Science.gov

Sample records for product development processes

  1. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums

  2. MEMS product engineering using fabrication process development tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K.; Schmidt, T.; Ortloff, D.; Popp, J.; Wagener, A.; Brück, R.

    2008-12-01

    The development of MEMS devices differs substantially from product engineering methods used in more traditional industries. The approach is characterized by a close customer involvement and product specific fabrication processes. A large number interdependencies between device design on the one hand and manufacturing process development on the other hand make product engineering in the MEMS area a rather tedious and complicated task. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive customer-oriented MEMS product engineering methodology. Both MEMS design and fabrication process development are analyzed with regard to procedures and interfaces used in order to develop an appropriate CAD support either in terms of existing tools or by specifying individual tools to be implemented. The manufacturing process development is part of this holistic approach and is supported by a CAD environment for the management and the design of thin-film MEMS fabrication processes. This environment has been developed by the authors and became recently commercially available.

  3. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  4. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies. PMID:23054971

  5. Quantitative high throughput analytics to support polysaccharide production process development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2014-05-19

    The rapid development of purification processes for polysaccharide vaccines is constrained by a lack of analytical tools current technologies for the measurement of polysaccharide recovery and process-related impurity clearance are complex, time-consuming, and generally not amenable to high throughput process development (HTPD). HTPD is envisioned to be central to the improvement of existing polysaccharide manufacturing processes through the identification of critical process parameters that potentially impact the quality attributes of the vaccine and to the development of de novo processes for clinical candidates, across the spectrum of downstream processing. The availability of a fast and automated analytics platform will expand the scope, robustness, and evolution of Design of Experiment (DOE) studies. This paper details recent advances in improving the speed, throughput, and success of in-process analytics at the micro-scale. Two methods, based on modifications of existing procedures, are described for the rapid measurement of polysaccharide titre in microplates without the need for heating steps. A simplification of a commercial endotoxin assay is also described that features a single measurement at room temperature. These assays, along with existing assays for protein and nucleic acids are qualified for deployment in the high throughput screening of polysaccharide feedstreams. Assay accuracy, precision, robustness, interference, and ease of use are assessed and described. In combination, these assays are capable of measuring the product concentration and impurity profile of a microplate of 96 samples in less than one day. This body of work relies on the evaluation of a combination of commercially available and clinically relevant polysaccharides to ensure maximum versatility and reactivity of the final assay suite. Together, these advancements reduce overall process time by up to 30-fold and significantly reduce sample volume over current practices. The

  6. Process development for biological production of butanol from Eastern redcedar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Ramachandriya, Karthikeyan D; Wilkins, Mark R; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Ujor, Victor; Tanner, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern redcedar is an invasive softwood species in Oklahoma and across grasslands in the Central Plains of the United States and potential feedstock for butanol production. Butanol has higher energy content than ethanol and can be upgraded to jet and diesel fuels. The objective of this study was to develop a process for production of butanol from redcedar. Results showed that Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 did not grow in fermentation medium with citrate buffer. However, both strains grew in the medium with acetate buffer, resulting in 3-4g/L greater butanol than without acetate. Detoxification of redcedar hydrolyzate was required to increase butanol concentration from 1 to 13g/L. Hydrolyzate was detoxified by activated carbon to remove inhibitors. Fermentations in detoxified redcedar hydrolyzate reached 13g/L butanol and 19g/L total ABE, comparable to glucose control. This shows the potential for redcedar use in butanol production. PMID:25460988

  7. A New "Product Development" Process: William and Mary's Experiment in MBA Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Jim; Hess, Ron

    2005-01-01

    For decades, business schools have advocated product development processes that utilize trans-organizational, cross-function teams. Is it time for business schools to apply this model to our own product: MBA graduates? In this paper, we describe the trans-organizational, team-based approach that has transformed product development in many…

  8. Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

    2014-05-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017. PMID:24627047

  9. Recovery and purification process development for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfen; Winter, Charles; Bayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently in development, and many companies have multiple antibodies in their pipelines. Current methodology used in recovery processes for these molecules are reviewed here. Basic unit operations such as harvest, Protein A affinity chromatography and additional polishing steps are surveyed. Alternative processes such as flocculation, precipitation and membrane chromatography are discussed. We also cover platform approaches to purification methods development, use of high throughput screening methods, and offer a view on future developments in purification methodology as applied to mAbs. PMID:20647768

  10. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization. PMID:22750091

  11. The Process and the Product: Two English Classes Develop Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Mary Ellen

    1982-01-01

    English classes conducted for two groups of women, garment factory workers and building cleaners, are compared. The garment workers interviewed each other and produced a slide-tape program. The cleaners produced a song about their work and in the process, developed awareness of the work situation, and a sense of cooperation. (MSE)

  12. Process development studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol. Semi annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1981-04-01

    Progress in the following process development studio is reported: economic evaluation of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation schemes, economic evaluation of alternative fermentation processes, raw materials evaluation, and evaluation of pretreatment process. Microbiological and enzymatic studies reported are: production of cellulase enzyme from high yielding mutants, hydrolysis reactor development, xylose fermentation, and xylanese production. Fermentation and separation processes include: process development studies on vacuum fermentation and distillation, evaluation of low energy separations processes, large scale hollow fiber reactor development. (MHR)

  13. Development of the Production Process Model Based on the Controllable Input Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, I.; Redko, L.; Titova, O.; Chaykovskaya, O.

    2016-06-01

    The research aims to study noncompliances in the production process, defects in chipboard manufacturing and the related costs. The influence of production process parameters on the parameters of finished products and correlation dependence of considered parameters have been shown. The mathematical model of the multiple-factor production process has been developed.

  14. Decreasing costs of ground data processing system development using a software product line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaffin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I describe software product lines and why a Ground Data Processing System should use one. I also describe how to develop a software product line, using examples from an imaginary Ground Data Processing System.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1990-10-01

    The primary objective of the EERC/AMAX Mild Gasification project is to commercialize a process that will produce several value-added products from a high-sulfur midwestern bituminous or a low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Indiana No. 3 and Wyodak coals are being tested in a 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) that has undergone shakedown testing and is undergoing parametric testing. This unit will provide the engineering data for use in determining the technical and economic data required for the design of a commercial-scale mild gasification plant. This report discusses results of carbonizer tests, char upgrading and char separations. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  17. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  18. Science--A Process Approach, Product Development Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara A.; Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    Science - A Process Approach, a science program for grades kindergarten through sixth, mainly focuses on scientific processes: observing, classifying, using numbers, measuring, space/time relationships, communicating, predicting, inferring, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, interpreting data, controlling variables, and experimenting.…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  1. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  2. Process development in the QbD paradigm: Role of process integration in process optimization for production of biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S; Pathak, Mili; Godara, Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Biotherapeutics have become the focus of the pharmaceutical industry due to their proven effectiveness in managing complex diseases. Downstream processes of these molecules consist of several orthogonal, high resolution unit operations designed so as to be able to separate variants having very similar physicochemical properties. Typical process development involves optimization of the individual unit operations based on Quality by Design principles in order to define the design space within which the process can deliver product that meets the predefined specifications. However, limited efforts are dedicated to understanding the interactions between the unit operations. This paper aims to showcase the importance of understanding these interactions and thereby arrive at operating conditions that are optimal for the overall process. It is demonstrated that these are not necessarily same as those obtained from optimization of the individual unit operations. Purification of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF), a biotherapeutic expressed in E. coli., has been used as a case study. It is evident that the suggested approach results in not only higher yield (91.5 vs. 86.4) but also improved product quality (% RP-HPLC purity of 98.3 vs. 97.5) and process robustness. We think that this paper is very relevant to the present times when the biotech industry is in the midst of implementing Quality by Design towards process development. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:355-362, 2016. PMID:26588604

  3. CO-PRODUCT ENHANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MASADA OXYNOL PROCESS PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald V. Watkins

    2010-06-14

    The focus of this project was an overall process improvement through the enhancement of the co-product streams. The enhancement of the process operations and co-products will increase both ethanol production and the value of other process outputs and reduces the amount of waste byproducts. This leads to a more economical and environmentally sound alternative to landfill disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). These enhancements can greatly increase the commercial potential for the production of ethanol from MSW by the Masada CES OxyNol process. Both technological and economical issues were considered for steps throughout the conversion process. The research efforts of this project are varied but synergistic. The project investigated many of the operations involved in the Masada process with the overall goal of process improvements. The general goal of the testing was to improve co-product quality, improve conversions efficiencies, minimize process losses, increase energy efficiency, and mitigate process and commercialization risks. The project was divided into 16 subtasks as described in general terms below. All these tasks are interrelated but not necessarily interdependent.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.; McKinney, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in the production of ferroalloys and in mini-mills. Coke can be produced by upgrading char through briquetting and calcining and for use in the steel industry foundries and blast furnaces. In a step beyond the scope of the project, the plan is to finance, design and construct, in a partnership with others, a plant to produce coal liquid, char and coke in the initial range of 250,000 tons/year. In the Coal Technology Corporation CTC/CLC{reg_sign} Process, coal is continuously moved by interfolded twin screws through a heated retort in the absence of air. The residence time of the coal in the Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) is in the range of 20--30 minutes. The coal is heated to controlled temperatures between 800{degree} and 1400{degree}F and is converted into char, condensible hydrocarbon liquids, small quantities of water, and non-condensible fuel gases. The coal derived fuel gases could supply all the required process heat, but for convenience, natural gas is used in the experimental unit. The process concept particularly suitable for highly caking coals which cannot be processed in fluidized bed or moving bed furnaces.

  5. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R. ); Hogsett, R.F. ); Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO ); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. . Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  6. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Aulich, T.R.

    1991-05-01

    The current objective of the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) mild gasification project is to optimize reaction char and marketable liquids production on a 100-lb/hr scale using Wyodak subbituminous and Indiana No. 3 bituminous coals. Tests performed using the EERC 100-lb/hr process development unit (PDU) include a refractory-cure (Test P001), a test using petroleum coke (Test P002), and tests using Wyodak and Indiana coals. The reactor system used for the 11 PDU tests conducted to date consists of a spouted, fluid-bed carbonizer equipped with an on-line condensation train that yields three boiling point fractions of coal liquids ranging in volatility from about (77{degrees}--750{degrees}F) (25{degrees}--400{degrees}C). The September--December 1990 quarterly report described reaction conditions and the bulk of the analytical results for Tests P010 and P011. This report describes further P010 and P011 analytical work, including the generation of simulated distillation curves for liquid samples on the basis of sulfur content, using gas chromatography coupled with atomic emission detection (GC/AED) analysis. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Accelerated process development for protease production in continuous multi-stage cultures.

    PubMed

    Raninger, A; Steiner, W

    2003-06-01

    A fermentation process was developed and optimized for the production of a specific protease from Bacillus licheniformis PWD-1. Media formulations were constructed and crucial environmental parameters were optimized to enhance growth and product formation. Process dynamics of substrate consumption, biomass-, product-, as well as by-product formation were determined under controlled conditions in a bioreactor. Using kinetic data from batch- and continuous-culture experiments, a fed-batch process was developed producing proteolytic activities 10 times those found during regular batch culture. In one stage continuous stirred tank culture protease formation was completely decoupled from sporulation. Shift experiments in one-stage continuous cultures led to the development of a two-stage continuous stirred tank fermentation process using optimized conditions for growth in the first stage and protease formation in the second stage. Accordingly, the basis for a continuous production of the enzyme on a pilot scale was accomplished. PMID:12652475

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Mask Production CAR Development Process with Stepwise Defect Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo-Gun; Lee, Jung-Kwan; Park, Dong-Il; Park, Eu-Sang; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Seo, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Dong-Heok; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo-Hong

    2002-12-01

    Chemically amplified resist (CAR) provides superior lithographic performance compared to traditional e-beam resists in production maskmaking. Parameters benefiting the most are contrast, resolution, and sensitivity. In spite of CAR's advantages, defect control and tighter 50KeV e-beam CAR process restrictions are significantly more critical thanks to smaller geometries, tighter CD specifications, and optical proximity correction (OPC) for 90nm node mask technology. Among defect root causes, resist development is considered to be the one of the most important steps because post-development residue can generate printable defects on finished masks. We investigated the CAR development process across different resist development methods, such as binary and fan-type nozzle spin spray, and puddle development. Several high density binary and embedded-attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs) with 70% clear area in the main pattern field were evaluated in an effort to identify and contain post-develop defects in a typical mask production flow. Development step process residue was examined at the after-develop inspection (ADI) step and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for individual defect review. The KLA-Tencor SLF77 TeraStar inspection tool was used to inspect patterns after the development, Cr/MoSiON layer dry etch, and clean steps. The effectiveness of the various CAR development methods has been also studied following development, dry etch, and cleaning inspection by using identical binary and EAPSM masks from production. The mechanism and defect source during the stepwise process and inspections were scrutinized and discussed. Experimental results showed that stepwise process inspection was effective in identifying defects and their sources to prevent defects, and in optimizing each process step. It was found that CAR development and dry etch processes are the most important process steps to control defects in CAR-based mask production. Suggested optimized

  11. CERES-GKN: A global knowledge network to enable environmentally sound product and process development

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper expounds the rationale of the CERES-GKN initiative to create a Global Knowledge Network for product development engineers. Engineers designing products will have the benefit of world-wide databases on a variety of engineering data regarding manufacturing processes, design for disassembly methods, toxic hazards, recyclable materials, remediation, etc.

  12. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  13. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O; Saeed, Faiza; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch. PMID:21605939

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  16. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  17. 3D Machine Vision and Additive Manufacturing: Concurrent Product and Process Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Ismet P.

