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Sample records for product mox powder

  1. Critical Experiments that Simulated Damp MOX Powders - Do They Meet the Need?

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Dr. Ali Nouri; Dr. Claes Nordborg

    2005-09-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) identified the MOX fuel manufacturing process as an area in which there is a need for additional integral benchmark data. The specific need focused on damp MOX powders. The WPNCS was ultimately asked by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to provide the framework for the selection and performance of new experiments that fill the identified need. A set of criteria was established to enable uniform comparison of experimental proposals with generic MOX application data. Criteria were established for five general characteristics: (1) neutronic parameters, (2) type of experiments, (3) financial aspects, (4) schedule, and (5) other considerations. Proposals were judged most importantly on their ability to match the neutronic parameters of predetermined MOX applications. The neutronic parameters that formed the basis for comparison included core average values (not local values) for flux, fission and capture rate; detailed balance data (fission and capture) for the main isotopes (Actinides, H and O); sensitivity coefficients to important nuclear reactions (fission, capture, elastic and inelastic scatter, nu-bar, mu-bar) for all uranium and plutonium isotopes, hydrogen, and oxygen; sensitivity profiles to the main nuclear reactions for uranium and plutonium isotopes; energy of average lethargy causing fission; and the average fission group energy. The focus of this paper is on the definition of the need; the neutronics criteria established to assess which, if any, of three proposed MOX experimental programs best meet the need; and the actual assessment of the proposed experimental programs.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of americium, neptunium and curium bearing MOX fuels obtained by powder metallurgy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Florent; Prieur, Damien; Jankowiak, Aurélien; Tribet, Magaly; Leorier, Caroline; Delahaye, Thibaud; Donnet, Louis; Dehaudt, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    MOX fuel pellets containing up to 1.4 wt% of Minor Actinides (MA), i.e. Am, Np and Cm, were fabricated to demonstrate the technical feasibility of powder metallurgy process involving, pelletizing and sintering in controlled atmosphere. The compounds were then characterized using XRD, SEM and EDX/EPMA. Dense pellets were obtained which closed porosity mean size is equal to 7 μm. The results indicate the formation of (U, Pu)O 2 solid solution. However, microstructure contains some isolated UO 2 grains. The distribution of Am and Cm appears to be homogeneous whereas Np was found to be clustered at some locations.

  3. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  4. Method for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  5. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  6. Synthesis of the U.S. specified ceramics using MOX fuel production expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafiev, V. A.; Glushenkov, A. E.; Sideinikov, M.; Borisov, G. B.; Mansourov, O. A.; Jardine, L. J.

    2000-07-01

    At present, under the auspices of the USA/Russia agreements, joint work is under way to dispose of excess plutonium being withdrawn from nuclear defense programs. A major approach is to produce mixed plutonium-uranium fuel (MOX fuel) for its further burnup in different nuclear reactors. Plutonium-containing materials, which upon their composition or from an economic standpoint cannot be used for MOX fuel production, are to be immobilized into solid ceramic and glass-type matrices with their safe storage and eventual geologic disposal. For an immobilization form in the U.S., it is proposed to use ceramics based on pyrochlore developed at LLNL that is capable of incorporating up to 10 wt.% PuO2 and 23 wt.% UO2. At VNIINM, work was done to assess the possibility of using equipment and expertise of MOX-fuel production to fabricate the ceramics. A few of the ceramic samples were synthesized, and basic physicochemical properties, including the homogeneity of the plutonium and uranium distributions in the matrix, density, and pellet porosity, were also measured.

  7. Improved Production Of Wrought Articles From Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James R.; Singleton, Ogle R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique for consolidation of powders into dense articles developed. Peripheral bands used in consolidation, forging, and rolling operations. Facilitates consolidation of dispersion-hardened aluminous powders and composite mixtures for processing to such useful wrought articles as plates and sheets. Potential use in production of plates and sheets and perhaps other objects from "hard" powders, particularly from powders, objects made from which have propensity to crack when mechanically worked to other forms.

  8. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  9. Continuous production of titanium powder

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Oden, Laurence L.; White, Jack C.

