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Sample records for producing controlled low-strength

  1. Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, N.

    1997-07-01

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is a self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in lieu of compacted fill. Many terms are currently used to describe this material including flowable fill, unshrinkable fill, controlled density fill, flowable mortar, flowable fly ash, fly ash slurry, plastic soil-cement, soil-cement slurry, K-Krete and other various names. This report contains information on applications, material properties, mix proportioning, construction and quality-control procedures. This report`s intent is to provide basic information on CLSM technology, with emphasis on CLSM material characteristics and advantages over conventional compacted fill. Applications include backfills, structural fills, insulating and isolation fills, pavement bases, conduit bedding, erosion control, void filling, and radioactive waste management.

  2. Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1996-11-12

    Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water.

  3. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  4. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

  5. Design and testing controlled low-strength materials (CLSM) using clean coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, T.R.; Kraus, R.N.; Sturzl, R.F.; Ramme, B.W.

    1998-10-01

    The major objective of this project was to develop mixture proportions for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) using clean coal ash obtained from atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} control technologies. The specific ashes used for this project were: (1) circulating fluidized bed boiler fly ash and bottom ash and (2) stoker-type boiler fly ash and bottom ash. These two coal ash samples were characterized for physical and chemical properties. Chemical properties and water leaching tests were also performed on the hardened CLSM. Many initial CLSM mixtures were developed by blending the two types of ash. Tests conducted on the final three selected CLSM mixtures included compressive strength, bleeding, setting and hardening, settlement, length change of hardened CLSM, permeability, mineralogy, and chemical water leach testing. Results show that acceptable CLSM material can be developed by blending the fluidized bed boiler ash with the stoker boiler ash. Recommendations for a pilot scale manufacturing application of the three CLSM mixtures were made based upon the lab test results.

  6. Fly-ash-based controlled low-strength material (CLSM) used for critical microtunneling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B.H.; Staheli, K.; Bennett, D.; Walley, D.M.

    1998-10-01

    A controlled low-strength material (CLSM) has been successfully used in two microtunneling applications. This CLSM, developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), is a mixture of ASTM Class C fly ash, ASTM Type I portland cement, bentonite, and water. The CLSM was first used during the microtunneling field trials at WES to stabilize a tunnel excavation while retracting the microtunneling machine through unstable, flooded, running sand. The void left by the retracted tunnel machine was filled with the CLSM to provide continuous support to the excavation and avoid settlement of the ground surface. Based on the success of the WES tests, the CLSM was used on a second microtunneling project in Newark, California. The CLSM was used to stabilize the soil surrounding the sheet-piled shaft that would be used to launch a microtunnel boring machine. The use of this fly-ash-based CLSM greatly improved the stability of the soils and safety of the shaft during the launch. The use of the CLSM also provided cost savings in excess of $100,000 on the Newark project.

  7. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  8. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  9. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, Paul J.; Bahia, Hussain U.; Deng, An; Snyder, Thomas

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  10. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  11. Credibility of Low-Strength Static Magnet Therapy as an Attention Control Intervention for a Randomized Controlled Study of CranioSacral Therapy for Migraine Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Peter; Park, Jongbae; Faurot, Keturah R.; Coble, Rebecca; Suchindran, Chirayath; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Wilkinson, Laurel; Mann, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Developing valid control groups that generate similar perceptions and expectations to experimental complementary and alternative (CAM) treatments can be challenging. The perceived credibility of treatment and outcome expectancy often contributes to positive clinical responses to CAM therapies, thereby confounding efficacy data. As part of a clinical feasibility study, credibility and expectancy data were obtained from subjects suffering from migraine who received either CranioSacral therapy (CST) or an attention-control, sham, and low-strength magnet (LSSM) intervention. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the LSSM intervention generated similar levels of subject credibility and expectancy compared to CST. Design This was a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Subjects Sixty-five (65) adults with moderate to severe migraine were the subjects of this study. Interventions After an 8-week baseline, subjects were randomized to eight weekly treatments of either CST (n=36) or LSSM (n=29). The latter involved the use of a magnet-treatment protocol using inactive and low-strength static magnets designed to mimic the CST protocol in terms of setting, visit timing, body positioning, and therapist–subject interaction. Outcome measures A four-item, self-administered credibility/expectancy questionnaire, based on a validated instrument, was completed after the first visit. Results Using a 0–9 rating scale, the mean score for perceived logicality of treatment was significantly less for LSSM (5.03, standard deviation [SD] 2.34) compared to CST (6.64, SD 2.19). Subject confidence that migraine would improve was greater for CST (5.94, SD 2.01) than for LSSM (4.9, SD 2.21), a difference that was not statistically significant. Significantly more subjects receiving CST (6.08, SD 2.27) would confidently recommend treatment to a friend than those receiving LSSM (4.69, SD 2.49). Conclusions Although LSSM did not achieve a comparable level

  12. Effect of quarry dust addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material made from industrial waste incineration bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Naganathan; Hashim, Abdul Razak; Nadzriah, Abdul Hamid Siti

    2012-06-01

    The performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was investigated in this paper, as the quarry dust was added. CLSM mixtures were made from the industrial waste incineration bottom ash, quarry dust, and cement. Tests for fresh density, bleeding, compressive strength, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and excavatability were carried out. The compressive strength ranges from 60 kPa to 6790 kPa, the friction angle varies from 5° to 19°, and the cohesion is from 4 to 604 kPa. Most of the mixtures are found to be non-excavatable. It is indicated that the quarry dust addition increases the compressive strength and shear parameters, decreases bleeding, and increases the removability modulus.

  13. Soluble microbial products in ABR treating low-strength wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.J.; Salvi, S.M.L.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Stuckey, D.C.

    2000-03-01

    The chemical composition, molecular weight (MW) distribution, and biodegradability (both aerobic and anaerobic) of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating low-strength wastewater were investigated. The effect of various process parameters on the production of SMPs was also examined. Results indicated that high MW (>300 kDa) compounds were produced in the middle compartments of the reactor and formed 22% of the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD). This fraction was found to be 86% degradable under aerobic conditions but only 4% under anaerobic conditions. Low MW (<1 kDa) material represented the highest portion (36%) of the effluent COD and was mainly found in the first compartment of the ABR and in the effluent. This fraction was more easily degraded under anaerobic conditions (33%) than aerobic conditions (17%). Analysis of a hydrolyzed sample of the high MW fraction revealed the presence of several sugars and volatile fatty acids. Therefore, it was concluded that the high MW material contains heteropolysaccharides. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the low MW fraction revealed the possible presence of alcohol, carboxylate, and aromatic chemical groups. SMP production increased with increasing hydraulic retention time (HRT), probably due to enhanced biomass decay at high HRTs, and also increased with decreasing temperature, probably due to increased stress on the biomass and a reduced metabolism of the SMP at low temperatures. Finally, SMP production in an ABR containing higher levels of initial biomass concentration was greater than for an ABR operating at the same conditions but with lower levels of initial biomass.

  14. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  15. Low-strength ultrasonication positively affects methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance: Implications from microbial community shift.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Quince, Christopher; Im, Wan-Taek; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Seung Gu

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate the enhanced methane yield from organic wastes, the effects of low-strength ultrasonication on the microbial community structures in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors were for the first time analyzed using pyrosequencing. Interestingly, a more even microbial community was observed in the ultrasonicated granules than in the control, which could compensate for the decreased richness and resulted in comparable (archaea) or even higher (bacteria) diversity. The ultrasonicated granules contained higher levels of δ-Proteobacteria, of which many are reportedly potential syntrophs, as well as methanogenic genera Methanosaeta, Methanotorris, and Methanococcus. The increased presence of syntrophic bacteria with their methanogenic partners was discussed with respect to hydrogen flux; their selective proliferation seems to be responsible for the enhanced anaerobic performance. This study is the first research shedding light on the novel function of low-strength ultrasound shifting the microbial structure towards better biogas production performance, and will facilitate application of low-strength ultrasound to other bioprocesses. PMID:27150761

  16. Modeling the dynamic equilibrium of objects weakened by thin low-strength inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Skopetskii, V.V.; Deineka, V.S.; Marchenko, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Successful development of hydroelectric power as well as the use and protection of the resources of the Azov/Black Sea basin require formulation and solution of design and control problems for hydroengineering and coastal constructions. The authors have developed two-dimensional mathematical models of dynamic equilibrium of various hydroengineering and coastal constructions with weak thin sections of natural or artificial origin (low-strength inclusions, cracks, technological seams), where shearing strength conditions must be considered. These models are applicable to objects whose dynamic characteristics can be fully described by considering their profile cross-sections (dams, coastal slopes, wave breakers). The weak thin sections are modeled by cuts with appropriate contact conditions. Finite-element algorithms have been developed for solving the corresponding initial-boundary-value problems, and a model example has been solved.

  17. Coupling the treatment of low strength anaerobic effluent with fermented biowaste for nutrient removal via nitrite.

    PubMed

    Katsou, E; Malamis, S; Frison, N; Fatone, F

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient removal via nitrite was investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating low strength effluent produced from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). Domestic organic waste (DOW) and vegetable and fruit waste (VFW) were fermented and applied as external carbon source to the SBR. Nutrient removal via nitrite was much higher when DOW fermentation liquid (FL) was applied rather than VFW FL and acetic acid. The DOW FL contained propionic acid and butyric acid in significant proportions, favouring the nutrient removal via nitrite, while the VFW FL contained mainly acetic acid, which was associated with lower nutrient via nitrite activity. The application of high volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR = 0.19-0.21 kgN m(-3) d(-1)) in combination with low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the aerobic phase, resulted in high and stable nitrite accumulation (NO2-N/NOx-N >97%). These conditions favoured the phosphorus uptake via nitrite, which reached high rates (5.95 ± 2.21 mgP (gVSS h)(-1)), while the aerobic phosphorus removal was much lower. Through mass balances, it was demonstrated that the application of the UASB-SBR process with nutrient removal via nitrite at a decentralized level is a sustainable solution for effective co-treatment of domestic sewage and biowaste. PMID:25463576

  18. Stable partial nitritation for low-strength wastewater at low temperature in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Isanta, Eduardo; Reino, Clara; Carrera, Julián; Pérez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Partial nitritation for a low-strength wastewater at low temperature was stably achieved in an aerobic granular reactor. A bench-scale granular sludge bioreactor was operated in continuous mode treating an influent of 70 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) to mimic pretreated municipal nitrogenous wastewater and the temperature was progressively decreased from 30 to 12.5 °C. A suitable effluent nitrite to ammonium concentrations ratio to a subsequent anammox reactor was maintained stable during 300 days at 12.5 °C. The average applied nitrogen loading rate at 12.5 °C was 0.7 ± 0.3 g N L(-1) d(-1), with an effluent nitrate concentration of only 2.5 ± 0.7 mg N-NO3(-) L(-1). The biomass fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the granular sludge decreased from 19% to only 1% in 6 months of reactor operation at 12.5 °C. Nitrobacter spp. where found as the dominant NOB population, whereas Nitrospira spp. were not detected. Simulations indicated that: (i) NOB would only be effectively repressed when their oxygen half-saturation coefficient was higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; and (ii) a lower specific growth rate of NOB was maintained at any point in the biofilm (even at 12.5 °C) due to the bulk ammonium concentration imposed through the control strategy. PMID:26001281

  19. Hydrophilic quantum dots stability against an external low-strength electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goftman, Valentina V.; Pankratov, Vladislav A.; Markin, Alexey V.; Ginste, Dries Vande; De Saeger, Sarah; Goryacheva, Irina Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Since the stability of nanobiolabels plays a key role in their application, we thoroughly investigated how an external, low-strength electric field impacts on the fluorescent properties of hydrophilic quantum dots (QDs). Two fundamentally different approaches were applied to make the QDs water-soluble, i.e. ligand exchange (namely silica covering) and encapsulation with an amphiphilic polymer. It is shown that, even under a low-strength electric field, the polymer-coated QDs could lose 90% of their brightness because of the weak interaction between the QD's surface and the polymeric molecule. Silica-covered QDs, on the contrary, stay bright and stable owing to the covalently attached dense silica shell. These findings, which are clearly explained and illustrated in the present paper, are of critical importance in the context of hydrophilic QDs' bioapplication.

  20. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  1. Control of tissue growth by locally produced activator: Liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-03-01

    In general, the tissue development is controlled by growth factors and depends on the biomechanics of cells. The corresponding kinetic models are focused primarily on the early stages of the development. The attempts to construct such models for the later stages are still rare. One of the notable examples here is liver regeneration. Referring to this process, the author proposes and analyzes a generic kinetic model describing the regulation of tissue growth by locally produced activator. The model includes activator diffusion and control of the rate of cell proliferation which is described by using the Hill expression. Although this control may be moderately or strongly non-linear, the qualitative changes in the regeneration kinetics are predicted to be modest. For moderately non-linear control, the evolution of the tissue volume to the steady-state value exhibits an initial relatively short linear stage and then becomes slightly slower so that the whole kinetics is close to exponential. For strongly non-linear control, the linear stage dominates and/or the kinetics may exhibit a S-like shape feature which is, however, rather weak. The identification of such qualitative features in experimentally measured kinetics is shown to be difficult, because the error bars in the experiments are typically too large.

  2. Graphene nanosheets produced via controlled detonation of hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Arjun

    We demonstrated that gram quantities of pristine graphene nanosheets (GNs) can be produced via detonation of a hydrocarbon. This one-step and catalyst-free method is eco-friendly and economical for the production of GNs. The hydrocarbons detonated were C2H2, C 2H4, C3H8 and CH4 in the presence of O2. The carbon products obtained from the detonation were analyzed by XRD, TEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. Depending upon the ratio of O2 to C2H2, the GNs of size up to ˜ 250 nm, SSA up to ˜ 200 m2/g and yield up to 70% with 2-3 layers' stack have been obtained so far. N2O was determined as a good alternative to O2 as an oxidizer to produce GNs by detonating C2H2 with it. A two-color pyrometer was designed and calibrated to measure the temperature of the detonation of hydrocarbons. The measured detonation temperatures were in between 2700 K and 4300 K. Along with the high detonation temperature, the composition of precursor hydrocarbon was observed to be crucial as well to determine its suitability to detonate with oxidizer to produce GNs. The hydrocarbons C2H2 and C2H4 were determined as the suitable precursors to produce GNs whereas detonation of C3H8 yields mere amorphous carbon soot and CH4 gives no solid carbon while detonated with O2. It has been proposed that the hydrocarbons with C/H≥0.5 are suitable for GNs production by detonation method. Highly oxidized graphene nanosheets (OGNs) were produced by solution-based oxidation of GNs prepared via a controlled detonation of acetylene at O 2/C2H2=0.8. The produced OGNs were about 250 nm in size and hydrophilic in nature. The C/O ratio was dramatically reduced from 49:1 in the pristine GNs to about 1:1 in OGNs, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This C/O in OGNs is the least ever found in all oxidized graphitic materials that have been reported. Thus, the OGNs produced from the detonated GNs with such high degree of oxidation herein yields a novel and promising material for future applications.

  3. Liquid phase coating to produce controlled-release alginate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Wah; Liu, Xiaohua; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-12-01

    This study explored a liquid phase coating technique to produce polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated alginate microspheres. Alginate microspheres with a mean diameter of 85.6 microm were prepared using an emulsification method. The alginate microspheres, as cores, were then coated with different types of PMMA by a liquid phase coating technique. The release characteristics of these coated microspheres in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids and the influence of drug load on encapsulation efficiency were studied. The release of paracetamol, as a model hydrophilic drug, from the coated microspheres in SGF and SIF was greatly retarded. Release rates of Eudragit RS100-coated microspheres in SGF and SIF were similar as the rate-controlling polymer coat was insoluble in both media. Drug release from Eudragit S100-coated microspheres was more sustained in SGF than in SIF, due to the greater solubility of the coating polymer in media with pH greater than 7.0. The drug release rate was affected by the core:coat ratio. Drug release from the coated microspheres was best described by the Higuchi's square root model. The liquid phase coating technique developed offers an efficient method of coating small microspheres with markedly reduced drug loss and possible controlled drug release. PMID:16423760

  4. Biological approach for control of human pathogens on produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional washing and sanitizing technologies are not sufficiently effective in reducing the populations of human pathogens naturally present on the surfaces of fresh produce. Since complete elimination of sources of contamination on the farm is not feasible, more effective intervention strategi...

  5. ENTRAINMENT BY LIGAMENT-CONTROLLED EFFERVESCENT ATOMIZER-PRODUCED SPRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Entrainment of ambient air into sprays produced by a new type of effervescent atomizer is reported. Entrainment data were obtained using a device similar to that described by Ricou & Spalding (1961). Entrainment data were analyzed using the model of Bush & Sojka (1994), in concer...

  6. Long-term investigation of a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor for low-strength municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Di; Li, Yaxin; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-07-01

    A novel and cost-effective electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was proposed for low-strength wastewater treatment. In this system, influent organic matter could act as electron donor in the anode chamber and then denitrification was driven on the cathodes. During 270 days of operation, a positive and time-lag correlation was found between temperature and exoelectrogenesis process. At lower temperatures (<10∼15 °C), power production in the EMBR was negligible and therefore the integration did not improve the reactor performance. With the rebound of water temperatures over 15∼20 °C, efficient redox reactions were achieved in the EMBR, which subsequently resulted in sludge reduction (27.3% lower than the control MBR) and membrane fouling alleviation. Due to the capture of electrons that were then used at the cathode to drive the denitrification process, the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the EMBR averaged 78.2% at high temperatures, despite the decrease of organic loading rate of the feed for heterotrophic denitrification. Pyrosequencing revealed that the denitrifiers of Denitratisoma, Ottowia, Sulfuritalea and Thiobacillus were notably enriched in the cathode biofilm of the EMBR at high temperatures, and 6.05% of the sequences in the activated sludge were assigned into the denitrification related phylotypes, which was 65% higher compared to that of the control MBR. The enrichment of versatile nitrate/nitrite reducers could be conducive to the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification processes. Energy balance analysis also indicated that the total energy consumption of the EMBR was decreased by 20% compared to that of the CMBR (0.386 kWh/m(3) wastewater). Overall, the obtained results clearly demonstrate that this novel EMBR is capable of providing superior effluent quality, alleviating membrane fouling and incorporating into existing treatment facilities for improving the sustainability of wastewater treatment. PMID:25917391

  7. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in traditional municipal wastewater treatment plants with low-strength ammonium loading: Widespread but overlooked.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanyun; Peng, Yongzhen; Ma, Bin; Wang, Shuying; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in marine and freshwater systems has greatly changed our understanding of global nitrogen (N) cycle and promoted the investigation of the role and ecological features of anammox in anthropogenic ecosystems. This study focused on the spatio-temporal abundance, activity, and biodiversity of anammox bacteria in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via traditional nitrification/denitrification route with low-strength ammonium loading. The anammox bacteria were detected in all the treatment units at the five WWTPs tested, even in aerobic zones (dissolved oxygen >2 mg L(-1)) with abundance of 10(5)-10(7) hydrazine synthase (hzs) gene copies g(-1). The (15)N-isotope tracing technology revealed that the anammox rates in WWTPs ranged from 0.08 to 0.36 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in winter and 0.12-1.20 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in summer with contributions of 2.05-6.86% and 1.71-7.26% to N2 production, respectively. The diversity of anammox bacteria in WWTPs was distributed over only two genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia. Additionally, the exploration of potential interspecies relationships indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) was the major nitrite-substrate producer for anammox during nitrification, while Nitrospira, a nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB), was the potential major competitor for nitrite. These results suggested the contribution of N-removal by the widespread of anammox has been overlooked in traditional municipal WWTPs, and the ecological habitats of anammox bacteria in anthropogenic ecosystems are much more abundant than previously assumed. PMID:26210031

  8. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption. PMID:24817263

  9. Effect of reactor configuration on performance during anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprotim; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is quite low for the treatment of low strength wastewaters (LSWs) due to less biogas production leading to poor mixing. LSW may be treated efficiently by providing adequate mixing in the UASB reactor when gas production is low, and sufficient mixing can be achieved by modifying reactor geometry. Hence, modifying UASB reactor geometry for enhanced mixing and evaluating its performance for the treatment of LSWs would be a worthwhile effort. In the present study, UASB reactor configuration was modified by providing a vertical baffle along the height to promote mixing of reactor contents, and is termed as modified UASB (MUASB). The performance of an on-site pilot-scale MUASB reactor was evaluated for 375 days under ambient condition for the treatment of municipal sewage as LSW and compared with that of the conventional UASB and hybrid UASB (HUASB) reactors. The MUASB reactor showed better performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as compared with UASB and HUASB reactors during this study. At 4 h hydraulic retention time, the total COD removal efficiency of UASB and HUASB reactors was 53.7% and 61%, respectively, which were much lower than the total COD removal efficiency of the MUASB reactor (72.7%). The better performance observed in the MUASB reactor is possibly due to improved mixing. Depth-wise analysis of reactor liquid showed that better mixing in the MUASB reactor enhances the contact of wastewater with biomass, which contributes to the improved treatment efficiency. It seems that MUASB holds promise for LSW treatment. PMID:25751650

  10. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  11. Dusting control of magnesium slag produced by Pidgeon process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Laner; Yang, Qixing; Han, Fenglan; Du, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Magnesium production by Pidgeon process has been developed very fast in China since 1990's. The waste slag from magnesium production has attracted broad attention because the huge amounts of the slag. For each ton of magnesium produced, there will be 6-8 tons of the slag generated. A big part of the Mg slag exists as fine dust with particle size of D95 < 0.1mm, which may pollute air, soil and water surrounding the Mg industry. The fine particles are generated by phase transformations of dicalcium silicate C2S (2CaOṡSiO2) during the slag cooling. There is a volume expansion of more than 10% with the transformation of β-C2S to γ-C2S phase, causing a disintegration or dusting of the Mg slag. In the present study, several chemical stabilizers were used to treat the dusting Mg slag at 1200°C, including borates, phosphates and rare earth oxides, in order to obtain volume stable slag aggregates for environmental protection and recycling of the Mg slag. The volume expanding rates of the samples were measured. XRD and SEM studies were carried out to confirm effects of the stabilizers. The results show that all of the stabilizers were effective for the stabilization of Mg slag. Some differences between the stabilizers were also described and discussed.

