Some of the responses at the conference were:

      • How to choose which concepts/ideas/skills to teach
      • How to justify which concepts/ideas/skills to leave out
      • How to set up the equipment and supplies needed for common experiments
      • How to choose, set up, and perform useful demonstrations
      • How to order materials and supplies for the classroom and laboratory
      • How district, school, and department budgets work and how to order for the classroom or laboratory
      David would like to know what your thoughts are in regard to the question posed. What would you have liked to know more about as you started your teaching career? What information would have allowed you to miss a few of those potholes in your first few years of teaching? What information would have helped you raise your teaching to a higher level? Please take a few minutes to write your thoughts down and send them to David. Since this should be as quick and painless as possible, email is the preferred method. His email address is DavidB1032@aol.com. If you are without email, please send your comments to David L. Byrum, Flowing Wells High School, 3725 N. Flowing Wells Road, Tucson, AZ 85705. Literature Cited 1. James, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1929, 6, 1790-1792. 2. Van Vleet, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1925, 2, 292-294. 3. Levine, B; Myers, S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 564.

    • Trends and Innovations in North American Libraries with an Emphasis on Developments in Canada, Especially Ontario. A Course Outline and Bibliographies.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Palmer, Joseph W.

      This outline for a graduate library school course at the State University of New York at Buffalo emphasizes trends and developments in North American librarianship with primary emphasis on Canada (especially Ontario). The participation of Canadian authorities as guest lecturers and field trips to Canadian libraries are important elements in the…

    • Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

    • Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

      2011-10-01

      The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

    • Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

      SciTech Connect

      Kriskovich, J.R.

      1998-07-24

      This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

    • Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

      PubMed

      Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

      2016-06-01

      PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

    • Astronomía para ciegos y amblíopes. Proyecto de construcción de un planetario especial en la ciudad de Mar del Plata

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Musso, S.

      ?`Qué es la Astronomía para Ciegos?. El trabajo es una adaptación en base a la escala de magnitudes de Hipparco que cambia el concepto de luz por una adaptación sonora, donde las estrellas de magnitud 6 se escuchan en 10 dB, más o menos lo que consideramos el umbral de la audición humana. Quienes no escuchan muy bien no pueden escuchar las magnitudes 6, de la misma manera que muchos de nosotros, que no poseemos una visión perfecta, no podemos observar esas mismas estrellas en el cielo (más allá de la polución). A los astros de magnitud 5 vamos a relacionarlos a un sonido en 20 dB. Y así sucesivamente. También los colores estarán representados en una convención de graves a agudos y lo mismo algunas características del cielo. Por ejemplo, la Vía Láctea se mostrará como un ``ruido", como bien nos lo hicieron ver nuestros futuros destinatarios. En Mar del Plata nos encontramos ya trabajando en un proyecto que tiene como objetivo final la construcción del Primer Planetario Acústico del Mundo, una herramienta para la enseñanza de la astronomía, un espacio para la lucha contra la discriminación del discapacitado y una posibilidad de ``ver el cielo de un modo diferente".

    • Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

      SciTech Connect

      Kriskovich, J.R.

      1998-07-24

      Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

    • VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways.

      PubMed

      Müller, Anne; Rassow, Joachim; Grimm, Jan; Machuy, Nikolaus; Meyer, Thomas F; Rudel, Thomas

      2002-04-15

      The human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae induces host cell apoptosis during infection by delivering the outer membrane protein PorB to the host cell's mitochondria. PorB is a pore-forming beta-barrel protein sharing several features with the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we show that PorB of pathogenic Neisseria species produced by host cells is efficiently targeted to mitochondria. Imported PorB resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms multimers with similar sizes as in the outer bacterial membrane. The mitochondria completely lose their membrane potential, a characteristic previously observed in cells infected with gonococci or treated with purified PorB. Closely related bacterial porins of non-pathogenic Neisseria mucosa or Escherichia coli remain in the cytosol. Import of PorB into mitochondria in vivo is independent of a linear signal sequence. Insertion of PorB into the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro depends on the activity of Tom5, Tom20 and Tom40, but is independent of Tom70. Our data show that human VDAC and bacterial PorB are imported into mitochondria by a similar mechanism. PMID:11953311

    • Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D Reflective Grating for Ultraviolet to Long-Wave Infrared Detection Especially Useful for Surveying Transient Events

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

      2003-01-01

      The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for events it is also for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

    • Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

      PubMed Central

      Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

      2014-01-01

      Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

    • Can Echocardiography, Especially Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measurement, Predict Pulmonary Hypertension and Improve Prognosis in Patients on Long-Term Dialysis?

      PubMed

      Grabysa, Radosław; Wańkowicz, Zofia

      2015-01-01

      In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a strong and independent risk factor for adverse outcome in the population of patients on long-term dialysis. Published results of observational studies indicate that the problem of PH refers mostly to patients on long-term hemodialysis and is less common in peritoneal dialysis patients. The main cause of this complication is proximal location of the arteriovenous fistula, causing chronically increased cardiac output. This paper presents the usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for measurement of the Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in the early diagnosis of PH in dialysis patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension with TTE, especially in the case of HD patients, ensures the selection of the proper location for the first arteriovenous fistula and facilitates the decision to switch to peritoneal dialysis or to accelerate the process of qualification for kidney transplantation. PMID:26697754

    • [Caring for the health of your neighbor: the work of anthropologist Charles Wagley with the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública].

      PubMed

      de Figueiredo, Regina Érika Domingos

      2014-01-01

      The article focuses on the work of Charles Wagley as a top staff member with Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service), a US-Brazil cooperation program established during World War II. Taking into consideration Wagley's experience with migration policy under Brazil's Rubber Program, as well as the context of development promotion and the issues then on the anthropological agenda, the article explores Wagley's community study of the Amazon town he visited while on SESP missions, published in the book Uma comunidade amazônica (Amazon Town). Encountering a reality that he believed emblematic of underdevelopment, Wagley was led to reflect on social change and the role of science. PMID:25099224

  1. Computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D reflective grating for ultraviolet to long-wave infrared detection especially useful for surveying transient events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for rapidly occurring events it is also useful for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and especially IGF-I variants are anabolic in dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Chandler, C S; Francis, G L; Read, L C; Ballard, F J

    1992-02-15

    The administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps partially reversed a catabolic state produced by the co-administration of 20 micrograms of dexamethasone/day to 150 g male rats. Marked dose-dependent effects on body weight and nitrogen retention were produced, with the highest IGF-I dose, 695 micrograms/day, giving a 6 g increase in body weight over 7 days, compared with a 19 g loss in the dexamethasone-only group and an 18 g gain in pair-fed controls. Two IGF-I analogues that bind poorly to IGF-binding proteins, the truncated form, des(1-3)IGF-I, and a variant with an N-terminal extension as well as arginine at residue 3, LR3IGF-I, were approx. 2.5-fold more potent than IGF-I. The response with LR3IGF-I was particularly striking because this peptide binds 3-fold less well than IGF-I to the type 1 IGF receptor. The increased potencies of the IGF-I variants may relate to the substantially increased plasma levels of IGF-binding proteins, particularly IGFBP-3, produced by the combined treatment of dexamethasone with IGF-I or the variants. These binding proteins would be expected to decrease the transfer of IGF-I, but not that of the variants, from blood to tissue sites of action. Measurements of muscle protein synthesis at the end of the treatment period and muscle protein breakdown by 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion throughout the experiment indicated coordinate anabolic effects of the IGF peptides on both processes. Thus 3MH excretion was decreased at the highest IGF-I dose from 83.5 +/- 4.2 (S.E.M.) mumol/kg per 7 days to 65.1 +/- 2.2, compared with 54.9 +/- 1.2 in the pair-fed controls. Part of this response in 3MH excretion may have reflected a decrease in gut protein breakdown, because IGF-I and especially the IGF analogues increased the gut weight by up to 45%. Notwithstanding the effects on protein synthesis and breakdown, the fractional carcass weights remained low in the IGF-treated groups, although the

  3. Platelet-rich plasma, especially when combined with a TGF-β inhibitor promotes proliferation, viability and myogenic differentiation of myoblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kelc, Robi; Trapecar, Martin; Gradisnik, Lidija; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Vogrin, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle after injury is limited by scar formation, slow healing time and a high recurrence rate. A therapy based on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become a promising lead for tendon and ligament injuries in recent years, however concerns have been raised that PRP-derived TGF-β could contribute to fibrotic remodelling in skeletal muscle after injury. Due to the lack of scientific grounds for a PRP -based muscle regeneration therapy, we have designed a study using human myogenic progenitors and evaluated the potential of PRP alone and in combination with decorin (a TGF-β inhibitor), to alter myoblast proliferation, metabolic activity, cytokine profile and expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Advanced imaging multicolor single-cell analysis enabled us to create a valuable picture on the ratio of quiescent, activated and terminally committed myoblasts in treated versus control cell populations. Finally high-resolution confocal microscopy validated the potential of PRP and decorin to stimulate the formation of polynucleated myotubules. PRP was shown to down-regulate fibrotic cytokines, increase cell viability and proliferation, enhance the expression of MRFs, and contribute to a significant myogenic shift during differentiation. When combined with decorin further synergistc effects were identified. These results suggest that PRP could not only prevent fibrosis but could also stimulate muscle commitment, especially when combined with a TGF-β inhibitor. PMID:25679956