    2013-06-01

    The manufacturing environment rapidly changes in turbulence fashion. Digital manufacturing (DM) plays a significant role and one of the key strategies in setting up vision and strategic planning toward the knowledge based manufacturing. An approach of combining 3D machine vision (3D-MV) and an Additive Manufacturing (AM) may finally be finding its niche in manufacturing. This paper briefly overviews the integration of the 3D machine vision and AM in concurrent product and process development, the challenges and opportunities, the implementation of the 3D-MV and AM at POLMAN Bandung in accelerating product design and process development, and discusses a direct deployment of this approach on a real case from our industrial partners that have placed this as one of the very important and strategic approach in research as well as product/prototype development. The strategic aspects and needs of this combination approach in research, design and development are main concerns of the presentation.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  19. Measuring the impact of computer resource quality on the software development process and product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Valett, Jon; Hall, Dana

    1985-01-01

    The availability and quality of computer resources during the software development process was speculated to have measurable, significant impact on the efficiency of the development process and the quality of the resulting product. Environment components such as the types of tools, machine responsiveness, and quantity of direct access storage may play a major role in the effort to produce the product and in its subsequent quality as measured by factors such as reliability and ease of maintenance. During the past six years, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has conducted experiments with software projects in an attempt to better understand the impact of software development methodologies, environments, and general technologies on the software process and product. Data was extracted and examined from nearly 50 software development projects. All were related to support of satellite flight dynamics ground-based computations. The relationship between computer resources and the software development process and product as exemplified by the subject NASA data was examined. Based upon the results, a number of computer resource-related implications are provided.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  1. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use was developed. The process sequence was then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of certain process steps for implementation. The steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect, both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development.

  2. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  4. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  5. The dual-bed hydrogen production process as being developed by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Process study

    SciTech Connect

    DiPietro, J.P.; Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-06-01

    Clovis Linkous of the Florida Solar Energy Center is developing a dual-bed hydrogen production process. The idea is to break the water splitting process into two separate chemical reactions, each with roughly {1/2} the electrochemical potential of direct water dissociation. This enables the dual-bed process to utilize a much broader range of sunlight photons than conventional photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. However, it requires twice as many photons per unit of hydrogen produced. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate and quantify the trade-offs presented by the dual bed process and determine if it holds economic potential as a hydrogen production technology. The capital cost of a /solar-based water dissociation system is roughly proportional to the solar collection surface area. Thus, the economics rely on how much hydrogen can be produced per unit of solar insolation.

  6. Development of new critical fluid-based processing methods for nutraceuticals and natural products

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid processing technology as applied to nutraceuticals and natural products is no longer confined to using just supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}). Recently reported advances have been focused on modifying natural products and improving functionality of an end product using newer experimental techniques and fluid phases. In this presentation four focus areas will be emphasized: (1) control of particle size/morphology and encapsulation of the nutraceutical ingredients, (2) the use of combinatorial methodology to optimize critical fluid processing, (3) application of sub-critical water as a complementary medium for processing natural products, and (4) an assessment of the current state of products and processing which use critical fluid to produce nutraceutical and natural products for the food and cosmetic marketplace. Application of the various particle fomiation processes conducted in the presence of critical fluid media, such as: CPF, SAS, DELOS, RESS, PGSS, and GAS, can be used to produce particles of small and uniform distribution, having unique morphologies, that facilitate rapid dissolution or sustained release of many nutraceutical ingredients. These substances have included: therapeutic spices, phystosterols, vitamins, phospholpids, and carotenoids. Accelerating the development of critical fluid processing has been the application of combinatorial methodology to optimize extraction, fractionation, and/or reactions in near-, SC-, or subcritical fluid media. This is frequently accomplished by using sequential or multichannel automated instrumentation that was originally designed for analytical purposes. Several examples will be provided of rapidly assessing the extraction of anthocyanins with sub-critical water and the SFE of natural products. However, differences do exist in conducting experiments on the above instrumentation vs. scaled-up continuous processes, which

  7. Development of a process for production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.F.; Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A process is being developed for the production of liquid alkane fuels from biomass. The process consists of three steps: (1) anaerobic, suppressed methane fermentation of biomass to organic acids; (2) selective liquid-liquid extraction of butyric, valeric, and caproic acids; and (3) electrolytic oxidation of the acid salts to an alkane fuel and hydrogen. This article focuses on current developmental work. A variety of substrates was tested to determine their rate and efficiency of conversion to organic acids. Low pH and elevated organic acid levels were found to favor fermentation to higher acids. Optimal conditions for the electrolytic oxidation have been sought. A favorable energy balance (product energy/process energy) of 3.0/1.0 has been estimated for the complete process.

  8. System design, development, and production process modeling: A versatile and powerful acquisition management decision support tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rafuse, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    A series of studies have been completed on the manufacturing operations of light, medium, and heavy tactical vehicle system producers to facilitate critical system acquisition resource decisions by the United States Army Program Executive Officer, Tactical Wheeled Vehicles. The principal programs were the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) production programs at Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc.; the heavy TWV production programs at the Oshkosh Truck Corporation in Oshkosh, Wisconsin; and the light TWV and 2.5 ton remanufacturing production programs at the AM General Corporation in South Bend, Indiana. Each contractor`s production scenarios were analyzed and modeled to accurately quantify the relationship between production rates and unit costs. Specific objectives included identifying (1) Minimum Sustaining Rates to support current and future budgetary requirements and resource programming for potential follow-on procurements, (2) thresholds where production rate changes significantly affect unit costs, and (3) critical production program factors and their impacts to production rate versus unit cost relationships. Two different techniques were utilized initially in conducting the analyses. One technique principally focused on collecting and analyzing applicable historical production program information, where available, to develop a statistical predictive model. A second and much more exhaustive technique focused on a detailed modeling of each contractor`s production processes, flows, and operations. A standard architecture of multiple linked functional modules was used for each process model. Using the standard architecture, the individual modules were tailored to specific contractor operations. Each model contains detailed information on manpower, burden rates, material, material price/quantity relationships, capital, manufacturing support, program management, and all related direct and indirect costs applicable to the production programs.

  9. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  12. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models, and computer codes based on these models were developed which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors in which gaseous silicon compounds are converted to condensed phase silicon. The reactors to be modeled are flow reactors in which silane or one of the halogenated silanes is thermally decomposed or reacted with an alkali metal, H2 or H atoms. Because the product of interest is particulate silicon, processes which must be modeled, in addition to mixing and reaction of gas-phase reactants, include the nucleation and growth of condensed Si via coagulation, condensation, and heterogeneous reaction.

  13. Climatological Processing and Product Development for the TRMM Ground Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, D. A.; Kulie, M. S.; Robinson, M.; Silberstein, D. S.; Wolff, D. B.; Ferrier, B. S.; Amitai, E.; Fisher, B.; Wang, J.; Augustine, D.; Thiele, O.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was successfully launched in November 1997.The main purpose of TRMM is to sample tropical rainfall using the first active spaceborne precipitation radar. To validate TRMM satellite observations, a comprehensive Ground Validation (GV) Program has been implemented. The primary goal of TRMM GV is to provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements over monthly climatologies for the following primary sites: Melbourne, FL; Houston, TX; Darwin, Australia- and Kwajalein Atoll, RMI As part of the TRMM GV effort, research analysts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generate standardized rainfall products using quality-controlled ground-based radar data from the four primary GV sites. This presentation will provide an overview of TRMM GV climatological processing and product generation. A description of the data flow between the primary GV sites, NASA GSFC, and the TRMM Science and Data Information System (TSDIS) will be presented. The radar quality control algorithm, which features eight adjustable height and reflectivity parameters, and its effect on monthly rainfall maps, will be described. The methodology used to create monthly, gauge-adjusted rainfall products for each primary site will also be summarized. The standardized monthly rainfall products are developed in discrete, modular steps with distinct intermediate products. A summary of recently reprocessed official GV rainfall products available for TRMM science users will be presented. Updated basic standardized product results involving monthly accumulation, Z-R relationship, and gauge statistics for each primary GV site will also be displayed.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  15. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  16. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  17. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    A patent was issued on ''VLS'' silicon carbide fibrils to North American Phillips Corporation in 1975. Various laboratories and companies have been attempting to improve this process and scale it to larger quantities since that time. All of these efforts met with minimal success because they were using the original technology while attempting to improve the equipment. The principal impediments have been: (1) Slow crystal growth during fibril production; (2) Sensitive stoichiometry factors in the crystal growth chamber; and (3) Precise control of a high temperature process. The principal investigator has scaled silicon carbide whisker production at American Matrix and the SiC fiber process at Advanced Composite Materials Corporation from grams in the laboratory to tons per year production. This project is a proof-of-concept effort to apply some of the recent technology to the problems listed above in the fibril growth process. Two different technology approaches were investigated. A major problem with fibril growth has been generating a consistent supply of the required SiO gas reactant, which is a product of reducing SiO{sub 2}. The first approach, in this project addresses the SiO gas production, involved mixing silica and carbon fibrous raw materials in the immediate proximity of the graphite fibril growth plates to generate SiO nearer to individual sites of fibril growth. Iron bearing catalyst was painted on the graphite plates and the SiO generator mix was placed above the plate. This system was then heated to 1600/1650 C in a graphite resistance furnace. Some fibrils were started but the growth rate and fibril quality were unacceptably low. A second approach, which uses MTS + H{sub 2} gases to address stoichiometry control, was investigated to improve fibril growth rates while reducing the previous high temperature requirements for the process. A partial vacuum chamber was construct inside a commercial microwave furnace. The fibril growth container was coated

  18. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas A.; Smith, Rachel B.; Shi, Xinyan; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  19. Development of a process for high capacity-arc heater production of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H.; Meyer, T. N.; Fey, M. G.; Harvey, F. J.; Arcella, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    The realization of low cost, electric power from large-area silicon, photovoltaic arrays will depend on the development of new methods for large capacity production of solar grade (SG) silicon with a cost of less than $10 per kilogram by 1986 (established Department of Energy goal). The objective of the program is to develop a method to produce SG silicon in large quantities based on the high temperature-sodium reduction of silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) to yield molten silicon and the coproduct salt vapor (NaCl). Commercial ac electric arc heaters will be utilized to provide a hyper-heated mixture of argon and hydrogen which will furnish the required process energy. The reactor is designed for a nominal silicon flow rate of 45 kg/hr. Analyses and designs have been conducted to evaluate the process and complete the initial design of the experimental verification unit.

  20. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  2. Large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels - process design as an inherent part of microorganism development.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Maria C; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2013-06-01

    Industrial biotechnology is playing an important role in the transition to a bio-based economy. Currently, however, industrial implementation is still modest, despite the advances made in microorganism development. Given that the fuels and commodity chemicals sectors are characterized by tight economic margins, we propose to address overall process design and efficiency at the start of bioprocess development. While current microorganism development is targeted at product formation and product yield, addressing process design at the start of bioprocess development means that microorganism selection can also be extended to other critical targets for process technology and process scale implementation, such as enhancing cell separation or increasing cell robustness at operating conditions that favor the overall process. In this paper we follow this approach for the microbial production of diesel-like biofuels. We review current microbial routes with both oleaginous and engineered microorganisms. For the routes leading to extracellular production, we identify the process conditions for large scale operation. The process conditions identified are finally translated to microorganism development targets. We show that microorganism development should be directed at anaerobic production, increasing robustness at extreme process conditions and tailoring cell surface properties. All the same time, novel process configurations integrating fermentation and product recovery, cell reuse and low-cost technologies for product separation are mandatory. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the latest challenges in large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels. PMID:23650260

  3. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  4. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    Between 2008 and 2035 global energy demand is expected to grow by 53%. While most industry-level analyses of manufacturing in the United States (U.S.) have traditionally focused on high energy consumers such as the petroleum, chemical, paper, primary metal, and food sectors, the remaining sectors account for the majority of establishments in the U.S. Specifically, of the establishments participating in the Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey in 2006, the non-energy intensive" sectors still consumed 4*109 GJ of energy, i.e., one-quarter of the energy consumed by the manufacturing sectors, which is enough to power 98 million homes for a year. The increasing use of renewable energy sources and the introduction of energy-efficient technologies in manufacturing operations support the advancement towards a cleaner future, but having a good understanding of how the systems and processes function can reduce the environmental burden even further. To facilitate this, methods are developed to model the energy of manufacturing across three hierarchical levels: production equipment, factory operations, and industry; these methods are used to accurately assess the current state and provide effective recommendations to further reduce energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of production equipment is characterized to provide machine operators and product designers with viable methods to estimate the environmental impact of the manufacturing phase of a product. The energy model of production equipment is tested and found to have an average accuracy of 97% for a product requiring machining with a variable material removal rate profile. However, changing the use of production equipment alone will not result in an optimal solution since machines are part of a larger system. Which machines to use, how to schedule production runs while accounting for idle time, the design of the factory layout to facilitate production, and even the

  5. Process development for the biological production of succinic acid and its derivatives from renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, N.P.