  12. Modular motion control produces cost-effective conveying

    SciTech Connect

    Yackel, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Collectively, US power plants move as much as 800 million tons of coal a year through the mining, transport, off-loading, stockpiling and consumption sequence, most typically through the use of belt conveyors. Plant operators oversee a process that moves mountains of coal accurately and dependably, guarding against overloading, loss of conveyor-to-conveyor synchronization, belt slippage and other malfunctions. A coal-conveying motion-control system should consist of modular, turnkey motion-sensing components that can be assembled and interconnected for any application without custom engineering. Such a system can be fail-safe, provide uninterrupted protection, resist difficult environmental conditions, integrate complex multiple functions and allow power plant operators to take instant action to protect against damage in the event of a system fault.

  13. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, David A.; Morrow, Carolyn A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28–34 mm yr−1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7 km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault2, 3. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms1. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations1, 4, 5 yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust.

  14. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core.

    PubMed

    Lockner, David A; Morrow, Carolyn; Moore, Diane; Hickman, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28-34 mm yr(-1) of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7 km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust. PMID:21441903

  15. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Hickman, S.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28-"34-???mm-???yr ????'1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7-???km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  17. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment. PMID:27003270

  18. Biophysical and chemical handles to control the size of DNA nanoparticles produced by rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Bang, Duhee; Bae, Se Won; Kim, Hak Joong; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-08-16

    Although rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an efficient method to produce DNA materials for biomedical applications, it does not yield nano-sized products suitable for intracellular delivery. We here provide the ways to control the size of RCA products and show a potential application of the size-controlled DNA nanoparticles. PMID:27464359

  19. High strain rate characterization of low-density low-strength materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, Omar

    The Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) is a reliable experimental technique for measuring high strain rate properties of high-strength, ductile materials. Attempts to apply the SHB in measurement on more compliant materials, such as polymers and foams, are limited by the maximum achievable strain and high noise-to-signal ratios. This work introduces an all-polymeric split Hopkinson bar (APSHB) experiment, which overcomes these limitations. The proposed method uses polymeric pressure bars to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen material, thus providing both low signal-to-noise ratio data and a longer input pulse for higher maximum strain. The APSHB requires very careful data reduction procedures because of the viscoelastic behavior of the incident and transmitter pressure bars. The APSHB produces high-quality stress-strain data for a variety of compliant materials, including polycarbonate, elastomer, polyurethane, and styrofoam.

  20. Communication: Control of the fragment state distributions produced upon decay of an isolated resonance state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vela, A.

    2016-04-01

    Control of the fragment state distributions produced upon decay of a resonance state is achieved by using a weak laser field consisting of two pulses with a varying time delay between them. It is shown that specific product fragment states can be significantly favored or quenched. The efficiency and flexibility of the control method are found to increase with increasing resonance width. The control scheme is completely independent of the specific system to which it is applied, which makes its applicability universal.

  1. Analysis of U.S. produced water controls -- Are they cost-effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes controls on produced water discharges into US waters through effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs), and general and individual discharge permits. Over the past 20 years, produced water controls have become much stricter, and in some areas, no discharge of produced water is allowed. In setting discharge standards, EPA considers vast amounts of data, makes assumptions regarding which data and what approaches are representative, selects the most appropriate analytical methods, and interprets the analytical results. Despite EPA`s considerable efforts to accurately understand and characterize the economic and environmental impacts of produced water discharges before proposing and adopting ELGs and issuing permits, current US produced water controls may be overly restrictive and not cost-effective. This paper summarizes several studies that have reviewed in detail EPA`s data, assumptions, and analytical methods for earlier proposed regulations and general permits. These include the offshore oil and gas ELGs, EPA`s Region 6 general permit for coastal waters, and most recently, the proposed ELGs for the coastal oil and gas industry. By substituting different data, using revised assumptions, and reanalyzing data that are equally or more valid, the studies reach alternate conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of current produced water controls.

  2. Effect of high salinity on anaerobic treatment of low strength effluents.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, G; Gomec, C Y; Ozturk, I; Gonuldinc, S; Altinbas, M

    2003-01-01

    In anaerobic treatment, it is obligatory to know the effect of potentially inhibitory compounds due to the fact that methane formation may retard severely and may proceed slower than organic acid production. One of the most important inhibitory substances in anaerobic treatment is high salinity. In many cases, the main collectors of a municipal sewer system should have been built in the coastal zone and below the ground water level due to the available topography of wastewater catchments area, which is carrying the risk of seawater infiltration. Besides, one of the most convenient methods for leachate control is to treat landfill leachates with domestic wastewaters in the central municipal wastewater treatment plants such as in Istanbul. Thus, the nitrogen load of the treatment plants increase significantly. In this study, the effects of high salinity and ammonium nitrogen levels on mesophilic anaerobic tretament processes were investigated. In the first part of the study, high salinity effect on anaerobic treatment was investigated by feeding synthetic wastewater containing high salinity between 0.15%-1.5% ratios. In the second part of the study, the simultaneous effect of high salinity and ammonia (1.5% salinity+1,000 mg NH3/l) was examined by a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactor (UASBR). Results indicated no significant inhibition in both cases and effective COD removals (89%) and total biogas productions having methane content of 84% could be achieved. PMID:14753538

  3. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  4. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide includes heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  5. Kinetic and microbiological characterization of aerobic granules performing partial nitritation of a low-strength wastewater at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Reino, Clara; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2016-09-15

    A granular airlift reactor enriched in ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was operated at 10 °C performing stable partial nitritation in the long-term. The reactor treated a synthetic low-strength influent during 250 days with an average nitrogen loading rate of 0.63 ± 0.06 g N L(-1) d(-1). Nitrate production was barely detected, being the average concentration in the effluent of 0.6 ± 0.3 mg N-NO3 L(-1). Furthermore, a suitable effluent for a subsequent reactor performing the anammox process was achieved. A maximum specific growth rate as high as 0.63 ± 0.05 d(-1) was determined by performing kinetic experiments with the granular sludge in a chemostat and fitting the results to the Monod model. Pyrosequencing analysis showed a high enrichment in AOB (41 and 65% of the population were identified as Nitrosomonas genus on day 98 and 233, respectively) and an effective repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the long-term. Pyrosequencing analysis also identified the coexistence of nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic psychrotolerant microorganisms in the granular sludge. Some psychrotolerant microorganisms are producers of cryoprotective extracellular polymeric substances that could explain the better survival of the whole consortia at cold temperatures. PMID:27262119

  6. Stress-corrosion cracking of low-strength carbon steels in candidate high-level waste repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Parkins, R.N.

    1987-02-01

    A survey of the literature was performed to identify potential stress-corrosion cracking agents for low-strength carbon and low alloy steels in repository environments. It was found that a number of potent cracking agents are present, but stress-corrosion cracking is relatively unlikely in the bulk repository environments because of their low concentration. On the other hand, concentration of these species may occur by a number of mechanisms, and thus it is conceivable that the waste package could fail prematurely by stress corrosion. Accordingly, it is recommended that the lower concentration limits for potential cracking agents be identified under typical repository environments, in conjunction with modeling studies to assess the likelihood that the concentrating mechanisms will operate and to bound the upper limits of concentration for each mechanism. 82 refs.

  7. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  8. Stress Can Be a Friend: Approaches to Producing Good Stresses That Reduce and Control Bad Stresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Individuals can produce good stresses that will inhibit or eliminate the bad stresses of anxiety, depression, resentment, and hopelessness. This can be accomplished as individuals learn to include in their lifestyles these nine approaches: self-talk, commitment, self-control, challenge, interpersonal relations, time management, relaxation,…

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF RICE BACTERIAL BLIGHT BY PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA PRODUCING 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain plant-associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce the antimicrobial antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antihelminthic properties and has played a significant role in the biological control of tobacco, whe...

  10. Start-up of single-stage partial nitrification-anammox process treating low-strength swage and its restoration from nitrate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Yandong; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    A single-stage partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor treating low-strength swage was operated for 288days to investigate the recovery of nitrogen removal from nitrate accumulation. The reactor was quickly started up by inoculating anammox sludge. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundance gradually increased on day 25, leading to high effluent nitrate concentration. Two strategies were executed to control the effluent nitrate. In strategy I, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was kept low (0.17±0.08mg/L), but nitrate production increased from 4.71 to 38.18mg-N/L. In strategy II, intermittent aeration operation mode (aeration 7min/anoxic 21min) was adopted, which significantly lowered the nitrate concentration to 1.3mg-N/L, indicating the NOB was inhibited. The high nitrogen removal rate of 73mg-N/(L·d) was achieved. The evolution of bacterial activity and abundance verified the changes of the nitrogen removal performance and proved the intermittent aeration strategy could successfully solve the problem of nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. PMID:27423544

  11. Communication: Control of the fragment state distributions produced upon decay of an isolated resonance state.

    PubMed

    García-Vela, A

    2016-04-14

    Control of the fragment state distributions produced upon decay of a resonance state is achieved by using a weak laser field consisting of two pulses with a varying time delay between them. It is shown that specific product fragment states can be significantly favored or quenched. The efficiency and flexibility of the control method are found to increase with increasing resonance width. The control scheme is completely independent of the specific system to which it is applied, which makes its applicability universal. PMID:27083701

  12. Closed loop adaptive control of spectrum-producing step using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Fu, C.Y.

    1998-11-24

    Characteristics of the plasma in a plasma-based manufacturing process step are monitored directly and in real time by observing the spectrum which it produces. An artificial neural network analyzes the plasma spectrum and generates control signals to control one or more of the process input parameters in response to any deviation of the spectrum beyond a narrow range. In an embodiment, a plasma reaction chamber forms a plasma in response to input parameters such as gas flow, pressure and power. The chamber includes a window through which the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a plasma in the chamber, just above the subject surface, may be viewed. The spectrum is conducted to an optical spectrometer which measures the intensity of the incoming optical spectrum at different wavelengths. The output of optical spectrometer is provided to an analyzer which produces a plurality of error signals, each indicating whether a respective one of the input parameters to the chamber is to be increased or decreased. The microcontroller provides signals to control respective controls, but these lines are intercepted and first added to the error signals, before being provided to the controls for the chamber. The analyzer can include a neural network and an optional spectrum preprocessor to reduce background noise, as well as a comparator which compares the parameter values predicted by the neural network with a set of desired values provided by the microcontroller. 7 figs.

  13. Closed loop adaptive control of spectrum-producing step using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma in a plasma-based manufacturing process step are monitored directly and in real time by observing the spectrum which it produces. An artificial neural network analyzes the plasma spectrum and generates control signals to control one or more of the process input parameters in response to any deviation of the spectrum beyond a narrow range. In an embodiment, a plasma reaction chamber forms a plasma in response to input parameters such as gas flow, pressure and power. The chamber includes a window through which the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a plasma in the chamber, just above the subject surface, may be viewed. The spectrum is conducted to an optical spectrometer which measures the intensity of the incoming optical spectrum at different wavelengths. The output of optical spectrometer is provided to an analyzer which produces a plurality of error signals, each indicating whether a respective one of the input parameters to the chamber is to be increased or decreased. The microcontroller provides signals to control respective controls, but these lines are intercepted and first added to the error signals, before being provided to the controls for the chamber. The analyzer can include a neural network and an optional spectrum preprocessor to reduce background noise, as well as a comparator which compares the parameter values predicted by the neural network with a set of desired values provided by the microcontroller.

  14. The use of controlled microbial cenoses in producers' link to increase steady functioning of artificial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina; Somova, Lydia

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Simple ecosystems include 3 links: producers (plants), consumers (man, animals) and reducers (microorganisms). Microorganisms are substantial component of every link of LSS. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Controlled microbiocenoses can increase productivity of producer's link and protect plants from infections. The goal of this work was development of methodological bases of formation of stable, controlled microbiocenoses, intended for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants. Main results of our investigations: 1. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced in view of the developed methodology on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. 2. Optimal parameters of microbiocenosis cultivation (t, pH, light exposure, biogenic elements concentrations) were experimentally established. Conditions of cultivation on which domination of different groups of microbiocenosis have been found. 3. It was shown, that processing of seeds of wheat, oats, bulbs and plants Allium cepa L. (an onions) with microbial association raised energy of germination of seeds and bulbs and promoted the increase (on 20-30 %) of growth green biomass and root system of plants in comparison with the control. This work is supported by grant, Yenissey , 07-04-96806

  15. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kato, M T; Field, J A; Versteeg, P; Lettinga, G

    1994-08-01

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30oC. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to12 g COD/L . d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGBS reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V(up)) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K(s) value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V(up) lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A. more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V(up) higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L. d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production. To achieve an equilibrium between the mixing intensity and the sludge hold-up, the operation should be limited to an organic loading rate of 7 g COD/L d. and to a liquid up-flow velocity between 2.5 and 5.5 m/h (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618781

  16. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  17. Position Control of Particles embedded in Microbeads and Fibers Produced by Electrohydrodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Unyong; Jo, Eun Min; Lee, Sungwon; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2009-03-01

    Electrohydrodynamics is a good approach to produce uniform-sized colloids and fibers in a continuous process. The dimension can be controlled from tens of nanometers to a few micrometers. The structure of the colloids and nanofibers from electrohydrodynamics has been diversified according to the uses. Especially, core-shell structure and hybridization with functional nanomaterials are fascinating due to their possible uses in drug-delivery systems, multifunctional scaffolds, organic/inorganic hybrids with new functions, and highly sensitive gas- or bio-sensors. This talk will present the structural variations by tuning the position of small particles in the colloids and fibers produced from electrohydrodynamics and demonstrate their possible applications.

  18. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  19. Controllability of runoff and soil loss from small plots treated by vinasse-produced biochar.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Harchegani, Mahboobeh Kiani

    2016-01-15

    Many different amendments, stabilizers, and conditioners are usually applied for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen with the goal to be used as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a wide range of biomass sources including straw, wood, manure, and other organic wastes. Biochar has been demonstrated to restore soil fertility and crop production under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application on soil erosion and runoff control. Therefore, a rainfall simulation study, as a pioneer research, was conducted to evaluate the performance of the application of vinasse-produced biochar on the soil erosion control of a sandy clay loam soil packed in small-sized runoff 0.25-m(2) plots with 3 replicates. The treatments were (i) no biochar (control), (ii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 24h before the rainfall simulation and (iii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 48 h before the rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 50 mm h(-1) for 15 min. The mean change of effectiveness in time to runoff could be found in biochar application at 24 and 48 h before simulation treatment with rate of +55.10% and +71.73%, respectively. In addition, the mean runoff volume 24 and 48 h before simulation treatments decreased by 98.46% and 46.39%, respectively. The least soil loss (1.12 ± 0.57 g) and sediment concentration (1.44 ± 0.48 gl(-1)) occurred in the biochar-amended soil treated 48 h before the rainfall simulation. In conclusion, the application of vinasse-produced biochar could effectively control runoff and soil loss. This study provided a new insight into the effects of biochar on runoff, soil loss, and sediment control due to water erosion in sandy clay loam soils. PMID:26410722

  20. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  1. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m(2) h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  2. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  3. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  4. [Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriae: epidemiology, strategies to control their spread and issues].