  4. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife) Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933

  5. An electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function (flushknife) proves its merits in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection especially for the cases which should be removed en bloc.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Shimokawa, Toshio; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29-0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04-0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933

  6. Stromal CD4/CD25 positive T-cells are a strong and independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer patients, especially with adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Gian; Schulte-Uentrop, Luzie; Sienel, Wulf; Werner, Martin; Fisch, Paul; Passlick, Bernward; Zur Hausen, Axel; Stremmel, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Within the concert of immune reactions against tumour cells cytotoxic and regulatory T-cells are of utmost importance. Several studies revealed contradictory results on this issue. We therefore focused on functional expression patterns and localization of tumour-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their impact on patient's survival. 232 curatively operated NSCLC patients were included. After histological reevaluation and construction of tissue-multi-arrays immunohistochemical doublestains for CD3/CD8 and CD4/CD25 were performed to evaluate the total number of T-cells and their subsets of cytotoxic and activated T-cells. Additionally, the localization of the lymphocytes was included in the analysis. Hereby, T-cells within the tumour stroma were regarded as stromal, those among cancer cells as intraepithelial. The number of lymphocytes differed significantly between the histological subtypes being most prominent in large cell carcinomas. Survival analysis showed that high numbers of stromal T-lymphocytes are of beneficial prognostic influence in NSCLC patients. This also proved to be an independent prognostic factor in adenocarcinomas. Thus, in a large and well characterized cohort of NSCLC this is the first study to determine the prognostic value of stromal T-lymphocytes, as these are an independent prognosticator in NSCLC especially in adenocarcinomas whereas intraepithelial T-cells are not. PMID:22300751

  7. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  8. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  9. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  10. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana N; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-03-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal Neisseriae lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signaling. PMID:24361688

  11. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-06-25

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP-PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction.

  12. Structural basis for solute transport, nucleotide regulation, and immunological recognition of Neisseria meningitidis PorB

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Mikio; Nimigean, Crina M.; Iverson, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PorB is the second most prevalent outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis. PorB is required for neisserial pathogenesis and can elicit a Toll-like receptor mediated host immune response. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of PorB has been determined to 2.3 Å resolution. Structural analysis and cocrystallization studies identify three putative solute translocation pathways through the channel pore: One pathway transports anions nonselectively, one transports cations nonselectively, and one facilitates the specific uptake of sugars. During infection, PorB likely binds host mitochondrial ATP, and cocrystallization with the ATP analog AMP–PNP suggests that binding of nucleotides regulates these translocation pathways both by partial occlusion of the pore and by restricting the motion of a putative voltage gating loop. PorB is located on the surface of N. meningitidis and can be recognized by receptors of the host innate immune system. Features of PorB suggest that Toll-like receptor mediated recognition outer membrane proteins may be initiated with a nonspecific electrostatic attraction. PMID:20351243

  13. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  14. Blood lines conduct leakage current during haemodialysis: a potential safety risk during first failure, especially for patients with central dialysis catheter as access.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P; Eliasson, G; Stegmayr, B G

    2005-11-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) machines are IEC-classified as I type B. When central dialysis catheters (CDCs) are used for access, there will be close electrical contact with the heart. To investigate the risk for HD patients, the leakage of current through the tubing set was measured during in vitro dialysis performed according to the IEC 60601-1 standard for class I cardiac floating (CF) devices. A series of eight measurements were made with Gambro GFS + 12 dialysers, first with saline and then with blood in the blood lines. The leakage current exceeded the CF limit (50 microA) at the top of the CDC using the test 'mains on applied part' for saline (median 1008 microA, range 720-1241 microA), for blood (median 610 microA, range 449-772 microA) and also for a 'single fault condition' using saline (median 68 microA, range 35-118 microA) or blood (47 microA, range 4-128 microA). In the single fault condition, the highest leakage current at the CDC (128 microA) almost exceeded the earth leakage current in normal conditions. A safety risk can appear if a single fault arises in the dialysis machine or another device connected to the same patient, or during 'mains contact to the patient'. Then the current flow may be high enough to induce arrhythmias in the patient, especially when a CDC is used. These data and the use of CDCs as access for dialysis indicate that HD machines should be classified as cardiac floating rather than body (B) devices. PMID:16594299

  15. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dreu, Carsten K. W. De; Dussel, D. Berno; Velden, Femke S. Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma–Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  16. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Carsten K W De; Dussel, D Berno; Velden, Femke S Ten

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma-Maximizing Differences Game with 95 subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that self-sacrificial decisions to contribute were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that faster decision time associated with more positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (vs. pro-self) individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded) cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged-in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups. PMID:25999888

  17. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide level in older outpatients with heart failure is associated with physical frailty, especially with the slowness domain

    PubMed Central

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Nozaki, Yuma; Yamaji, Masayuki; Oya, Kanako; Hikita, Yuki; Aoyama, Tomoki; Mabuchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with heart failure (HF) and physical frailty as well as with each domain of physical frailty. Methods Two hundred and six outpatients of cardiovascular medicine aged 60 years and older who had been hospitalized for HF or had been given a prescription medication for HF were included. Physical frailty was assessed using the following five domains: slowness, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, and shrinking, according to the Cardiovascular Health Study. Patients were divided into nonfrailty and frailty groups according to frailty scores. Plasma BNP level was measured. The 6-min walk test was performed to measure endurance. Results Plasma BNP was significantly different between the two groups (frailty group: 158.0 ± 214.7 pg/mL, nonfrailty group: 65.2 ± 88.0 pg/mL, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed log-transformed plasma BNP (Log BNP) was significantly associated with physical frailty (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11–2.56), and Log BNP was significantly associated with the slowness domain (walking speed < 1.0 m/s) of physical frailty (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.15–2.67). Additionally, Log BNP was negatively correlated to the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (ρ = −0.37, P < 0.01), while 6MWD was positively correlated to walking speed (ρ = 0.66, P < 0.01). Conclusions Plasma BNP level was related to physical frailty, especially in the slowness domain. Endurance may intervene in the associations between plasma BNP level and walking speed. PMID:27605942

  18. The motirod: a novel physical skill task that enhances motivation to learn and thereby increases neurogenesis especially in the female hippocampus.

    PubMed

    DiFeo, Gina; Curlik, Daniel M; Shors, Tracey J

    2015-09-24

    Males and females perform differently on a variety of training tasks. In the present study we examined performance of male and female rats while they were trained with a gross motor skill in which they learn to maintain their balance on an accelerating rotating rod (the accelerating rotarod). During training, many animals simply step off the rod, thus terminating the training. This problem was addressed by placing cold water below the rod. We termed the new training procedure "motirod" training because the trained animals were apparently motivated to remain on the rod for longer periods of time. Groups of male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the standard accelerating rotarod or the motirod for four trials per day on four consecutive days. Latency to fall from the rod (in seconds) was recorded. The motivating feature increased performance especially in females (p=.001). As a consequence of enhanced performance, females retained significantly more new cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus than those trained on the accelerating rotarod or those that received no training. In addition, individuals that learned well retained more new cells, irrespective of sex or task conditions. Previous studies have established that new cells rescued from death by learning remain in the hippocampus for months and mature into neurons (Leuner et al., 2004a; Shors, 2014). These data suggest that sex differences in physical skill learning can arise from sex differences in motivation, which thereby influence how many new neurons survive in the adult brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. PMID:25543070

  19. A new hypothesis: some metastases are the result of inflammatory processes by adapted cells, especially adapted immune cells at sites of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shahriyari, Leili

    2016-01-01

    There is an old hypothesis that metastasis is the result of migration of tumor cells from the tumor to a distant site. In this article, we propose another mechanism for metastasis, for cancers that are initiated at the site of chronic inflammation. We suggest that cells at the site of chronic inflammation might become adapted to the inflammatory process, and these adaptations may lead to the initiation of an inflammatory tumor. For example, in an inflammatory tumor immune cells might be adapted to send signals of proliferation or angiogenesis, and epithelial cells might be adapted to proliferation (like inactivation of tumor suppressor genes). Therefore, we hypothesize that metastasis could be the result of an inflammatory process by adapted cells, especially adapted immune cells at the site of inflammation, as well as the migration of tumor cells with the help of activated platelets, which travel between sites of inflammation.  If this hypothesis is correct, then any treatment causing necrotic cell death may not be a good solution. Because necrotic cells in the tumor micro-environment or anywhere in the body activate the immune system to initiate the inflammatory process, and the involvement of adapted immune cells in the inflammatory processes leads to the formation and progression of tumors. Adapted activated immune cells send more signals of proliferation and/or angiogenesis than normal cells. Moreover, if there were adapted epithelial cells, they would divide at a much higher rate in response to the proliferation signals than normal cells. Thus, not only would the tumor come back after the treatment, but it would also grow more aggressively. PMID:27158448