    1995-12-01

    The initial targets of the Alternative Feedstocks Program (AFP) are succinic acid and its derivatives. The first goal is to develop and demonstrate an integrated process for succinic acid production from renewable materials such as corn dextrose. A process has been identified to produce succinic acid by fermentation, purify it without precipitation, and convert it as an ester to butanediol. Four areas have been identified for improvement by focused research and development. These include (1) biocatalyst improvements through metabolic engineering, (2) bioreactor design, (3) separation/purification of succinic acid by membrane electrodialysis or adsorption, and (4) catalytic conversion of succinic acid to higher-valued chemicals such as butanediol. An essential element in this program is the on-going effort in process design, integration and economic assessment to evaluate the current process and the potential impacts of the proposed improvements. The AFP, which focuses on renewables-to-chemicals opportunities, is a joint effort between industry and a national laboratory team consisting of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory Michigan Biotechnology Institute is a collaborator on the succinic project.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  7. Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-03-01

    The concept of utilizing excess biomass or wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial residues to produce energy, feeds or foods, and other useful products is not necessarily new. Recently, fermentation of biomass has gained considerable attention due to the forthcoming scarcity of fossil fuels and also due to the necessity of increasing world food and feed supplies. A cost-effective viable process for lactic acid production has to be developed for which several attempts have been initiated. Fermentation techniques result in the production of either D: (-) or L: (+) lactic acid, or a racemic mixture of both, depending on the type of organism used. The interest in the fermentative production of lactic acid has increased due to the prospects of environmental friendliness and of using renewable resources instead of petrochemicals. Amylolytic bacteria Lactobacillus amylovorus ATCC 33622 is reported to have the efficiency of full conversion of liquefied cornstarch to lactic acid with a productivity of 20 g l(-1) h(-1). A maximum of 35 g l(-1) h(-1) was reported using a high cell density of L. helveticus (27 g l(-1)) with a complete conversion of 55- to 60-g l(-1) lactose present in whey. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is proved to be best in the sense of high substrate concentration in lower reactor volume and low fermentation cost. In this review, a survey has been made to see how effectively the fermentation technology explored and exploited the cheaply available source materials for value addition with special emphasis on lactic acid production. PMID:17225102

  8. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon in volume at low cost were studied. Experiments were performed to evaluate product separation and collection processes, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes, determine the effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction, and make preliminary engineering and economic analyses of a scaled-up process.

  9. Knowledge work productivity effect on quality of knowledge work in software development process in SME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zairol; Mahmuddin, Massudi; Ahmad, Mazida

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge and skill are necessary to develop the capability of knowledge workers. However, there is very little understanding of what the necessary knowledge work (KW) is, and how they influence the quality of knowledge work or knowledge work productivity (KWP) in software development process, including that in small and medium-sized (SME) enterprise. The SME constitutes a major part of the economy and it has been relatively unsuccessful in developing KWP. Accordingly, this paper seeks to explore the influencing dimensions of KWP that effect on the quality of KW in SME environment. First, based on the analysis of the existing literatures, the key characteristics of KW productivity are defined. Second, the conceptual model is proposed, which explores the dimensions of the KWP and its quality. This study analyses data collected from 150 respondents (based on [1], who involve in SME in Malaysia and validates the models by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results provide an analysis of the effect of KWP on the quality of KW and business success, and have a significant relevance for both research and practice in the SME

  10. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  11. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  13. Guidance for Product Category Rule Development: Process, Outcome and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background The development of Product Category Rules (PCRs) is inconsistent among the program operators using ISO 14025 as the basis. Furthermore, the existence of several other product claim standards and specifications that require PCRs for making product claims, has the potent...

  14. Process development for the practical production of eldecalcitol by linear, convergent and biomimetic syntheses.

    PubMed

    Kubodera, Noboru; Hatakeyama, Susumi

    2012-01-01

    Eldecalcitol [1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropoxy)vitamin D(3)], an analog of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)), possesses a hydroxypropoxy substituent at the 2β-position of calcitriol. Eldecalcitol has potent biological effects on bone disease such as osteoporosis. The marketing of eldecalcitol has very recently started in Japan. In consideration of this, we have been investigating practical synthesis of eldecalcitol for industrial-scale production. Eldecalcitol was initially synthesized in a linear manner. The 27-step linear sequence was, however, suboptimal due to its lengthiness and low overall yield (ca. 0.03%). Next, we developed a convergent approach based on the Trost coupling reaction, in which the A-ring fragment (ene-yne part obtained in 10.4% overall yield) and the C/D-ring fragment (bromomethylene part obtained in 27.1% overall yield) are coupled to produce the triene system of eldecalcitol (15.6%). Although the overall yield of the convergent synthesis was better than that of the linear synthesis, significant improvements were still necessary. Therefore, additional biomimetic studies were investigated. Process development for the practical production of eldecalcitol is described herein. PMID:22213320

  15. Process development of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars using gentically engineered yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, M.S.; Xia, Y.; Ho, N.W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an ideal feedstock for the large scale manufacture of fuel ethanol. Glucose and xylose represent the two major fermentable sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and efficient fermentation of both these sugars is essential for the economical production of fuel ethanol. In our laboratory, a genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) has been developed which can ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously to ethanol. This recombinant yeast has a very high ethanol tolerance (13.6% w/v) which allows high ethanol concentrations to accumulate in the fermentation medium, thus reducing downstream processing mu significantly. For large scale application of this genetically engineered cell culture, the fermentation kinetics have been investigated. We have studied the effects of substrate and product inhibition for both the host post 1400 and the engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33) during fermentation of glucose, xylose and mixtures of glucose and xylose. Plasmid instability is an important factor influencing cell culture scale up. This aspect w investigated in selective, non-selective and partially selective fermentation media and the results will be reported in this paper. Based on these kinetic studies, a model has been developed which can simulate the fermentation of glucose and xylose to ethanol using the genetically engineered yeast 1400 (pLNH33), in both batch and continuous cultures.

  16. Expanding lean thinking to the product and process design and development within the framework of sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorli, M.; Sopelana, A.; Salgado, M.; Pelaez, G.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Companies require tools to change towards a new way of developing and producing innovative products to be manufactured considering the economic, social and environmental impact along the product life cycle. Based on translating Lean principles in Product Development (PD) from the design stage and, along the entire product life cycle, it is aimed to address both sustainability and environmental issues. The drivers of sustainable culture within a lean PD have been identified and a baseline for future research on the development of appropriate tools and techniques has been provided. This research provide industry with a framework which balance environmental and sustainable factors with lean principles to be considered and incorporated from the beginning of product design and development covering the entire product lifecycle.

  17. Developing a Data Driven Process-Based Model for Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmasri, B.; Rahman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon fluxes at various spatial and temporal scales is essential for quantifying the global carbon cycle. Numerous models have been developed for this purpose using several environmental variables as well as vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data. Here we present a data driven modeling approach for gross primary production (GPP) that is based on a process based model BIOME-BGC. The proposed model was run using available remote sensing data and it does not depend on look-up tables. Furthermore, this approach combines the merits of both empirical and process models, and empirical models were used to estimate certain input variables such as light use efficiency (LUE). This was achieved by using remotely sensed data to the mathematical equations that represent biophysical photosynthesis processes in the BIOME-BGC model. Moreover, a new spectral index for estimating maximum photosynthetic activity, maximum photosynthetic rate index (MPRI), is also developed and presented here. This new index is based on the ratio between the near infrared and the green bands (ρ858.5/ρ555). The model was tested and validated against MODIS GPP product and flux measurements from two eddy covariance flux towers located at Morgan Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana and Harvard Forest in Massachusetts. Satellite data acquired by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and MODIS were used. The data driven model showed a strong correlation between the predicted and measured GPP at the two eddy covariance flux towers sites. This methodology produced better predictions of GPP than did the MODIS GPP product. Moreover, the proportion of error in the predicted GPP for MMSF and Harvard forest was dominated by unsystematic errors suggesting that the results are unbiased. The analysis indicated that maintenance respiration is one of the main factors that dominate the overall model outcome errors and improvement in maintenance respiration estimation

  18. Development of Impact Acoustic Detection and Density Separation Methods for Production of High Quality Processed Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High rate of structural defects of finished bean products discourage their acceptance by consumers and end-users. Processing dry beans into high-value dehydrated precooked product can increase their value and improve the profitability of farmers and food manufacturers. This research investi...

  19. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil

  20. Implementation of automated macro after develop inspection in a production lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanof, Arnold W.; Plachecki, Vincent E.; Fischer, Frank W.; Cusacovich, Marcelo; Nelson, Chris; Merrill, Mark A.

    2000-06-01

    Although the subject of frequent concern, criticism, and attention in the modern semiconductor fabrication facility, human after develop inspection (ADI) does not catch the major scrap and yield events early enough, if at all. The overall success of scrap and photo redo reduction programs over past years has resulted in residual problem levels which are difficult to improve upon -- yet still very costly. Detected 'events' are few and far-between, although evidence of their prevalence is frequently seen at subsequent inspections, or finally at probe. In the ASIC fab, they put on-time delivery to customers at risk, because individual wafer lots in an ASIC facility have a designated customer. The sampled area is limited by human throughput to less than 10% of the wafers in a lot. The visual ADI process step is unpopular among manufacturing technicians. It is often a bottleneck in the photo area. Statistically, in a photo area with capacity of 5000 wafer starts per week, only a few wafers processed per day are destined for scrap. Since wafer events occur in sporadic clusters, the photo area experiences only a few significant incidents per month. The typical operator can expect to intercept such an event less than once during several months of otherwise uneventful ADI inspection haystack.' Hence the stubbornness of our residual problem. Going beyond the statistical problem, our current manual macro-inspection equipment is engineered appropriately to ancient IC generations. A collimated, oblique-oriented light was an effective darkfield illumination source, when line widths were much larger than the wavelength of light. When line width is comparable to, or smaller than, the wavelength, the collimated light source produces scintillating diffracted colors on the wafer. Thus diffraction 'noise' significantly buries the defect 'signal' in the typical bright light visual macro inspection. In addition, there is the problem of variability between human inspectors, and the

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  3. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies. PMID:25153872

  4. Streamlining the production process

    SciTech Connect

    Hulpke, H.; Mueller-Eisen, U.

    1995-01-01

    Process facilities often use a combination of centralized and decentralized treatment plants for solid, liquid and gaseous waste streams. However, despite continual improvements in pollution-control technologies, treatment and disposal methods rarely lead to zero emissions. And, many add-on controls consume raw materials and energy themselves, create secondary waste streams, or require additional capital and operating costs. Environmentally sound manufacturing does not come only from developing better techniques for treating wastes at the end of the production process. Greater effort and capital budgets must be devoted to developing preventive measures, rather than simply working to improve existing treatment and disposal methods. In general all aspects of chemical production and waste management must be integrated. Since pollution-prevention efforts cannot totally eliminate waste formation, process operators should also consider the possibility of onsite reuse of unwanted byproduct streams. IN some cases, the recovery and reuse of unreacted raw materials or auxiliaries may be more cost effective than investing in system overhauls to eliminate their formation.

  5. Risk management in medical product development process using traditional FMEA and fuzzy linguistic approach: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram

    2015-05-01

    Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.

  6. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  7. Development of advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products addendum to technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the material balance data for Wyodak, Indiana No. 3, and Cannelton coals that were tested in the mild gasification program. Data include tests conducted using the 1- to 4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and the 100-lb/hr Process Research Unit (PRU). All raw analysis data were reduced to calculate product yields as a percentage of the product mass divided by the maf coal feed. The material closure was then determined, and losses were assigned to one or a combination of the three product streams: char, condensate (includes condensed steam), and gas. Mass was added proportionally to each constituent of the stream until the closure was 100%.

  8. Coal liquefaction processes and development requirements analysis for synthetic fuels production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Focus of the study is on: (1) developing a technical and programmatic data base on direct and indirect liquefaction processes which have potential for commercialization during the 1980's and beyond, and (2) performing analyses to assess technology readiness and development trends, development requirements, commercial plant costs, and projected synthetic fuel costs. Numerous data sources and references were used as the basis for the analysis results and information presented.

  9. Development of a glutathione production process from proteinaceous biomass resources using protease-displaying Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kim, Songhee; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kiriyama, Kentaro; Kondo, Takashi; Okai, Naoko; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-02-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tri-peptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is produced industrially by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and supplementation of fermentation with several amino acids can increase intracellular GSH content. More recently, however, focus has been given to protein as a resource for biofuel and fine chemical production. We demonstrate that expression of a protease on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae enables the direct use of keratin and soy protein as a source of amino acids and that these substrates enhanced intracellular GSH content. Furthermore, fermentation using soy protein also enhanced cell concentration. GSH fermentation from keratin and to a greater extent from soy protein using protease-displaying yeast yielded greater GSH productivity compared to GSH fermentation with amino acid supplementation. This protease-displaying yeast is potentially applicable to a variety of processes for the bio-production of value-added chemicals from proteinaceous biomass resources. PMID:22075633

  10. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  11. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  12. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of automated solar cell and module production is reported. The unimate robot is programmed for the final 35 cell pattern to be used in the fabrication of the deliverable modules. The mechanical construction of the automated lamination station and final assembly station phases are completed and the first operational testing is underway. The final controlling program is written and optimized. The glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels to be used for testing and deliverables are in production. Test routines are grouped together and defined to produce the final control program.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4. 7), Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  14. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, R.D.