    1997-01-01

    Although incremental improvements have been made to the Kroll process since its inception in 1948, the process in use today remains essentially the same batch process developed by Dr. Kroll and perfected by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In this process, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is reduced by magnesium to produce titanium metal. There are two major limitations to the Kroll process: (1) it is a batch process; and (2) the reduction of TiCl4 proceeds so rapidly that the sponge formed is an interlocking dendritic mass with inclusions of magnesium, magnesium salts and titanium subchloride that must undergo several purification steps before the metal is suitable for use. The Albany Research Center (ARC), formerly the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has investigated a new, continuous titanium metal production process in which a titanium powder is produced in a bath of molten salt. In this process, the rate of the reduction reaction was slowed and controlled by diluting the reactants with molten chloride salts. The diluted reactant streams were combined in a continuous stirred tank reactor, operated much like a crystallizer. New titanium metal forms on the already present small Ti particles. When the Ti particles become too large to remain suspended in solution, they fall to the bottom of the reactor and are removed. Initial experiments show promise but problems remain in obtaining the required purity and uniform particle size.

  10. Method and apparatus for production of powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  11. Method and Apparatus for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  12. Powder and particulate production of metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments of particulate metallurgy of alloyed materials where the final products is a fully dense body are discussed. Particulates are defined as powders, flakes, foils, silvers, ribbons and strip. Because rapid solidification is an important factor in particulate metallurgy, all of the particulates must have at least one dimension which is very fine, sometimes as fine as 10 to 50 microns, but move typically up to several hundred microns, provided that the dimension permits a minimum solidification rate of at least 100 K/s.

  13. Fission product release and microstructure changes of irradiated MOX fuel at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, J.-Y.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Beneš, O.; Thiele, H.; Papaioannou, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Sasahara, A.; Sonoda, T.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Samples of irradiated MOX fuel of 44.5 GWd/tHM mean burn-up were prepared by core drilling at three different radial positions of a fuel pellet. They were subsequently heated in a Knudsen effusion mass spectrometer up to complete vaporisation of the sample (˜2600 K) and the release of fission gas (krypton and xenon) as well as helium was measured. Scanning electron microscopy was used in parallel to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of a sample heated under the same condition up to given key temperatures as determined from the gas release profiles. A clear initial difference for fission gas release and microstructure was observed as a function of the radial position of the samples and therefore of irradiation temperature. A good correlation between the microstructure evolution and the gas release peaks could be established as a function of the temperature of irradiation and (laboratory) heating. The region closest to the cladding (0.58 < r/r0 < 0.96), designated as sample type A in Fig. 1. It represents the "cooler" part of the fuel pellet. The irradiation temperatures (Tirrad) in this range are from 854 to 1312 K (ΔT: 458 K). The intermediate radial zone of the pellet (0.42 < r/r0 < 0.81), designated sample type B in Fig. 1, has a Tirrad ranging from 1068 to 1434 K (ΔT: 365 K). The central zone of the pellet (0.003 < r/r0 < 0.41), designated sample type C in Fig. 1, which was close to the hottest part of the pellet, has a Tirrad ranging from 1442 to 1572 K (ΔT: 131 K). The sample irradiation temperatures were determined from the calculated temperature profile (exponential function) knowing the core temperature of the fuel (1573 K) [11], the standard temperature for this type of fuel at the inner side of the cladding (800 K). The average burnup was calculated with TRANSURANUS code [12] and the PA burnup is the average burnup multiplied by the ratio of the fissile Pu concentration in PA over average fissile Pu concentration in fuel [11]. Calculated

  14. Explosion risk evaluation during production of coating powder.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Yuan, Chunmiao; Chen, Baozhi

    2007-10-22

    Powder coating is widely used in industry to prevent equipment corrosion. More than 600 companies produce coating powder in China, but most do not understand the explosion hazard of such products. In the present investigation the explosibility parameters of a coating powder were determined. Results showed that the coating powder is explosible, though the ignition energy is higher than those of normal dusts such as coal powder and corn starch. Based on these experimental findings, a systematic explosion protection method is proposed, with explosion isolation and explosion venting being adopted as the main protective methods. PMID:17574336

  15. Autoclave heat treatment for prealloyed powder products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Technique could be applied directly to loose powders as part of hot pressing process of forming them to any required shapes. This would eliminate initial extrusion step commonly applied to prealloyed powders, substantially reduce cost of forming operation, and result in optimum properties.