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Batard, E; Berthelot, P; Zahar, J-R; Lucet, J-C; Fournier, S; Jarlier, V; Grandbastien, B

    2015-07-01

    The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a major public health concern bringing the threat of therapeutic impasses. In this context, control of the spread of highly-resistant bacteria emerging antibiotics (BHRe), such as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases (CPE), is based on a dual strategy of reducing the prescription of antibiotics to limit the pressure selection and preventing the spread from carriers. Prevention strategy is based on three different levels such as standard precautions for all patients with a particular focus on the management of excreta, and additional precautions for BHRe carriers. What makes it difficult is that carriage is usually completely asymptomatic, enterobacteria and enterococci are normal commensal of gut microbiota. Explosive dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases in hospital and community heralds the emergence of CPE whose import by patients with a history of hospitalization in abroad may be the main source of spread in France. PMID:25600328

  5. Novel bacteriophage therapy for controlling metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage therapy is an effective antimicrobial approach with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology which can be seen as an additional string in the bow. Emerging drug resistant bacteria in aquaculture industry due to unrestricted use of antibiotics warrants more sustainable and environmental friendly strategies for controlling fish infections. The isolated bacteria from fish lesions was characterised based on isolation on selective and differential medium like Pseudomonas agar, gram staining, biochemical tests and 16SrRNA sequencing. The metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolate was evaluated using Imipenem - Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disk method. The specific bacteriophage was isolated and concentrated using coal bed developed in our lab at CSIR-NEERI. The isolated and enriched bacteriophage was characterised by nucleotide sequencing and electron microscopy. The phage therapy was applied for treating ulcerative lesion in fish. Results The pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing ulcerative lesions in catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One out of twenty P. aeruginosa isolate showing multi drug resistance (MDR) was incidentally found to be MBL producing as determined by Imipenem-EDTA disk method. The phage therapy effectively cured the ulcerative lesions of the infected fish in 8–10 days of treatment, with a sevenfold reduction of the lesion with untreated infection control. Conclusion Bacteriophage therapy can have potential applications soon as an alternative or as a complement to antibiotic treatment in the aquaculture. We present bacteriophage therapy as a treatment method for controlling MDR P. aeruginosa infection in C. gariepinus. To the best of our knowledge this is a first report of application of phage therapy against MBL producing P. aeruginosa isolated from aquatic ecosystem. PMID:24369750

  6. Prevention and control of carbapenemase-producing organisms at a regional burns centre.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Myers, J; Kirkham, A; Tredoux, T; Martin, R; Boasman, S; Wisbey, A; Charlton, C; Dziewulski, P

    2016-06-01

    In many parts of the world, carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are endemic. The transfer of medical patients from such countries to the UK requires us to have control systems in place to avoid onward transmission. This report describes the experience of a regional burns centre challenged by its first four cases of CPO in two separate incidents. Key learning from our experience was the importance of CPOs being considered in empirical antibiotics for any patient from an endemic area. Using contact plates, we demonstrated high bacterial counts after cleaning and we describe a terminal cleaning strategy along with the importance of continuing staff engagement and education. PMID:27105751

  7. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  8. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  9. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  12. Size-controlled synthesis and gas sensing application of tungsten oxide nanostructures produced by arc discharge.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Kennedy, J; Futter, J; Hopf, T; Markwitz, A; Manikandan, E; Henshaw, G

    2011-08-19

    Several different synthetic methods have been developed to fabricate tungsten oxide (WO(3)) nanostructures, but most of them require exotic reagents or are unsuitable for mass production. In this paper, we present a systematic investigation demonstrating that arc discharge is a fast and inexpensive synthesis method which can be used to produce high quality tungsten oxide nanostructures for NO(2) gas sensing measurements. The as-synthesized WO(3) nanostructures are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), finger-print Raman spectroscopy and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The analysis shows that spheroidal-shaped monoclinic WO(3) crystal nanostructures were produced with an average diameter of 30 nm (range 10-100 nm) at an arc discharge current of 110 A and 300 Torr oxygen partial pressure. It is found that the morphology is controlled by the arc discharge parameters of current and oxygen partial pressure, e.g. a high arc discharge current combined with a low oxygen partial pressure results in small WO(3) nanostructures with improved conductivity. Sensors produced from the WO(3) nanostructures show a strong response to NO(2) gas at 325 °C. The ability to tune the morphology of the WO(3) nanostructures makes this method ideal for the fabrication of gas sensing materials. PMID:21778569

  13. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications. PMID:20022170

  14. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  15. Streptomyces araujoniae Produces a Multiantibiotic Complex with Ionophoric Properties to Control Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo José; Crevelin, Eduardo José; Souza, Wallace Rafael; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2014-12-01

    A recently described actinomycete species (Streptomyces araujoniae ASBV-1(T)) is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of this species to inhibit Botrytis cinerea development in strawberry pseudofruit, and we identified the chemical structures of its bioactive compounds. An ethyl acetate crude extract (0.1 mg ml(-1)) of ASBV-1(T) fermentation broth completely inhibited fungus growth in strawberry pseudofruit under storage conditions. The crude extract was fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; the active fraction was further evaluated by tandem mass spectrometry. ASBV-1(T) produced a multiantibiotic complex with ionophoric properties. This complex contained members of the macrotetralides class (including monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and the cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin, all of which were active against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the addition of 2 mM MgSO4 and 1 mM ZnSO4 enhanced macrotetralide and valinomycin production, respectively, in the culture broth. These compounds are considered to be the main active molecules that S. araujoniae produces to control B. cinerea. Their low to moderate toxicity to humans and the environment justifies the application of ASBV-1(T) in biological control programs that aim to mitigate the damage caused by this phytopathogen. PMID:24983843

  16. Formulation of criteria for pollution control on cement products produced from solid wastes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yu; Huang, Zechun; Wang, Qi

    2011-08-01

    The process of producing cement products from solid waste can increase the level of pollutants in the cement products. Therefore, it is very important to establish a pollution control standard for cement products to protect the environment and human health. This paper presents acceptance limits for the availability of heavy metals in cement products which have been produced from solid wastes and explains how the limits have been calculated. The approach and method used to formulate these criteria were based on EN 12920. The typical exposure scenarios used in this paper involve concrete being used for drinking water supply pipelines and concrete pavements and are based on an analysis of typical applications of cement in China, and the potential for contact with water. The parameters of a tank test which was based on NEN 7375 were set in accordance with the environmental conditions of typical scenarios in China. Mechanisms controlling the release of heavy metals in concrete and a model for that release were obtained using the leaching test. Finally, based on acceptance criteria for drinking water and groundwater quality in China, limit values for the availability of heavy metals in concrete were calculated. PMID:21514989

  17. Pleiotropic functions of catabolite control protein CcpA in Butanol-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used to produce butanol in industry. Catabolite control protein A (CcpA), known to mediate carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in low GC gram-positive bacteria, has been identified and characterized in C. acetobutylicum by our previous work (Ren, C. et al. 2010, Metab Eng 12:446–54). To further dissect its regulatory function in C. acetobutylicum, CcpA was investigated using DNA microarray followed by phenotypic, genetic and biochemical validation. Results CcpA controls not only genes in carbon metabolism, but also those genes in solvent production and sporulation of the life cycle in C. acetobutylicum: i) CcpA directly repressed transcription of genes related to transport and metabolism of non-preferred carbon sources such as d-xylose and l-arabinose, and activated expression of genes responsible for d-glucose PTS system; ii) CcpA is involved in positive regulation of the key solventogenic operon sol (adhE1-ctfA-ctfB) and negative regulation of acidogenic gene bukII; and iii) transcriptional alterations were observed for several sporulation-related genes upon ccpA inactivation, which may account for the lower sporulation efficiency in the mutant, suggesting CcpA may be necessary for efficient sporulation of C. acetobutylicum, an important trait adversely affecting the solvent productivity. Conclusions This study provided insights to the pleiotropic functions that CcpA displayed in butanol-producing C. acetobutylicum. The information could be valuable for further dissecting its pleiotropic regulatory mechanism in C. acetobutylicum, and for genetic modification in order to obtain more effective butanol-producing Clostridium strains. PMID:22846451

  18. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  19. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  20. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  1. Pest insect control in organically-produced crops of field vegetables.

    PubMed

    Collier, R H; Finch, S; Davies, G

    2001-01-01

    In the UK, the demand for organic vegetable and salad crops is increasing, mainly as a result of the requirements of the multiple retailers. However, approximately 85% of the organic fruit and vegetable produce sold in the UK is imported. A major constraint to growing field vegetable crops, and particularly organically-produced crops, is the reduction in crop yield and quality caused by pest insects. This paper will consider the control techniques currently available to organic growers and other techniques that may become available in the future. Growing plant varieties with complete or even partial resistance to pest insects can be an effective way of reducing crop damage. There are already varieties of carrot, with resistance to carrot fly, and lettuce, with resistance to certain pest aphid species, which are available commercially. Cultural techniques to exclude, deter or avoid pest insects are also being used by some organic growers. Although isolating new crops from sources of infestation can be a highly effective control strategy, many organic growers cannot use it, as the land converted for organic production is still limited. Various crop covers can be used to prevent pest insects from damaging field crops, but to be effective such covers have to be in place before the pests enter the crop. Several researchers have tried to develop techniques to prevent pest insects from finding their host-plants. No technique involving semiochemicals has been sufficiently successful to be used in field vegetable production in the UK. Other studies have shown that the numbers of pest insects found on crop plants are reduced considerably when the crop is allowed to become weedy, is intercropped with another plant species, or is undersown with a living mulch. Hence, work is now needed to select background plant species that will both reduce pest insect numbers and cause the least reduction in yield to the harvested crop plants. There is also a need to obtain a better

  2. Volitional regulation of emotions produces distributed alterations in connectivity between visual, attention control, and default networks.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra; Angstadt, Michael; Kessler, Daniel; Phan, K Luan; Liberzon, Israel; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Kim, Pilyoung; Swain, James E

    2014-04-01

    The ability to volitionally regulate emotions is critical to health and well-being. While patterns of neural activation during emotion regulation have been well characterized, patterns of connectivity between regions remain less explored. It is increasingly recognized that the human brain is organized into large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) whose interrelationships are altered in characteristic ways during psychological tasks. In this fMRI study of 54 healthy individuals, we investigated alterations in connectivity within and between ICNs produced by the emotion regulation strategy of reappraisal. In order to gain a comprehensive picture of connectivity changes, we utilized connectomic psychophysiological interactions (PPI), a whole-brain generalization of standard single-seed PPI methods. In particular, we quantified PPI connectivity pair-wise across 837 ROIs placed throughout the cortex. We found that compared to maintaining one's emotional responses, engaging in reappraisal produced robust and distributed alterations in functional connections involving visual, dorsal attention, frontoparietal, and default networks. Visual network in particular increased connectivity with multiple ICNs including dorsal attention and default networks. We interpret these findings in terms of the role of these networks in mediating critical constituent processes in emotion regulation, including visual processing, stimulus salience, attention control, and interpretation and contextualization of stimuli. Our results add a new network perspective to our understanding of the neural underpinnings of emotion regulation, and highlight that connectomic methods can play a valuable role in comprehensively investigating modulation of connectivity across task conditions. PMID:24246489

  3. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  4. Disease control effect of strevertenes produced by Streptomyces psammoticus against tomato fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, In Cheon; Kim, Beom Seok

    2011-03-01

    During screening of microorganisms producing antifungal metabolites, Streptomyces psammoticus strain KP1404 was isolated. The culture extract of this strain showed potent disease control efficacy against Fusarium wilt on tomato plants. The antifungal metabolites ST-1 and ST-2 were isolated from the culture extract using a variety of chromatographic procedures. On the basis of MS and NMR spectrometric analysis, the structures of the antifungal active compounds ST-1 and ST-2 were determined to be the polyene antibiotics strevertene A and strevertene B, respectively. In vitro, strevertenes A and B showed inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of Alternaria mali , Aspergillus oryzae , Cylindrocarpon destructans , Colletotrichum orbiculare , Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , even at concentrations of 4-16 μg/mL. Fusarium wilt development on tomato plants was strongly retarded by treatment with 1 μg/mL of these strevertenes. The disease control efficacies of strevertenes on Fusarium wilt were as remarkable as that of benomyl. PMID:21314121

  5. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. PMID:24593892

  6. Thresholds of Transient Cavitation Produced by Pulsed Ultrasound in a Controlled Nuclei Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Christy Katherine Smith

    The possibility of hazardous bioeffects from medical ultrasound examinations and therapy, although not demonstrated in current epidemiologic data, is still of interest to the medical community. In particular, concern persists over the potential of damage at the cellular level due to transient cavitation produced by diagnostic and high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Transient cavitation is a discrete phenomenon which relies on the existence of stabilized nuclei, or pockets of gas within a host fluid, for its genesis. A convenient descriptor for assessing the likelihood of transient cavitation is the threshold pressure, or the minimum acoustic pressure necessary to initiate bubble growth and subsequent collapse. Experimental measurements of cavitation thresholds are presented here which elucidate the importance of ultrasound host fluid and nuclei parameters in determining these thresholds. These results are interpreted in the context of an approximate theory, included as an appendix, describing the relationship between these parameters and cavitation threshold pressures. An automated experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thresholds for cavitation produced in a fluid by short tone bursts of ultrasound at 0.76, 0.99, and 2.30 MHz. A fluid jet was used to convect potential cavitation nuclei through the focal region of the insonifying transducer. Potential nuclei tested include 1mum polystyrene spheres, microbubbles in the 1-10 μm range that are stabilized with human serum albumin, and whole blood constituents. Cavitation was detected by a passive acoustical technique which is sensitive to sound scattered from cavitation bubbles. Measurements of the transient cavitation threshold in water, in a fluid of higher viscosity, and in diluted whole blood are presented. Results from these experiments which permit the control of nuclei and host fluid properties are compared to the approximate analytical theory for the prediction of the onset of cavitation.

  7. Environmental controls on chemoautotrophic primary producers at deep-sea vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Nadine; Mullineaux, Lauren; Sievert, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    High biomasses and fast growth rates of dominant chemosynthetic species characterize hydrothermal ecosystems, raising the issue of their contribution to energy transfer and carbon cycling in the deep-sea. Addressing this issue, however, needs to account for the temporal instability of hydrothermal systems, both, in terms of biological colonization and habitat conditions. Volcanic eruptions on mid-ocean ridges offer the opportunity to investigate the environmental conditions favoring the successive modes of chemoautotrophic primary production (i.e. free living microbes and symbiotic invertebrates). In that perspective, habitat-scale approaches distinguish from vent field-scale approaches based on fluid composition and provide relevant information on environmental constraints exerted at different stages of colonization focusing on parameters linked with physiological limits and available energy. Investigation of habitat physicochemical properties along a typical successional sequence of recolonization at 9°50'N EPR diffuse-flow vents, between 2006 and 2014, was performed in order to examine potential changes in environmental features associated with chemoautotrophic primary producers, from early microbial colonizers to symbiotic invertebrates. Combined in situ measurements of temperature, pH and hydrogen sulfide were used and their variability documented over a series of assemblages characterizing recolonization stages. The distributions of mature assemblages of dominant invertebrate species associate with substantial differences in habitat conditions, pointing to a strong influence of habitat properties on potential productivity. Among the differences observed, however, the amplitude and rate of environmental fluctuation appear more important than average conditions in the succession, highlighting the role of spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics as a control on primary producers. Invertebrate species acting as engineer species are expected to play a primary

  8. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  9. Control of litchi downy blight by zeamines produced by Dickeya zeae

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lisheng; Zhou, Jianuan; Wang, Huishan; He, Fei; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zide; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Zeamines (ZMS), a class of polyamine-polyketide-nonribosomal peptide produced by bacterial isolate Dickeya zeae, were shown recently to be potent antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens. In this study, the results indicated that ZMS showed antifungal activity against Peronophythora litchii and other fungal pathogens. The activity of ZMS against the oomycete pathogen P. litchi, which causes the devastating litchi downy blight, was further investigated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. ZMS displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mycelial growth and sporangia germination of P. litchii. At a concentration of 2 μg/mL, about 99% of the sporangia germination was inhibited. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that treatment with ZMS could cause substantial damages to the oomycete endomembrane system. Furthermore, treatment of litchi fruits with ZMS solution significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the fruits decay and peel browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage at 28 °C. Taken together, our results provide useful clues on the antifungal mechanisms of ZMS, and highlight the promising potentials of ZMS as a fungicide, which in particular, may be useful for prevention and control of litchi fruits decay and browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage and transportation. PMID:26499339

  10. Control of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Arliguie, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cheese. To this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Strains of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sp, Carnobacterium mobile, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Hafnia alvei reduced STEC O26:H11 counts by 1.4-2.5 log cfu g(-1) and to a lesser extent STEC O157:H7 counts in pasteurized milk cheeses. Some strains can act in synergy to inhibit STEC in raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Inhibitory associations had no adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of these cheeses. The association of H. alvei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lc. lactis was the most inhibitory: after inoculation of this consortium into milk, STEC O26:H11 and O157:H7, inoculated at 2 log cfu ml(-1), were reduced by up to 3 log cfu g(-1) in ripened cheese. Inhibition in cheese cannot be predicted from H2O2 production in BHI medium, decreased pH or milk reduction. It is not clear what role the rapid decrease in pH during the first 6 h may play in the inhibition. Further studies will be needed to determine the nature of the inhibition. PMID:26678131

  11. Profile Control by Biased Electrodes in Large Diameter RF Produced Pl asma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Yoshinaka, Toshiro

    1998-10-01

    Control of the plasma profile has been carried out, using the voltage biasing method in the large diameter (45 cm) RF (radio frequency) produced plasma in the presence of the uniform magnetic field (less than 1200 G). Under the low filling pressure condition of 0.16 mTorr, changing the biasing voltages to the three individual end plates with concentric circular ring shapes, the radial electron density (about 10^10 cm-3) profile could be changed from the hollow to the peaked one. On the contrary, the nearly flat electron temperature (several eV) profile did not change appreciably. The azimuthal rotation velocity measured by the Mach probe, i.e. directional probe, showed the different radial profiles (but nearly uniform along the axis) depending on the biasing voltage. This velocity became slower with the low magnetic field (less than 200 G) or in the higher pressure regime up to 20 mTorr with the higher electron density. The experimental results by other biasing methods will also be presented.

  12. Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Özyilmaz, Ümit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  13. Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 10(9) cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  14. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.33 Section 74.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF...

  15. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    PubMed

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field. PMID:21958525

  16. Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

  17. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.