    2003-04-22

    The current work continues a project completed in 1999 by ReMaxCo Technologies in which a novel, microwave based, VLS Silicon Carbide Fibrils concept was verified. This project continues the process development of a pilot scale commercial reactor. Success will lead to sufficient quantities of fibrils to expand work by ORNL and others on heat exchanger tube development. A semicontinuous, microwave heated, vacuum reactor was designed, fabricated and tested in these experiments. Cylindrical aluminum oxide reaction boats are coated, on the inner surface, with a catalyst and placed into the reactor under a light vacuum. A series of reaction boats are then moved, one at a time, through the reactor. Each boat is first preheated with resistance heaters to 850 C to 900 C. Each reaction boat is then moved, in turn, to the microwave heated section. The catalyst is heated to the required temperature of 1200 C to 1300 C while a mixture of MTS (methyl trichlorosilane) and hydrogen are introduced into the annulus of the boat. The MTS is dissociated to allow the carbon and silicon components to be dissolved into the catalyst. The catalyst saturates and precipitates silicon carbide onto the surface of the reaction boat to grow the Fibrils. The reaction continues as long as the MTS is introduced into the reactor. The major obstacle that had to be overcome during this project was the performance of the reactor. The original design of the reactor focused the microwaves in such a manner that they missed the catalyst/Fibrils growth zone. The microwaves did react with the insulation and the reactor was heated by heating the insulation. Modifications were made to the reactor to focus the microwaves on the catalyst. SiC Fibrils were produced using both MTS and Starfire SP4000 as feed-gas precursors. Both precursors produced fibrils at temperatures of less than 1000 C. The new Starfire SP4000 produced fibrils as low as 800 C, without the use of hydrogen and without producing the hazardous

  15. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  16. Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  18. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  19. Development of the silane process for the production of low-cost polysilicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    It was recognized that the traditional hot rod type deposition process for decomposing silane is energy intensive, and a different approach for converting silane to silicon was chosen. A 1200 metric tons/year capacity commercial plant was constructed in Moses Lake, Washington. A fluidized bed processor was chosen as the most promising technology and several encouraging test runs were conducted. This technology continues to be very promising in producing low cost polysilicon. The Union Carbide silane process and the research development on the fluidized bed silane decomposition are discussed.

  20. High-throughput process development of an alternative platform for the production of virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Baumann, Pascal; Weigel, Claudia; Vormittag, Philipp; Middelberg, Anton; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-02-10

    The production of safe vaccines against untreatable or new diseases has pushed the research in the field of virus-like particles (VLPs). Currently, a large number of commercial VLP-based human vaccines and vaccine candidates are available or under development. A promising VLP production route is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus proteins into capsids. In the study reported here, a high-throughput screening (HTS) procedure was implemented for the upstream process development of a VLP platform in bacterial cell systems. Miniaturized cultivations were carried out in 48-well format in the BioLector system (m2p-Labs, Germany) using an Escherichia coli strain with a tac promoter producing the murine polyomavirus capsid protein (VP1). The screening procedure incorporated micro-scale cultivations, HTS cell disruption by sonication and HTS-compatible analytics by capillary gel electrophoresis. Cultivation temperatures, shaking speeds, induction and medium conditions were varied to optimize the product expression in E. coli. The most efficient system was selected based on an evaluation of soluble and insoluble product concentrations as well as on the percentage of product in the total soluble protein fraction. The optimized system was scaled up to cultivation 2.5L shaker flask scale and purified using an anion exchange chromatography membrane adsorber, followed by a size exclusion chromatography polishing procedure. For proof of concept, purified VP1 capsomeres were assembled under defined buffer conditions into empty capsids and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presented HTS procedure allowed for a fast development of an efficient production process of VLPs in E. coli. Under optimized cultivation conditions, the VP1 product totalled up to 43% of the total soluble protein fraction, yielding 1.63 mg VP1 per mL of applied cultivation medium. The developed production process strongly promotes the murine polyoma-VLP platform, moving towards

  1. Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon were developed. The following tasks were accomplished: (1) formulation of a model for silicon vapor separation/collection from the developing turbulent flow stream within reactors of the Westinghouse (2) modification of an available general parabolic code to achieve solutions to the governing partial differential equations (boundary layer type) which describe migration of the vapor to the reactor walls, (3) a parametric study using the boundary layer code to optimize the performance characteristics of the Westinghouse reactor, (4) calculations relating to the collection efficiency of the new AeroChem reactor, and (5) final testing of the modified LAPP code for use as a method of predicting Si(1) droplet sizes in these reactors.

  2. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  3. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  4. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  5. Development of a Model and Computer Code to Describe Solar Grade Silicon Production Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, R.; Gould, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The program aims at developing mathematical models and computer codes based on these models, which allow prediction of the product distribution in chemical reactors for converting gaseous silicon compounds to condensed-phase silicon. The major interest is in collecting silicon as a liquid on the reactor walls and other collection surfaces. Two reactor systems are of major interest, a SiCl4/Na reactor in which Si(l) is collected on the flow tube reactor walls and a reactor in which Si(l) droplets formed by the SiCl4/Na reaction are collected by a jet impingement method. During this quarter the following tasks were accomplished: (1) particle deposition routines were added to the boundary layer code; and (2) Si droplet sizes in SiCl4/Na reactors at temperatures below the dew point of Si are being calculated.

  6. Development and processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the world`s supply of {sup 99m}Tc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of {sup 99}Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substantial progress has been made in developing targets and chemical processes for producing {sup 99}Mo using low-enriched uranium (LEU). Target development has been focused on a uranium-metal foil target as a replacement for the coated-UO{sub 2} Cintichem-type target. Although the first designs were not successful because of ion mixing-induced bonding of the uranium foil to the target tubes, recent irradiations of modified targets have proven successful. Only minor modifications of the Cintichem chemical process are required for the uranium-metal foil targets. A demonstration using prototypically irradiated targets is anticipated in February 1997. Progress has also been made in basic dissolution of both uranium-metal foil and aluminum-clad U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion fuel targets.

  7. Further development of chemical vapor deposition process for production of large diameter carbon-base monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, R. L.; Richmond, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of large diameter carbon-base monofilament in the 50 micron to 250 micron diameter range using the chemical vapor deposition process is described. The object of this program was to determine the critical process variables which control monofilament strength, monofilament modulus, and monofilament diameter. It was confirmed that wide scatter in the carbon substrate strength is primarily responsible for the scatter in the monofilament strength. It was also shown through etching experiments that defective substrate surface conditions which can induce low strength modular growth in the monofilament layers are best controlled by processing improvements during the synthesis of the substrate. Modulus was found to be linearily proportional to monofilament boron content. Filament modulus was increased to above 27.8MN/sq cm but only by a considerable increase in monofilament boron content to 60 wt. % or more. Monofilament diameter depended upon dwell time in the synthesis apparatus. A monofilament was prepared using these findings which had the combined properties of a mean U.T.S. of 398,000 N/sq cm, a modulus of 18.9 MN/sq cm (24,000,000 psi), and a diameter of 145 microns. Highest measured strength for this fiber was 451,000 N/sq cm (645,000 psi).

  8. Process to Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gary, Ed.; Mirkes, Donna Z., Ed.

    Intended for educators who direct federally funded model projects, the booklet provides a framework for special education product development. In "Making Media Decisions," G. Richman explores procedures for selecting the most appropriate medium to carry the message of a given product. The fundamental questions are addressed: what is the goal; who…

  9. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  10. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  11. Observer, Process, and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Noa

    1996-01-01

    The structure of art as a symbol system is composed of three dimensions: observer, process, and product. Each dimension is described, discussed, and its application to art therapy illustrated through the case study of a 12-year-old boy suffering from a progressive neurological disorder. (LSR)

  12. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 January 2003 -- 30 June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore, S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes how Spire Corporation is addressing the PV Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area 800 W module and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Unique features of the module design include a cantilevered glass superstrate to reduce the glass thickness a nd internally laminated bypass diodes that simplify internal busing and junction-box designs. Other program activities include the development of automation for solar cell string inspections, string busing, materials lay-up, and lamination; enhancements to the lamination process; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  13. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    prediction of hydrogen production rates over a large range of experimental conditions in the laboratory scale reactor and the bench-scale reactor. In the economic analysis, a comparison of the hydrogen production plants using iron/iron oxide looping cycle and the conventional process has been presented. Plant configurations are developed for the iron/iron oxide looping cycle. The study suggests a higher electric power generation but a lower hydrogen production efficiency comparing with the conventional process. Additionally, it was shown that the price of H{sub 2} obtained from our reactor can be as low as $1.7/kg, which is 22% lower than the current price of the H{sub 2} obtained from reforming plants.

  14. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  15. Quality by design in formulation and process development for a freeze-dried, small molecule parenteral product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Linas N; Paul, Timothy W; Pease, Nathan A; Harper, Nancy J; Basu, Prabir K; Oslos, Elizabeth A; Sacha, Gregory A; Kuu, Wei Y; Hardwick, Lisa M; Karty, Jacquelyn J; Pikal, Michael J; Hee, Eun; Khan, Mansoor A; Nail, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in aqueous solution, and dimer formation from a Diels-Alder condensation in the freeze-dried solid state. When the drug crystallizes in a frozen solution, the eutectic melting temperature is above -5°C. Crystallization in the frozen system is affected by pH in the range of pH 6-8 and buffer concentration in the range of 5-50 mM, where higher pH and lower buffer concentration favor crystallization. Physical state of the drug is critical to solid state stability, given the relative instability of amorphous drug. Stability was shown to vary considerably over the ranges of pH and buffer concentration examined, and vial-to-vial variability in degree of crystallinity is a potential concern. The formulation design space was constructed in terms of pH and drug concentration, and assuming a constant 5 mM concentration of buffer. The process design space is constructed to take into account limitations on the process imposed by the product and by equipment capability. PMID:21932931

  16. Investigation of metallurgical phenomena related to process and product development by means of High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diéguez-Salgado, U.; Michelic, S.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    An increased interest for high temperature metallurgical processes appeared during the last decades, in order to achieve the high quality requirements in steel products. A defined steel cleanness and microstructure essentially influence the final product quality. The high temperatures involved in metallurgical processes and the lack of in situ observations do not only complicate the verification of simulation model predictions but also make significant conclusions regarding the industrial processes difficult. For that reason, new tools and techniques are necessary to develop. By combining the advances of a laser, confocal optics and an infrared image furnace, the High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (HTCSLM) is a strong tool which enables high temperature in situ observations of different metallurgical phenomena. Next to solidification processes and phase transformations also the behavior of inclusions at different interfaces in the system steel-slag-refractory can be observed. The present study focuses on the aspects of inclusion agglomeration in the liquid steel and the inclusion behavior at the steel/refractory interface in two different steel grades. Out of the obtained experimental data, attraction forces are calculated and compared. This information provides an important basis for a better understanding of inclusion behavior in industrial processes and the therewith related process optimization, like for example the clogging phenomenon during continuous casting.

  17. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  18. Status of Process Development for Pyrolysis of Biomass for Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Production.

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-06-01

    Pyrolysis is one of several thermochemical conversion strategies to produce useful fuels from biomass material . The goal of fast pyrolysis is to maximize liquid product yield. Fast pyrolysis is accomplished by the thermal treatment of the biomass in an air-free environment. Very short heat up and cool-down is a requirement for fast pyrolysis. The typical residence time in the pyrolysis reactor is 1 second. In order to accomplish the fast heatup, grinding the biomass to a small particle size in the range of 1 mm is typical and pre-drying of the biomass to less than 10 weight percent moisture is considered the standard. Recovery of the product liquid, called bio-oil, is accomplished by a variety of methods all of which require a quick quench of the product vapor. A definition of fast pyrolysis bio-oil is provided for the CAS # RN 1207435-39-9 recently issued by ChemAbstracts Services.

  19. BIOGAS Process development

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends, and to select the best pretreatment and digestion conditions for testing during the subsequent program for process development unit (PDU) operation. A significant portion of the program efforts to date has been directed at evaluating and/or developing feeding, mixing and discharging systems for handling high concentration, large particle size RDF slurries for anaerobic digestion processes. The performance of such processes depends significantly on the operational success of these subsystems. The results of the subsystem testing have been implemented in the design and operation of the 10-L, 20-L, and 125-L digesters. These results will also be utilized to design the CSTR and the upflow digesters of a large two-phase system. Data collected during the initial phase of this research showed in general that methane production from RDF decreased as the loading rate was increased. Thermophilic digestion did not appear to be significantly better than mesophlic digestion. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  1. Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Eiroa, M; Torres, C; Nunes, B R; Reis, M A M

    2007-07-15

    A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5-7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic acids were the main products, while lower pH favoured the production of butyric and valeric acids. PHA accumulation using fermented molasses was evaluated with two cultures selected either with acetate or fermented molasses. The effect of organic acids distribution on polymer composition and yield was evaluated with the acetate selected culture. Storage yields varied from 0.37 to 0.50Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA. A direct relationship between the type of organic acids used and the polymers composition was observed. Low ammonia concentration (0.1Nmmol/l) in the fermented molasses stimulated PHA storage (0.62Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA). In addition, strategies of reactor operation to select a PHA-accumulating culture on fermented molasses were developed. The combination of low organic loading with high ammonia concentration selected a culture with a stable storage capacity and with a storage yield (0.59Cmmol HA/Cmmol VFA) similar to that of the acetate-selected culture. PMID:17602776

  2. Efficient Process Development of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rh-GCSF) Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Babaeipour, Valiollah; Khanchezar, Sirwan; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Pesaran Hagi Abbas, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The protein hormone granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) stimulates the production of white blood cells and plays an important role in medical treatment of cancer patients. Methods: An efficient process was developed for heterologous expression of the human GCSF in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The feeding rate was adjusted to achieve the maximum attainable specific growth rate under critical value. In this method, specific growth rate was maintained at the maximum value of 0.55 h-1 at the beginning of feeding to 0.4 h-1 at the induction time. Recombinant human GCSF (rh-GCSF) was produced as inclusion body. At first, inclusion bodies were released by cell disruption and then washed, solubilized and refolded. Finally, the rh-GCSF was purified by cation exchange chromatography. Results: Obviouly, higher specific growth rate decreases process time and consequently increases productivity. The final concentration of biomass and GCSF was achieved 126 g DCW.l-1 and 32.1 g.l-1. Also, the final specific yield (YP/X) and total productivity of rh-GCSF were obtained 254 mg.g-1 DCW and 1.83 g.l-1.h-1, respectively. According to the available data, this is one of the highest YP/X and productivity that has been reported for any human protein which is expressed in E. coli. Recovery yield of purification process was %40 and purity of recombinant protein was over than 99%. The circular dichroism spectra of purified rh-GCSF, Neupogen® and PD-Grastim showed that all proteins have a similar secondary structure. Conclusion: Modified exponential feeding strategy for fed-batch cultivation of recombinant E. coli, results in minimum fed-batch duration and maximum productivity. PMID:25864815

  3. Artistic Production Processes as Venues for Positive Youth Development. WCER Working Paper No. 2010-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Educators must consider how learning environments can structure experiences to produce desired learning outcomes. In this paper, the author describes one type of learning environment where youth have the opportunity to construct adaptive, emergent identities--a "dramaturgical" process that structures the telling, adapting, and performing of…

  4. Functioning at the Edge of Knowledge: A Study of Learning Processes in New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena; Backlund, Thomas; Dixon, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In the telecommunication industry, companies gain a competitive edge through the competence of their employees, making issues of learning critical. The study aims to identify specific learning processes necessary when working at the edge both of one's own knowledge and of that of the branch. Design/methodology/approach: This research…

  5. Modeling Production Plant Forming Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, M; Becker, R; Couch, R; Li, M

    2004-09-22

    Engineering has simulation tools and experience in modeling forming processes. Y-12 personnel have expressed interest in validating our tools and experience against their manufacturing process activities such as rolling, casting, and forging etc. We have demonstrated numerical capabilities in a collaborative DOE/OIT project with ALCOA that is nearing successful completion. The goal was to use ALE3D to model Alcoa's slab rolling process in order to demonstrate a computational tool that would allow Alcoa to define a rolling schedule that would minimize the probability of ingot fracture, thus reducing waste and energy consumption. It is intended to lead to long-term collaboration with Y-12 and perhaps involvement with other components of the weapons production complex. Using simulations to aid in design of forming processes can: decrease time to production; reduce forming trials and associated expenses; and guide development of products with greater uniformity and less scrap.