  16. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  17. The Concentration of (236)Pu Daughters in Plutonium for Application to MOX Production from Plutonium from Dismantled US Nuclear Weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    2001-05-01

    The isotope {sup 236}Pu in the weapons-grade plutonium to be used in the US MOX (mixed-oxide) plant is of concern because the daughter products of {sup 236}Pu are sources of high-energy gamma rays. The {sup 208}Tl daughter of {sup 236}Pu emits intense, high-energy gamma rays that are important for radiation exposure calculations for plant design. It is generally thought that the concentrations of {sup 236}Pu and its daughters are well below 10{sup {minus}10}, but these concentrations are generally below the detection limits of most analytical techniques. One technique that can be used to determine the concentration {sup 208}Tl is the direct measurement of the intensity of the {sup 208}Tl gamma rays in the gamma-ray spectrum from plutonium. Thallium-208 will be in equilibrium with {sup 228}Th, and may very well be in equilibrium with {sup 232}U for most aged plutonium samples. We have used the FRAM isotopic analysis software to analyze dozens of archived high-resolution gamma ray spectra from various samples of US and foreign plutonium. We are able to quantify the ratio of minor isotopes with measurable gamma-ray emissions to the major isotope of plutonium and hence, through the measurement of the plutonium isotopic distribution of the sample, to elemental plutonium itself. Excluding items packaged in fluoropolymer vials, all samples analyzed with {sup 240}Pu < 9% gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 3.4 e-012 and all samples of US-produced plutonium, including {sup 240}Pu values up to 16.4%, gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 9.4 e-012. None of these values is significant from a radiation dose standpoint.

  18. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  19. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.; Cremers, David A.; Nemec, Ronald B.; Barbe, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  20. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  1. All About MOX

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-29

    In 1999, the Nuclear Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  2. All About MOX

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-08-06

    In 1999, the Nuclear Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  3. A versatile powder production and collection system for rapidly solidified metal and ceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.

    1992-08-01

    A versatile system is described which is capable of producing fine metal and ceramic powders using three different modes of a plasma solidification process: microatomization-plasma rapid solidification using air or inert gas as the quenching medium and plasma rapid solidification using water as the quenching medium. The testing and evaluation of the system is carried out using stainless steel 316 and yttria stabilized zirconia for microatomization experiments and alumina for other plasma solidification experiments. The microatomized powders are spherical with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 to 50 microns. The productivity of the pilot-scale system is 4 kg/hr.

  4. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  5. MOX: a user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.A.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-03-01

    The MOX computer program was designed to be used as a tool in assessing the relationship of occupational exposure and mortality from several specific causes in a large cohort. This report presents documentation for the program. 16 references. (ACR)

  6. PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

    1959-12-01

    A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

  7. Applicability of CeO 2 as a surrogate for PuO 2 in a MOX fuel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Joung, Chang Yong; Lee, Byung Ho; Oh, Jae Yong; Koo, Yang Hyun; Heimgartner, Peter

    2008-08-01

    The applicability of cerium oxide, as a surrogate for plutonium oxide, was evaluated for the fabrication process of a MOX (mixed oxide) fuel pellet. Sintering behavior, pore former effect and thermal properties of the Ce-MOX were compared with those of Pu-MOX. Compacting parameters of the Pu-MOX powder were optimized by a simulation using Ce-MOX powder. Sintering behavior of Ce-MOX was very similar to that of Pu-MOX, in particular for the oxidative sintering process. The sintered density of both pellets was decreased with the same slope with an increasing DA (dicarbon amide) content. Both the Ce-MOX and Pu-MOX pellets which were fabricated by an admixing of 0.05 wt% DA and sintering in a CO 2 atmosphere had the same average grain size of 11 μm and a density of 95%T.D. The thermal conductivity of the Pu-MOX was a little higher than that of the Ce-MOX at a lower temperature but both conductivities became closer to each other above 900 K. Cerium oxide was found to be a useful surrogate to simulate the Pu behavior in the MOX fuel fabrication.