  18. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders. PMID:17728059

  19. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Fadel, Saleh M.; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Fawaz, Ali; Kim, Connie; Rahman, A. K. M. Nur-ur; Liu, Jun; Kaul, Rupert; Kovacs, Colin; Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J.; Wong, David K.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL)-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control. Methods We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels. Results In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21. Conclusions These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. PMID:27124305

  20. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne’s disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne’s Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Results Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (<50 head), the mean test-positive percentages and estimated prevalences were higher in medium (50–149) and highest in large (≥150) herds. Seedstock herds had a lower prevalence and these producers were more likely to enroll in Johne’s disease (JD) control programs and test their herds. Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians’ opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P < 0.01), but more likely to test purchased additions (P < 0.01). Testing recommendations by veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial

  1. Evaluating the effect of Focus Farms on Ontario dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward control of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes

  2. Validation of pepperoni process for control of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Kaspar, Charles W; Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L; Lotz, Brian M; Kang, Jihun; Faith, Nancy G; Enache, Elena; Kataoka, A I; Henry, Craig

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the survival of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with E. coli O157:H7 during pepperoni production. Pepperoni batter was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of a seven-strain STEC mixture, including strains of serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sausages were fermented to pH ≤4.8, heated at 53.3°C for 1 h, and dried for up to 20 days. STEC strains were enumerated at designated intervals on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) and Rainbow (RA) agars; enrichments were completed in modified EC (mEC) broth and nonselective tryptic soy broth (TSB). When plated on SMAC, total E. coli populations decreased 2.6 to 3.5 log after the 1-h heating step at 53.3°C, and a 4.9- to 5-log reduction was observed after 7 days of drying. RA was more sensitive in recovering survivors; log reductions on it were 1.9 to 2.6, 3.8 to 4.2, and 4.6 to 5.3 at the end of cook, and at day 7 and day 14 of drying, respectively. When numbers were less than the limit of detection by direct plating on days 14 and 20 of drying (representing a 5-log kill), no more than one of three samples in each experiment was positive by enrichment with mEC broth; however, STEC strains were recovered in TSB enrichment. Freezing the 7-day dried sausage for 2 to 3 weeks generated an additional 1- to 1.5-log kill. Confirmation by PCR revealed that O103 and O157 had the greatest survival during pepperoni productions, but all serotypes except O111 and O121 were occasionally recovered during drying. This study suggests that non-O157 STEC s trains have comparable or less ability than E. coli O157 to survive the processing steps involved in the manufacture of pepperoni. Processes suitable for control of E. coli O157 will similarly inactivate the other STEC strains tested in this study. PMID:22564931

  3. The effect of aeration and recirculation on a sand-based hybrid constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; Kyomukama, E; Namakula, V; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2016-08-01

    The Duplex-constructed wetland (CW) is a hybrid system composed of a vertical flow (VF) CW on top of a horizontal flow filter (HFF). Each compartment is designed to play a different role: aerobic treatment in the VF CW due to intermittent feeding and anoxic treatment in the HFF due to saturated conditions. Three Duplex-CWs were used in this study: Control, Aerated and Recirculating. The role of each compartment was tested for pollutant removal and micro-invertebrate abundance. In all systems, the VF CW removed mainly organic matter, solids and NH4(+)-N. Pathogens were removed in both compartments. Likewise, total nitrogen removal occurred in both compartments, only the Recirculating HFF was not able to denitrify the nitrogen due to the slightly more oxic conditions as compared to the other systems. All systems met discharge guidelines for organic matter, but only the Control and Aerated systems met those for total nitrogen. At the applied loading rates, the pollutant removal was not significantly enhanced by the use of aeration and recirculation. Therefore, operation as in the Control system, without aeration or recirculation, is recommended for the tested Duplex-CWs. If artificial aeration will be used in CWs, the support material should be carefully selected to allow a proper air distribution. PMID:26732367

  4. Three stages MBR (methanogenic, aerobic biofilm and membrane filtration) for the treatment of low-strength wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Buntner, D; Sánchez Sánchez, A; Garrido, J M

    2011-01-01

    The use of a new three stages MBR process with a first methanogenic UASB stage, a second stage with aerobic biofilm growing on small carrier elements maintained in suspension and third stage with membrane filtration module is presented. The objective of the first methanogenic chamber is to diminish COD of the raw wastewater, producing a biogas rich in methane, and decrease the sludge production. In the second stage, the remaining soluble biodegradable COD is oxidized by heterotrophs. In the third stage, the membrane modules could be operated at higher fluxes than those reported for AnMBR systems, and similar to those obtained in aerobic MBRs. In this sense, the concept of these three stages MBR is to join the advantages of the methanogenic and aerobic membrane bioreactor processes, by reducing energy requirements for aeration, producing biogas with high methane percentage and a permeate with very low COD content. A synthetic wastewater was fed to the three stages MBR. COD in the influent was between 200 and 1,200 mg/L, ammonium ranged from 10 to 35 mg/L and phosphorous concentration was 8 mg/L. OLR in-between 1 and 3 kg COD/(m3 d) and a HRT of 13-21 h were applied. Temperature was between 17.5 and 23.2 degrees C. During the whole operating period the COD removal efficiencies were in the range of 90 and 96% of which in between 40 and 80% was removed in the first methanogenic chamber. Biogas production with methane content between 75 and 80% was observed. With regard to membrane operation, average permeabilities around 150 L/(m2 h bar) were achieved, operating with fluxes of 11-15 L/(m2 h). PMID:22097013

  5. Controlled Expansion of Supercritical Solution: A Robust Method to Produce Pure Drug Nanoparticles With Narrow Size-Distribution.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Jenni; Lassila, Ilkka; Meriläinen, Antti; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hæggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a robust, stable, and reproducible method to produce nanoparticles based on expansion of supercritical solutions using carbon dioxide as a solvent. The method, controlled expansion of supercritical solution (CESS), uses controlled mass transfer, flow, pressure reduction, and particle collection in dry ice. CESS offers control over the crystallization process as the pressure in the system is reduced according to a specific profile. Particle formation takes place before the exit nozzle, and condensation is the main mechanism for postnucleation particle growth. A 2-step gradient pressure reduction is used to prevent Mach disk formation and particle growth by coagulation. Controlled particle growth keeps the production process stable. With CESS, we produced piroxicam nanoparticles, 60 mg/h, featuring narrow size distribution (176 ± 53 nm). PMID:27368121

  6. CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI) IN PEPPER PLANT WITH A COMPOST CONTAINING MULTITUDE OF CHITINASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost sustaining a multitude of chitinase-producing bacteria was evaluated in a greenhouse study as a soil amendment for the control of late blight (Phytophthora capsici L.) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Microbial population and exogenous enzyme activity were measured in the rhizosphere and corr...

  7. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  8. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  9. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  10. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  11. Effect of Selected Polysaccharide-Producing Soil Bacteria on Hyperhydricity Control in Oregano Tissue Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, K.; Shetty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Hyperhydricity, or vitrification, is a physiological malformation affecting tissue culture-generated plants. This malformation is associated with excessive hydration and poor lignification and results in poor regeneration of plants. We have tested hyperhydricity prevention in oregano by several nonspecific polysaccharide-producing rhizosphere bacteria. Among these bacteria, Pseudomonas mucidolens and another Pseudomonas sp. prevented hyperhydricity and improved acclimation of oregano clones. These two bacteria have more advantages for commercial applications than Pseudomonas strains isolated previously from oregano. PMID:16535525

  12. Climate and topography control the size and flux of sediment produced on steep mountain slopes.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Clifford S; Sklar, Leonard S; Lukens, Claire E; Shuster, David L

    2015-12-22

    Weathering on mountain slopes converts rock to sediment that erodes into channels and thus provides streams with tools for incision into bedrock. Both the size and flux of sediment from slopes can influence channel incision, making sediment production and erosion central to the interplay of climate and tectonics in landscape evolution. Although erosion rates are commonly measured using cosmogenic nuclides, there has been no complementary way to quantify how sediment size varies across slopes where the sediment is produced. Here we show how this limitation can be overcome using a combination of apatite helium ages and cosmogenic nuclides measured in multiple sizes of stream sediment. We applied the approach to a catchment underlain by granodiorite bedrock on the eastern flanks of the High Sierra, in California. Our results show that higher-elevation slopes, which are steeper, colder, and less vegetated, are producing coarser sediment that erodes faster into the channel network. This suggests that both the size and flux of sediment from slopes to channels are governed by altitudinal variations in climate, vegetation, and topography across the catchment. By quantifying spatial variations in the sizes of sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables new understanding of sediment supply in feedbacks between climate, tectonics, and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:26630002

  13. Climate and topography control the size and flux of sediment produced on steep mountain slopes

    PubMed Central

    Riebe, Clifford S.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Lukens, Claire E.; Shuster, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Weathering on mountain slopes converts rock to sediment that erodes into channels and thus provides streams with tools for incision into bedrock. Both the size and flux of sediment from slopes can influence channel incision, making sediment production and erosion central to the interplay of climate and tectonics in landscape evolution. Although erosion rates are commonly measured using cosmogenic nuclides, there has been no complementary way to quantify how sediment size varies across slopes where the sediment is produced. Here we show how this limitation can be overcome using a combination of apatite helium ages and cosmogenic nuclides measured in multiple sizes of stream sediment. We applied the approach to a catchment underlain by granodiorite bedrock on the eastern flanks of the High Sierra, in California. Our results show that higher-elevation slopes, which are steeper, colder, and less vegetated, are producing coarser sediment that erodes faster into the channel network. This suggests that both the size and flux of sediment from slopes to channels are governed by altitudinal variations in climate, vegetation, and topography across the catchment. By quantifying spatial variations in the sizes of sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables new understanding of sediment supply in feedbacks between climate, tectonics, and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:26630002

  14. Ensuring safety of home-produced eggs to control salmonellosis in Poland: lessons from an outbreak in September 2011.

    PubMed

    Zielicka-Hardy, A; Zarowna, D; Szych, J; Madajczak, G; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of control measures in line with European Commission regulations has led to a decrease in salmonellosis in the European Union since 2004. However, control programmes do not address laying hens whose eggs are produced for personal consumption or local sale. This article reports an investigatxion of a salmonellosis outbreak linked to home-produced eggs following a family event held in a farm in September 2011 near Warsaw, Poland. In the outbreak, 34 people developed gastroenteritis symptoms. Results from a cohort study indicated a cake, prepared from raw home-produced eggs, as the vehicle of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis identified Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in stool samples or rectal swabs from 18 of 24 people and in two egg samples. As no food items remained, we used phage typing to link the source of the outbreak with the isolated strains. Seven S. Enteritidis strains analysed (five from attendees and two from eggs) were phage type 21c. Our findings resulted in culling of the infected laying hens and symptomatic pigeons housed next to the hens. Salmonella poses as a public health problem in Poland: control measures should not forget home-produced eggs, as there is a risk of infection from their consumption. PMID:23231857

  15. Application of high OLR-fed aerobic granules for the treatment of low-strength wastewater: performance, granule morphology and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyun; Quan, Xiangchun; Li, Huai

    2013-08-01

    Aerobic granules, pre-cultivated at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.0 kg COD/(m3 x day), were used to treat low-strength wastewater in two sequencing batch reactors at low OLRs of 1.2 and 0.6 kg COD/(m3 x day), respectively. Reactor performance, evolution of granule morphology, structure and microbial community at low OLRs under long-term operation (130 days) were investigated. Results showed that low OLRs did not cause significant damage to granule structure as a dominant granule morphology with size over 540 microm was maintained throughout the operation. Aerobic granules at sizes of about 750 microm were finally obtained at the low OLRs. The granule reactors operated at low OLRs demonstrated effective COD and ammonia removals (above 90%), smaller granule sizes and less biomass. The contents of extracellular polymeric substances in the granules were decreased while the ratios of exopolysaccharide/exoprotein were increased (above 1.0). The granules cultivated at the low OLRs showed a smoother surface and more compact structure than the seeded granules. A significant shift in microbial community was observed but the microbial diversity remained relatively stable. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy observation showed that the live cells were spread throughout the whole granule, while the dead cells were mainly concentrated in the outer layer of the granule, and the proteins, polysaccharides and lipids were mainly located in the central regime of the granule. In conclusion, granules cultivated at high OLRs show potential for treating low-strength organic wastewater steadily under long-term operation. PMID:24520692

  16. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  17. Efficacy of home washing methods in controlling surface microbial contamination on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, Agnes; Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-02-01

    Much effort has been focused on sanitation of fresh produce at the commercial level; however, few options are available to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of different cleaning methods in reducing bacterial contamination on fresh produce in a home setting. Lettuce, broccoli, apples, and tomatoes were inoculated with Listeria innocua and then subjected to combinations of the following cleaning procedures: (i) soak for 2 min in tap water, Veggie Wash solution, 5% vinegar solution, or 13% lemon solution and (ii) rinse under running tap water, rinse and rub under running tap water, brush under running tap water, or wipe with wet/dry paper towel. Presoaking in water before rinsing significantly reduced bacteria in apples, tomatoes, and lettuce, but not in broccoli. Wiping apples and tomatoes with wet or dry paper towel showed lower bacterial reductions compared with soaking and rinsing procedures. Blossom ends of apples were more contaminated than the surface after soaking and rinsing; similar results were observed between flower section and stem of broccoli. Reductions of L. innocua in both tomatoes and apples (2.01 to 2.89 log CFU/g) were more than in lettuce and broccoli (1.41 to 1.88 log CFU/g) when subjected to same washing procedures. Reductions of surface contamination of lettuce after soaking in lemon or vinegar solutions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from lettuce soaking in cold tap water. Therefore, educators and extension workers might consider it appropriate to instruct consumers to rub or brush fresh produce under cold running tap water before consumption. PMID:16496573

  18. ACD toxin-produced actin oligomers poison formin-controlled actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, David B.; Kudryashova, Elena; Grinevich, Dmitry O.; Suarez, Cristian; Winkelman, Jonathan D.; Birukov, Konstantin G.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Kovar, David R.; Kudryashov, Dmitri S.

    2015-01-01

    The actin crosslinking domain (ACD) is an actin-specific toxin produced by several pathogens, including life-threatening spp. of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Actin crosslinking by ACD is thought to lead to slow cytoskeleton failure owing to a gradual sequestration of actin in the form of nonfunctional oligomers. Here we found that ACD converted cytoplasmic actin into highly toxic oligomers that potently “poisoned” the ability of major actin assembly proteins, formins, to sustain actin polymerization. Thus, ACD can target the most abundant cellular protein by employing actin oligomers as secondary toxins to efficiently subvert cellular functions of actin while functioning at very low doses. PMID:26228148

  19. Method of Producing Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coatings includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer or a diameter of less than 5 micron. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate. and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  20. Novel approach to produce polymerized hydrocarbon coatings using dielectric barrier controlled atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. K.; Khardekar, R. K.; Singh, Rashmi; Pant, H. C.

    2002-09-01

    Conventionally, low-pressure (<1 Torr) electrical discharges are used for material processing and thin-film deposition. These schemes suffer mainly due to the high cost of equipment and the complexity of operations. The atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma is developed using a threaded styled electrode in different configurations, and these reactors are used to produce plasma polymerized coatings, required on plane substrates as self-supporting films to obtain membranes for blocking holes in cavities, and on microballoon targets, which are used as fuel containers for inertial confinement fusion, to avoid DT gas permeation. Helium gas is used as the supporting gas for formation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma reactors. Ethylene and acetylene gases are used as monomers to produce plasma polymerized hydrocarbon films. These films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Plasma polymerized coatings of thickness 100 nm-10 μm with a smooth surface finish (rms<100 nm) are deposited successfully. The surface finish is further improved using a postdischarge configuration. Preliminary results are very encouraging but further progress is to be made in this area. We are also planning to extend this technique for C:H coating of microballoons, which are used as fuel containers in inertial confinement fusion.

  1. Controlled induction of human pancreatic progenitors produces functional beta-like cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Holger A; Parent, Audrey V; Ringler, Jennifer J; Hennings, Thomas G; Nair, Gopika G; Shveygert, Mayya; Guo, Tingxia; Puri, Sapna; Haataja, Leena; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Blelloch, Robert; Szot, Greg L; Arvan, Peter; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional insulin-producing beta-like cells holds great promise for cell replacement therapy for patients suffering from diabetes. This approach also offers the unique opportunity to study otherwise inaccessible aspects of human beta cell development and function in vitro. Here, we show that current pancreatic progenitor differentiation protocols promote precocious endocrine commitment, ultimately resulting in the generation of non-functional polyhormonal cells. Omission of commonly used BMP inhibitors during pancreatic specification prevents precocious endocrine formation while treatment with retinoic acid followed by combined EGF/KGF efficiently generates both PDX1+ and subsequent PDX1+/NKX6.1+ pancreatic progenitor populations, respectively. Precise temporal activation of endocrine differentiation in PDX1+/NKX6.1+ progenitors produces glucose-responsive beta-like cells in vitro that exhibit key features of bona fide human beta cells, remain functional after short-term transplantation, and reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Thus, our simplified and scalable system accurately recapitulates key steps of human pancreas development and provides a fast and reproducible supply of functional human beta-like cells. PMID:25908839

  2. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  3. Controlled tissue emulsification produced by high intensity focused ultrasound shock waves and millisecond boiling.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Canney, Michael S; Khokhlova, Vera A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications, tissue may be thermally necrosed by heating, emulsified by cavitation, or, as was recently discovered, emulsified using repetitive millisecond boiling caused by shock wave heating. Here, this last approach was further investigated. Experiments were performed in transparent gels and ex vivo bovine heart tissue using 1, 2, and 3 MHz focused transducers and different pulsing schemes in which the pressure, duty factor, and pulse duration were varied. A previously developed derating procedure to determine in situ shock amplitudes and the time-to-boil was refined. Treatments were monitored using B-mode ultrasound. Both inertial cavitation and boiling were observed during exposures, but emulsification occurred only when shocks and boiling were present. Emulsified lesions without thermal denaturation were produced with shock amplitudes sufficient to induce boiling in less than 20 ms, duty factors of less than 0.02, and pulse lengths shorter than 30 ms. Higher duty factors or longer pulses produced varying degrees of thermal denaturation combined with mechanical emulsification. Larger lesions were obtained using lower ultrasound frequencies. The results show that shock wave heating and millisecond boiling is an effective and reliable way to emulsify tissue while monitoring the treatment with ultrasound. PMID:22088025

  4. Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Hsiung; Tsou, Yi-Jung; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chern, Lih-Ling

    2010-09-30

    Microorganisms capable of utilizing vegetable tissues for growth in soils were isolated and their vegetable broth cultures were individually sprayed directly on leaves to test their ability to control Phytophthora blight of bell pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. Liquid culture of Streptomyces strain TKA-5, a previously undescribed species obtained in this study, displayed several desirable disease control characteristics in nature, including high potency, long lasting and ability to control also black leaf spot of spoon cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicolca. The extract was fungicidal to P. capsici but fungistatic to A. brassicicola. It was stable at high temperature and high pH. However, after exposure to pH 2 for 24h, the extract was no longer inhibitory to P. capsici although it was still strongly inhibitory to A. brassicicola. After treatment with cation or anion exchange resins, the extract lost its inhibitory effect against P. capsici but not A. brassicicola. The results suggest that the extract contained two different kinds of inhibitory metabolites, one against P. capsici with both positive and negative charges on its molecule and another against A. brassicicola with no charges on its molecule. The inhibitory metabolites were soluble in ethanol or methanol but not in water, ether or chloroform. They were dialyzable in the membrane tubing with molecular weight cut-off of 10,000, 1000 or 500 but not 100, indicating that the inhibitors have a molecular weight between 500 and 100. Results also showed that both inhibitors are not proteins. PMID:20580869

  5. CXCL12-producing vascular endothelial niches control acute T cell leukemia maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Lauren A.; Tikhonova, Anastasia N.; Hu, Hai; Trimarchi, Thomas; King, Bryan; Gong, Yixiao; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Tsirigos, Aris; Littman, Dan R.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Morrison, Sean J.; Fooksman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of the microenvironment in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), or any acute leukemia, is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T-ALL cells are in direct, stable contact with CXCL12-producing bone marrow stroma. Cxcl12 deletion from vascular endothelial, but not perivascular, cells impeded tumor growth, suggesting a vascular niche for T-ALL. Moreover, genetic targeting of CXCR4 in murine T-ALL after disease onset led to rapid, sustained disease remission, and CXCR4 antagonism suppressed human T-ALL in primary xenografts. Loss of CXCR4 targeted key T-ALL regulators, including the MYC pathway, and decreased leukemia initiating cell activity in vivo. Our data identify a T-ALL niche, and suggest targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling as a powerful therapeutic approach for T-ALL. PMID:26058075

  6. Distortion and Residual Stress Control in Integrally Stiffened Structure Produced by Direct Metal Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2007-01-01

    2-D thermo-mechanical model developed to characterize distortion and residual stresses in integral structure produced by DMD. Demonstrated as a tool to guide experimental development of DMD fabrication process for aero structures. Distortion and residual stresses are local to deposit. Most distortion develops during deposition of the first few layers; Little change in distortion or residual stresses after fifth deposit layer Most of distortion is localized just beneath the build. Thicker build plates and the use of build lands results in greatest decrease in levels of distortion. Pre-straining shown to reduce distortion. Difficult to implement, particularly for complex stiffener arrays. Clamp position has complex effect on distortion and stresses. Overall distortion reduced with decreasing clamp clearance. Larger clamp clearances induce bending. Use of pre-heat and active cooling show minor influence on panel distortion. Generate changes in thermal gradients in the build plate.