  20. Treatment with insulin analogs, especially Glargine and Lispro, associates with better renal function and higher hemoglobin levels in Type 1 diabetic patients with impaired kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Hasslacher, Christoph; Kulozik, Felix; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The influence of type of insulin treatment - insulin analogs versus human insulin - on the development of diabetes related vascular complications has been sparsely investigated. We examine here possible differences regarding kidney function and hemoglobin levels. Methods: Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between the following characteristics measured in 509 type 1 diabetic patients who were recruited in an outpatient practice: current clinical status and treatment modalities, type of injected insulin and the routine laboratory parameters hemoglobin, HbA1c, serum creatinine, eGFR, hs CRP and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Results: Compared with human insulin, multiple regression analysis taking into account possible confounders revealed that treatment with insulin analogs was associated with increased eGFR (+7.1 ml/min; P=0.0002), lower urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ratio logarithm -0.4; P=0.003) and higher hemoglobin concentration (+0.31 g/dl; P=0.04). Stratification by type of insulin showed the best renal status for treatment with insulins Glargine and Lispro. Differences were consistent both for patients with normal (eGFR → 90 ml/min) and with an impaired (eGFR ← 90 ml/min) kidney function. Conclusions: Present results suggest that treatment of type 1 diabetic patients with normal and impaired renal function with insulin analogs, especially Glargine and Lispro, is associated with better kidney function, lower urinary albumin/creatinine ratio and lower hemoglobin concentration compared to therapy with human insulin. If confirmed by other studies, treatment with insulin analogs may be a further possibility in delaying progression of nephropathy and in preventing early hemoglobin decline. PMID:27540462

  1. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA.

    PubMed

    Šlamborová, Irena; Zajícová, Veronika; Karpíšková, Jana; Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 °C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 °C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale. PMID:25428071

  2. ID2 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer, especially in triple-negative breast cancer, and inhibits E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Yao, Ling; Chen, Li; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Yu, San-Jian; Kuang, Xia-Ying; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are known as important modulators in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of ID proteins in breast cancer. Methods The prognostic role of ID proteins in human breast cancer was investigated in 250 breast cancers, via tissue microarrays. The messenger (m)RNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, in cells overexpressing IDs. Dual-luciferase report assay was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and a migration assay was performed to investigate the influence of IDs on cell migratory activity. Results The survival analysis with Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression showed that ID2 expression level, which correlated with estrogen receptor status and E-cadherin abundance, served as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.013). The prognostic value of ID2 for DFS was most significant in triple-negative breast cancer patients (P=0.009). We also found that ID2 was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression by correlation analysis (P=0.020, Pearson’s R=−0.155). Subsequently, we explored the biological rationale and uncovered that the enforced expression of ID proteins could suppress E-cadherin expression significantly, thus increasing the migration ability of mammary epithelial cells. Then using a combination of ID2 and E-cadherin expression, the patients were classified into four subgroups with different DFS (P=0.023). Conclusion The overexpression of ID2 can be used as a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients, especially in triple-negative breast cancer patients. ID proteins were still, unexpectedly, revealed to inhibit E-cadherin abundance. PMID:24971018

  3. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge. PMID:26728078

  4. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  5. Gliding Motility and Por Secretion System Genes Are Widespread among Members of the Phylum Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, “Gramella forsetii,” Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility. PMID:23123910

  6. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  7. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  8. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  9. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  10. The porA gene in serogroup A meningococci: evolutionary stability and mechanism of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Suker, J; Feavers, I M; Achtman, M; Morelli, G; Wang, J F; Maiden, M C

    1994-04-01

    Molecular analyses were applied to the genes encoding variants of the serosubtyping antigen, the class 1 outer membrane protein (PorA), from 55 serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis strains. These genes were evolutionarily stable and exhibited a limited range of genetic variation, primarily generated by recombination. Translation of the gene sequences revealed a total of 19 distinct amino acid sequences in the variable regions of the protein, 6 of which were not recognized by currently available serosubtyping monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of these amino acid sequences permitted a rational re-assignment of serosubtype names. Comparison of the complete genes with porA gene sequences from serogroup B and C meningococci showed that serogroup A possessed a limited number of the possible porA genes from a globally distributed gene pool. Each serogroup A subgroup was characterized by one of four porA gene types, probably acquired upon subgroup divergence, which was stable over periods of decades and during epidemiological spread. Comparison with other variable genes (pil and iga) indicated that the three alleles were independently assorted within the subgroup, suggesting that their gene types were older than the subgroups in which they occurred. PMID:8057850

  11. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  12. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-12-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  13. My education in mineral (especially oil) economics

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The crude oil and natural gas markets have a long colorful history. To understand them, one needs some economic theory. The dominant view, of a fixed mineral stock, implies that a unit produced today means one less in the future. As mankind approaches the limit, it must exert ever more effort per unit recovered. This concept is false, whether stated as common sense or as elegant theory. Under competition, the price results from endless struggle between depletion and increasing knowledge. But sellers may try to control the market in order to offer less and charge more. The political results may feed back upon market behavior. These factors--depletion, knowledge, monopoly, and politics--must be analyzed separately before being put together to capture a slice of a changing history. 68 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. [Biotechnology, especially genetic modification, and legislation].

    PubMed

    de Sitter, H; Peters, P W J

    2002-05-15

    Biotechnology and genetic modification (GM) related legislation is not yet fully developed in the European Union (EU). New legislation has been recently issued ('Introduction of GMO's in the environment') and recently proposals from the European Commission ('GMO's in food and feed' and 'Traceability and labelling of GMO's') entered the decision-making process in the end of 2001. The proposals for the establishment of the European Food Authority play a role in this respect. GMO legislation is complex not in the least because of the demands for the dossiers, to be submitted with an application, while these procedures for admission must become more transparent. In this paper the relevant legislation will be discussed with the exception of that related to human health. Because of dissatisfaction with the present legislation, the European Commission in the past years granted no new approvals for introductions on the market of GMO's and for GM novel foods. New legislation should suspend the present de-facto moratorium. The tasks and position of the Inspectorate for the Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health is discussed. A provision has been made in the legislation with respect to adventitious or technically unavoidable contamination of raw materials with GMO's up to a maximum of 1%, of which the enforcement is not yet watertight. The analytical methods are being still developed. PMID:12056264

  15. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  16. REFRIGERATION ESPECIALLY FOR VERY LOW TEMPERATURES

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.

    1960-09-13

    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  17. Physicians practicing other occupations, especially literature.

    PubMed

    Green, J P

    1993-03-01

    Literature has been the favored nonmedical pursuit of physicians probably because the practice of medicine is suffused with narratives, the patient's history being one. Arthur Conan Doyle regarded medicine as a "grim romance," Somerset Maugham as an opportunity to see "life in the raw," and William Carlos Williams treated "the patient as a work of art." These sentiments may be linked to humanistic medicine. At some medical schools, literature is taught in the context of and integrated with medicine in an attempt to enhance ethics and empathy which were explicitly expressed by some physician-writers. PMID:8469245

  18. The Book Scene...Especially for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskorz, Adela, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 500 titles that reflect the diversity of interests and levels of sophistication among young adult readers between the ages of 12 and 18. Within each subject division is a varied array of fiction and nonfiction titles, some ideal for middle graders, others more appropriate for adult-level readers. The…

  19. African agriculture especially vulnerable to warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    Malnourishment across Africa could jump 40% by 2050 due to climate change, according to the Africa Agriculture Status Report 2014 (AASR), released on 2 September. With temperatures predicted to rise 1.5°C-2.5°C by midcentury, African smallholder farms, which are generally run by one family, are more vulnerable than ever, the report finds.

  20. Especially for Teens: You and Your Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bisexuality is being attracted to both sexes. Many boys and girls are attracted to members of their own sex ... Gender identity is your sense of being a boy, a girl, or other gendered. Some teens feel that their ...

  1. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  2. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  3. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  4. Correlation between Serological and Sequencing Analyses of the PorB Outer Membrane Protein in the Neisseria meningitidis Serotyping System

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, Claudio T.; Lemos, Ana P. S.; Whitney, Anne M.; Solari, Claude A.; Brandt, Mary E.; Melles, Carmo E. A.; Frasch, Carl E.; Mayer, Leonard W.