  6. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  7. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K.

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  8. From e-manufacturing to Internet Product Process Development (IPPD) through remote - labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Nieto, Ernesto; Andres Cifuentes Parra, Paulo; Camilo Parra Díaz, Juan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the research developed at Universidad Nacional de Colombia about the e-Manufacturing platform that is being developed and implemented at LabFabEx (acronym in Spanish as "Laboratorio Fabrica Experimental"). This platform besides has an approach to virtual-remote labs that have been tested by several students and engineers of different industrial fields. At this paper it is shown the physical and communication experimental platform, the general scope and characteristics of this e-Manufacturing platform and the virtual lab approach. This research project is funded by COLCIENCIAS (Administrative Department of science, technology and innovation in Colombia) and the enterprise IMOCOM S.A.

  9. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts continued to obtain financing for a commercial continuous formed coke plant. Discussions were held with two steel companies that are interested in producing coke for their use in steel production and foundry operations. Planning for production of 40 tons of foundry formed coke is underway. This coke will be used in two 20-ton tests at General Motors` foundries. During this production, it is planned to determine if a tunnel kiln can be used as a coking furnace as an alternative for a rotary hearth. A rotary hearth is about three times more costly than a competitive-sized tunnel kiln. Work continued on using Western non-caking coals to produce formed coke. Successful tests were made by using Eastern caking coals and other binders to permit using up to 50% of the cheaper Western non-caking coals in formed coke production. The primary objective of this project is to develop an advanced continuous mild gasification process and product upgrading processes which will be capable of eventual commercialization.

  10. Developing Critically Thoughtful, Media-Rich Lessons in Science: Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcaen, Philip

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a professional development approach and a conceptual framework used to create critically thoughtful and media-rich science learning resources. Greater clarity about the nature of critical thinking and how to support teachers in learning to implement it are needed if we are to respond to broader calls for critical thinking…

  11. Process Development for Automated Solar Cell and Module Production. Task 4: Automated Array Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A baseline sequence for the manufacture of solar cell modules was specified. Starting with silicon wafers, the process goes through damage etching, texture etching, junction formation, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, and screen printed metallization to produce finished solar cells. The cells were then series connected on a ribbon and bonded into a finished glass tedlar module. A number of steps required additional developmental effort to verify technical and economic feasibility. These steps include texture etching, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, array layup and interconnect, and module edge sealing and framing.

  12. Circumventing the effect of product toxicity: development of a novel two-stage production process for the lantibiotic gallidermin.

    PubMed

    Valsesia, G; Medaglia, G; Held, M; Minas, W; Panke, S

    2007-03-01

    gallidermin production and giving a first confirmation of the suitability of the overproduction strategy. PMID:17194841

  13. Circumventing the Effect of Product Toxicity: Development of a Novel Two-Stage Production Process for the Lantibiotic Gallidermin▿

    PubMed Central

    Valsesia, G.; Medaglia, G.; Held, M.; Minas, W.; Panke, S.

    2007-01-01

    gallidermin production and giving a first confirmation of the suitability of the overproduction strategy. PMID:17194841

  14. Butadiene production process overview.

    PubMed

    White, Wm Claude

    2007-03-20

    Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

  15. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  16. Development of a process for producing ribbon shaped filaments. [production of silicon carbide filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debolt, H. E.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ribbon filaments were produced on a carbon ribbon substrate, about 1500 microns (60 mils) wide and 100 microns (4 mils) thick in lengths up to 2 meters (6 ft), and with tensile strengths up to 142 KN/cm sq (206 Ksi). During the course of the study, ribbon filaments of boron were also produced on the carbon ribbon substrate; the boron ribbon produced was extremely fragile. The tensile strength of the SiC ribbon was limited by large growths or flaws caused by anomalies at the substrate surface; these anomalies were either foreign dirt or substrate imperfections or both. Related work carried out on round 100 micron (4 mils) diameter SiC filaments on a 33 micron (1.3 mil) diameter, very smooth carbon monofilament substrate has shown that tensile strengths as high as 551 KN/cm sq (800 Ksi) are obtainable with the SiC-carbon round substrate combination, and indicates that if the ribbon substrate surface and ribbon deposition process can be improved similar strengths can be realizable. Cost analysis shows that 100 micron x 5-10 micron SiC ribbon can be very low cost reinforcement material.

  17. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  18. Development of a Novel Process Integrating the Treatment of Sludge Reject Water and the Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

    PubMed

    Frison, Nicola; Katsou, Evina; Malamis, Simos; Oehmen, Adrian; Fatone, Francesco

    2015-09-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from activated sludge and renewable organic material can become an alternative product to traditional plastics since they are biodegradable and are produced from renewable sources. In this work, the selection of PHA storing bacteria was integrated with the side stream treatment of nitrogen removal via nitrite from sewage sludge reject water. A novel process was developed and applied where the alternation of aerobic-feast and anoxic-famine conditions accomplished the selection of PHA storing biomass and nitrogen removal via nitrite. Two configurations were examined: in configuration 1 the ammonium conversion to nitrite occurred in the same reactor in which the PHA selection process occurred, while in configuration 2 two separate reactors were used. The results showed that the selection of PHA storing biomass was successful in both configurations, while the nitrogen removal efficiency was much higher (almost 90%) in configuration 2. The PHA selection degree was evaluated by the volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake rate (-qVFAs) and the PHA production rate (qPHA), which were 239 ± 74 and 89 ± 7 mg of COD per gram of active biomass (Xa) per hour, respectively. The characterization of the biopolymer recovered after the accumulation step, showed that it was composed of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) (60%) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) (40%). The properties associated with the produced PHA suggest that they are suitable for thermoplastic processing. PMID:26270064

  19. Development of a model and computer code to describe solar grade silicon production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. K.; Srivastava, R.

    1979-01-01

    Two computer codes were developed for describing flow reactors in which high purity, solar grade silicon is produced via reduction of gaseous silicon halides. The first is the CHEMPART code, an axisymmetric, marching code which treats two phase flows with models describing detailed gas-phase chemical kinetics, particle formation, and particle growth. It can be used to described flow reactors in which reactants, mix, react, and form a particulate phase. Detailed radial gas-phase composition, temperature, velocity, and particle size distribution profiles are computed. Also, deposition of heat, momentum, and mass (either particulate or vapor) on reactor walls is described. The second code is a modified version of the GENMIX boundary layer code which is used to compute rates of heat, momentum, and mass transfer to the reactor walls. This code lacks the detailed chemical kinetics and particle handling features of the CHEMPART code but has the virtue of running much more rapidly than CHEMPART, while treating the phenomena occurring in the boundary layer in more detail.

  20. Lenses for terahertz applications: Development of new materials and production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocic, N.; Wichmann, M.; Hochrein, T.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Radovanovic, I.; Mondol, A. S.; Koch, M.; Bastian, M.

    2014-05-01

    Up to now, polymer-based terahertz lenses have been made of pure polymers, such as high-density polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene or polypropylene. They are fabricated by injection molding, sintering or mechanical machining. Yet, the refractive indices of the abovementioned materials lie in a range between 1.40 to 1.55. Materials with a higher refractive index would allow for the fabrication of thinner lenses with a smaller curvature, shorter focal lengths and thus improved imaging properties. In this work innovative THz-lenses based on highly filled polymeric compounds, possessing a refractive index significantly higher than that of pure polymers, were developed. Furthermore, a simple and versatile approach for the fabrication of THz-lenses by means of extrusion and subsequent compression molding is presented. It was shown, that the new lenses exhibit refractive indices around 2.0 and simultaneously a low absorption. Other relevant material properties were satisfying as well. The new lenses show a very good surface quality. Compared to conventional lenses made of pure polymers, the new lenses possess an improved imaging quality and functionality. In addition, substrate lenses filled with highly refracting titanium dioxide could be used as an adequate replacement for their expensive, silicon made counterparts. Furthermore, compression molding proved to be a suitable method to fabricate lenses in a fast, efficient and precise way.

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    On November 6, 1991, a meeting was held at the AMAX Research and Development Center in Golden, Colorado. Those in attendance at the meeting included Brian Runge and Robert Ness of the EERC, Scott McFeely of Xoi, Frank Hogsett and Mahesh Jha of AMAX, and Jerry Sinor and Trevor Ellis of J.E- Sinor Consultants. Items on the agenda included framing the scope of work to be conducted by Sinor on the market assessment for mild gasification products. An attempt was made to draft an integrated time line for the completion of all subcontracts issued under the project. The commercial process flowsheet under development by XBi was presented for review. The goals to be achieved by the technical and economic assessment to be performed by XBi were outlined. Frank Hogsett reported on the progress of the coal cleaning being conducted by AMAX. As soon as sufficient coal has been cleaned, the mild gasification reactors at the EERC will be run to generate sufficient quantities of products to allow testing of product upgrading and utilization methods. The next project review meeting was held on December 12, 1991, in the Houston, Texas, offices of XBi. The major work conducted during this meeting focused on review of the preliminary process flow diagrams (PFOS) prepared by XBi. Several modifications were discussed and will be reflected in the updated PFDs.

  2. Developing products on Internet time.

    PubMed

    Iansiti, M; MacCormack, A

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the World Wide Web has provided one of the most challenging environments for product development in recent history. The market needs that a product is meant to satisfy and the technologies required to satisfy them can change radically--even as the product is under development. In response to such factors, companies have had to modify the traditional product-development process, in which design implementation begins only once a product's concept has been determined in its entirety. In place of that traditional approach, they have pioneered a flexible product-development process that allows designers to continue to define and shape products even after implementation has begun. This innovation enables Internet companies to incorporate rapidly evolving customer requirements and changing technologies into their designs until the last possible moment before a product is introduced to the market. Flexible product development has been most fully realized in the Internet environment because of the turbulence found there, but the foundations for it exist in a wide range of industries where the need for responsiveness is paramount. When technology, product features, and competitive conditions are predictable or evolve slowly, a traditional development process works well. But when new competitors and technologies appear overnight, when standards and regulations are in flux, and when a company's entire customer base can easily switch to other suppliers, businesses don't need a development process that resists change--they need one that embraces it. PMID:10170327

  3. An Open Computing Infrastructure that Facilitates Integrated Product and Process Development from a Decision-Based Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Computer applications for design have evolved rapidly over the past several decades, and significant payoffs are being achieved by organizations through reductions in design cycle times. These applications are overwhelmed by the requirements imposed during complex, open engineering systems design. Organizations are faced with a number of different methodologies, numerous legacy disciplinary tools, and a very large amount of data. Yet they are also faced with few interdisciplinary tools for design collaboration or methods for achieving the revolutionary product designs required to maintain a competitive advantage in the future. These organizations are looking for a software infrastructure that integrates current corporate design practices with newer simulation and solution techniques. Such an infrastructure must be robust to changes in both corporate needs and enabling technologies. In addition, this infrastructure must be user-friendly, modular and scalable. This need is the motivation for the research described in this dissertation. The research is focused on the development of an open computing infrastructure that facilitates product and process design. In addition, this research explicitly deals with human interactions during design through a model that focuses on the role of a designer as that of decision-maker. The research perspective here is taken from that of design as a discipline with a focus on Decision-Based Design, Theory of Languages, Information Science, and Integration Technology. Given this background, a Model of IPPD is developed and implemented along the lines of a traditional experimental procedure: with the steps of establishing context, formalizing a theory, building an apparatus, conducting an experiment, reviewing results, and providing recommendations. Based on this Model, Design Processes and Specification can be explored in a structured and implementable architecture. An architecture for exploring design called DREAMS (Developing Robust

  4. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The formed coke charges were 11 to 12 charges per hour. This equates to a higher melt rate. A 10 percent increase in cupola production would be a major advantage. 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Development Program of IS Process Pilot Test Plant for Hydrogen Production With High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Iwatsuki; Atsuhiko Terada; Hiroyuki Noguchi; Yoshiyuki Imai; Masanori Ijichi; Akihiro Kanagawa; Hiroyuki Ota; Shinji Kubo; Kaoru Onuki; Ryutaro Hino