  7. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  8. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, W R; Sager, J C

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system. PMID:11538974

  9. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  10. Highly stable SERS pH nanoprobes produced by co-solvent controlled AuNP aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haoran; Willner, Marjorie R; Marr, Linsey C; Vikesland, Peter J

    2016-08-15

    Production of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanoprobes requires replicable aggregation to produce multimers with high signal intensity. Herein, we illustrate a novel, yet simple, approach to produce SERS nanoprobes through control of co-solvent composition. AuNP multimers were produced by mixing AuNP monomers in water : ethanol co-solvent for variable periods of time. By varying the water : ethanol ratio and the amount of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) present, the aggregation rate can be systematically controlled. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) was then added to halt the aggregation process and provide steric stability. This approach was used to produce pH nanoprobes with excellent colloidal stability in high ionic strength environments and in complex samples. The pH probe exhibits broad pH sensitivity over the range 6-11 and we calculate that a single AuNP dimer in a 35 fL volume is sufficient to generate a detectable SERS signal. As a proof-of-concept, the probes were used to detect the intracellular pH of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). The internalized probes exhibit a strong 4-MBA signal without any interfering bands from either the cells or the culture media and produce exceptionally detailed pH maps. pH maps obtained from 19 xy surface scans and 14 yz depth scans exhibit highly consistent intracellular pH in the range of 5 to 7, thus indicating the greater reliability and reproducibility of our pH probes compared with other probes previously reported in the literature. Our water : ethanol co-solvent production process is fast, simple, and efficient. Adjustment of solvent composition may become a powerful way to produce SERS tags or nanoprobes in the future. PMID:27143623

  11. Quality control and producing areas differentiation of Gardeniae Fructus for eight bioactive constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Fangzhou; Mao, Chunqin; Li, Lin; Cai, Baochang; Lu, Tulin

    2014-03-15

    Gardeniae Fructus (G.Fructus), the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for the treatment of hepatitis, jaundice, hypersonic, diabetes and hematuria. Numerous researches have demonstrated that the major active constituents in G.Fructus were responsible for the majority of medical effects of this fruit and their quantification were important for the quality control of G.Fructus. However, in the current quality control standard, only geniposide was used as characteristic marker of G.Fructus, which could not reflect the overall quality of this fruit. In order to identify more chemical makers for improving the quality control standard and evaluate producing areas differentiation of G.Fructus, in the present study, a novel and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 major constituents, including geniposidic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), genipin-1-β-gentiobioside (3), geniposide (4), genipin (5), rutin (6), crocin-1 (7), crocin-2 (8) in G.Fructus. Moreover, chemometric analysis techniques with principal component constituent analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) involved were introduced in statistical analysis of 8 investigated constituents in the 34 batches samples to discriminate the samples from different producing areas. The results indicated that the contents of the 8 major bioactive constituents in G.Fructus varied significantly among different producing areas. From results of the loading plot from PCA analysis, genipin-1-β-gentiobioside may have more influence in discriminating the sample from different producing areas, and which was found to be the most abundant bioactive component besides geniposide in all the 34 batches samples, suggesting that it should be added as chemical marker for further investigation on the

  12. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  13. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  14. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  15. Regularity in an environment produces an internal torque pattern for biped balance control.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Haruhisa

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we present a control method for achieving biped static balance under unknown periodic external forces whose periods are only known. In order to maintain static balance adaptively in an uncertain environment, it is essential to have information on the ground reaction forces. However, when the biped is exposed to a steady environment that provides an external force periodically, uncertain factors on the regularity with respect to a steady environment are gradually clarified using learning process, and finally a torque pattern for balancing motion is acquired. Consequently, static balance is maintained without feedback from ground reaction forces and achieved in a feedforward manner. PMID:15789225

  16. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels.

    PubMed

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays. PMID:27312072

  17. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays.

  18. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  19. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an “Energy Shot”

    PubMed Central

    Stamates, Amy L.; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Brown, Clifford J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy®) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products. PMID:25054080

  20. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Juglal, S; Govinden, R; Odhav, B

    2002-04-01

    The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures. PMID:11952220

  1. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels

    PubMed Central

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays. PMID:27312072

  2. Optimization of erythropoietin production with controlled glycosylation-PEGylated erythropoietin produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Nett, Juergen H; Gomathinayagam, Sujatha; Hamilton, Stephen R; Gong, Bing; Davidson, Robert C; Du, Min; Hopkins, Daniel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mallem, Muralidhar R; Nylen, Adam; Shaikh, Seemab S; Sharkey, Nathan; Barnard, Gavin C; Copeland, Victoria; Liu, Liming; Evers, Raymond; Li, Yan; Gray, Peter M; Lingham, Russell B; Visco, Denise; Forrest, Gail; DeMartino, Julie; Linden, Thomas; Potgieter, Thomas I; Wildt, Stefan; Stadheim, Terrance A; d'Anjou, Marc; Li, Huijuan; Sethuraman, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a methylotropic yeast that has gained great importance as an organism for protein expression in recent years. Here, we report the expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in glycoengineered P. pastoris. We show that glycosylation fidelity is maintained in fermentation volumes spanning six orders of magnitude and that the protein can be purified to high homogeneity. In order to increase the half-life of rhEPO, the purified protein was coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then compared to the currently marketed erythropoiesis stimulating agent, Aranesp(®) (darbepoetin). In in vitro cell proliferation assays the PEGylated protein was slightly, and the non-PEGylated protein was significantly more active than comparator. Pharmacodynamics as well as pharmacokinetic activity of PEGylated rhEPO in animals was comparable to that of Aranesp(®). Taken together, our results show that glycoengineered P. pastoris is a suitable production host for rhEPO, yielding an active biologic that is comparable to those produced in current mammalian host systems. PMID:22100268

  3. Microresonator and associated method for producing and controlling photonic signals with a photonic bandgap delay apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.

  4. Microstructural study and size control of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by microemulsion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Paneva, D.; Nedkov, I.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we study the possibility to control the size of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles by the microemulsion technique. We used a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system with n-hexadecil trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, n-butanol as a co-surfactant, n-hexanol as a continuous oil phase, and aqueous phase. The magnetite nanopowders were synthesized by a single microemulsion technique in which the aqueous phase contains only metal ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+). The particle size of the powders varied in the range of 14-36 nm depending on the preparation conditions. We studied the influence of changing the water/surfactant ratio (W 0 = 5, 10, 15, 20) and the metallic ion (Fe2+ and Fe3+) concentration on the particle size distribution and crystallinity of Fe3O4.

  5. DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Buse, John B.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Taylor, Kristin L.; Kim, Terri; Walsh, Brandon; Hu, Hao; Wilhelm, Ken; Trautmann, Michael; Shen, Larry Z.; Porter, Lisa E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID→QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean −2.0% [95% CI −2.1 to −1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed. CONCLUSION Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss. PMID:20215461

  6. Gamma irradiation: a method to produce an abiotic control for biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G A; Servais, P; Barbeau, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using gamma irradiation to inhibit the microbial activity of biological powder activated carbon (PAC) without impacting its adsorptive properties. First of all, the range of dose of gamma rays required to produce abiotic PAC was selected on the basis of heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) inactivation and methylene blue (MB) adsorption kinetics. Doses inferior to 10 kGy were not sufficient to inhibit the culture of heterotrophic bacteria. On the other hand, doses superior to 15 kGy were demonstrated to affect the adsorption rate of MB. Consequently, a dose comprised between 10 and 15 kGy was selected for further investigation. In order to validate the adequacy of the range of dose (i.e. 10-15 kGy), adsorption characteristics were tested by monitoring the removal kinetics of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated biological PAC for the adsorption of RDOC. Irradiated, non-irradiated and virgin PAC were also evaluated in terms of abundance of viable (using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight method) bacteria and in terms of heterotrophic biomass activity. The results of the BacLight method demonstrated that attachment of the biofilm on the PAC was not impacted by the irradiation and heterotrophic activity measurements demonstrated that the latter could be radically reduced in the range of dose selected. In conclusion, when using a proper dose, the gamma irradiation of colonized activated carbon drastically reduced the heterotrophic activity on activated carbon without significantly impacting its adsorptive behaviour. PMID:24617066

  7. A Plant-Produced Bacteriophage Tailspike Protein for the Control of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Miletic, Sean; Simpson, David J; Szymanski, Christine M; Deyholos, Michael K; Menassa, Rima

    2015-01-01

    The receptor binding domain of the tailspike protein Gp9 from the P22 bacteriophage was recently shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in the chicken gut. In this study, we transiently expressed the receptor binding domain of the Gp9 tailspike protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, and targeted it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or to the chloroplasts. Gp9 was also fused to either an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) or hydrophobin I tag, which were previously described to improve accumulation levels of recombinant proteins. The highest levels of recombinant protein accumulation occurred when unfused Gp9 was targeted to the ER. Lower levels of chloroplast-targeted Gp9 were also detected. ELP-fused Gp9 was purified and demonstrated to bind to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro. Upon oral administration of lyophilized leaves expressing Gp9-ELP to newly hatched chickens, we found that this tailspike protein has the potential to be used as a therapeutic to control Salmonella contamination in chickens. PMID:26779243

  8. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced by Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Tainger, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit cast features. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. Tensile mechanical properties and microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains with interior dendritic structures, described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  9. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced By Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Begley, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties have been demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys that are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit features more typical of cast material. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. In the current study, mechanical properties and resulting microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Material performance was evaluated based on tensile properties and results were compared with properties of Al 2219 wrought products. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains, typically with interior dendritic structures, which were described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  10. A Plant-Produced Bacteriophage Tailspike Protein for the Control of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Miletic, Sean; Simpson, David J.; Szymanski, Christine M.; Deyholos, Michael K.; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    The receptor binding domain of the tailspike protein Gp9 from the P22 bacteriophage was recently shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in the chicken gut. In this study, we transiently expressed the receptor binding domain of the Gp9 tailspike protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, and targeted it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or to the chloroplasts. Gp9 was also fused to either an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) or hydrophobin I tag, which were previously described to improve accumulation levels of recombinant proteins. The highest levels of recombinant protein accumulation occurred when unfused Gp9 was targeted to the ER. Lower levels of chloroplast-targeted Gp9 were also detected. ELP-fused Gp9 was purified and demonstrated to bind to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro. Upon oral administration of lyophilized leaves expressing Gp9-ELP to newly hatched chickens, we found that this tailspike protein has the potential to be used as a therapeutic to control Salmonella contamination in chickens. PMID:26779243

  11. Cutting Edge: IFN-γ Produced by Brain-Resident Cells Is Crucial To Control Cerebral Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Sa, Qila; Ochiai, Eri; Tiwari, Ashish; Perkins, Sara; Mullins, Jeremi; Gehman, Marie; Huckle, William; Eyestone, Willard H; Saunders, Thomas L; Shelton, Brent J; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that microglia and astrocytes produce IFN-γ in response to various stimulations, including LPS. However, the physiological role of IFN-γ production by brain-resident cells, including glial cells, in resistance against cerebral infections remains unknown. We analyzed the role of IFN-γ production by brain-resident cells in resistance to reactivation of cerebral infection with Toxoplasma gondii using a murine model. Our study using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that IFN-γ production by brain-resident cells is essential for upregulating IFN-γ-mediated protective innate immune responses to restrict cerebral T. gondii growth. Studies using a transgenic strain that expresses IFN-γ only in CD11b(+) cells suggested that IFN-γ production by microglia, which is the only CD11b(+) cell population among brain-resident cells, is able to suppress the parasite growth. Furthermore, IFN-γ produced by brain-resident cells is pivotal for recruiting T cells into the brain to control the infection. These results indicate that IFN-γ produced by brain-resident cells is crucial for facilitating both the protective innate and T cell-mediated immune responses to control cerebral infection with T. gondii. PMID:26091720

  12. Control of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on industrial surfaces by the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ibarreche, Mariana; Castellano, Patricia; Leclercq, Alexandre; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 and its bacteriocin in the control of Listeria biofilm formation on industrial surfaces at 10°C was investigated. A screening among different Listeria species was performed allowing selecting L. monocytogenes FBUNT for its use as a biofilm producer on stainless steel (SS) and polytetrafluoroe-thylene (PTFE) surfaces. Three conditions were simulated to evaluate the ability of the bacteriocinogenic strain to displace, exclude and compete pathogen biofilm formation. Lactobacillus sakei CRL1862 effectively inhibited biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes FBUNT through the three assayed mechanisms, pathogen inhibition being more efficient on PTFE than on SS surface. Moreover, co-culture of L. monocytogenes FBUNT with the bacteriocin-producer displayed the highest efficacy reducing the pathogen by 5.54 ± 0.12 and 4.52 ± 0.01 on PTFE and SS, respectively. Industrially, the pre-treatment with L. sakei CRL1862 or its bacteriocin (exclusion) constitutes the most realistic way to prevent pathogen biofilm settlement. The use of bacteriocins and/or the bacteriocin-producer strain represents a safe and environmentally-friendly sanitation method to mitigate post-processing food contamination. PMID:27190146

  13. Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic

  14. Reactive Infection Control Strategy for Control of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (NDM)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Analyzed Using Whole-Genome Sequencing: Hits and Misses.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Ng, Oon Tek; Khong, Wei Xin; Xia, Eryu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lye, David Chien; Chow, Angela Liping; Krishnan, Prabha; Ang, Brenda Sze

    2016-08-01

    Genetically distinct isolates of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified from the clinical cultures of 6 patients. Screening of shared-ward contacts identified 2 additional NDM-positive patients. Phylogenetic analysis proved that 1 contact was a direct transmission while the other was unrelated to the index, suggesting hidden routes of transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:987-990. PMID:27143092

  15. Emergence and outbreak of carbapenemase-producing KPC-3 Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain, September 2009 to February 2010: control measures.

    PubMed

    Robustillo Rodela, A; Díaz-Agero Pérez, C; Sanchez Sagrado, T; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Pita López, M J; Monge, V

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the epidemiological features of the first outbreak caused by KPC3 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-3-KP) in Spain and how it was effectively controlled. From 16 September 2009 to the end of February 2010, seven patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were detected. Stool surveillance cultures were recovered from patients, doctors, nurses, nursing assistants, cleaners and hospital porters working in the affected units. Hand swabs were taken from workers and patients’ relatives for culturing. Environmental samples were also taken. Patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were placed in single rooms under contact precautions and 4% chlorhexidine soap was used for their daily hygiene. Staff attended educational seminars and workshops on hand hygiene and isolation of patients. An alcohol-based disinfectant was used for surface cleaning and disinfecting. The floor was cleaned with a disinfectant containing benzalkonium chloride and didecyldimethylammonium. All samples collected were negative for KPC-3-KP. After implementing the control measures, no further cases were reported in the affected units. All cases had comorbidities, long hospital stay and aggressive/intensive antimicrobial treatment. This study emphasises the importance of early intensification of infection control to interrupt the transmission of KPC-producing organisms. PMID:22370016

  16. Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

    2013-11-01

    The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24 ± 0.11 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10 ± 0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27 ± 1.31 mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30 days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

  17. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (<10 nT and 2 V/m) in the biofilm-exposed region at a distance of 1 m from the electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. PMID:26150067

  18. Dynamics and control of the expansion of finite-size plasmas produced in ultraintense laser-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peano, F.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Coppa, G.; Peinetti, F.; Mulas, R.

    2007-05-15

    The strong influence of the electron dynamics provides the possibility of controlling the expansion of laser-produced plasmas by appropriately shaping the laser pulse. A simple irradiation scheme is proposed to tailor the explosion of large deuterium clusters, inducing the formation of shock structures, capable of driving nuclear fusion reactions. Such a scenario has been thoroughly investigated, resorting to two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, the intricate dynamics of ions and electrons during the collisionless expansion of spherical nanoplasmas has been analyzed in detail using a self-consistent ergodic-kinetic model. This study clarifies the transition from hydrodynamic-like to Coulomb-explosion regimes.

  19. A Matter of Low Self-Control? Exploring Differences Between Child Pornography Possessors and Child Pornography Producers/Distributers Using Self-Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Shelly L; Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the demographic and background characteristic differences between those arrested for child pornography (CP) possession (only), or CP production/distribution, or an attempted or completed sexual exploitation of a minor (SEM) that involved the Internet in some capacity within the context of self-control theory using data from the second wave of the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (N-JOV2). Results indicate few demographic similarities, which thereby suggest these are largely heterogeneous groupings of individuals. Results also indicate CP producers/distributers engaged in a greater number of behaviors indicative of low self-control compared with CP possessors. Specifically, offenders arrested for CP production/distribution were more likely to have (a) had problems with drugs/alcohol at the time of the crime and (b) been previously violent. In contrast, the only indicator of low self-control that reached statistical significance for CP possessors was the previous use of violence. Moreover, in contrast to CP producers/distributers, full-time employment and marital status may be important factors to consider in the likelihood of arrest for CP possessors, which is congruent with the tenets of self-control theory. PMID:25394664

  20. Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to

  1. Human Exposure to Wastewater-Derived Pharmaceuticals in Fresh Produce: A Randomized Controlled Trial Focusing on Carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Paltiel, Ora; Fedorova, Ganna; Tadmor, Galit; Kleinstern, Geffen; Maor, Yehoshua; Chefetz, Benny

    2016-04-19

    Fresh water scarcity has led to increased use of reclaimed wastewater as an alternative and reliable source for crop irrigation. Beyond microbiological safety, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of reclaimed wastewater by xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals. This study focuses on carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug which is ubiquitously detected in reclaimed wastewater, highly persistent in soil, and taken up by crops. In a randomized controlled trial we demonstrate that healthy individuals consuming reclaimed wastewater-irrigated produce excreted carbamazepine and its metabolites in their urine, while subjects consuming fresh water-irrigated produce excreted undetectable or significantly lower levels of carbamazepine. We also report that the carbamazepine metabolite pattern at this low exposure level differed from that observed at therapeutic doses. This "proof of concept" study demonstrates that human exposure to xenobiotics occurs through ingestion of reclaimed wastewater-irrigated produce, providing real world data which could guide risk assessments and policy designed to ensure the safe use of wastewater for crop irrigation. PMID:27021726

  2. Transmission Dynamics of Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Anticipated Impact of Infection Control Strategies in a Surgical Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sypsa, Vana; Psichogiou, Mina; Bouzala, Georgia-Aikaterina; Hadjihannas, Linos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Daikos, Georgios L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) has been established as important nosocomial pathogen in many geographic regions. Transmission from patient to patient via the hands of healthcare workers is the main route of spread in the acute-care setting. Methodology/Principal Findings Epidemiological and infection control data were recorded during a prospective observational study conducted in a surgical unit of a tertiary-care hospital in Greece. Surveillance culture for CPKP were obtained from all patients upon admission and weekly thereafter. The Ross-Macdonald model for vector-borne diseases was applied to obtain estimates for the basic reproduction number R0 (average number of secondary cases per primary case in the absence of infection control) and assess the impact of infection control measures on CPKP containment in endemic and hyperendemic settings. Eighteen of 850 patients were colonized with CPKP on admission and 51 acquired CPKP during hospilazation. R0 reached 2 and exceeded unity for long periods of time under the observed hand hygiene compliance (21%). The minimum hand hygiene compliance level necessary to control transmission was 50%. Reduction of 60% to 90% in colonized patients on admission, through active surveillance culture, contact precautions and isolation/cohorting, in combination with 60% compliance in hand hygiene would result in rapid decline in CPKP prevalence within 8–12 weeks. Antibiotics restrictions did not have a substantial benefit when an aggressive control strategy was implemented. Conclusions/Significance Surveillance culture on admission and isolation/cohorting of colonized patients coupled with moderate hand hygiene compliance and contact precautions may lead to rapid control of CPKP in endemic and hyperendemic healthcare settings. PMID:22859965

  3. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P < 0·001) and coliforms, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas-like bacteria (P < 0·001). We conclude that AL41 can be used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously. PMID

  4. Southern blight disease of tomato control by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ritu; Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Sumit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    abstract Tomato cultivation is highly susceptible for soil born diseases and among them southern blight disease caused by Scelerotium rolfsii is very common. For its management use of chemical fungicides is not very successful as their spores are able to survive for many years in the soil. As an alternative eco-friendly approach to control the disease antagonistic microbes are being characterized.Among them plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 (B-30488) with antagonistic properties, multiple PGP attributes stress tolerance and ACC deaminase enzyme activity is characterized to decipher its mode of action against S. rolfsii under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that B-30488 has ability to show antagonistic properties under different abiotic stresses against S. rolfsii. Similar results were also obtained from in vivo experiments where B-30488 inoculation has efficiently controlled the disease caused by S. rolfsii and improve the plant growth. Deleterious enhanced ethylene level in S. rolfsii infected plants was also ameliorated by inoculation of ACC deaminase producing B-30488. The ACC accumulation, ACO and ACS activities were also modulated in S. rolfsii infected plants. Results from defense enzymes and other biochemical attributes were also support the role of B-30488 inoculation in ameliorating the biotic stress caused by S. rolfsii in tomato plants. These results were further validated by pathogen related gene expression analysis by real time PCR. Overall results from the present study may be concluded that ACC deaminase producing B-30488 has ability to control the southern blight disease caused by S. rolfsii and commercial bioinoculant package may be developed. PMID:26825539

  5. Southern blight disease of tomato control by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ritu; Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Sumit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Tomato cultivation is highly susceptible for soil born diseases and among them southern blight disease caused by Scelerotium rolfsii is very common. For its management use of chemical fungicides is not very successful as their spores are able to survive for many years in the soil. As an alternative eco-friendly approach to control the disease antagonistic microbes are being characterized.Among them plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 (B-30488) with antagonistic properties, multiple PGP attributes stress tolerance and ACC deaminase enzyme activity is characterized to decipher its mode of action against S. rolfsii under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that B-30488 has ability to show antagonistic properties under different abiotic stresses against S. rolfsii. Similar results were also obtained from in vivo experiments where B-30488 inoculation has efficiently controlled the disease caused by S. rolfsii and improve the plant growth. Deleterious enhanced ethylene level in S. rolfsii infected plants was also ameliorated by inoculation of ACC deaminase producing B-30488. The ACC accumulation, ACO and ACS activities were also modulated in S. rolfsii infected plants. Results from defense enzymes and other biochemical attributes were also support the role of B-30488 inoculation in ameliorating the biotic stress caused by S. rolfsii in tomato plants. These results were further validated by pathogen related gene expression analysis by real time PCR. Overall results from the present study may be concluded that ACC deaminase producing B-30488 has ability to control the southern blight disease caused by S. rolfsii and commercial bioinoculant package may be developed. PMID:26825539

  6. SAFOD Core Reveals Low Strength of Deep San Andreas Fault Gouge and Provides Explanation for Low Heat Flow in Creeping Section of Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Lockner, D. A.; Moore, D. E.; Hickman, S.