    1998-01-01

    The current serological typing scheme for Neisseria meningitidis is not comprehensive; a proportion of isolates are not serotypeable. DNA sequence analysis and predicted amino acid sequences were used to characterize the structures of variable-region (VR) epitopes on N. meningitidis PorB proteins (PorB VR typing). Twenty-six porB gene sequences were obtained from GenBank and aligned with 41 new sequences. Primary amino acid structures predicted from those genes were grouped into 30 VR families of related variants that displayed at least 60% similarity. We correlated VR families with monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, establishing a relationship between VR families and epitope locations for 15 serotype-defining MAbs. The current panel of serotype-defining MAbs underestimates by at least 50% the PorB VR variability because reagents for several major VR families are lacking or because a number of VR variants within some families are not recognized by serotype-defining MAbs. These difficulties, also reported for serosubtyping based on the PorA protein, are shown as inconsistent results between serological and sequence analyses, leading to inaccurate strain identification and incomplete epidemiological data. The information from this study enabled the expansion of the panel of MAbs currently available for serotyping, by including MAbs of previously undetermined specificities. Use of the expanded serotype panel enabled us to improve the sensitivity of serotyping by resolving a number of formerly nonserotypeable strains. In most cases, this information can be used to predict the VR family placement of unknown PorB proteins without sequencing the entire porB gene. PorB VR typing complements serotyping, and a combination of both techniques may be used for full characterization of meningococcal strains. The present work represents the most complete and integrated data set of PorB VR sequences and MAb reactivities of serogroup B and C meningococci produced to date. PMID

  5. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  6. Characterization of Plasmid pOR1 from Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale and Construction of a Shuttle Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Ruud; Chansiripornchai, Niwat; Gaastra, Wim; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in poultry since about 10 years ago. Knowledge of this bacterium and its mechanisms of virulence is still very limited. Here we report the development of a transformation system that enables genetic modification of O. rhinotracheale. The system is based on a cryptic plasmid, pOR1, that was derived from an O. rhinotracheale strain of serotype K. Sequencing indicated that the plasmid consisted of 14,787 nucleotides. Sequence analysis revealed one replication origin and several rep genes that control plasmid replication and copy number, respectively. In addition, pOR1 contains genes with similarity to a heavy-metal-transporting ATPase, a TonB-linked siderophore receptor, and a laccase. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that these genes were transcribed. Other putative open reading frames exhibited similarities with a virulence-associated protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and a number of genes coding for proteins with unknown function. An Escherichia coli-O. rhinotracheale shuttle plasmid (pOREC1) was constructed by cloning the replication origin and rep genes from pOR1 and the cfxA gene from Bacteroides vulgatus, which codes for resistance to the antibiotic cefoxitin, into plasmid pGEM7 by using E. coli as a host. pOREC1 was electroporated into O. rhinotracheale and yielded cefoxitin-resistant transformants. The pOREC1 isolated from these transformants was reintroduced into E. coli, demonstrating that pOREC1 acts as an independent replicon in both E. coli and O. rhinotracheale, fulfilling the criteria for a shuttle plasmid that can be used for transformation, targeted mutagenesis, and the construction of defined attenuated vaccine strains. PMID:15466524

  7. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Mikio; Iverson, Tina M.

    2010-01-28

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorB was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies by denaturation in urea followed by refolding in buffered LDAO on a size-exclusion column. PorB has been crystallized in three different crystal forms: C222, R32 and P6{sub 3}. The C222 crystal form may contain either one or two PorB monomers in the asymmetric unit, while both the R32 and P6{sub 3} crystal forms contained one PorB monomer in the asymmetric unit. Of the three, the P6{sub 3} crystal form had the best diffraction quality, yielding data extending to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution.

  8. Application of POR-Tveks to the radiochemical recovery of yttrium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, A.M.; Kvasnitskii, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a method for the radiochemical analysis of fish bones for the accumulation of strontium 90 and yttrium 90 from power plant contamination of surface waters which involves labelling the sample with isotopes and subsequent adsorption of the yttrium component with the use of POR-Tveks, an adsorbent based on a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene with heteroradical phosphine oxide. The yield of yttrium is determined from the mass of the oxide and from the half-life of the yttrium isotope.

  9. Antigenic topology of chlamydial PorB protein and identification of targets for immune neutralization of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Diane E; Stephens, Richard S

    2002-05-15

    The outer membrane protein PorB is a conserved chlamydial protein that functions as a porin and is capable of eliciting neutralizing Abs. A topological antigenic map was developed using overlapping synthetic peptides representing the Chlamydia trachomatis PorB sequence and polyclonal immune sera. To identify which antigenic determinants were surface accessible, monospecific antisera were raised to the PorB peptides and were used in dot-blot and ELISA-based absorption studies with viable chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs). The ability of the surface-accessible antigenic determinants to direct neutralizing Ab responses was investigated using standardized in vitro neutralization assays. Four major antigenic clusters corresponding to Phe(34)-Leu(59) (B1-2 and B1-3), Asp(112) -Glu(145) (B2-3 and B2-4), Gly(179)-Ala(225) (B3-2 to B3-4), and Val(261)-Asn(305) (B4-4 to B5-2) were identified. Collectively, the EB absorption and dot-blot assays established that the immunoreactive PorB Ags were exposed on the surface of chlamydial EBs. Peptide-specific antisera raised to the surface-accessible Ags neutralized chlamydial infectivity and demonstrated cross-reactivity to synthetic peptides representing analogous C. pneumoniae PorB sequences. Furthermore, neutralization of chlamydial infectivity by C. trachomatis PorB antisera was inhibited by synthetic peptides representing the surface-exposed PorB antigenic determinants. These findings demonstrate that PorB Ags may be useful for development of chlamydial vaccines. PMID:11994474

  10. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth. PMID:27285815

  11. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  12. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  13. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper. PMID:17371304

  14. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. Methods The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe3+ and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. Results In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe3+ or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe3+ or addition of 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe3+ alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion 5-ALA and Fe3+ increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression. PMID:23554636

  15. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation. PMID:25539497

  16. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vishal; Choi, Ji Ha; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Miller, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives CYP3A4 receives electrons from P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to metabolize about 50% of clinically used drugs. There is substantial inter-individual variation in CYP3A4 catalytic activity that is not explained by CYP3A4 genetic variants. CYP3A4 is flexible and distensible, permitting it to accommodate substrates varying in shape and size. To elucidate mechanisms of variability in CYP3A4 catalysis, we examined the effects of genetic variants of POR, and explored the possibility that substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4 differentially affect the ability of POR variants to support catalysis. Methods We expressed human CYP3A4 and four POR variants (Q153R, A287P, R457H, A503V) in bacteria, reconstituted them in vitro and measured the Michaelis constant and maximum velocity with testosterone, midazolam, quinidine and erythromycin as substrates. Results POR A287P and R457H had low activity with all substrates; Q153R had 76–94% of wild type (WT) activity with midazolam and erythromycin, but 129–150% activity with testosterone and quinidine. The A503V polymorphism reduced CYP3A4 activity to 61–77% of wild type with testosterone and midazolam, but had nearly wild type activity with quinidine and erythromycin. Conclusion POR variants affect CYP3A4 activities. The impact of a POR variant on catalysis by CYP3A4 is substrate-specific, probably due to substrate-induced conformational changes in CYP3A4. PMID:20697309

  17. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  18. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  19. Recovery of naphthalene during evaporative concentration. [Tenax; XAD-2; POR-Q, XE-340

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of trace organics usually requires concentrating organic extracts to small volumes prior to instrumental analysis. The use of a concentration apparatus employing a nitrogen blanket and reduced pressure is desirable because the inert atmosphere and low temperature help to ensure stable composition. Unfortunately, diaromatic compounds such as the naphthalenes and biphenyls are frequently almost completely lost during the concentration step. Even under carefully controlled conditions only 26 +- 11% of the naphthalene is recovered. By placing a sorbent either in or downstream of the evaporation concentration flask, recovery of diaromatic compounds can be improved significantly. In this investigation, the following sorbents, Tenax, XAD-2, POR-Q, and XE-340 were tested. Recoveries with and without the use of sorbents, effects of solute concentration, purge time after solvent removal, and type of solvent used are reported here.

  20. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  1. Immorality East and West: Are Immoral Behaviors Especially Harmful, or Especially Uncivilized?