    2006-07-01

    At the present time, we are alarmed by depletion of fossil energy and effects on global environment such as acid rain and global warming, because our lives depend still heavily on fossil energy. So, it is universally recognized that hydrogen is one of the best energy media and its demand will be increased greatly in the near future. In Japan, the Basic Plan for Energy Supply and Demand based on the Basic Law on Energy Policy Making was decided upon by the Cabinet on 6 October, 2003. In the plan, efforts for hydrogen energy utilization were expressed as follows; hydrogen is a clean energy carrier without carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission, and commercialization of hydrogen production system using nuclear, solar and biomass, not fossil fuels, is desired. However, it is necessary to develop suitable technology to produce hydrogen without CO{sub 2} emission from a view point of global environmental protection, since little hydrogen exists naturally. Hydrogen production from water using nuclear energy, especially the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is one of the most attractive solutions for the environmental issue, because HTGR hydrogen production by water splitting methods such as a thermochemical iodine-sulfur (IS) process has a high possibility to produce hydrogen effectively and economically. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the HTTR (High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) project from the view to establishing technology base on HTGR and also on the IS process. In the IS process, raw material, water, is to be reacted with iodine (I{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to produce hydrogen iodide (HI) and sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), the so-called Bunsen reaction, which are then decomposed endo-thermically to produce hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}), respectively. Iodine and sulfur dioxide produced in the decomposition reactions can be used again as the reactants in the Bunsen reaction. In JAEA, continuous

  7. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  8. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  9. Experimental study of the space-time development of the particle production process in hadron-nucleon collisions, using massive target nucleus as a detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental study of the space-time development of the particle production process in hadronic collisions at its initial stage was performed. Massive target nuclei have been used as fine detectors of properties of the particle production process development within time intervals smaller than 10 to the 22nd power s and spatial distances smaller than 10 to the 12th power cm. In hadron-nucleon collisions, in particular in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the particle production process goes through intermediate objects in 2 yields 2 type endoergic reactions. The objects decay into commonly observed resonances and paricles.

  10. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  11. Development and application of process-based simulation models for cotton production: A review of past, present, and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and application of cropping system simulation models for cotton production has a long and rich history, beginning in the southeast United States in the 1960's and now expanded to major cotton production regions globally. This paper briefly reviews the history of cotton simulation mo...

  12. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  13. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  14. Use of glyceroltriheptanoate as marker for processed animal by-products: development and validation of an analytical method.

    PubMed

    von Holst, C; Boix, A; Bellorini, S; Serano, F; Androni, S; Verkuylen, B; Margry, R

    2009-04-01

    A recently published European Regulation requires that the artificial marker, glycerol triheptanoate (GTH), be added to processed animal by-product (ABPs) prohibited from entering the food chain. The objective of this new requirement is to allow full traceability and ensure that these materials are disposed of in a proper way. Here, we report the development and single-laboratory validation of an analytical method for the determination of GTH in meat and bone meal plus animal fat. The method comprises three steps: (1) extraction of GTH from the samples with petroleum ether when analysing meat and bone meal or dissolving the sample in n-hexane when analysing fat; (2) clean-up of the extract using commercially available SPE cartridges; (3) determination of GTH by GC/MS or GC with flame ionisation detection (FID). The results of the validation study demonstrated that the relative standard for intermediate precision varied between 2.5 and 8.2%, depending on GTH concentration and the detector utilised. In all cases, the relative recovery rate was above 96%. The limit of quantification was 16 mg kg(-1) (GTH/fat content of the sample) with MS as detector and 20 mg kg(-1) with FID. Moreover, the method has been successfully applied in a second laboratory, indicating its transferability. Considering the minimum GTH concentration in ABPs of 250 mg kg(-1), the method is considered suitable for the intended purpose and can be utilised by EU Member States laboratories for official control and monitoring. PMID:19680920

  15. Developing and Testing Student Oriented Case Studies: The Production Process and Classroom/Examination Experiences with "Entertaining" Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cinneide, Barra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide insights into approaches for conceptualising and producing case studies that will be appropriate for inclusion in educational and training programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The efficacy of a new process adopted in case writing, through "front loading" production of the teaching note, is described. An analogy is derived…

  16. Restoration of spatial heterogeneity and ecohydrological processes in deserts: Development of artificial islands of hydrologically-enhanced productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in biological productivity, from the scale of plants to landscapes, is characteristic of arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The processes which control the formation of resource islands and determine the size, shape, longevity and distribution of resource islands acros...

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R.; Hogsett, R.F.; Sinor, J.E.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D.

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  19. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  20. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  1. Development of a continuous roll-to-roll processing system for mass production of plastic optical film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a highly effective method for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern based on a continuous roll-to-roll film extrusion and roller embossing process. In this study, a thin steel mold with a micro-circular hole array pattern is fabricated by photolithography and a wet chemical etching process. The thin steel mold was then wrapped onto a metal cylinder to form an embossing roller mold. During the roll-to-roll process operation, a thermoplastic raw material (polycarbonate grains) was put into the barrel of the plastic extruder with a flat T-die. Then, the molten polymer film was extruded and immediately pressed against the surface of the embossing roller mold. Under the proper processing conditions, the molten polymer will just partially fill the micro-circular holes of the mold and due to surface tension form a convex lens surface. A continuous plastic optical film with a microlens array pattern was obtained. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of plastic microlens formation on the roll-to-roll process. Finally, the geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic optical film were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern.

  2. Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Mills, W.H.

    1993-09-01

    Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

  3. APASS Data Product Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) Data Release 6 (DR6) of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) was a significant milestone in the ambitious project to provide calibrated photometry for 10 < V < 17 over the entire sky in Johnson B and V and Sloan g',r',I', bandpasses. DR6 itself was a list of mean magnitudes and colors for about 42 million objects and sky coverage was approximately 95% complete. The photometric means database has now been supplemented by additional data products: an epoch photometry database and a publicly-accessible store of the dark-subtracted, flat-fielded images at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. In this talk, I will describe the processes and challenges of producing these new, useful resources and the contributions of numerous people to the success of this effort. As new data releases occur, the epoch photometry database - which contains data for all measured stars, not just variables - will be updated to include all newly available measurements. As of October 2012, 861,322,813 individual photometric measurements exist in the epoch photometry database. The breakdown of measurements per filter is: B 167,682,680; V 170,005,969; u 25,457; g 181,303,298; r 181,266,321; i 160,374,091; z 664,997. A VStar plug-in to access and analyse the APASS epoch photometry database will be demonstrated and future developments discussed.

  4. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

  5. Laser forming process development

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

  6. Development of a Commercial Process for the Production of Silicon Carbide Fibrils - Draft Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, RD

    2002-10-24

    The current work continues a project completed in 1999 by ReMaxCo Technologies in which a novel, microwave based, VLS Silicon Carbide Fibrils concept was verified. This project continues the process development of a pilot scale commercial reactor. Success will lead to sufficient quantities of fibrils to expand work by ORNL and others on heat exchanger tube development. A semi-continuous, microwave heated, vacuum reactor was designed, fabricated and tested in these experiments. Cylindrical aluminum oxide reaction boats are coated, on the inner surface, with a catalyst and placed into the reactor under a light vacuum. A series of reaction boats are then moved, one at a time, through the reactor. Each boat is first preheated with resistance heaters to 850 C to 900 C. Each reaction boat is then moved, in turn, to the microwave heated section. The catalyst is heated to the required temperature of 1200 C to 1300 C while a mixture of MTS (methyl trichlorosilane) and hydrogen are introduced into the annulus of the boat. The MTS is dissociated to allow the carbon and silicon components to be dissolved into the catalyst. The catalyst saturates and precipitates silicon carbide onto the surface of the reaction boat to grow the Fibrils. The reaction continues as long as the MTS is introduced into the reactor. The major obstacle that had to be overcome during this project was the performance of the reactor. The original design of the reactor focused the microwaves in such a manner that they missed the catalyst/Fibrils growth zone. The microwaves did react with the insulation and the reactor was heated by heating the insulation. Modifications were made to the reactor to focus the microwaves on the catalyst. SiC Fibrils were produced using both MTS and Starfire SP4000 as feed-gas precursors. Both precursors produced fibrils at temperatures of less than 1000 C. The new Starfire SP4000 produced fibrils as low as 800 C, without the use of hydrogen and without producing the hazardous

  7. Two-stage continuous process development for the production of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Hazenberg, W; Prieto, M; Witholt, B

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas oleovorans forms medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) most effectively at growth rates below the maximum specific growth rate. Under adequate conditions, PHA accumulates in inclusion bodies in cells up to levels higher than half of the cell mass, which is a time-consuming process. For PHA production, a two-stage continuous cultivation system with two fermentors connected in series is a potentially useful system. It offers production of cells at a specific growth rate in a first compartment at conditions that lead cells to generate PHA at higher rates in a second compartment, with a relatively long residence time. In such a system, dilution rates of 0.21 h(-1) in the first fermentor (D(1)) and 0.16 h(-1) in the second fermentor (D(2)) were found to yield the highest volumetric PHA productivity. Transient-state experiments allowed investigation of D(1) and D(2) over a wide dilution rate range at high resolution in time-saving experiments. Furthermore, the influence of temperature, pH, nutrient limitation, and carbon source on PHA productivity was investigated and results similar to optimum conditions in single-stage chemostat cultivations of P. oleovorans were found. With all culture parameters optimized, a volumetric PHA productivity of 1.06 g L(-1) h(-1) was determined. Under these conditions, P. oleovorans cells contained 63% (dry weight) PHA in the effluent of the second fermentor. This is the highest PHA productivity and PHA content reported thus far for P. oleovorans cultures grown on alkanes. PMID:11084589

  8. Engineering-scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, W.E.; Mills, W.H.

    1993-07-01

    The Phase 1 portion of the development program has been completed. Under this program the following milestones were achieved: (1) successful transfer of the Los Alamos National Laboratory process technology to Carborundum, (2) evaluation of key fibril synthesis scaleup parameters, (3) development of a computer model which simulates reactor performance, (4) development of a process gas recycle system, (5) evaluation of beneficiation processes for fibrils of various lengths. Significant results and conclusions from this program are discussed. VLS SiC fibrils will be used as a reinforcement in ceramic matrix composite (CMC) applications. The long length of the fibrils relative to standard SiC whisker materials could allow the fibrils to behave similarly to continuous fibers. This, combined with the excellent thermal and mechanical properties of the VLS SiC fibril, could lead to high-temperature ceramic matrix composites based on the fibril. A manufacturing process for converting the fibrils into well-aligned, high-volume fraction yarns will be required to achieve this goal. Fibril characteristics and potential process concepts for successful yarn forming are discussed.

  9. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W. . Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Development of a two-step process for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Lin, Jinping; Wang, Hualei; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a two-step process was developed for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. In the first step, glycerol was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. In the second step, the 1,3-propanediol was converted into 3-hydroxypropionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. In a 7.0 L bioreactor, the whole process took 54 h, consumed 480 g glycerol and produced 242 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid. The conversion rate of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid was 50.4 % (g g(-1)). The final concentration of 3-hydroxypropionic acid arrived 60.5 g L(-1). The process was effective for 3-HP production from glycerol and it might provide a new approach to the biosynthesis of 3-HP from a cheap starting material. Moreover, in this paper, it was first reported that the by-product of 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from 1,3-propandeiol was acrylic acid. PMID:26481922

  11. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center "Welding Processes and Technologies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Titov, D. A.; Shurupov, V. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies». New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed.

  12. Developing Productive International Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways to develop productive international teams in the international marketplace. Discusses obstacles, including language and distance; a model for effective global team performance; cultural differences; shared goals; communication; lack of information; leadership; work procedures; compensation; lack of knowledge or skills; and hindered…

  13. High-throughput downstream process development for cell-based products using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Sarah; Gretzinger, Sarah; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Scheeder, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp K; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Gottwald, Eric; Bogsnes, Are; Hansson, Mattias; Staby, Arne; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-16

    As the clinical development of cell-based therapeutics has evolved immensely within the past years, downstream processing strategies become more relevant than ever. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) enable the label-free, scalable, and cost-effective separation of cells, making them a promising tool for downstream processing of cell-based therapeutics. Here, we report the development of an automated robotic screening that enables high-throughput cell partitioning analysis in ATPS. We demonstrate that this setup enables fast and systematic investigation of factors influencing cell partitioning. Moreover, we examined and optimized separation conditions for the differentiable promyelocytic cell line HL-60 and used a counter-current distribution-model to investigate optimal separation conditions for a multi-stage purification process. Finally, we show that the separation of CD11b-positive and CD11b-negative HL-60 cells is possible after partial DMSO-mediated differentiation towards the granulocytic lineage. The modeling data indicate that complete peak separation is possible with 30 transfers, and >93% of CD11b-positive HL-60 cells can be recovered with >99% purity. The here described screening platform facilitates faster, cheaper, and more directed downstream process development for cell-based therapeutics and presents a powerful tool for translational research. PMID:27567679

  14. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  15. Products and Processes: Synergistic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Most people agree that products are the culmination of what students have studied. For this article, "product" will refer to students' abilities to create outcomes and design artifacts. Those abilities are guided by four processes: inquiry-based learning, use of a research model, use of Web 2.0 tools, and appropriate assessments.…

  16. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process. PMID:12387426

  17. Development and validation of a technoeconomic analysis tool for early-stage evaluation of bio-based chemical production processes.