    2010-12-01

    Core samples retrieved from the currently creeping the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at a vertical depth of 2.7 km have been tested for shear strength in the laboratory at realistic in-situ stress conditions. Samples were obtained as part of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific drilling program near Parkfield, California. The core samples come from within a 200 m-wide SAF damage zone and include two actively deforming shear zones, identified on the basis of repeat casing deformation logs, that are 1.6 and 2.6 m wide and are taken to represent the currently active fault core. The shear zones are mineralogically and rheologically distinct from their surroundings. The notably low coefficient of friction in the active shear zones (µ = 0.15 - 0.2) is due to a high percentage of saponite, a Mg-rich smectite clay. In contrast, the host rock friction ranges from 0.54 to 0.65. The fault-core material is sufficiently weak to account for the apparent low strength of the San Andreas Fault that has been inferred from heat flow and stress orientation data. The fault-core material is highly plastic and likely to result in fault creep rather than earthquakes, as expected for this creeping portion of the SAF. The relatively short inter-event times and high stress drops of nearby repeating earthquakes can be understood as a result of bridging between local asperities of the host rock promoted by pinching out of this weak, creeping fault-zone material. Borehole observations, combined with these measurements of fault core strength, provide a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the SAF at the SAFOD site in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust.

  7. Simultaneous denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in a full-scale anoxic-oxic process without internal recycle treating low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qibin; Chen, Qiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Performance of a full-scale anoxic-oxic activated sludge treatment plant (4.0×10(5) m(3)/day for the first-stage project) was followed during a year. The plant performed well for the removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the process of treating domestic wastewater within a temperature range of 10.8°C to 30.5°C. Mass balance calculations indicated that COD utilization mainly occurred in the anoxic phase, accounting for 88.2% of total COD removal. Ammonia nitrogen removal occurred 13.71% in the anoxic zones and 78.77% in the aerobic zones. The contribution of anoxic zones to total nitrogen (TN) removal was 57.41%. Results indicated that nitrogen elimination in the oxic tanks was mainly contributed by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The reduction of phosphorus mainly took place in the oxic zones, 61.46% of the total removal. Denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved biologically by 11.29%. Practical experience proved that adaptability to gradually changing temperature of the microbial populations was important to maintain the plant overall stability. Sudden changes in temperature did not cause paralysis of the system just lower removal efficiency, which could be explained by functional redundancy of microorganisms that may compensate the adverse effects of temperature changes to a certain degree. Anoxic-oxic process without internal recycling has great potential to treat low strength wastewater (i.e., TN<35 mg/L) as well as reducing operation costs. PMID:26899656

  8. Ultra-Structural Alterations in In Vitro Produced Four-Cell Bovine Embryos Following Controlled Slow Freezing or Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, T; Popken, J; Guengoer, T; Yilmaz, O; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Baka, M; Oztas, E; Zakhartchenko, V

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification. Embryos in groups 2 and 3 were thawed after 1 day. Hundred embryos were randomly selected from the control group, and 100 morphologically intact embryos from the second and third group were thawed after 1 day and cultured to observe the development up to the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst development rate was 22% in the control group, 1% in the slow-freezing group and 3% in the vitrification group. Remaining embryos of all three groups were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy with subsequent histological staining procedures. Cryopreservation caused degenerative changes at the ultra-structural level. Compared with vitrification, slow freezing caused an increased mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the nuclear and plasma membrane integrity, organelle disintegration, cytoskeletal damage, a reduced thickness of the zona pellucida and a formation of fractures in the zona pellucida. Further studies are required to understand and decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation. PMID:26293816

  9. Risk factors for bloodstream infections due to colistin-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: results from a multicenter case-control-control study.

    PubMed

    Giacobbe, D R; Del Bono, V; Trecarichi, E M; De Rosa, F G; Giannella, M; Bassetti, M; Bartoloni, A; Losito, A R; Corcione, S; Bartoletti, M; Mantengoli, E; Saffioti, C; Pagani, N; Tedeschi, S; Spanu, T; Rossolini, G M; Marchese, A; Ambretti, S; Cauda, R; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Tumbarello, M

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of colistin resistance (ColR) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (Kp) is a matter of concern because of its unfavourable impact on mortality of KPC-Kp bloodstream infections (BSI) and the shortage of alternative therapeutic options. A matched case-control-control analysis was conducted. The primary study end point was to assess risk factors for ColR KPC-Kp BSI. The secondary end point was to describe mortality and clinical characteristics of these infections. To assess risk factors for ColR, 142 patients with ColR KPC-Kp BSI were compared to two controls groups: 284 controls without infections caused by KPC-Kp (control group A) and 284 controls with colistin-susceptible (ColS) KPC-Kp BSI (control group B). In the first multivariate analysis (cases vs. group A), previous colistin therapy, previous KPC-Kp colonization, ≥3 previous hospitalizations, Charlson score ≥3 and neutropenia were found to be associated with the development of ColR KPC-Kp BSI. In the second multivariate analysis (cases vs. group B), only previous colistin therapy, previous KPC-Kp colonization and Charlson score ≥3 were associated with ColR. Overall, ColR among KPC-Kp blood isolates increased more than threefold during the 4.5-year study period, and 30-day mortality of ColR KPC-Kp BSI was as high as 51%. Strict rules for the use of colistin are mandatory to staunch the dissemination of ColR in KPC-Kp-endemic hospitals. PMID:26278669

  10. Treatment of CELSS and PCELSS waste to produce nutrients for plant growth. [Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems and Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.; Meissner, H.; Karel, M.; Carden, J.; Lewis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The research program entitled 'Development of a Prototype Experiment for Treating CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) and PCELSS (Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) Wastes to Produce Nutrients for Plant Growth' consists of two phases: (1) the development of the neccessary facilities, chemical methodologies and models for meaningful experimentation, and (2) the application of what methods and devices are developed to the interfacing of waste oxidation with plant growth. Homogeneous samples of freeze-dried human feces and urine have been prepared to ensure comparability of test results between CELSS waste treatment research groups. A model of PCELSS food processing wastes has been developed, and an automated gas chromatographic system to analyze oxidizer effluents was designed and brought to operational status. Attention is given the component configuration of the wet oxidation system used by the studies.

  11. Controlled release of drugs from cellulose acetate matrices produced from sugarcane bagasse: monitoring by square-wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Almeida, Flávia; Ribeiro, Sabrina D; Tormin, Thiago F; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Assunção, Rosana M N; Barud, Hernane

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, cellulose triacetate (CTA) was produced from sugarcane bagasse and used as matrices for controlled release of paracetamol. Symmetric and asymmetric membranes were obtained by formulations of CTA/dichloromethane/drug and CTA/dichloromethane/water/drug, respectively, and they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different morphologies of membranes were observed by SEM, and the incorporation of paracetamol was confirmed by lowering of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC curves. This indicates the existence of interactions between the matrix and the drug. The evaluation of drug release was based on the electrochemical monitoring of paracetamol through its oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode surface using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), which provides fast, precise and accurate in situ measurements. The studies showed a content release of 27% and 45% by the symmetric and asymmetric membranes, respectively, during 8 h. PMID:26596497

  12. A cluster of genes for the biosynthesis of spinosyns, novel macrolide insect control agents produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Waldron, C; Madduri, K; Crawford, K; Merlo, D J; Treadway, P; Broughton, M C; Baltz, R H

    2000-12-01

    Spinosyns A and D are the active ingredients in a family of insect control agents produced by fermentation of Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosyns are 21-carbon tetracyclic lactones to which are attached two deoxysugars. Most of the genes involved in spinosyn biosynthesis are clustered in an 74 kb region of the S. spinosa genome. This region has been characterized by DNA sequence analysis and by targeted gene disruptions. The spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster contains five large genes encoding a type I polyketide synthase, and 14 genes involved in modification of the macrolactone, or in the synthesis, modification and attachment of the deoxysugars. Four genes required for rhamnose biosynthesis (two of which are also required for forosamine biosynthesis) are not present in the cluster. A pathway for the biosynthesis of spinosyns is proposed. PMID:11386361

  13. Control of Resistant Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) by Transgenic Cotton That Produces Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Sims, Maria A.; Larkin, Karen; Head, Graham P.; Moar, William J.; Carrière, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Crops genetically engineered to produce Bacillus thuringiensis toxins for insect control can reduce use of conventional insecticides, but insect resistance could limit the success of this technology. The first generation of transgenic cotton with B. thuringiensis produces a single toxin, Cry1Ac, that is highly effective against susceptible larvae of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. To counter potential problems with resistance, second-generation transgenic cotton that produces B. thuringiensis toxin Cry2Ab alone or in combination with Cry1Ac has been developed. In greenhouse bioassays, a pink bollworm strain selected in the laboratory for resistance to Cry1Ac survived equally well on transgenic cotton with Cry1Ac and on cotton without Cry1Ac. In contrast, Cry1Ac-resistant pink bollworm had little or no survival on second-generation transgenic cotton with Cry2Ab alone or with Cry1Ac plus Cry2Ab. Artificial diet bioassays showed that resistance to Cry1Ac did not confer strong cross-resistance to Cry2Aa. Strains with >90% larval survival on diet with 10 μg of Cry1Ac per ml showed 0% survival on diet with 3.2 or 10 μg of Cry2Aa per ml. However, the average survival of larvae fed a diet with 1 μg of Cry2Aa per ml was higher for Cry1Ac-resistant strains (2 to 10%) than for susceptible strains (0%). If plants with Cry1Ac plus Cry2Ab are deployed while genes that confer resistance to each of these toxins are rare, and if the inheritance of resistance to both toxins is recessive, the efficacy of transgenic cotton might be greatly extended. PMID:12147473

  14. Crystalline bacterial biofilm formation on urinary catheters by urease-producing urinary tract pathogens: a simple method of control.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, Robert J; Morgan, Sheridan D; Khan, Azhar; Stickler, David J

    2009-10-01

    The problem of catheter encrustation stems from infection by urease-producing bacteria. These organisms generate ammonia from urea, elevate the pH of urine and cause crystals of calcium and magnesium phosphates to form in the urine and the biofilm that develops on the catheter. In this study, a laboratory model was used to compare the ability of 12 urease-positive species of urinary tract pathogens to encrust and block catheters. Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia rettgeri were able to raise the urinary pH above 8.3 and produce catheter-blocking crystalline biofilms within 40 h. Morganella morganii and Staphylococcus aureus elevated the pH of urine to 7.4 and 6.9, respectively, and caused some crystal deposition in the biofilms but did not block catheters in the 96 h experimental period. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia stuartii were only capable of raising the pH of urine to a maximum of 6.4 and failed to cause crystal deposition in the biofilm. The most effective way to prevent catheter encrustation was shown to be diluting urine and increasing its citrate concentration. This strategy raises the nucleation pH (pH(n)) at which calcium and magnesium phosphates crystallize from urine. Increasing the fluid intake of a healthy volunteer with citrated drinks resulted in urine with a pH(n) of >8.0 in which catheter encrustation was inhibited. It is suggested that this dietary strategy will be an effective means of controlling catheter encrustation, whichever bacterial species is causing the problem. PMID:19556373

  15. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  16. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H.; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  17. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  18. Imported Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Clones in a Greek Hospital: Impact of Infection Control Measures for Restraining Their Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Voulgari, Evangelia; Vrioni, Georgia; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Pliagkos, Aris; Chatzipantazi, Vassiliki; Markou, Fani

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains represents a major threat for hospitalized patients. We document the dissemination and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a Greek hospital. During a 3-year study period (January 2009 to December 2011), carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical samples from 73 individual patients. Phenotyping and molecular testing confirmed that 52 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2) producers, 12 were infected with VIM-1 producers, and the remaining 9 were infected with isolates producing both KPC-2 and VIM-1 enzymes. Twenty-eight of these clinical cases were characterized as imported health care associated, and 23 of these were attributed to KPC producers and 5 were attributed to KPC and VIM producers. The remaining 45 cases were deemed hospital acquired. In the second year of the study, intensified infection control intervention was implemented, followed by active surveillance and carrier isolation in the third year. The incidence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae patient cases decreased from 0.52/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.32/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.075). Following these additional infection control measures, the incidence fell to 0.21/1,000 patient days in 2011 and differed significantly from that in 2009 (P = 0.0028). Despite the fact that the imported cases of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae were equally distributed over this 3-year period, the incidence of hospital-acquired cases decreased from 0.36/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.19/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.058) and to 0.1/1,000 patient days in 2011 (P = 0.0012). Our findings suggest that rigorous infection control measures and active surveillance can effectively reduce the incidence of secondary transmission due to KPC-producing pathogens. PMID:22649010

  19. Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in Microfluidic Chambers Take Control of Their Fate by Producing Endogenous Signals Including LIF.

    PubMed

    Guild, Joshua; Haque, Amranul; Gheibi, Pantea; Gao, Yandong; Son, Kyung Jin; Foster, Elena; Dumont, Sophie; Revzin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the role played by endogenous signals in shaping stem cell fate decisions to develop better culture systems and to improve understanding of development processes. In this study, we describe the behavior of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inside microfluidic chambers (microchambers) operated under conditions of minimal perfusion. mESCs inside microchambers formed colonies and expressed markers of pluripotency in the absence of feeders or pluripotency-inducing signals such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), while mESCs in standard cultureware differentiated rapidly. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that remarkable differences in stem cell phenotype are due to endogenous production of LIF and other growth factors brought upon by cultivation in confines of a microchamber in the absence of perfusion (dilution). At the protein level, mESCs produced ∼140 times more LIF inside microchambers than under standard culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that pluripotent phenotype of stem cells could be degraded by increasing the height (volume) of the microchamber. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of LIF in microchambers, via the JAK/STAT3 pathway, leads to preferential differentiation into mesoderm that is driven by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to design a cell culture system where stem cell fate is controlled solely by the endogenous signals. Our study may help shift the paradigm of stem cell cultivation away from relying on expensive exogenous molecules such as growth factors and toward designing culture chambers for harnessing endogenous signals. Stem Cells 2016;34:1501-1512. PMID:26865369

  20. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD..., and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers... not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications, including any...

  1. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... Components, Containers, and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs... specifications. You must not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications,...

  2. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD..., and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers... not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications, including any...

  3. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD..., and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers... not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications, including any...

  4. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD..., and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers... not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications, including any...

  5. Biological control of Rhizoctonia root rot on bean by phenazine- and cyclic lipopeptide-producing Pseudomonas CMR12a

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas CMR12a was previously selected as an efficient biocontrol strain producing phenazines and cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). In this study, biocontrol capacity of Pseudomonas CMR12a against Rhizoctonia root rot of bean and the involvement of phenazines and CLPs in this ability were tested. Two ...

  6. Weed control possibilities and harvest strategies for the Omega-3 fatty acid producing crop common purslane (Portulacca oleracea var. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common purslane is traditionally considered a weed. Recent literature suggests the potential human health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in flax seed oil (LNA) and fish oil (DHA and EPA), but the highest known producer of Omega-3 fatty acid in plant tissu...

  7. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

  8. Control of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in raw, fermented, and further processed non-intact beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illnesses due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been linked to undercooked ground beef and on occasion to non-intact beef as well. As such, the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) now considers strains of serotype O157:H7 and strains from a subset of six non-O157:H7 se...

  9. A compound produced by Fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determi...

  10. The effect of lateral controls in producing motion of an airplane as computed from wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, F. E.; Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study of the lateral controllability of an airplane has been made in which both the static rolling and yawing moments supplied by the controls and the reactions due to the inherent stability of the airplane have been taken into account. A hypothetical average airplane, embodying the essential characteristics of both the wind tunnel models and the full size test airplanes, was assumed for the study. Computations made of forced rolling and yawing motions of an F-22 airplane caused by a sudden deflection of the ailerons were found to agree well with actual measurements of these motions. The conditions following instantaneous full deflections of the lateral control have been studied, and some attention has been devoted to the controlling of complete turn maneuvers.

  11. Genetic control of biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides and construction of robust biotechnological producers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-06-01

    Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1'-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B₂] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP. PMID:21646432

  12. Fabrication of size-controlled three-dimensional structures consisting of electrohydrodynamically produced polycaprolactone micro/nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soongee; Kim, Geunhyung

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we report a facile method of fabricating size-controlled three-dimensional (3D) polycaprolactone (PCL) micro/nanofiber structure using a modified electrospinning supplemented with a specially designed solvent bath in which the flow rate of the solvent (EtOH) was controlled. By varying the flow rate of the EtOH into the grounded bath and the electrospinning parameters including a distance between the nozzle and target, the height, diameter, porosity, and micro/nanofiber size of the 3D structures were controlled. To show stable micro/nanofibrous structures under the fabricating conditions, we characterized a process diagram for various flow rates of EtOH and weight percents of PCL. We believe that this modified electrospinning process may be a new means of fabricating micro/nanofibrous 3D structures.

  13. Johne’s disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne’s disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN$1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17147140

  14. A system and methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds produced by hydroponic lettuce in a controlled environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charron, C. S.; Cantliffe, D. J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    A system and methodology were developed for the nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile emissions from hydroponically grown 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature were automatically controlled and monitored in a growth chamber modified for the collection of plant volatiles. The lipoxygenase pathway products (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were emitted by lettuce plants after the transition from the light period to the dark period. The volatile collection system developed in this study enabled measurements of volatiles emitted by intact plants, from planting to harvest, under controlled environmental conditions.