    PubMed

    Buchtel, Emma E; Guan, Yanjun; Peng, Qin; Su, Yanjie; Sang, Biao; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Bond, Michael Harris

    2015-10-01

    What makes some acts immoral? Although Western theories of morality often define harmful behaviors as centrally immoral, whether this is applicable to other cultures is still under debate. In particular, Confucianism emphasizes civility as fundamental to moral excellence. We describe three studies examining how the word immoral is used by Chinese and Westerners. Layperson-generated examples were used to examine cultural differences in which behaviors are called "immoral" (Study 1, n = 609; Study 2, n = 480), and whether "immoral" behaviors were best characterized as particularly harmful versus uncivilized (Study 3, N = 443). Results suggest that Chinese were more likely to use the word immoral for behaviors that were uncivilized, rather than exceptionally harmful, whereas Westerners were more likely to link immorality tightly to harm. More research into lay concepts of morality is needed to inform theories of moral cognition and improve understanding of human conceptualizations of social norms. PMID:26253486

  2. Display of a PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis on the bacteriophage T4 capsid surface.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J; Abu-Shilbayeh, L; Rao, V B

    1997-01-01

    The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5' end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By employing T4 genetic strategies, we show that more than one subtype-specific PorA peptide can be displayed on the capsid surface and that the peptide can also be displayed on a DNA-free empty capsid. Both the PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc recombinant phages are highly immunogenic in mice and elicit strong antipeptide antibody titers even with a weak adjuvant such as Alhydrogel or no adjuvant at all. The data suggest that the phage T4 hoc-soc system is an attractive system for display of peptides on an icosahedral capsid surface and may emerge as a powerful system for construction of the next generation multicomponent vaccines. PMID:9353063

  3. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs. PMID:17126317

  4. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  5. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  6. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  7. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  8. Use of 90° Hopkin’s Telescopic Examination as an OPD Tool to Clinically Evaluate and Record Oral Cavity Lesions: Our Experience in Early Detection, Especially in Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Restricted mouth opening due to premalignant lesions like oral sub-mucous fibrosis, malignancies of oral cavity and postoperative status is very common in Indian patients. It is very difficult to evaluate, document and biopsy the lesions due to inability to access, vast area and diversity of premalignant lesions and subject variations. 90° Hopkin’s slender out-patient examination telescope was found useful tool in this. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of magnified view and reach of a slender telescope to document and examine the oral cavity for any premalignant and malignant lesions, especially for patients with restricted mouth opening and to study its impact on management. Materials and Methods A 900 Hopkin’s telescope was used to evaluate and document oral cavity examination in the Out Patients Department (OPD). The data of first 2000 patients was analysed. Results Difficult to reach areas, where mouth opening was severely restricted was the significant subset. A total of 1394 patients approached OPD for primary diagnosis at our tertiary cancer care centre. Six hundred and six patients were the ones in follow up after treatment in form of Surgery, Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy, or combination. Five twenty three patients (of 1394) with mouth opening ≤ 20mm formed the study group. Telescope guided biopsies were also taken in 50 patients from 56 sites. Serial recordings were compared objectively in premalignant, treatment evaluation and close watch groups. An increase of 5.6% in rate of diagnosis of malignancy was made possible with the help of telescopic examination in patients with mouth opening ≤ 20mm. Conclusion A 900 Hopkin’s telescopic examination is a useful tool to evaluate and record oral cavity lesions, especially in patients with restricted mouth openings. It is a useful tool for screening high risk group, giving definite advantage of objective evaluation and recording of the lesion. It can also be used to

  9. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  10. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  11. Weekly Paclitaxel/Carboplatin/Trastuzumab Therapy Improves Pathologic Complete Remission in Aggressive HER2-Positive Breast Cancers, Especially in Luminal-B Subtype, Compared With a Once-Every-3-Weeks Schedule

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ke-Da; Liu, Guang-Yu; Chen, Can-Ming; Li, Jian-Wei; Wu, Jiong; Lu, Jin-Song; Shen, Zhen-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Background. The efficacy and tolerability of two different schedules of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab (PCarH) for HER2-positive, locally aggressive (stage IIB–IIIC) breast cancers were evaluated in this phase II trial. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either weekly (12 doses over 16 weeks) or once-every-3-weeks (4 doses over 12 weeks) treatment. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete remission (pCR) in the breast and axilla. To detect an assumed 35% pCR absolute difference between the two schedules, a minimum of 26 assessable patients in each group was required (two-sided α = 0.05, β = 0.2). Results. A total of 56 patients were enrolled (weekly group, n = 29; every-3-weeks group, n = 27). In the intent-to-treat analysis, pCR in the breast/axilla were found in 31 patients (55%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41%–69%). Compared with the every-3-weeks schedule, the weekly administration achieved higher pCR (41% vs. 69%; p = .03). After adjustment for clinical and pathological factors, the weekly administration was more effective than the every-3-weeks schedule, with hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9; p = .03). Interestingly, weekly administration resulted in high pCR rates in both luminal-B (HER2-positive) and ERBB2+ tumors (67% vs. 71%; p = .78), whereas luminal-B (HER2-positive) tumors benefited less from the every-3-weeks schedule compared with the ERBB2+ tumors (21% vs. 62%, p = .03). These results remain after multivariate adjustment, showing weekly administration was more effective in the luminal-B (HER2-positive) subgroup (p = .02) but not in the ERBB2+ subgroup (p = .50). Conclusion. A more frequent administration might improve the possibility of eradicating invasive cancer in the breast and axilla, especially in the luminal-B (HER2-positive) subtype. Further studies to validate our findings are warranted. PMID:23635560

  12. Targeting of Neisserial PorB to the mitochondrial outer membrane: an insight on the evolution of β-barrel protein assembly machines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Davies, John K; Lithgow, Trevor; Strugnell, Richard A; Gabriel, Kipros

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondria originated from Gram-negative bacteria through endosymbiosis. In modern day mitochondria, the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) is responsible for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The SAM is the functional equivalent of the β-barrel assembly machinery found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study we examined the import pathway of a pathogenic bacterial protein, PorB, which is targeted from pathogenic Neisseria to the host mitochondria. We have developed a new method for measurement of PorB assembly into mitochondria that relies on the mobility shift exhibited by bacterial β-barrel proteins once folded and separated under semi-native electrophoretic conditions. We show that PorB is targeted to the outer mitochondrial membrane with a dependence on the intermembrane space shuttling chaperones and the core component of the SAM, Sam50, which is a functional homologue of BamA that is required for PorB assembly in bacteria. The peripheral subunits of the SAM, Sam35 and Sam37, which are essential for eukaryotic β-barrel protein assembly but do not have distinguishable functional homologues in bacteria, are not required for PorB assembly in eukaryotes. This shows that PorB uses an evolutionary conserved 'bacterial like' mechanism to infiltrate the host mitochondrial outer membrane. PMID:22032638

  13. Epitope specificity of murine and human bactericidal antibodies against PorA P1.7,16 induced with experimental meningococcal group B vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E M; Kuipers, B; Brugghe, H F; van Unen, L M; Timmermans, H A; Hoogerhout, P; Poolman, J T

    1997-03-01

    Synthetic peptides derived from the predicted loops 1 and 4 of meningococcal PorA, sero-subtype P1.7,16, were used to study the epitope specificity of murine and human PorA P1.7,16 bactericidal antibodies. The predicted loops 1 and 4 are surface exposed and carry in their apices the sero-subtype epitopes P1.7 (loop 1) or P1.16 (loop 4), respectively. Peptides were synthesized as mono- and multimeric peptides. Murine monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were induced with meningococcal whole cell preparations. Polyclonal antibodies were evoked in volunteers after one immunization with 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms protein of a hexavalent meningococcal PorA vesicle vaccine. The induction of PorA antibodies was determined in ELISA using purified PorA P1.7,16. The epitope specificity of anti-PorA antibodies for both murine and human antibodies could be demonstrated by direct peptide ELISA using overlapping multimeric peptides almost spanning the entire loops 1 or 4 of the protein. The capacity of peptides to inhibit the bactericidal activity of murine and human antibodies was investigated using meningococcal strain H44/76 (B:15:P1.7,16) as a target strain. Bactericidal activities could be inhibited with both monomeric and multimeric peptides derived from epitopes P1.7 and P1.16. PMID:9093834

  14. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  15. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity in UK infants of a novel meningococcal vesicle vaccine containing multiple class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, K; Morris, R; Rümke, H; Fox, A; Borrow, R; Begg, N; Richmond, P; Poolman, J

    1999-06-01

    The development of effective vaccines against serogroup B meningococci is of great public health importance. We assessed a novel genetically engineered vaccine containing six meningococcal class 1 (PorA) outer membrane proteins representing 80% of prevalent strains in the UK. 103 infants were given the meningococcal vaccine at ages 2, 3 and 4 months with routine infant immunisations, with a fourth dose at 12-18 months. The vaccine was well tolerated. Three doses evoked good immune responses to two of six meningococcal strains expressing PorA proteins contained in the vaccine. Following a fourth dose, larger bactericidal responses to all six strains were observed, suggesting that the initial course had primed memory lymphocytes and revaccination stimulated a booster response. This hexavalent PorA meningococcal vaccine was safe and evoked encouraging immune responses in infants. Vaccines of this type warrant further development and evaluation. PMID:10418910

  16. How to avoid infections in Ramadan, especially urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Naseem

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged and poor control of diabetes has detrimental effects on the immune system by reducing both B and T cell function, causing neutrophilic dysfunction and less production of inflammatory cytokines. This makes people with diabetes vulnerable to various bacterial, viral and fungal infections in all body organs. The commonest cause of chronic renal disease is uncontrolled diabetes, placing patients, particularly women, at high risk for recurrent and complicated urinary tract infections. Diabetic patients who opt to fast during Ramadan must be clearly counseled about keeping themselves hydrated between non-fasting hours and maintaining good glycaemic control through diet and antidiabetic drugs. PMID:26013793

  17. Climate change in California - why is this region especially vulnerable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    It is very likely that global warming has already been affecting the California region., and global model projections indicate that much larger changes will unfold over the coming decades. In this talk we review results from two recent State-sponsored assessments of prospective climate change scenarios for California, which indicate that impacts in this region may be particularly challenging. Among the rest of the United States, the annual delivery of precipitation in this region is remarkably volatile, being prone to multi- year droughts and occasional wet spells and large storms-climate change may exacerbate this. An important part of the water supply that historically has come in the form of snow in mountain watersheds will probably shift to rain, which is harder to manage and save for dry summer irrigation and other forms of consumption. Furthermore, much of the water supply is conveyed through the San Franciso Bay/Delta, a complex estuary that will be impacted by bigger floods and rising sea levels.