  8. The MOX mirage

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This article is a discussion of the status of using mixed oxide fuels in the European Nuclear Industry. While the burning of weapons-grade plutonium to generate electricity seemed to be a win-win situation, the most likely candidate to use MOX is not likely to do so any time soon, and the political and economic hurdles are addressed in this article. While there are substantial amounts of weapons grade plutonium available, the fuel fabrication costs alone far exceed the overall cost of ordinary uranium fuel elements. The European Nuclear Industry has established an infrastructure to recycle reactor-grade plutonium (coming from the spent fuel reprocessing cycle), and it is the policy of the largest utility (EdF) to make full use of reprocessing and MOX fuel. By the yeat 2000, 28 (of EdF`s) PWRs should be licensed to use MOX fuel.

  9. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  10. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  11. Method of heat treating a formed powder product material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.; Ashbrook, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Heat treating a product material of prealloyed powders after shaping by superplastic deformation restores the ability of the material to resist deformation at high temperatures. Heat treating is accomplished by heating to a temperature between the solidus and liquidus with the application of isostatic pressure to close any voids. This pressure may be simultaneously applied while the material is at the heat treating temperature. The pressure may also be applied when the material cools to a temperature between that at which it is shaped and the solidus.

  12. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Noufi, Rommel; Wang, Li

    1998-01-01

    A process for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu.sub.x Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; (2) Cu.sub.x Ga.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0-1 and n=1-3; (3) Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.27, y=0.72-2 and n=1-3; (4) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein x=1-2.17, y=0.96-2 and n=1-3; (5) In.sub.y Se.sub.n, wherein y=1-2.3 and n=1-3; (6) Cu.sub.x S.sub.n, wherein x=1-2 and n=1-3; and (7) Cu.sub.x (InGa).sub.y (SeS).sub.n, wherein x=1-2, y=0.07-2 and n=0.663-3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes.

  13. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  14. Effect of Production Conditions of Wood Powder on Bending Properties of Wood Powder Molding Material without Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Hiroshi; Soma, Naho; Yamashita, Osamu; Miki, Tsunehisa; Kanayama, Kozo

    The effect of production conditions of wood powder on the bending properties of wood powder molding material was investigated. Wood powder was produced by milling wood into powder under conditions of different temperatures (25°C, 100°C) and moisture contents (0%MC, about 30%MC). Molding materials were produced from wood powder in stream atmosphere of high temperature and high pressure (175°C, 900kPa) using self-bonding ability of the wood powder. Adhesives, such as a synthetic resin, were not used. To evaluate the bending properties of the molding materials, the modulus of elasticity and the bending strength were examined by static three-point bending test. As for the characteristic of wood particle, in case of wood particle produced by milling wood under a condition of high temperature and high moisture content (100°C and about 30%MC), tendencies for intercellular layer to be exposed on surface of a particle and for the aspect ratio of particles to be large were confirmed. And in that case, the molding material showed the highest value in modulus of elasticity and bending strength. It is highly probable that the inprovement of the self-bonding ability of wood powder and the increase of the aspect ratio of wood particle take part in the improvement of strength properties of molding material.

  15. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  16. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  17. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  18. Submicron silicon powder production in an aerosol reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.; Flagan, R. C.; Gregory, O. J.

    1986-01-01

    Powder synthesis by thermally induced vapor phase reactions is described. The powder generated by this technique consists of spherical, nonagglomerated particles of high purity. The particles are uniform in size, in the 0.1-0.2-micron size range. Most of the particles are crystalline spheres. A small fraction of the spheres are amorphous. Chain agglomerates account for less than 1 percent of the spherules.

  19. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    PubMed

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  20. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  1. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  2. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  3. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  4. Time cycle analysis and simulation of material flow in MOX process layout

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Saraswat, A.; Danny, K.M.; Somayajulu, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2013-07-01

    The (U,Pu)O{sub 2} MOX fuel is the driver fuel for the upcoming PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor). The fuel has around 30% PuO{sub 2}. The presence of high percentages of reprocessed PuO{sub 2} necessitates the design of optimized fuel fabrication process line which will address both production need as well as meet regulatory norms regarding radiological safety criteria. The powder pellet route has highly unbalanced time cycle. This difficulty can be overcome by optimizing process layout in terms of equipment redundancy and scheduling of input powder batches. Different schemes are tested before implementing in the process line with the help of a software. This software simulates the material movement through the optimized process layout. The different material processing schemes have been devised and validity of the schemes are tested with the software. Schemes in which production batches are meeting at any glove box location are considered invalid. A valid scheme ensures adequate spacing between the production batches and at the same time it meets the production target. This software can be further improved by accurately calculating material movement time through glove box train. One important factor is considering material handling time with automation systems in place.