    PubMed

    Claypool, Joshua T; Raman, D Raj

    2013-12-01

    By using cost correlations and standard scale-factors, a spreadsheet-based early-stage cost estimation tool was developed. Named BioPET (Biorenewables Process Evaluation Tool), this tool allows users to specify up to seven primary unit operations--fermentation, separation, three catalytic stages, and purification--along with key parameters for each. BioPET then computes an estimated minimum selling price for the pathway. Model validation was conducted by selecting three molecules (ethanol, succinic acid, and adipic acid), and comparing BioPET's results to literature values and to results from a commercial process design tool. BioPET produced virtually identical prices to the process design tool, although the costs were not identically distributed amongst the categories. BioPET produced estimates that were within 40% of other literature values at low feedstock costs, and within 5% at high feedstock costs. PMID:24041977

  18. Development of a hazel cell culture-based paclitaxel and baccatin III production process on a benchtop scale.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Ana; Imseng, Nicole; Bonfill, Mercedes; Cusido, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Eibl, Regine; Moyano, Elisabeth

    2015-02-10

    The growing demand for the antitumorous agent paclitaxel and the difficulty in increasing its production by genetic engineering has prompted a search for new sources of taxanes. It has been reported that taxanes can be extracted from the angiosperm Corylus avellana L. Our aim was to improve taxane production by scaling up the process from mL-level to benchtop bioreactors, optimizing culture conditions and comparing the effect of two elicitors, 1 μM coronatine (Cor) and 100 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Orbitally shaken flask cultures achieved a maximum fresh cell weight of 11.54 gDCW/L under control conditions, and MeJA- and Cor-treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in growth to 4.28 gDCW/L and 5.69 gDCW/L, while increasing the taxane content 3- and 27-fold, respectively. The enhancing effect of these elicitors on taxane production, despite affecting growth, was confirmed in orbitally shaken TubeSpin Bioreactors 50, where the highest taxane content (8583.3 μg/L) was obtained when 1μM Cor was used and elicitation took place at a packed cell volume of 50%. Two benchtop stirred bioreactors, BIOSTAT B plus and UniVessel SU, were compared, the latter providing a higher biomass of C. avellana cell suspension cultures. Transferring the established optimum culture conditions for taxane production to the UniVessel SU resulted in a total taxane content of 6246.1 μg/L, a 10-fold increase compared with shake flask experiments. PMID:25558804

  19. Product development cycle time reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 4.7), Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The focus of this task is the preparation of (1) preliminary piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and single line electrical diagrams for a site-specific conceptual design and (2) a factored cost estimate for a 24 ton/day (tpd) capacity mild gasification process development unit (PDU) and an associated form coke preparation PDU. The intended site for this facility is the Illinois Coal Development Park at Carterville, Illinois, which is operated by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (VC)

  1. Progress in developing processes for converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.

    1998-10-28

    During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small grain structure, (2) improving electrodeposition of zinc and nickel fission-fragment barriers onto the foil, and (3) showing that these fission fragment barriers should be stable during transport of the targets following irradiation. A method was also developed for quantitatively electrodepositing uranium and plutonium contaminants in the {sup 99}Mo. Progress was also made in broadening international cooperation in our development activities.

  2. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    A non lead frit paste is evaluated. A two step process is discussed where the bulk of the metallization is Mo/Sn but a small ohmic pad is silver. A new matrix of paste formulations is developed. A variety of tests are performed on paste samples to determine electrical, thermal and structural properties.

  3. From gene to harvest: insights into upstream process development for the GMP production of a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Sack, Markus; Rademacher, Thomas; Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Hellwig, Stephan; Drossard, Juergen; Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    The EU Sixth Framework Programme Integrated Project 'Pharma-Planta' developed an approved manufacturing process for recombinant plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs) using the human HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 as a case study. In contrast to the well-established Chinese hamster ovary platform, which has been used for the production of therapeutic antibodies for nearly 30 years, only draft regulations were initially available covering the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic tobacco plants. Whereas recombinant proteins produced in animal cells are secreted into the culture medium during fermentation in bioreactors, intact plants grown under nonsterile conditions in a glasshouse environment provide various 'plant-specific' regulatory and technical challenges for the development of a process suitable for the acquisition of a manufacturing licence for clinical phase I trials. During upstream process development, several generic steps were addressed (e.g. plant transformation and screening, seed bank generation, genetic stability, host plant uniformity) as well as product-specific aspects (e.g. product quantity). This report summarizes the efforts undertaken to analyse and define the procedures for the GMP/GACP-compliant upstream production of 2G12 in transgenic tobacco plants from gene to harvest, including the design of expression constructs, plant transformation, the generation of production lines, master and working seed banks and the detailed investigation of cultivation and harvesting parameters and their impact on biomass, product yield and intra/interbatch variability. The resulting procedures were successfully translated into a prototypic manufacturing process that has been approved by the German competent authority. PMID:26214282

  4. Process development and production of cGMP grade Melan-A for cancer vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bardliving, Cameron L; Lowe, Adam J; Huang, Chung-Jr; Manley, Laura; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Batt, Carl A

    2013-12-01

    Melan-A is a cancer testis antigen commonly found in melanoma, and has been shown to stimulate the body's immune response against cancerous cells. We have developed and executed a process utilizing current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to produce the 6 times-His tagged protein in C41DE3 Escherichia coli for use in Phase I clinical trials. Approximately 11 g of purified Melan-A were produced from a 20 L fed-batch fermentation. Purification was achieved through a three column process utilizing immobilized metal affinity, anion exchange, and cation exchange chromatography with a buffer system optimized for low-solubility, high LPS binding capacity proteins. The host cell proteins, residual DNA, and endotoxin concentration were well below limits for a prescribed dose with a final purity level of 91%. PMID:24045055

  5. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  6. Process development and techno-economic analysis of a novel process for MeOH production from CO2 using solar-thermal energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Henao, Carlos; Kim, Jiyong; Johnson, Terry Alan; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Maravelias, Christos T.; Miller, James Edward

    2010-11-01

    Mitigating and overcoming environmental problems brought about by the current worldwide fossil fuel-based energy infrastructure requires the creation of innovative alternatives. In particular, such alternatives must actively contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions via carbon recycling and a shift to the use of renewable sources of energy. Carbon neutral transformation of biomass to liquid fuels is one of such alternatives, but it is limited by the inherently low energy efficiency of photosynthesis with regard to the net production of biomass. Researchers have thus been looking for alternative, energy-efficient chemical routes inspired in the biological transformation of solar power, CO2 and H2O into useful chemicals; specifically, liquid fuels. Methanol has been the focus of a fair number of publications for its versatility as a fuel, and its use as an intermediate chemical in the synthesis of many compounds. In some of these studies, (e.g. Joo et al., (2004), Mignard and Pritchard (2006), Galindo and Badr (2007)) CO2 and renewable H2 (e.g. electrolytic H2) are considered as the raw materials for the production of methanol and other liquid fuels. Several basic PFD diagrams have been proposed. One of the most promising is the so called CAMERE process (Joo et al., 1999 ). In this process, carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen are fed to a first reactor and transformed according to: H2 + CO2 <=> H2O + CO Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) After eliminating the produced water the resulting H2/CO2/CO mixture is then feed to a second reactor where it is converted to methanol according to: CO2 + 3.H2 <=> CH3OH + H2O Methanol Synthesis (MS) CO + H2O <=> CO2 + H2 Water Gas Shift (WGS) The approach here is to produce enough CO to eliminate, via WGS, the water produced by MS. This is beneficial since water has been proven to block active sites in the MS catalyst. In this work a different process alternative is presented: One that combines the CO2 recycling of the CAMERE

  7. Process development for production of medium chain triglycerides using immobilized lipase in a solvent-free system.

    PubMed

    Langone, Marta A P; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis of tricaprylin, tricaprin, trilaurin, and trimyristin in a solvent-free system was conducted by mixing a commercial immobilized lipase with the organic reagents (glycerol and fatty acid) in a 20-mL batch reactor with constant stirring. The effects of temperature, fatty acid/glycerol molar ratio, and enzyme concentration on the reaction conversion were determined. The reactions were carried out for 26 h and the nonpolar phase was analyzed by gas chromatography. Appreciable levels of medium chain triglycerides were achieved, except for tricaprylin. The higher selectivity values for the production of triglycerides were attained under the following conditions: a fatty acid/glycerol molar ratio of 5; enzyme concentration of 5 or 9% (w/w); and temperatures of 70 degrees C (tricaprin), 80 degrees C (trilaurin), and 90 degrees C (trimyristin). After completion of the esterification reaction under these conditions, the recovery of the triglyceride and fatty acids, and the reusability of the enzyme were studied. The unreacted fatty acid and the produced triglyceride were satisfactorily recovered. The commercial immobilized lipase was used in 10 consecutive batch reactions at 80 degrees C, with 100% selectivity in the trilaurin and trimyristin synthesis. The possibility of enzyme reuse and the recovery of residual fatty acid are relevant results that contribute to increasing the viability of the process. PMID:12018320

  8. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; (2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; (3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process control; and (4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation and ensure compliance with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., generation of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development. PMID:20622510

  9. Discovery Reconceived: Product before Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…

  10. MINEHOUND production development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Hunt, Nigel

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the further engineering development and performance of the MINEHOUND affordable humanitarian mine detector, sponsored by the UK Department for International Development and developed by ERA Technology. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs, in terms of the man machine interface, MINEHOUND offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Trials were carried out during the period 2002-2004 and have been reported at SPIE 2002 and SPIE 2004. MINEHOUND has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers an affordable solution to hand held mine detection. The GPR is a time-domain radar transmitting 1ns duration impulses at a repetition frequency of 1MHz. The GPR transmitter- receiver and associated control and signal processing is mounted on a compact purpose designed printed circuit board 220mm by 100mm. A dedicated state of the art "Blackfin" DSP processor is used to provide all control and signal processing functions. Trials of batches of MINEHOUND are planned for 2005 in the Cambodia and Angola as well as the Balkans.

  11. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationship models to develop optimized processes for the removal of tobacco host cell proteins during biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Woo, J A; Cramer, S M; Fischer, R

    2013-12-27

    The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants benefits from the low cost of upstream production and the greater scalability of plants compared to fermenter-based systems. Now that manufacturing processes that comply with current good manufacturing practices have been developed, plants can compete with established platforms on equal terms. However, the costs of downstream processing remain high, in part because of the dedicated process steps required to remove plant-specific process-related impurities. We therefore investigated whether the ideal strategy for the chromatographic removal of tobacco host cell proteins can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to reduce the process development time and overall costs. We identified more than 100 tobacco proteins by mass spectrometry and their structures were reconstructed from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or homology modeling data. The resulting three-dimensional models were used to calculate protein descriptors, and significant descriptors were selected based on recently-published retention data for model proteins to develop QSAR models for protein retention on anion, cation and mixed-mode resins. The predicted protein retention profiles were compared with experimental results using crude tobacco protein extracts. Because of the generic nature of the method, it can easily be transferred to other expression systems such as mammalian cells. The quality of the models and potential improvements are discussed. PMID:24268820

  12. Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: process optimisation and product stability.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mayra Garcia Maia; Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; de Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for producing a probiotic beverage by Lactobacillus casei NRRL B442. Maximal microbial viability was found by cultivating L. casei at 31°C and pH 5.8 (optimised conditions). After fermentation, samples of sweetened and non-sweetened juice were stored. After 42 days of storage under refrigeration (4°C), the microbial viability was 6.03 Log CFU/mL in the non-sweetened sample and 4.77 Log CFU/mL in the sweetened sample. The pH of both samples decreased during storage due to lactic acid production (post acidification). The characteristic colour of the juice was maintained throughout the shelf life and no browning was observed. Sonicated pineapple juice was shown to be a suitable substrate for L. casei cultivation and for the development of an alternative non-dairy probiotic beverage. PMID:23561104

  13. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  14. Development of Automated Production Line Processes for Solar Brightfield Modules: Final Annual Technical Progress Report, 1 July 2004 -- 15 October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Miller, D. C.; Moore S. B.; Hogan, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    Spire Corporation is addressing the Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D project goals of improving photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing processes and products while reducing costs and providing a technology foundation that supports significant manufacturing scale-up. To accomplish this, we are focusing our efforts on the design of a large-area utility-scale module and the development of the necessary manufacturing techniques and equipment to manufacture such a module in a high-volume production environment. A three-phase program is under way for developing and demonstrating new automated systems for fabricating very large PV modules ideal for use in multi-megawatt grid-connected applications. We designed a large-area (1.57 m x 3.68 m) 800-W module, and we are developing associated module production equipment that will minimize the total installed system cost for utility-scale PV arrays. Activities in Phase 2 focused on the development of automation for module materials lay-up, cell string busing, and module lamination; enhancements to the cell stringing and lamination processes; and performance testing of large-area modules.

  15. Synthesis: Intertwining product and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

  16. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Hoehlich, D.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Hollaender, U.; Maier, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W2N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing.

  17. NISAR ISRO science data processing and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Krishna Murari; Mehra, Raghav; Ryali, Usha Sundari

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a Dual Frequency (L & S band) mission which will be operating in SweepSAR mode. As compared to traditional SAR imaging modes in which Swath and resolution are at trade-off, SweepSAR imaging concept can acquire data over large swath (240 Km) without compromising azimuth resolution (6m approximately). NISAR L-band & S-band sensors will be developed by JPL-NASA and ISRO respectively. NISAR science data will be downloaded at both NASA and ISRO ground stations. SAC-ISRO will develop the SAR processor for both L & S band data to generate products in compliance with science requirements. Moreover, JPL will develop L-band SAR processor and all data products will be available to users. Distributed data processing architecture will be used for handling large volume of data resulting from moderate resolution and larger swath in SweepSAR mode. Data products will be available in multiple processing levels like raw signal products, signal processed single-look and multi-look products, ground range products and Geo-Referenced products in HDF5 & GeoTiff formats. Derived Geo-Referenced Polarimetric and Interferometric data products will also be available for dissemination to the users. A rigorous calibration exercise will be performed by acquiring data over reference targets like Amazon rain-forest & corner reflectors sites for the generation of calibrated data products. Furthermore, various science data products (for science applications) will also be derived from basic data products for operational dissemination.