  18. An intelligent rollator for mobility impaired persons, especially stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Thomas; Lindahl, Olof; Bäcklund, Tomas; Karlsson, Marcus; Hohnloser, Peter; Bråndal, Anna; Hu, Xiaolei; Wester, Per

    2016-07-01

    An intelligent rollator (IRO) was developed that aims at obstacle detection and guidance to avoid collisions and accidental falls. The IRO is a retrofit four-wheeled rollator with an embedded computer, two solenoid brakes, rotation sensors on the wheels and IR-distance sensors. The value reported by each distance sensor was compared in the computer to a nominal distance. Deviations indicated a present obstacle and caused activation of one of the brakes in order to influence the direction of motion to avoid the obstacle. The IRO was tested by seven healthy subjects with simulated restricted and blurred sight and five stroke subjects on a standardised indoor track with obstacles. All tested subjects walked faster with intelligence deactivated. Three out of five stroke patients experienced more detected obstacles with intelligence activated. This suggests enhanced safety during walking with IRO. Further studies are required to explore the full value of the IRO. PMID:27078084

  19. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal ... with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development. Grains All About ...

  20. System for recovering sulfur from gases, especially natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gryka, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and operate a laboratory reactor to convert hydrogen sulfide into liquid sulfur, using a patented PIPco process as a basis. Reaction conditions will be studied, continuous regenerative operation demonstrated, and data necessary to design a field test system will be collected. The subject process is a regenerative buffered water circulating system with two primary steps: (1) loading of the solution with SO[sub 2] (which can be generated by buming sulfur or H[sub 2]S), and (2) H[sub 2]S separation - reaction to form sulfur - and sulfur separation. Many regenerative liquid redox sulfur recovery systems offer potential for combining H[sub 2]S separation and sulfur formation into one step. PIPco's data and engineering study suggest the process may have advantages over other liquid systems: Use of potassiurti citrate buffer increases sulfur dioxide (oxidizing agent) loading by a factor of 8 or more, up to 160 grams SO[sub 2]/liter of solution can be carried to the separator - reactor, thereby reducing liquid circulating rates and equipment size. The separator - reactor is operated at a temperature above 120[degrees]C (the melting point of elemental sulfur). Therefore, sulfur is produced and separated in liquid form. This eliminates sulfur plugging and separation problems by avoiding the production of solid sulfur.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral anticoagulants, especially phenprocoumon.

    PubMed

    Haustein, K O

    1999-01-01

    Anticoagulants of the cumarin-type (warfarin, phenprocoumon, and acenocoumarol) are drugs for the long-term treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disorders. Because of their narrow therapeutic range, many patients have bleedings of variable severity or have recurrent thrombotic events. For this reason, the study of the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenprocoumon (PPC), considering its influence on blood clotting factors, is of high interest. The elimination kinetics of PPC, its interaction with phytomenadion (vitamin K), and the pharmacokinetic behavior of the anticoagulant under steady-state conditions have been investigated in studies with healthy volunteers and patients taking anticoagulants. The maintenance dose and the plasma levels of PPC were correlated with prothrombin time (PT) in 89 patients treated with PPC. Varying parameters in each patient (e.g., elimination kinetics of PPC, activity of the cumarin-dependent blood-clotting factors, endogenous phytomenadion stores), render it impossible to use a different means of monitoring than that of PT determination. PMID:10327214

  2. Especially for High School Teachers: The Chat Stool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A new classroom technique called "stool time", which can be used while teaching chemistry to students is described. It is advised that in a break from lecture, the teacher should shift to a wooden stool to share an anecdote, a bit of information about a famous figure of science, which will help the students to see the teacher more as a person.

  3. Apparatus and method for cutting soft materials, especially meat

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Shaw, Dick L.; Scalia, Barbara J.

    2005-10-18

    An apparatus and method for cutting soft materials such as meat. Two or more spirally mounted helical blades are situated between two supports, and the supports are mounted to a shank. The shank is rotated to impart rotary action to the spiral shear blades, and the entire device may be used to perform various cutting operations. The distal or bottom one of the supports may also be a cutting blade, and a number of versions of bottom cutting blades are useable in the practice of the invention.

  4. Decay and spectra of baryons especially beauty baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, C. S.

    1996-06-01

    Masses and decays of the baryons are considered. The entire spectroscopy of baryons containing u,d,s,c and b quarks is calculated using the five quark masses and only four additional parameters describing the potential between the baryons. This potential is taken to be a short-range Coulomb potential together with a long-range linear potential modified by a harmonic-oscillator potential. Decays are studied using the quark pair creation model of Le Yaouanc et. al. The pair strength γ is replaced by kγ . This and the meson radius are the only parameters used in the calculation of the decays. Overall, we have a useful model, employing a small number of parameters, yet capable of yielding a description of the baryons in good accord with experimental data.

  5. Consciousness: a neural capacity for objectivity, especially pronounced in humans.

    PubMed

    Dijker, Anton J M

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness tends to be viewed either as subjective experience of sensations and feelings, or as perception and internal representation of objects. This paper argues that neither view sufficiently acknowledges that consciousness may refer to the brain's most adaptive property: its capacity to produce states of objectivity. It is proposed that this capacity relies on multiple sensorimotor networks for internally representing objects and their properties in terms of expectancies, as well as on motivational and motor mechanisms involved in exploration, play, and care for vulnerable living and non-living objects. States of objectivity are associated with a very special phenomenal aspect; the experience that subjective aspects are absent and one is "just looking" at the world as it really is and can be. However, these states are normally closely preceded and followed by (and tend to be combined or fused with) sensations and feelings which are caused by activation of sensory and motivational mechanisms. A capacity for objectivity may have evolved in different species and can be conceived as a common basis for other elusive psychological properties such as intelligence, conscience, and esthetic experience; all three linked to crucial behaviors in human evolution such as tool making, cooperation, and art. The brain's pervasive tendency to objectify may be responsible for wrongly equating consciousness with feelings and wrongly opposing it to well-learned or habitual ("unconscious") patterns of perception and behavior. PMID:24672506

  6. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all. PMID:24424108

  7. Outcomes of esophageal surgery, especially of the lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Bonavina, Luigi; Siboni, Stefano; Saino, Greta I; Cavadas, Demetrio; Braghetto, Italo; Csendes, Attila; Korn, Owen; Figueredo, Edgar J; Swanstrom, Lee L; Wassenaar, Eelco

    2013-10-01

    This paper includes commentaries on outcomes of esophageal surgery, including the mechanisms by which fundoduplication improves lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure; the efficacy of the Linx™ management system in improving LES function; the utility of radiologic characterization of antireflux valves following surgery; the correlation between endoscopic findings and reported symptoms following antireflux surgery; the links between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and decreased LES pressure, endoscopic esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); the less favorable outcomes following fundoduplication among obese patients; the application of bioprosthetic meshes to reinforce hiatal repair and decrease the incidence of paraesophageal hernia; the efficacy of endoluminal antireflux procedures, and the limited efficacy of revisional antireflux operations, underscoring the importance of good primary surgery and diligent work-up to prevent the necessity of revisional procedures. PMID:24117632

  8. Photodegradation and photostabilization of polymers, especially polystyrene: review.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Emad; Haddad, Raghad

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may cause the significant degradation of many materials. UV radiation causes photooxidative degradation which results in breaking of the polymer chains, produces free radical and reduces the molecular weight, causing deterioration of mechanical properties and leading to useless materials, after an unpredictable time. Polystyrene (PS), one of the most important material in the modern plastic industry, has been used all over the world, due to its excellent physical properties and low-cost. When polystyrene is subjected to UV irradiation in the presence of air, it undergoes a rapid yellowing and a gradual embrittlement. The mechanism of PS photolysis in the solid state (film) depends on the mobility of free radicals in the polymer matrix and their bimolecular recombination. Free hydrogen radicals diffuse very easily through the polymer matrix and combine in pairs or abstract hydrogen atoms from polymer molecule. Phenyl radical has limited mobility. They may abstract hydrogen from the near surrounding or combine with a polymer radical or with hydrogen radicals. Almost all synthetic polymers require stabilization against adverse environmental effects. It is necessary to find a means to reduce or prevent damage induced by environmental components such as heat, light or oxygen. The photostabilization of polymers may be achieved in many ways. The following stabilizing systems have been developed, which depend on the action of stabilizer: (1) light screeners, (2) UV absorbers, (3) excited-state quenchers, (4) peroxide decomposers, and (5) free radical scavengers; of these, it is generally believed that excited-state quenchers, peroxide decomposers, and free radical scavengers are the most effective. Research into degradation and ageing of polymers is extremely intensive and new materials are being synthesized with a pre-programmed lifetime. New stabilizers are becoming commercially available although their modes of action are sometimes not thoroughly elucidated. They target the many possible ways of polymer degradation: thermolysis, thermooxidation, photolysis, photooxidation, radiolysis etc. With the goal to increase lifetime of a particular polymeric material, two aspects of degradation are of particular importance: Storage conditions, and Addition of appropriate stabilizers. A profound knowledge of degradation mechanisms is needed to achieve the goal. PMID:25674392