  5. Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately $54,000. With a total project cost of $136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

  6. Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

  7. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  8. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blümel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles' surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  9. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blümel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles’ surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  10. Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and related products.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, S; Szpunar, J; Andrey, D; Blake, C; Lobinski, R

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in cocoa powders and related products (beans, liquor, butter) of different geographical origins. Particular attention was paid to the fractionation of these metals, which was investigated by determining the metal fraction soluble in extractant solutions acting selectively with regard to the different classes of ligands. The targeted classes of Cd and Pb species included: water-soluble compounds, polypeptide and polysaccharide complexes, and compounds soluble in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The bioavailability of Cd and Pb from cocoa powder, liquor and butter was evaluated using a sequential enzymolysis approach. The data obtained as a function of the geographical origin of the samples indicated strong differences not only in terms of the total Cd and Pb concentrations, but also with regard to the bioavailability of these metals. The Cd concentrations in the cocoa powders varied from 94 to 1833 microg kg(-1), of which 10-50% was potentially bioavailable. The bioavailability of Pb was generally below 10% and the concentrations measured in the cocoa powders were in the 11-769 microg kg(-1) range. Virtually all the Cd and most of Pb were found in the cocoa powder after the pressing of the liquor. PMID:12775476

  11. Nanoparticle production in arc generated fireballs of granular silicon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2012-03-01

    Recently we observed buoyant fireballs by arc igniting silicon that drift in air for several seconds and postulated that the low aggregate density was attributed to the formation of a network of nanoparticles that must completely surround the burning silicon core, trapping the heated vapor generated as a result of particle combustion [Ito et al. Phys Rev E 80, 067401 (2009)]. In this paper, we describe the capturing of several of these fireballs in flight, and have characterized their nanostructure by high resolution microscopy. The nanoparticle network is found to have an unusually high porosity (> 99%), suggesting that this arc-ignition of silicon can be a novel method of producing ultra-porous silica. While we confirm the presence of a nanoparticle network within the fireballs, the extension of this mechanism to the production of ball lightning during atmospheric lightning strikes in nature is still the subject of ongoing debate.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nucleation and aerosol processing in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: powders production, coatings and filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the production of nano-particles and the processing of particles injected in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges (APED). The mechanisms of formation and the evolution of particles suspended in gases are first presented, with numerical and experimental facilities. Different APED and related properties are then introduced for dc corona, streamer and spark filamentary discharges (FD), as well as for ac filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). Two mechanisms of particle production are depicted in APED: when FD interact with the surface of electrodes or dielectrics and when filamentary and homogeneous DBD induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The evolution of the so-formed nano-particles, i.e. the growth by coagulation/condensation, the charging and the collection are detailed for each APED, with respect to fine powders production and thin films deposition. Finally, when particles are injected in APED, they undergo interfacial processes. Non-thermal plasmas charge particles for electro-collection and trigger heterogeneous chemical reactions for organic and inorganic films deposition. Heat exchanges in thermal plasmas enable powder purification, shaping, melting for hard coatings and fine powders production by reactive evaporation.