  15. Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

    2012-02-01

    The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies. PMID:21968089

  16. Application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria to control pathogens in ready-to-use vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vescovo, M; Torriani, S; Orsi, C; Macchiarolo, F; Scolari, G

    1996-08-01

    Five psychrotrophic strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lact. plantarum and Pediococcus spp.) were isolated from 22 samples of commercial salads. These strains were shown to inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on MRS agar, in salads and in juice prepared from vegetable salads. Lactobacillus casei IMPCLC34 was most effective in reducing total mesophilic bacteria and the coliform group; Aer. hydrophila, Salm. typhimurium and Staph. aureus disappeared after 6 d of storage, while the counts for L. monocytogenes remained constant. The potential application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives of ready-to-use vegetables is suggested. PMID:8760320

  17. Control of wheat root rots under field condtions with compounds produced by Fusarium sambucinum strain FS-94

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appreciable yield losses from root rot epidemics on wheat caused by Fusarium fungi are frequently observed in Russia. Chemical fungicides are not always effective in controlling fusarial root rots on wheat. Biocontrol agents may provide an alternative or additional method for managing root rots. Lab...

  18. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  19. Greenhouse production of Impatiens wallerana using a controlled-release fertiliser produces quality finished plants with enhanced garden performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management during production can greatly influence post-production quality of plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) applied at the time of plug planting on the garden performance (post-production) of impatiens (Impatiens wal...

  20. Extension of Shelf Life and Control of Human Pathogens in Produce by Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides general information about edible films and coatings, and their use with fruits and vegetables to control human pathogens. It reviews potential antimicrobial phytochemicals used in edible films and coatings, and summarizes methods for measuring the antimicrobial activity and ph...

  1. Effects produced by CDU improvement of resist pattern with PEB temperature control for wiring resistance variation reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Masahide; Shinozuka, Shinichi; Ogata, Kunie; Morimoto, Tamotsu

    2008-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing technology has shifted towards finer design rules, and demands for critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of resist patterns have become greater than ever. One of the methods for improving CDU of resist pattern is to control the temperature of post-exposure bake (PEB). When ArF resist is used, there is a certain relationship between critical dimension (CD) and PEB temperature. By utilizing this relationship, Resist Pattern CDU can be improved through control of within-wafer temperature distribution in the PEB process. We have already applied this method to Resist Pattern CDU improvement and have achieved these results. In this evaluation, we aim at: 1. Clarifying the relationship between the improvement in Resist Pattern CDU through PEB temperature control and the improvement in Etching Pattern CDU. 2. Verifying whether Resist Pattern CDU improvement through PEB temperature control has any effect on the reduction in wiring resistance variation. The evaluation procedure is: 1. Preparation of wafers with base film of doped Poly-Si (D-Poly). 2. Creation of two sets of samples on the base, a set of samples with good Resist Pattern CDU and a set of samples with poor Resist Pattern CDU. 3. Etching of the two sets under the same conditions. 4. Measurements of CD and wiring resistance. We used Optical CD Measurement (OCD) for measurement of resist pattern and etching pattern for the reason that OCD is minimally affected by Line Edge Roughness (LER). As a result, we found that; 1. The improvement in Resist Pattern CDU leads to the improvement in Etching Pattern CDU . 2. The improvement in Resist Pattern CDU has an effect on the reduction in wiring resistance variation. There is a cause-and-effect relationship between wiring resistance variation and transistor characteristics. From this relationship, we expect that the improvement in Resist Pattern CDU through PEB temperature control can contribute to device performance improvement.

  2. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information. PMID:15246244

  3. Producing and controlling substrate temperature uniformity from 600 C to 1100 C in CVD rotating disk reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurary, A.I.; Tompa, G.S.; Stall, R.A.; Kroll, W.J.; Zawadzki, P.; Schumaker, N.E.

    1995-08-01

    Rotating Disk Reactors used for Chemical Vapor Deposition have evolved into a leading manufacturing technology for several materials, including metals, compound semiconductors, oxides, silicides, and nitrides. One of the hurdles to be surmounted in bringing this technology into routine high yield manufacturing has been to produce and maintain a highly uniform temperature distribution over the deposition area. With their recent introduction of the real-time Rotating Wafer Thermal Imaging (RWTI) technique, the authors have made dramatic improvements in the implementation of multi-zone heating systems and producing a uniform deposition temperature. Using multi-zone heaters they have demonstrated wafer temperature uniformity of less than 2 C in the temperature range from 600 C to 1,100 C for 50 mm substrates located on wafer carriers with diameters from 125 to 300 mm. The wafer temperature uniformity dependence upon process parameters such as reactor pressure, reactant flows, and wafer carrier rotation speed was investigated. The authors have shown that multi-zone heating systems can provide high wafer temperature uniformity over a wide range of the process parameters, whereas single zone heating can provide a high degree of water temperature uniformity only for a limited set of process parameters. The experimental data allowed us to establish requirements for the application of single and multi-zone heating systems in vertical MOCVD Rotating Disk Reactors.

  4. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  5. Analysis of the dose rate produced by control rods discharged from a BWR into the irradiated fuel pool.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Gallardo, S; Abarca, A; Juan, V

    2010-01-01

    BWR control rods become activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. Therefore, when they are withdrawn from the reactor, they must be stored into the storage pool for irradiated fuel at a certain depth under water. Dose rates on the pool surface and the area surrounding the pool should be lower than limits for workers. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to model this situation and to calculate dose rates at points of interest. PMID:19836252

  6. Dense arrays of highly aligned graphene nanoribbons produced by substrate-controlled metal-assisted etching of graphene.

    PubMed

    Solís-Fernández, Pablo; Yoshida, Kazuma; Ogawa, Yui; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ago, Hiroki

    2013-12-01

    Dense arrays of aligned graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are fabricated by substrate-controlled etching of large-area single-layer graphene. An adequate choice of etching substrate and catalyst deposition method allows densities up to 25 nanoribbons μm(-1) to be obtained with average widths of 19 nm. The efficacy of the method is evidenced by the high on/off ratios of back-gated transistors made with these GNRs, which can go up to 5000. PMID:24030892

  7. Nosocomial Outbreak of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in South Africa: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jager, Pieter; Chirwa, Tobias; Naidoo, Shan; Perovic, Olga; Thomas, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Objective New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Gram-negative bacteria have spread globally and pose a significant public health threat. There is a need to better define risk factors and outcomes of NDM-1 clinical infection. We assessed risk factors for nosocomial infection with NDM-1-producers and associated in-hospital mortality. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted during a nosocomial outbreak of NDM-1-producers in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in South Africa. All patients from whom NDM-1-producers were identified were considered (n=105). Cases included patients admitted during the study period in whom NDM-1 producing Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical specimens collected ≥48 hours after admission, and where surveillance definitions for healthcare-associated infections were met. Controls were matched for age, sex, date of hospital admission and intensive-care admission. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for NDM-1 clinical infection and associated in-hospital mortality. Findings 38 cases and 68 controls were included. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common NDM-1-producer (28/38, 74%). Cases had longer mean hospital stays (44.0 vs. 13.3 days; P < 0.001) and ICU stays (32.5 vs. 8.3 days; P < 0.001). Adjusting for co-morbid disease, the in-hospital mortality of cases was significantly higher than controls (55.3% vs. 14.7%; AOR, 11.29; P < 0.001). Higher Charlson co-morbidity index score (5.2 vs. 4.1; AOR, 1.59; P = 0.005), mechanical ventilation days (7.47 vs. 0.94 days; AOR, 1.32; P = 0.003) and piperacillin/tazobactam exposure (11.03 vs. 1.05 doses; AOR, 1.08; P = 0.013) were identified as risk factors on multivariate analysis. Cases had a significantly higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality when the NDM-1-producer was Klebsiella pneumoniae (AOR, 16.57; P = 0.007), or when they had a bloodstream infection (AOR, 8.84; P = 0.041). Conclusion NDM-1 infection is associated with

  8. Controlling the length of plasma waveguide up to 5 mm, produced by femtosecond laser pulses in atomic clustered gas.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Walid Tawfik; Chen, Guanglong; Kim, Jaehoon; Tao, Geng Xiao; Ahn, Jungkwen; Kim, Dong Eon

    2011-08-15

    We report the observation of longitudinally uniform plasma waveguide with a controlled length of up to nearly 5 mm, in argon clustered gas jet. This self-channeling plasma is obtained using a 35 mJ, 30 fs FWHM pulse as a pump laser pulse to create the plasma channel. A 1 mJ pulse of the same laser is used for probing the plasma channels using interferometric diagnostics. The radial distribution of the electron density confirms the formation of a plasma waveguide. Clustered argon enhances the absorption efficiency of femtosecond pulses which enables the use of pump pulses of only 35 mJ, approximately 10 times less energy than required for heating conventional gas targets. The plasma channel length is controlled by the laser focus point (F), the laser intensity (I), the pump-probe delay time (t) and the laser height from a nozzle (z). The variation of the electron density for these parameters is also studied. We found that the highest density of 1.2 x 10(19) cm(-3) was obtained at I = 5.2 x 10(16) W/cm(2), z = 2 mm and t = 7.6 ns. It was demonstrated that by using a clustered jet, both the plasma waveguide length and the plasma density could be controlled. PMID:21934955

  9. Use of solid state fermentation to produce Beauveria bassiana for the biological control of European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Desgranges, C; Vergoignan, C; Léréec, A; Riba, G; Durand, A

    1993-01-01

    The production process of a new bioinsecticide against european corn borer is described. The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is cultivated by Solid State Fermentation (SSF). The culture support chosen, clay microgranules, humidified with optimal nutritive solution, is incubated in optimal conditions during 48 hours, then dried for 5 days. The bioinsecticide can be directly used after harvesting, without formulation. This process is original for several reasons : - The granulometry (500 microm) and the bulk density (0.6) of the microgranules are compatible with the mechanical standard application of pesticides on corn. - The bioinsecticide could be produced in a pilot reactor of 1600 1 capacity, on 0.5m-thick-layer.- The biomass bound to microgranules conserves its efficiency after storage for 12 months at 4 degrees C, unlike pure cells. - Like the chemical insecticides usually used, this bioproduct has a field efficiency of 80%. Moreover, the efficiency of the product persists during 3 weeks. PMID:14545678

  10. Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: chain length control in an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro; Oguro, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yoriko; Sano, Yukie; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2005-09-14

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) produces a variety of plant secondary metabolites with remarkable structural diversity and biological activities (e.g., chalcones, stilbenes, benzophenones, acrydones, phloroglucinols, resorcinols, pyrones, and chromones). Here we describe an octaketide-producing novel plant-specific type III PKS from aloe (Aloe arborescens) sharing 50-60% amino acid sequence identity with other plant CHS-superfamily enzymes. A recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed seven successive decarboxylative condensations of malonyl-CoA to yield aromatic octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides known to be synthesized by the structurally simple type III PKS. Surprisingly, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a single residue Gly207 (corresponding to the CHS's active site Thr197) determines the polyketide chain length and product specificity. Small-to-large substitutions (G207A, G207T, G207M, G207L, G207F, and G207W) resulted in loss of the octaketide-forming activity and concomitant formation of shorter chain length polyketides (from triketide to heptaketide) including a pentaketide chromone, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methylchromone, and a hexaketide pyrone, 6-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone, depending on the size of the side chain. Notably, the functional diversity of the type III PKS was shown to evolve from simple steric modulation of the chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity accompanied by conservation of the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. This provided novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important plant polyketides. PMID:16144421

  11. Rope-Producing Strains of Bacillus spp. from Wheat Bread and Strategy for Their Control by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96°C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 104 rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm2 on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  12. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  13. The impact of equol-producing status in modifying the effect of soya isoflavones on risk factors for CHD: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Birru, Rahel L; Ahuja, Vasudha; Vishnu, Abhishek; Evans, Rhobert W; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Miura, Katsuyuki; Usui, Takeshi; Sekikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of the soya isoflavone daidzein, is beneficial to coronary health. Equol, generated by bacterial action on isoflavones in the human gut, is biologically more potent than dietary sources of isoflavones. Not all humans are equol producers. We investigated whether equol-producing status is favourably associated with risk factors for CHD following an intervention by dietary soya isoflavones. We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the effect of soya isoflavones on risk factors for CHD and that reported equol-producing status. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials published up to April 2015 and hand-searched bibliographies to identify the RCT. Characteristics of participants and outcomes measurements were extracted and qualitatively analysed. From a total of 1671 studies, we identified forty-two articles that satisfied our search criteria. The effects of equol on risk factors for CHD were mainly based on secondary analyses in these studies, thus with inadequate statistical power. Although fourteen out of the forty-two studies found that equol production after a soya isoflavone intervention significantly improved a range of risk factors including cholesterol and other lipids, inflammation and blood pressure variables, these results need further verification by sufficiently powered studies. The other twenty-eight studies primarily reported null results. RCT of equol, which has recently become available as a dietary supplement, on CHD and its risk factors are awaited. PMID:27547393

  14. DC-pulsed voltage electrochemical method based on duty cycle self-control for producing TERS gold tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, V. E.; Kharintsev, S. S.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a modified dc-pulsed low voltage electrochemical method in which a duty cycle is self tuned while etching. A higher yield of gold tips suitable for performing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements is demonstrated. The improvement is caused by the self-control of the etching rate along the full surface of the tip. A capability of the gold tips to enhance a Raman signal is exemplified by TERS spectroscopy of single walled carbon nanotubes bundle, sulfur and vanadium oxide.

  15. Analysis of the interplay between neurochemical control of respiration and upper airway mechanics producing upper airway obstruction during sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Longobardo, G S; Evangelisti, C J; Cherniack, N S

    2008-02-01

    Increased loop gain (a function of both controller gain and plant gain), which results in instability in feedback control, is of major importance in producing recurrent central apnoeas during sleep but its role in causing obstructive apnoeas is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of loop gain in producing obstructive sleep apnoeas. Owing to the complexity of factors that may operate to produce obstruction during sleep, we used a mathematical model to sort them out. The model used was based on our previous model of neurochemical control of breathing, which included the effects of chemical stimuli and changes in alertness on respiratory pattern generator activity. To this we added a model of the upper airways that contained a narrowed section which behaved as a compressible elastic tube and was tethered during inspiration by the contraction of the upper airway dilator muscles. These muscles in the model, as in life, responded to changes in hypoxia, hypercapnia and alertness in a manner similar to the action of the chest wall muscles, opposing the compressive action caused by the negative intraluminal pressure generated during inspiration which was magnified by the Bernoulli Effect. As the velocity of inspiratory airflow increased, with sufficiently large increase in airflow velocity, obstruction occurred. Changes in breathing after sleep onset were simulated. The simulations showed that increases in controller gain caused the more rapid onset of obstructive apnoeas. Apnoea episodes were terminated by arousal. With a constant controller gain, as stiffness decreased, obstructed breaths appeared and periods of obstruction recurred longer after sleep onset before disappearing. Decreased controller gain produced, for example, by breathing oxygen eliminated the obstructive apnoeas resulting from moderate reductions in constricted segment stiffness. This became less effective as stiffness was reduced more. Contraction of the upper airway muscles

  16. Evaluation of an MBR-RO system to produce high quality reuse water: microbial control, DBP formation and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Comerton, Anna M; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2005-10-01

    A membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis (MBR-RO) system was developed to assess potential reuse applications of municipal wastewater. The objective of the study was to examine the water quality throughout the system with a focus on waterborne pathogens, disinfection by-products (DBPs) and nitrate. This paper will discuss the presence of these contaminants in MBR effluent and focus on their subsequent removal by RO. This study has shown that high quality reuse water can be produced from municipal wastewater through the use of an MBR-RO system. The water meets California Title 22 reuse regulations for non-potable applications and US EPA drinking water limits for trihalomethanes (THM) (80 microg/L), haloacetic acids (HAA) (60 microg/L), chlorite (1.0 mg/L), total coliform (not detectable), viruses (not detectable), and nitrate/nitrite (10 mg N/L). However, THM formation (182-689 microg/L) attributed to cleaning of the MBR with chlorine and incomplete removal by subsequent RO treatment resulted in reuse water with THM levels (40.2+/-19.9 microg/L) high enough to present a potential concern when considering drinking water applications. Nitrate levels of up to 3.6 mg N/L, which resulted from incomplete removal by the RO membrane, are also a potential concern. A denitrification step in the MBR should be considered in potable water applications. PMID:16112164

  17. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay KS; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA. PMID:19619289

  18. Splicing factors control C. elegans behavioural learning in a single neuron by producing DAF-2c receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Masahiro; Naito, Yasuki; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing generates protein diversity essential for neuronal properties. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this process and its relevance to physiological and behavioural functions are poorly understood. To address these issues, we focused on a cassette exon of the Caenorhabditis elegans insulin receptor gene daf-2, whose proper variant expression in the taste receptor neuron ASER is critical for taste-avoidance learning. We show that inclusion of daf-2 exon 11.5 is restricted to specific neuron types, including ASER, and is controlled by a combinatorial action of evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factors, RBFOX, CELF and PTB families of proteins. Mutations of these factors cause a learning defect, and this defect is relieved by DAF-2c (exon 11.5+) isoform expression only in a single neuron ASER. Our results provide evidence that alternative splicing regulation of a single critical gene in a single critical neuron is essential for learning ability in an organism. PMID:27198602

  19. Splicing factors control C. elegans behavioural learning in a single neuron by producing DAF-2c receptor.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Masahiro; Naito, Yasuki; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing generates protein diversity essential for neuronal properties. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this process and its relevance to physiological and behavioural functions are poorly understood. To address these issues, we focused on a cassette exon of the Caenorhabditis elegans insulin receptor gene daf-2, whose proper variant expression in the taste receptor neuron ASER is critical for taste-avoidance learning. We show that inclusion of daf-2 exon 11.5 is restricted to specific neuron types, including ASER, and is controlled by a combinatorial action of evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factors, RBFOX, CELF and PTB families of proteins. Mutations of these factors cause a learning defect, and this defect is relieved by DAF-2c (exon 11.5+) isoform expression only in a single neuron ASER. Our results provide evidence that alternative splicing regulation of a single critical gene in a single critical neuron is essential for learning ability in an organism. PMID:27198602

  20. IL-12–producing monocytes and HLA-E control HCMV-driven NKG2C+ NK cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Rölle, Alexander; Pollmann, Julia; Ewen, Eva-Maria; Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Halenius, Anne; Hengel, Hartmut; Cerwenka, Adelheid

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common cause of congenital viral infections and a major source of morbidity and mortality after organ transplantation. NK cells are pivotal effector cells in the innate defense against CMV. Recently, hallmarks of adaptive responses, such as memory-like features, have been recognized in NK cells. HCMV infection elicits the expansion of an NK cell subset carrying an activating receptor heterodimer, comprising CD94 and NKG2C (CD94/NKG2C), a response that resembles the clonal expansion of adaptive immune cells. Here, we determined that expansion of this NKG2C+ subset and general NK cell recovery rely on signals derived from CD14+ monocytes. In a coculture system, a subset of CD14+ cells with inflammatory monocyte features produced IL-12 in response to HCMV-infected fibroblasts, and neutralization of IL-12 in this model substantially reduced CD25 upregulation and NKG2C+ subset expansion. Finally, blockade of CD94/NKG2C on NK cells or silencing of the cognate ligand HLA-E in infected fibroblasts greatly impaired expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells. Together, our results reveal that IL-12, CD14+ cells, and the CD94/NKG2C/HLA-E axis are critical for the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells in response to HCMV infection. Moreover, strategies targeting the NKG2C+ NK cell subset have the potential to be exploited in NK cell–based intervention strategies against viral infections and cancer. PMID:25384219