  9. OEDIPUS REX: WHERE ARE WE GOING, ESPECIALLY WITH FEMALES?

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2015-07-01

    The Oedipus myth usefully informs triangulated object relations, though males, females, and "humankind" can become overly interchangeable. Freud's intentions to enlighten sexed gender are nowadays obscured. In 1931, he rejected Oedipus for females. Counterreactive gender blindness forecloses exploration about female development. Loewald's (1979) view of Oedipus Rex emancipates male heterosexuals from a recurring (universal), regressive pull back to mother. Ogden (1987) offers further insights into earliest female development. The author suggests a lifelong, progressive trajectory of mother/daughter closeness, in synch with a girl's shared slow body development into maturity and childbearing. Freeing the female dyad from obligatory pathological interpretation may inspire fresh sex and gender clinical theory. PMID:26198601

  10. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals ( iron , magnesium , and selenium). Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods, ... diets. Whole grains are sources of magnesium and selenium. Magnesium is a mineral used in building bones ...

  11. Tire-to-Surface Friction Especially Under Wet Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Batterson, Sidney A.; Harrin, Eziaslav N.

    1959-01-01

    The results of measurements of the maximum friction available in braking on various runway surfaces under various conditions is shown for a C-123B airplane and comparisons of measurements with a tire-friction cart on the same runways are made. The.results of studies of wet-surface friction made with a 12-inch-diameter low-pressure tire on a tire-friction treadmill, with an automobile tire on the tire-friction cart, and with a 44 x 13 extra-high-pressure type VII aircraft tire at the Langley landing-loads track are compared. Preliminary results of tests on the tire-friction treadmill under wet-surface conditions to determine the effect of the wiping action of the front wheel of a tandem-wheel arrangement on the friction available in braking for the rear wheel are given.

  12. Gender Differences, Especially on Fifty College Board Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.; Stumpf, Heinrich

    In a follow-up to findings published by H. Stumpf and J. Stanley (1996), the gender-related differences in enrollment in and scores on the College Board Achievement (SAT II) and Advanced Placement (AP) tests were studied. Differences in scores turned out to be rather stable from 1982 (for the Achievement tests) and 1984 (for the AP tests) through…

  13. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Rare Disease, Especially for the Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  14. Voltage gating and anions, especially phosphate: a model system.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Padmanava; Ghose, Ranajeet; Green, Michael E

    2005-11-30

    The voltage sensor of voltage gated sodium and potassium channels consists of four sets of transmembrane segments, of which one, called S4, contains at least four arginines; these are presumed to each carry positive charges. The channel opening is usually attributed to the outward (i.e., toward the extracellular side of the membrane) motion of S4. The evidence for this motion is based on certain experiments that appear to show differential access to parts of S4 from the intracellular and extracellular sides of the membrane in the open and closed states. A newly available structure [S.B. Long, E.B. Campbell and R. MacKinnon, Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K(+) channel. Science 309 (2005) 897-903; S.B. Long, E.B. Campbell, R. MacKinnon, Voltage sensor of Kv1.2: structural basis of electromechanical coupling. Science 309 (2005) 903-908][1,2] has now been used to argue for a large scale motion, although, as a static structure, it is not conclusive. In this paper, we consider the effect of anions in the surrounding medium. Phosphate is present in the intracellular as well as the extracellular fluid, apparently at hundreds of micromolar concentration, or more. There is evidence in the literature suggesting that phosphate-arginine complexes are rather strong. In a recent calculation one of us [M.E. Green, A possible role for phosphate in complexing the arginines of S4 in voltage gated channels J. Theor. Biol. 233 (2005) 337-341][3] has shown that a model peptide with a 2:1 arg:phosphate complex should have a favorable geometry. Here, we present NMR evidence of the existence of phosphate complexes of a model peptide with two arginines separated by two hydrophobic residues, the same spacing as in S4 segments. The complexes (there are different complexes for HPO(4)(2-) and for H(2)PO(4)(-) [3]) form with concentrations of peptide in the range of hundreds of micromolar, making it significant in the biological context. NMR spectra provide changes in chemical shift as functions of both phosphate concentration and pH. The resulting curves show titration of the phosphate, with its standard pK. Possible implications for other anion-S4 interactions, including ion pairs rather than complexes, as with Cl(-), are also discussed. PMID:16289371

  15. Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Natália B.; Furtado, Raimundo; Maia, Pedro P. C.; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that ``dreams are the royal road to the unconscious'' is clinically useful, after all.

  16. Consciousness: a neural capacity for objectivity, especially pronounced in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dijker, Anton J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness tends to be viewed either as subjective experience of sensations and feelings, or as perception and internal representation of objects. This paper argues that neither view sufficiently acknowledges that consciousness may refer to the brain’s most adaptive property: its capacity to produce states of objectivity. It is proposed that this capacity relies on multiple sensorimotor networks for internally representing objects and their properties in terms of expectancies, as well as on motivational and motor mechanisms involved in exploration, play, and care for vulnerable living and non-living objects. States of objectivity are associated with a very special phenomenal aspect; the experience that subjective aspects are absent and one is “just looking” at the world as it really is and can be. However, these states are normally closely preceded and followed by (and tend to be combined or fused with) sensations and feelings which are caused by activation of sensory and motivational mechanisms. A capacity for objectivity may have evolved in different species and can be conceived as a common basis for other elusive psychological properties such as intelligence, conscience, and esthetic experience; all three linked to crucial behaviors in human evolution such as tool making, cooperation, and art. The brain’s pervasive tendency to objectify may be responsible for wrongly equating consciousness with feelings and wrongly opposing it to well-learned or habitual (“unconscious”) patterns of perception and behavior. PMID:24672506

  17. Especially for Women. Programs and Services Offered by School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    This report describes programs and services school boards offer to women employees or women in the community. A special focus is innovative, nontraditional courses and services. The first section discusses offerings for school board staff. An overview of affirmative action/employment equity programs addresses their objectives and describes…

  18. Approaches to Costing Adult Literacy Programmes, Especially in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Hill, Roy; Roberts, Fiona; Currie, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was originally prepared for the African Inter-Ministerial Conference on Literacy (September 2007) with the objective of analysing the costs of successful adult literacy programmes run both by government ministries, as well as international and national non-governmental organisations. Objectives: This study aims to increase…

  19. Progress Lags in High School, Especially for Advanced Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report by the Center on Education Policy (CEP), an independent nonprofit organization, examines trends in the achievement of high school students on the state reading/English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests used for accountability under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This study confirms that there is reason for concern about…

  20. Venous Air Embolism during Surgery, Especially Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seok; Liu, Jia; Kwon, Ja-Young; Shin, Seo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Venous air embolism (VAE) is the entrapment of air or medical gases into the venous system causing symptoms and signs of pulmonary vessel obstruction. The incidence of VAE during cesarean delivery ranges from 10 to 97% depending on surgical position or diagnostic tools, with a potential for life-threatening events. We reviewed extensive literatures regarding VAE in detail and herein described VAE during surgery including cesarean delivery from background and history to treatment and prevention. It is intended that present work will improve the understanding of VAE during surgery. PMID:18955777

  1. Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis, especially in diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Frostegård, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and ensuing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major complications of diabetes type 2. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition involving immunocompetent cells of different types present in the lesions. Even though inflammation and immune activation may be more pronounced in atherosclerosis in diabetes type 2, there does not appear to be any major differences between diabetics and non-diabetics. Similar factors are thus implicated in atherosclerosis-associated immune activation in both groups. The cause of immune activation is not known and different mutually non-exclusive possibilities exist. Oxidized and/or enzymatically modified forms of low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and dead cells are present in atherosclerotic plaques. OxLDL could play a role, being pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory as it activates T-cells and is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Inflammatory phospholipids in OxLDL are implicated, with phosphorylcholine (PC) as one of the exposed antigens. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) are anti-atherogenic in mouse studies, and anti-PC is negatively associated with development of atherosclerosis and CVD in humans. Bacteria and virus have been discussed as potential causes of immune activation, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and antibiotic trials in humans have been negative or inconclusive. Heat shock proteins (HSP) could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and also lipid mediators as leukotrienes. In addition, in diabetes, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress appear to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, one mechanism could be via promotion of immune reactions. To prove that immune reactions are causative of atherosclerosis and CVD, further studies with immune-modulatory treatments are needed. PMID:24194733