  18. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  19. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mile gasification process for the production of co-products. Quaterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1998-04-01

    Two 20-ton CTC formed coke production runs were completed. The product from the first run tested at a General Motors` production cupola at a 12.5 percent of total coke charge level successfully. The second 20 tons of CTC formed coke will be evaluated in early August at a General Motors` research facility at Marquette, Michigan, using a 100 percent CTC formed coke charge. Design of a commercial plant continued with emphasis given to the calcining and briquetting operations.

  1. Integrated Product and Process Data for B2B Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Ivezic, Nenad; Jones, Albert; Wysk, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Collaborative development of engineered products in a business-to-business (B2B) environment will require more than just the selection of components from an on-line catalogue. It will involve the electronic exchange of product, process, and production engineering information during both design and manufacturing. While the state-of-the-practice does include a variety of ways to exchange product data electronically, it does not extend to the exchange of manufacturing process data. The reason is simple; process data is usually tied to specific manufacturing resources. These resources are not known typically at product development time. This paper proposes an approach, called an Integrated Product and Process Data (IPPD), where manufacturing process data is considered during product development. This approach replaces traditional process plans, which are resource specific, with a resource-independent process representation. Such a representation will allow a much wider collaboration among business partners and provide the necessary base for collaborative product development.

  2. Commercial imagery archive product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  3. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  4. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  5. Developing a commercial production process for 500,000 targets per day: A key challenge for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, D.T.; Alexander, N.B.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Bozek, A.S.; Brown, L.C.; Flint, G.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; McQuillan, B.W.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R.R.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Schroen, D.G.; Sheliak, J.D.; Vermillion, B.A.; Carlson, L.C.; Goodman, P.; Maksaereekul, W.; Raffray, R.; Spalding, J.; Tillack, M.S.

    2006-05-15

    As is true for current-day commercial power plants, a reliable and economic fuel supply is essential for the viability of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) [Energy From Inertial Fusion, edited by W. J. Hogan (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995)] power plants. While IFE power plants will utilize deuterium-tritium (DT) bred in-house as the fusion fuel, the 'target' is the vehicle by which the fuel is delivered to the reaction chamber. Thus the cost of the target becomes a critical issue in regard to fuel cost. Typically six targets per second, or about 500 000/day are required for a nominal 1000 MW(e) power plant. The electricity value within a typical target is about $3, allocating 10% for fuel cost gives only 30 cents per target as-delivered to the chamber center. Complicating this economic goal, the target supply has many significant technical challenge - fabricating the precision fuel-containing capsule, filling it with DT, cooling it to cryogenic temperatures, layering the DT into a uniform layer, characterizing the finished product, accelerating it to high velocity for injection into the chamber, and tracking the target to steer the driver beams to meet it with micron-precision at the chamber center.

  6. LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  7. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  8. Chemical production processes and systems

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  9. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  10. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  11. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  12. Chemical waterflood process development

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.

    1980-04-01

    A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

  13. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  14. Development of metallization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-01-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  15. Development of metallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A., III

    1983-04-01

    Solar cells were produced using a Mo/Sn/TiH screen printed paste with a lead/borosilicate frit that are electrically comparable to control silver cells. The process is currently unsuccessful because the soldering of interconnects to these cells has proved difficult. Future work will investigate using CO instead of H2 as the reducing gas and putting an ITO coating on the cell prior to metallization.

  16. Developments in Signature Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, L. B.; Dominski, Marty

    1993-01-01

    Developments in the adaptive process control technique known as Signature Process Control for Advanced Composites (SPCC) are described. This computer control method for autoclave processing of composites was used to develop an optimum cure cycle for AFR 700B polyamide and for an experimental poly-isoimide. An improved process cycle was developed for Avimid N polyamide. The potential for extending the SPCC technique to pre-preg quality control, press modeling, pultrusion and RTM is briefly discussed.

  17. Silicon Web Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

  18. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

  19. Signal processing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, T. B.; Marshall, R.; Bloom, J.; Comer, C.; Caulfield, J.; Warde, C.; Salour, M.

    1989-11-01

    This electron microscope has been applied to the study of the growth of thin epitaxial films on silicon substrates. The study of the nature of platinum-silicide films formed by heating evaporated platinum films on these substrates is discussed. The use of ultra high vacuum systems together with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) is discussed as they relate to the preparation of silicides, a dielectric layer of silicon monoxide is evaporated and an ion beam implanter is used to form a special buried layer as a step toward silicon devices. Synthesis and single crystal growth of indium phosphide in a one-step in-situ process at high ambient pressures is discussed. Analysis of heat transfer by convection, conduction, and radiation in a closed pressure vessel is given. A set of source modules and NOS procedures have been prepared to permit easy access to a 3-dimensional, non-isotrophic ray-tracing program (the Jones - Stephenson program). This system is designed to be run on a CDC CYBER computer system or equivalent using the operating system.

  20. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  1. ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Dini, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools geophysical parameters suitable for volcanic risk management. The ASI-SRV is devoted to the development of an integrated system based on Earth Observation (EO) data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes during all the risk phases (Pre Crisis, Crisis and Post Crisis). The ASI-SRV system provides support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases and its results are addressed to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC). SRV provides the capability to manage the import many different EO data into the system, it maintains a repository where the acquired data have to be stored and generates selected volcanic products. The processing modules for EO Optical sensors data are based on procedures jointly developed by INGV and University of Modena. This procedures allow to estimate a number of parameters such as: surface thermal proprieties, gas, aerosol and ash emissions and to characterize the volcanic products in terms of composition and geometry. For the analysis of the surface thermal characteristics, the available algorithms allow to extract information during the prevention phase and during the Warning and Crisis phase. In the prevention phase the thermal analysis is directed to the identification of temperature variation on volcanic structure which may indicate a change in the volcanic activity state. At the moment the only sensor that

  2. Processes and process development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noda, T.

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of solar power generation necessitates the development of low cost manufacturing method of silicon suitable for solar cells. The manufacturing methods of semiconductor grade silicon (SEG-Si) and the development of solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) in foreign countries was investigated. It was concluded that the most efficient method of developing such materials was the hydrogen reduction process of trichlorosilane (TCS), using a fluidized bed reactor. The low cost reduction of polysilicon requires cost reductions of raw materials, energy, labor, and capital. These conditions were carefully reviewed. The overall conclusion was that a development program should be based on the TCS-FBR process and that the experimental program should be conducted in test facilities capable of producing 10 tons of silicon granules per year.

  3. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  4. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  5. Integration of rapid prototyping into product development

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a vertically multi-disciplined research and development laboratory with a long history of designing and developing d electro-mechanical products in the national interest. Integrating new technologies into the prototyping phase of our development cycle is necessary to reduce the cycle time from initial design to finished product. The introduction of rapid prototyping machines into the marketplace promises to revolutionize the process of producing prototype parts with relative speed and production-like quality. Issues of accuracy, feature definition, and surface finish continue to drive research and development of these processes. Sandia uses Stereolithography (SL) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) capabilities to support internal product development efforts. The primary use of SL and SLS is to produce patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. Also presented will be several examples of prototype parts manufactured using SL and SLS with a focus on application, accuracy, surface and feature definition.

  6. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products.

  7. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  8. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Productivity improvement for longwall development

    SciTech Connect

    Whipkey, K.

    2005-08-01

    Industry survey reveals coal operators thoughts about the use of different techniques to keep development ahead of longwall production. Factors considered that can optimise productivity include mine design (the number of entries, size of pillars etc.), work schedules, preventative maintenance programs and good management. The article was adapted from a presentation to Longwall USA 2005, in June 2005 (Pittsburgh, PA, USA). 3 figs.

  10. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  11. Developing fermentative terpenoid production for commercial usage.

    PubMed

    Leavell, Michael D; McPhee, Derek J; Paddon, Chris J

    2016-02-01

    Terpenoids comprise a large (>55000) family of compounds, very few of which have been used commercially due to low and economically unpractical production in their native hosts (generally plants and microorganisms). Two examples of natural terpenoid production are described (rubber and astaxanthin), but the advent of metabolic engineering has allowed the development of fermentative production processes using heterologous microorganisms. The two biochemical pathways responsible for terpenoid production are described, along with manipulations that enable production of terpenoids at economically viable levels. Finally, this article reviews some terpenoids that are currently in commercial production or development, ranging from semisynthetic production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, through fragrance molecules, to commodity chemicals such as isoprene and β-farnesene. PMID:26723008

  12. On the development of Antarctic katabatic winds and their impact on ocean and ice processes in the coastal Southern Ocean with implications for primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrick, Scott Lawrence

    1997-10-01

    As a first step toward improving the present understanding of the physics that control air-sea CO2 exchange in the Southern Ocean, a coupled mesoscale atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is described and used to examine the interaction of Antarctic katabatic winds with coastal ocean and sea ice processes. These winds are a dominant factor in shaping the climatology of Antarctica, particularly during the austral winter. Simulations are presented for winter and early spring conditions. For the spring case a simple primary productivity model is used to examine the early stages of phytoplankton bloom development. Latent heat polynyas are a common feature along the Antarctic coast. These ice-free regions are maintained by a balance between wind driven ice divergence and ice production. For the winter simulation the coupled model creates an initial polynya that closes after 4 days of simulation. The closing of the polynya is linked to the adjustment of the katabatic winds to the alongshore direction which forces shoreward Ekman transport of the sea ice, closing the polynya. Seasonal variations in the magnitude of the katabatic flows are linked to variations in the strength of the East Wind Drift. During the winter, the offshore directed katabtic winds adjust geostrophically, contributing to the strong polar easterlies of high southern latitudes. Shoreward Ekman transport associated with these easterlies supports a barotropic coastal current, the East Wind Drift. During spring the adjustment process is interrupted by the diurnal cycle, weakening the Ekman transport and the coastal current. Phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean are typically linked to the retreat of the seasonal ice cover. As the sea ice melts the associated input of fresh water stabilizes the surface layer of the ocean limiting the depth of turbulent mixing. In early spring, sea ice coverage, incoming solar irradiance and wind stress are shown to be the major factors contributing to early bloom

  13. Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...

  14. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  15. Consolidated processes for product recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, fermentation industries are structured on individual unit operations for production of biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and 2,3-butanediol which result in increased capital and operational costs. Such increased costs result in low profitability and increased consumer price. With the d...

  16. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  17. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. PMID:26153056

  18. Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R.; Underwood, K.; Mead, J.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

  19. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  20. Optics for Processes, Products and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, George

    1999-04-01

    Optical physics has a variety of applications in industry, including process inspection, coatings development, vision instrumentation, spectroscopy, and many others. Optics has been used extensively in the design of solar energy collection systems and coatings, for example. Also, with the availability of good CCD cameras and fast computers, it has become possible to develop real-time inspection and metrology devices that can accommodate the high throughputs encountered in modern production processes. More recently, developments in moiré interferometry show great promise for applications in the basic metals and electronics industries. The talk will illustrate applications of optics by discussing process inspection techniques for defect detection, part dimensioning, birefringence measurement, and the analysis of optical coatings in the automotive, glass, and optical disc industries. In particular, examples of optical techniques for the quality control of CD-R, MO, and CD-RW discs will be presented. In addition, the application of optical concepts to solar energy collector design and to metrology by moiré techniques will be discussed. Finally, some of the modern techniques and instruments used for qualitative and quantitative material analysis will be presented.

  1. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils and linear fibril assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Tenhover, M.; Biernacki, J.; Schatz, K.; Ko, F.

    1995-08-01

    In order to exploit the superior thermomechanical properties of the VLS fibril, the feasibility of scaled-up production of the SiC fibril is demonstrated in this study. Through time series study and computer simulation, the parameters affecting the growth process and properties of the fibrils were examined. To facilitate translation of the superior mechanical properties into higher level preform structures, conventional and unconventional processing methods were evaluated. As revealed by scanning electron microscopic examination and X-ray diffractometry, high level alignment of the fibrils was achieved by the wet-laid process.

  2. Video as Process and Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    A sales institute helps students develop powerful communication skills to meet the goal of establishing successful careers in professional selling. It often employs the concept of video self-modeling to teach the finer points of salesmanship. Russ Berrie, a devotee of the art of sales, donated to William Paterson University enough money to found a…

  3. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  4. Business Communication: Its Process and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Joel P.; Branchaw, Bernadine P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the essential difference between the writing process and its product; namely, that the former is a private and unique activity, whereas the latter is an observable artifact that can be publicly evaluated. Argues that even proponents of the process approach to writing cannot escape basing their discussions on products. (JD)

  5. Processes of Expressive Behavior Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivin, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen processes in the development of expressive behavior are reviewed and coordinated in a framework that is shown to accommodate current perspectives on expressive behavior development. Works of Ekman, Izard, Lewis and Michalson, and Sroufe are briefly reviewed. Neglected areas of research are indicated and the course of expressive behavior…

  6. Automating the training development process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) was developed as a training tool for the JPL training environment. ATDS is based on the standard for military training programs and is designed to develop training from a system perspective, focusing on components in terms of the whole process. The principal feature of ATDS is data base maintainability. Everything is contained and maintained within the data base, and, if properly developed, it could be a training component of a software delivery and provided to CM as a controlled item. The analysis, development, design, presentation, and reporting phases in the ATDS instructional design method are illustrated.

  7. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.

  8. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  9. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  10. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.