  1. Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae –A Case–Control Study in a Low Prevalence Country

    PubMed Central

    Søraas, Arne; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Sandven, Irene; Brunborg, Cathrine; Jenum, Pål A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The study population comprised 100 cases and 190 controls with CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae, respectively. The following independent risk factors of ESBL-positive UTIs were identified: Travel to Asia, The Middle East or Africa either during the past six weeks (Odds ratio (OR) = 21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–97) or during the past 6 weeks to 24 months (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–4.4), recent use of fluoroquinolones (OR = 16; 95% CI: 3.2–80) and β-lactams (except mecillinam) (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.1–12), diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.0–11) and recreational freshwater swimming the past year (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0–4.0). Factors associated with decreased risk were increasing number of fish meals per week (OR = 0.68 per fish meal; 95% CI: 0.51–0.90) and age (OR = 0.89 per 5 year increase; 95% CI: 0.82–0.97). In conclusion, we have identified risk factors that elucidate mechanisms and routes for dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a low prevalence country, which can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CA-UTI and targeted infection control measures. PMID:23936052

  2. Guidelines for the control of infection with Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Subcommittee of the PHLS Advisory Committee on Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    Increasing numbers of cases of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 infection, well published incidents, and new scientific evidence make it appropriate to produce new guidelines for their control. This document reviews the clinical and epidemiological features of VTEC O157 infection, describes the principles of microbiological investigation and laboratory safety, and presents recommendations for the prevention of spread of VTEC) O157. The recommendations consider direct spread of infection from animals, foodborne spread, the institutions in which spread is more likely to occur (nursing homes, schools, and children's day nurseries), and groups at particular risk of acquiring and transmitting infection (in essence, food handlers, and those unable to maintain high standards of hygiene for themselves and their carers). PMID:10743313

  3. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC. PMID:25951395

  4. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.; Patel, Jaimin S.; Green, Kari B.; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. PMID:26519395

  5. Development of a real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria in fish.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald; Burkhardt, William

    2011-05-01

    Prompt detection of bacteria that contribute to scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning can aid in the detection of potentially toxic fish products and prevent the occurrence of illness. We report development of the first real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in fish. The real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for detecting high-histamine producing isolates and did not detect any of the low- or non-histamine producing isolates. The efficiency of the assay with/without internal amplification control ranged from 96-104% and in the presence of background flora and inhibitory matrices was 92/100% and 73-96%, respectively. This assay was used to detect HPB from naturally contaminated yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and false albacore samples. Photobacterium damselae (8), Plesiomonas shigelloides (2), Shewanella sp. (1), and Morganella morganii (1) were subsequently isolated from the real-time PCR positive fish samples. These results indicate that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting high-HPB. The assay may be adapted for quantification of HPB, either directly or with an MPN-PCR method. PMID:21356438

  6. Risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 illness in The Netherlands, 2008-2012, using periodically surveyed controls.

    PubMed

    Friesema, I H M; Schotsborg, M; Heck, M E O C; Van Pelt, W

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections have been associated with severe illness. Ruminants are seen as the main reservoir and the major transmission route is considered to be foodborne. In The Netherlands, a case-control study was conducted, using data collected during 2008-2012. Patients were interviewed and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire. Patients travelling abroad were excluded from the analyses. STEC O157 and non-O157 were examined separately and differentiated into two age groups (<10 years, ⩾10 years). We included 130 O157 cases, 78 non-O157 cases and 1563 controls. In both age groups of O157 patients, raw spreadable sausage was the main risk factor for infection. For STEC non-O157 cases aged <10 years, contact with farm animals was the main risk factor and in non-O157 cases aged ⩾10 years, consumption of beef was the main risk factor. During 2008-2012, risk factors for STEC infections in the Dutch population differed between age groups and serogroup categories, and were related to eating meat and contact with farm animals. Advising the public about the risks of consuming raw or undercooked meat (products) and hygiene habits in case of contact with farm animals, could help in the prevention of STEC infections. PMID:25195737

  7. IL-17A-Producing γδ T Cells Suppress Early Control of Parasite Growth by Monocytes in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Meru; Beattie, Lynette; Frame, Teija C M; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Faleiro, Rebecca J; Bunn, Patrick T; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L; Ng, Susanna S; Kumar, Rajiv; Amante, Fiona H; Best, Shannon E; McColl, Shaun R; Varelias, Antiopi; Kuns, Rachel D; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Smyth, Mark J; Haque, Ashraful; Hill, Geoff R; Engwerda, Christian R

    2015-12-15

    Intracellular infections, such as those caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), require a potent host proinflammatory response for control. IL-17 has emerged as an important proinflammatory cytokine required for limiting growth of both extracellular and intracellular pathogens. However, there are conflicting reports on the exact roles for IL-17 during parasitic infections and limited knowledge about cellular sources and the immune pathways it modulates. We examined the role of IL-17 in an experimental model of VL caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani and identified an early suppressive role for IL-17 in the liver that limited control of parasite growth. IL-17-producing γδ T cells recruited to the liver in the first week of infection were the critical source of IL-17 in this model, and CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes were an important target for the suppressive effects of IL-17. Improved parasite control was independent of NO generation, but associated with maintenance of superoxide dismutase mRNA expression in the absence of IL-17 in the liver. Thus, we have identified a novel inhibitory function for IL-17 in parasitic infection, and our results demonstrate important interactions among γδ T cells, monocytes, and infected macrophages in the liver that can determine the outcome of parasitic infection. PMID:26538396

  8. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  9. Controlled reduction of red mud waste to produce active systems for environmental applications: heterogeneous Fenton reaction and reduction of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Costa, Regina C C; Moura, Flávia C C; Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Magalhães, Fabiano; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2010-02-01

    In this work, controlled reduction of red mud with H(2) was used to produce active systems for two different environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Mössbauer, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that at different temperatures, i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600 degrees C, H(2) reduces red mud to different phases, mainly Fe(3)O(4), Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(0). These Fe phases are dispersed on Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the red mud and show high reactivity towards two environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Reduction with H(2) at 400 degrees C showed the best results for the oxidation of the model dye methylene blue with H(2)O(2) at neutral pH due to the presence of the composite Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4). The reduced red mud at 500-600 degrees C produced Fe(0) highly active for the reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium. Another feature of these red mud based system is that after deactivation due to extensive use they can be completely regenerated by simple treatment with H(2). PMID:20060564

  10. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration. PMID:26886167

  11. Producer quality assurance programs.

    PubMed

    Kla, J; Tollefson, L

    1999-03-01

    Essentially all animal commodity organizations have established quality assurance programs designed to ensure food safety and quality. Most of these programs were originally implemented to address problems with veterinary drug residues. Many of the current programs have or plan to include food safety critical control points with specific guidelines on how to control or reduce pathogen load. The continued focus placed on food safety by today's consumer demands that American producers ensure that their commodities are wholesome, safe, and of high quality in order to remain competitive in the global marketplace. Veterinarians should recognize that it is important to encourage food animal producers to participate in quality assurance programs for their clients' economic health and for food safety and protection of public health. Commodities certified as being produced under good production practices or by producers certified as following a recognized and validated quality assurance program often bring a premium price. Also, some slaughter establishments are beginning to require producers to be certified as practicing under a recognized quality assurance program before animals are accepted for processing. This practice is being driven partially by the demands placed on slaughter establishments by the US Department of Agriculture's implementation of the Pathogen Reduction, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Systems regulation. Regardless of why producer trade association quality assurance programs have come into existence, veterinarians should promote the programs as an excellent mechanism to help ensure everyone's goal of a safe, wholesome food supply. PMID:10088219

  12. Micro-micro hierarchy replacing micro-nano hierarchy: a precisely controlled way to produce wear-resistant superhydrophobic polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Eero; Hirvi, Janne; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2012-10-16

    Superhydrophobic polymer surfaces are typically fabricated by combining hierarchical micro-nanostructures. The surfaces have a great technological potential because of their special water-repellent and self-cleaning properties. However, the poor mechanical robustness of such surfaces has severely limited their use in practical applications. This study presents a simple and swift mass production method for manufacturing hierarchically structured polymer surfaces at micrometer scale. Polypropylene surface structuring was done using injection molding, where the microstructured molds were made with a microworking robot. The effect of the micro-microstructuring on the polymer surface wettability and mechanical robustness was studied and compared to the corresponding properties of micro-nanostructured surfaces. The static contact angles of the micro-microstructured surfaces were greater than 150° and the contact angle hysteresis was low, showing that the effect of hierarchy on the surface wetting properties works equally well at micrometer scale. Hierarchically micro-microstructured polymer surfaces exhibited the same superhydrophobic wetting properties as did the hierarchically micro-nanostructured surfaces. Micro-microstructures had superior mechanical robustness in wear tests as compared to the micro-nanostructured surfaces. The new microstructuring technique offers a precisely controlled way to produce superhydrophobic wetting properties to injection moldable polymers with sufficiently high intrinsic hydrophobicity. PMID:23009694

  13. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  14. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. PMID:23978352

  15. Defectless Monolithic Low-k/Cu Interconnects Produced by Chemically Controlled Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process with In situ End-Point-Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Makoto; Onodera, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Akira; Hoshino, Susumu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    Defectless monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects have been obtained for low-power LSIs by a chemically controlled local chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process to remove a Cu/TaN barrier on hydrophobic SiOCH low-k films. In the first step, Cu-CMP, a unique end-point-detection (EDP) method is implemented to detect a very thin Cu layer (˜100 nm) that remains on the TaN barrier by in situ white-light interferometry, which is implemented in the local CMP apparatus where the wafers undergoing polishing are oriented face-up. In the second step, TaN-CMP, a SiO2 hard-mask (HM) layer on the low-k film is selectively removed to reduce the nonuniformity of the Cu line thickness, and accordingly, those of the resistance and capacitance. Here, a CMP slurry with an oxidizer is used to change the low-k surface from a hydrophobic condition to a hydrophilic condition, improving wettability and reducing the number of scratches and abrasive particles. In the post-CMP cleaning, an alkaline rinse solution with an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of less than -0.5 V vs a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) produces a clean low-k surface resulting in monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects with excellent dielectric properties comparable to those of SiO2/Cu interconnects.

  16. A prospective case–control and molecular epidemiological study of human cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and related non-O157 STEC strains are enteric pathogens of public health concern worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases. Cattle are considered the principal hosts and have been shown to be a source of infection for both foodborne and environmental outbreaks in humans. The aims of this study were to investigate risk factors associated with sporadic STEC infections in humans in New Zealand and to provide epidemiological information about the source and exposure pathways. Methods During a national prospective case–control study from July 2011 to July 2012, any confirmed case of STEC infection notified to regional public health units, together with a random selection of controls intended to be representative of the national demography, were interviewed for risk factor evaluation. Isolates from each case were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Results Questionnaire data from 113 eligible cases and 506 controls were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Statistically significant animal and environmental risk factors for human STEC infections were identified, notably 'Cattle livestock present in meshblock’ (the smallest geographical unit) (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI 1.04–3.42), 'Contact with animal manure’ (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12–3.90), and 'Contact with recreational waters’ (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.30–6.70). No food-associated risk factors were identified as sources of STEC infection. E. coli O157:H7 caused 100/113 (88.5%) of clinical STEC infections in this study, and 97/100 isolates were available for molecular analysis. PFGE profiles of isolates revealed three distinctive clusters of genotypes, and these were strongly correlated with SBI type. The variable 'Island of residence’ (North or South Island of New Zealand) was significantly associated with PFGE genotype (p = 0.012). Conclusions Our

  17. An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices.

    PubMed

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Singh, M V

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate physico-chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potentials of municipal solid waste composts produced in 29 cities of the country. Results indicated that except a very few samples, all other samples have normal pH and EC. Organic matter as well as major nutrients N and P contents in MSW composts are generally low as compared to the composts prepared from rural wastes. Heavy metal contents in composts from bigger cities (>1 million population) were higher by about 86% for Zn, 155% for Cu, 194% for Cd, 105% for Pb, 43% for Ni and 132% for Cr as compared to those from smaller cities (<1 million population). Composts prepared from source separated biogenos wastes contained, on average, higher organic matter (by 57%), total N (by 77%) and total P (by 78%), but lower concentrations of heavy metals Zn (by 63%), Cu (by 78%), Cd (by 64%), Pb (by 84%), Ni (by 50%), and Cr (by 63%) as compared to those prepared from mixed wastes. Partial segregation at the site of composting did not improve quality of compost significantly in terms of fertilizing parameters and heavy metal contents. Majority of MSW composts did not conform to the quality control guideline of 'The Fertilizer (Control) Order 1985' in respect of total organic C, total P, total K as well as heavy metals Cu, Pb and Cr. In order to enable the relevant stakeholders to judge overall quality, a scheme has been proposed for the categorization of composts into different marketable classes (A, B, C, and D) and restricted use classes (RU-1, RU-2, and RU-3) on the basis their fertilizing potential and as well as potential for contaminating soil and food chain. Under the scheme, 'Fertilizing index' was calculated from the values of total organic C, N, P, K, C/N ratio and stability parameter, and 'Clean index' was calculated from the contents of heavy metals, taking the relative importance of each of the parameters into consideration. As per the scheme

  18. Injectable PLGA/Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Microcapsules Produced by Supercritical Emulsion Extraction Technology: An In Vitro Study on Teriparatide/Gentamicin Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Campardelli, Roberta; Cricchio, Vincenzo; Oliva, Francesco; Maffulli, Nicola; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    Supercritical emulsion extraction (SEE) is proposed as a green and effective strategy for the fabrication of chitosan-covered poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (chi-PLGA) injectable microcapsules for the controlled release of teriparatide (THA) and teriparatide/gentamicin sulfate (THA/Gen). These formulations can be used for locally bone pathologies treatment or in complex fracture healing of aged patients. Several oil-water (o-w) and water-oil-water (w-o-w) emulsions were processed by SEE to produce multifunctional microcapsules containing hydroxyapatite (HA) within a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrix (up to 24 mg/g) and with both THA (0.45 mg/g) and Gen (up to 9 mg/g). Chitosan coating was also successfully added, as external layer (0.4 μm). SEE-fabricated microcapsules showed good encapsulation efficiency (up to 90%) for all the drugs tested and a mean size ranging between 1.4 (±0.4) μm and 2.2 (±0.5) μm. Different drug amounts loaded and microcapsules compositions assured a controlled drug release over a wide range of times and concentrations, as in vitro monitored in PBS medium at 37°C for 15/20 days. HA embedded into the biopolymer structure delayed the THA release profile; chitosan coating strongly reduced the initial drug "burst" release. In addition, the coencapsulation of both THA and Gen, which have very different water solubility, accelerated the release profile of the less water-soluble drug. No drugs degradation was also monitored after the SEE manufacturing. Apparent drug diffusivities (D) were calculated by fitting of the release profiles. In the case of Gen, D ranged between 2.9 × 10(-8) and 1.6 × 10(-9) cm(2)s(-1) if the drug was entrapped in simple PLGA or in the chitosan-coated microcapsules, respectively. In the case of THA, the calculated values ranged between 8.1 × 10(-9) and 7.4 × 10(-10) cm(2)s(-1) when the drug was entrapped in PLGA/HA microcapsules or in the chitosan-coated ones, respectively. These mass transfer values

  19. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Neonatal Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A 12-Year Case-Control-Control Study of a Referral Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03–10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10–15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17–24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81–19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome. PMID:27505270

  1. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Neonatal Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A 12-Year Case-Control-Control Study of a Referral Center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Lee, I-Ta; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10-15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17-24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81-19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome. PMID:27505270

  2. Male-produced pheromone of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid introduced for the biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The braconid, Spathius agrili, has been released in the U.S. as a biocontrol agent for the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a very destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). We have identified and synthesized seven male-produced compounds. A flight tunnel bioassay identified t...

  3. A COMPOUND PRODUCED BY FRUIGIVOROUS TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) LARVAE PROMOTES OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR BY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We co...

  4. Geologic controls on movement of produced-water releases at US geological survey research Site A, Skiatook lake, Osage county, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly saline produced water was released from multiple sources during oil field operations from 1913 to 1973 at the USGS research Site A on Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma. Two pits, designed to hold produced water and oil, were major sources for release of these fluids at the site. Produced water spills from these and other features moved downslope following topography and downdip by percolating through permeable eolian sand and colluvium, underlying permeable sandstone, and, to a lesser extent, through shales and mudstones. Saline water penetrated progressively deeper units as it moved through the gently dipping bedrock to the north and NW. A large eroded salt scar north of the pits coincides with underlying fine-grained rocks that have retained substantial concentrations of salt, causing slow revegetation. Where not eroded, thick eolian sand or permeable sandstone bedrock is near the surface, and vegetation has been little affected or has reestablished itself after the introduced salt was flushed by precipitation. The extent of salt-contaminated bedrock extends well beyond existing surface salt scars. These results indicate that one of the legacies of surface salt spills can be a volume of subsurface salinization larger than the visible surface disturbance. ?? 2007.

  5. Efficacy of a food grade blend of lactate-diacetate-propionate as ingredients to control Listeria monocytogenes on commericially produced frankfurters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Further research is warranted to evaluate different levels/types of food grade antimicrobials to control Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) on RTE meats. Purpose: Determine viability of Lm on frankfurters formulated with a blend of lactate-diacetate-propionate (0, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0%) and then...

  6. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Iwawaki, T.; Morita, K.; Antici, P.; Baton, S. D.; Filippi, F.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï, P.; Nazarov, W.; Rousseaux, C.; Starodubstev, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5-10 eV and densities around 1021 cm-3 are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations.

  7. Use of whole-genome sequencing to trace, control and characterize the regional expansion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai; Lokate, Mariette; Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Tepper, Marga; Arends, Jan P.; Raangs, Erwin G. C.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome; Grundmann, Hajo; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the transmission of a CTX-M-15-producing ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae between patients treated in a single center and the subsequent inter-institutional spread by patient referral occurring between May 2012 and September 2013. A suspected epidemiological link between clinical K. pneumoniae isolates was supported by patient contact tracing and genomic phylogenetic analysis from May to November 2012. By May 2013, a patient treated in three institutions in two cities was involved in an expanding cluster caused by this high-risk clone (HiRiC) (local expansion, CTX-M-15 producing, and containing hypervirulence factors). A clone-specific multiplex PCR was developed for patient screening by which another patient was identified in September 2013. Genomic phylogenetic analysis including published ST15 genomes revealed a close homology with isolates previously found in the USA. Environmental contamination and lack of consistent patient screening were identified as being responsible for the clone dissemination. The investigation addresses the advantages of whole-genome sequencing in the early detection of HiRiC with a high propensity of nosocomial transmission and prolonged circulation in the regional patient population. Our study suggests the necessity for inter-institutional/regional collaboration for infection/outbreak management of K. pneumoniae HiRiCs. PMID:26864946

  8. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. N.; Iwawaki, T.; Morita, K.; Antici, P.; Baton, S. D.; Filippi, F.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï , P.; Nazarov, W.; Rousseaux, C.; Starodubstev, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5–10 eV and densities around 1021 cm−3 are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations. PMID:26923471

  9. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Iwawaki, T; Morita, K; Antici, P; Baton, S D; Filippi, F; Habara, H; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Nazarov, W; Rousseaux, C; Starodubstev, M; Tanaka, K A; Fuchs, J

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5-10 eV and densities around 10(21) cm(-3) are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations. PMID:26923471

  10. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are