  2. A Film Unit Designed Especially For Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, John L.

    An Agency for International Development (AID) project established an educational film production unit in Malawi. The project was designed to deliver extension services and information from the Ministry of Agriculture to rural farmers and had to: 1) produce films which meet the needs of villagers; 2) keep costs to an absolute minimum; and 3) fully…

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  4. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  5. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C–H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity. PMID:25246966

  6. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  7. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  8. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  9. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention. PMID:11019766

  10. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  11. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  12. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  13. Binding of Complement Factor H to PorB3 and NspA Enhances Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Anti-Factor H Binding Protein Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  14. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  15. Adjuvant Effects Elicited by Novel Oligosaccharide Variants of Detoxified Meningococcal Lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis Recombinant PorA Protein: A Comparison in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ojas H.; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J . Claire; Rollier, Christine S.; Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J. P.; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W.; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E . Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines. PMID:25545241

  16. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. PMID:25644002

  17. Immunogenicity studies with a genetically engineered hexavalent PorA and a wild-type meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine in infant cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, E; Schuller, M; Holst, J; de Vries, P; van der Ley, P; van den Dobbelsteen, G; Poolman, J

    2000-01-31

    The immunogenicity of two meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, namely the Norwegian wild-type OMV vaccine and the Dutch hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine, were examined in infant cynomolgus monkeys. For the first time, a wild-type- and a recombinant OMV vaccine were compared. Furthermore, the induction of memory and the persistence of circulating antibodies were measured. The Norwegian vaccine contained all four classes of major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and wild-type L3/L8 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Dutch vaccine consisted for 90% of class 1 OMPs, had low expression of class 4 and 5 OMP, and GalE LPS. Three infant monkeys were immunised with a human dose at the age of 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 months. Two monkeys of each group received a fourth dose at the age of 11 months. In ELISA, both OMV vaccines were immunogenic and induced booster responses, particularly after the fourth immunisation. The Norwegian vaccine mostly induced sero-subtype P1.7,16 specific serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA), although some other SBA were induced as well. The antibody responses against P1.7,16, induced by the Norwegian vaccine, were generally higher than for the Dutch vaccine. However, the Dutch vaccine induced PorA specific SBA against all six sero-subtypes included in the vaccine showing differences in the magnitude of SBA responses to the various PorAs. PMID:10618530

  18. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  19. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  20. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  1. [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ]: A Superatom Complex with a Chiral Metallic Core and High Potential for Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Rajendra S; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Jang; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W

    2016-07-11

    The synthesis and structural determination of a silver nanocluster [Ag20 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ] (2), which contains an intrinsic chiral metallic core, is produced by reduction of one silver ion from the eight-electron superatom complex [Ag21 {S2 P(OiPr)2 }12 ](PF6 ) (1) by borohydrides. Single-crystal X-ray analysis displays an Ag20 core of pseudo C3 symmetry comprising a silver-centered Ag13 icosahedron capped by seven silver atoms. Its n-propyl derivative, [Ag20 {S2 P(OnPr)2 }12 ] (3), can also be prepared by the treatment of silver(I) salts and dithiophosphates in a stoichiometric ratio in the presence of excess amount of [BH4 ](-) . Crystal structure analyses reveal that the capping silver-atom positions relative to their icosahedral core are distinctly different in 2 and 3 and generate isomeric, chiral Ag20 cores. Both Ag20 clusters display an emission maximum in the near IR region. DFT calculations are consistent with a description within the superatom model of an 8-electron [Ag13 ](5+) core protected by a [Ag7 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ](5-) external shell. Two additional structural variations are predicted by DFT, showing the potential for isomerism in such [Ag20 {S2 P(OR)2 }12 ] species. PMID:27189869

  2. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists. PMID:12189787

  3. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  4. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  5. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  6. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-03-15

    , nosotros evaluamos el papel de otras especies de afidos y plantas hospederas potenciales sobre la produccion y ubicacion de las momias. Bajo condiciones de laboratorio, este parasitoide produjo el mayor numero de progenies sobre la especie de plaga enfocada, el afido pardo de los citricos sobre Citrus . Este parasitoide, no como la mayoria de los afidiidos (Hymenoptera), no produjo momias sobre cualquiera de las plantas hospederas probadas cuando fue criado sobre el afido negro de los citricos, ( T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)) en toronja, el afido spirea (Aphis spiraecola Patch) en toronja y pittosporum, el afido del caupi (A. craccivora Koch) en toronja y caupi o el afido del melon (A. gossypii Glover) en toronja y pepino. Asi, el muestreo para momias de L. oregmae de estas especies de afidos hospederos y plantas hospederas tiene que incluir el mantenimiento de follaje en el laboratorio hasta que se produzcan las momias. Este parasitoide requiere una alta humedad relativa para producir los adultos por que ningun adulto emergio cuando las momias fueron mantenidas en capsulas de gelatina, pero una tasa alta de emergencia de adultos fue observada cuando se mantuvo las momias en platos con agar al 1.5%. Ademas de esto, nosotros comparamos el color de 6 especies de afidos hospederos, asi como el color de las momias producidos por L. oregmae cuando fue criado sobre ellos para determinar si se puede usar el color de las momias para la identificacion de L. oregmae . El color de las momias varia entre las especies de afidos hospederos y las plantas hospederas probadas, por lo que no es una herramienta util para la identificacion de L. oregmae o para la evaluacion de su efecto sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque del control. (author)

  7. Special Education: Parent and Student Rights = Educacion Especial: Los Derechos de los Padres y Estudiantes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education Programs.

    Intended for parents of children with possible disabilities in Texas, these two combined booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) outline the step-by-step process qualifying the child for special education services and explain the parent's rights and responsibilities under federal and state law. Introductory material includes a letter to…

  8. [Childhood masturbation--a genetic viewpoint, especially in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Binswanger, R

    1996-07-01

    The author examines the functions of child masturbation in the development of narcissim and distinguishes a demarcation function, a compensation function and a function serving to establish autonomy. In Binswanger's view, certain reactions to child masturbation on the part of parents may affect the interactive relationship between the child and the parent representing the primary object in such a way as to thwart or undermine these functions. The result is the appearance of masturbation substitutes in the form of certain symptoms. Binswanger distinguishes "horrified", "liberal", and "eroticized" reactions by parents, relating the first to compulsion neurosis, the second to obesity, and the third to anorexia/bulimia. The author illustrates his hypotheses with copious references to cases from his own practice. PMID:8766992

  9. Biological Evolution on the Earth Influenced by Astronomical Objects: Especially Gamma-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponert, J.; Príhoda, P.

    2009-12-01

    Taking in to account 20,000 explosions of intragalactic supernovae per million years, the sources estimated at 1056 - 1057 MeV producing the high intensity of gamma- and xray-radiation even after its reduction through the Earth atmosphere, may have a significant mutagenic action. During the time period of the last 4 billion years not less than one hundred explosions up to the mean distance 126 pc from the Earth. All such explosions were able to evoke a genetic revolution among most taxonomic groups of terrestrial organisms. For mountain organisms, the more frequent supernova explosions in distance up to 400-900 pc are of importance, maritime organisms could be influenced mainly by secondary radiation products, rather than directly by the gamma and X-rays from the supernovae. The mechanisms of macroevolution depending on supernovae is elucidated. Smaller genetical revolutions in the macroevolutional process (formation of genera) took place on the average once every 10 millions or more years, fundamental genetic revolutions once in 100 millions or more years. Also other newly discovered astronomical gamma-ray sources have to be taken in account.

  10. [Intraspecific chromosomal variability in human pathogenic fungi, especially in Histoplasma capsulatum].

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Rafael; Canteros, Cristina; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2004-12-01

    The ploidy, karyotype, and chromosome length polymorphism (CLP) of human pathogenic fungi were revised with emphasis on Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of the systemic mycosis, histoplasmosis. Currently, different systems of gel electrophoresis are being used to determine fungal electrokaryotypes (EK). By renaturation kinetic and genomic reconstruction in H. capsulatum strains (G-186AS and Downs), estimated genome sizes of 23 and 32 Mb were determined for both strains, respectively. The haploid state was proposed for both strains, although aneuploidy was suggested for the Downs strain. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF), field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE), and Southern blot using different probes showed the presence of six to seven chromosomes in the Downs strain (low virulence), whereas four chromosomes were identified in the G-186B strain (high virulence). The use of these methods in the three major H. capsulatum reference strains (G-217B and Downs from the United States of America, G-186B from Panama) revealed distinct chromosome sizes, from 0.5 to 5.7 Mb, with CLP associated with chromosomes size and mobility. Recently, by CHEF, using 19 H. capsulatum isolates from Latin-America and the G-186B strain, five to seven chromosomes with 1.1 to 11.2 Mb molecular sizes were revealed, which again suggested CLP in H. capsulatum. However, to elucidate the EKs polymorphism in H. capsulatum and its relationship with the isolates phenotype more studies are needed to understand the mechanisms controlling ploidy variability. PMID:15709795