  13. NNSA B-Roll: MOX Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-21

    In 1999, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  14. NNSA B-Roll: MOX Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  15. Production of an osteoinductive demineralised bone matrix powder without the use of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Eagle, M J; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N

    2015-09-01

    Demineralised bone matrix (DBM) is produced by grinding cortical bone into a powder, sieving the powder to obtain a desired size range and then demineralising the powder using acid. Protocols for the production of DBM powder have been published since 1965 and the powder can be used in lyophilised form or it can be mixed with a carrier to produce a paste or putty. The powder is generally produced from cortical bone which has been processed to remove blood, bone marrow and bone marrow components, including fat. Removal of fat is accomplished by incorporating incubation in an organic solvent, often chloroform, chloroform/methanol or acetone. The use of organic solvents in a clean room environment in a human tissue bank is problematic and involves operator exposure and the potential for the solvent to be trapped in air filters or recirculated throughout the clean room suite. Consequently, in this study, we have developed a cortical bone washing step which removes fat/lipid without the use of an organic solvent. Bone was prepared from six femoral shafts from three donors by dissecting soft tissue and bisecting the shaft, the shafts were then cut into ~9-10 cm lengths. These struts were then taken through a series of hot water washes at 56-59 °C, centrifugation and decontamination steps. Washed cortical struts were then lyophilised before being ground with a compressed air milling machine. The ground bone was sieved, demineralised, freeze-dried and terminally sterilised with a target dose of 25 kGy gamma irradiation. The DBM powder was evaluated for residual calcium content, in vitro cytotoxicity and osteoinductivity by implantation into the muscle of an athymic mouse. Data indicated that in addition to removing in excess of 97% DNA and extractable soluble protein, the washing protocol reduced lipid 10,000-fold. The processed bone was easily ground without clogging the grinder; the sterilised DBM powder was not cytotoxic but was osteoinductive in the animal model

  16. Roller compaction: Effect of morphology and amorphous content of lactose powder on product quality.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Osborne, James D; Althaus, Tim O; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    The effect of morphology and amorphous content, of three types of lactose, on the properties of ribbon produced using roller compaction was investigated. The three types of lactose powders were; anhydrous SuperTab21AN, α-lactose monohydrate 200 M, and spray dried lactose SuperTab11SD. The morphology of the primary particles was identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the powder amorphous content was quantified using NIR technique. SEM images showed that 21AN and SD are agglomerated type of lactose whereas the 200 M is a non-agglomerated type. During ribbon production, an online thermal imaging technique was used to monitor the surface temperature of the ribbon. It was found that the morphology and the amorphous content of lactose powders have significant effects on the roller compaction behaviour and on ribbon properties. The agglomerated types of lactose produced ribbon with higher surface temperature and tensile strength, larger fragment size, lower porosity and lesser fines percentages than the non-agglomerated type of lactose. The lactose powder with the highest amorphous content showed to result in a better binding ability between the primary particles. This type of lactose produced ribbons with the highest temperature and tensile strength, and the lowest porosity and amount of fines in the product. It also produced ribbon with more smooth surfaces in comparison to the other two types of lactose. It was noticed that there is a relationship between the surface temperature of the ribbon during production and the tensile strength of the ribbon; the higher the temperature of the ribbon during production the higher the tensile strength of the ribbon. PMID:26117279

  17. Energy-conscious production of titania and titanium powders from slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlemas, Scott C.

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as a whitening agent in numerous domestic and technological applications and is mainly produced by the high temperature chloride process. A new hydrometallurgical process for making commercially pure TiO2 pigment is described with the goal of reducing the necessary energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The process includes alkaline roasting of titania slag with subsequent washing, HCl leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination stages. The thermodynamics of the roasting reaction were analyzed, and the experimental parameters for each step in the new process were optimized with respect to TiO 2 recovery, final product purity, and total energy requirements. Contacting the leach solution with a tertiary amine extractant resulted in complete Fe extraction in a single stage and proved effective in reducing the concentration of discoloring impurities in the final pigment to commercially acceptable levels. Additionally, a new method of producing Ti powders from titania slag is proposed as a potentially more energy efficient and lower cost alternative to the traditional Kroll process. Thermodynamic analysis and initial experimental results validate the concept of reducing titanium slag with a metal hydride to produce titanium hydride (TiH2) powders, which are subsequently purified by leaching and dehydrided to form Ti powders. The effects of reducing agent type, heating time and temperature, ball milling, powder compaction, and eutectic chloride salts on the conversion of slag to TiH2 powders were determined. The purification of reduced powders through NH4Cl, NaOH, and HCl leaching stages was investigated, and reagent concentration, leaching temperature, and time were varied in order to determine the best conditions for maximum impurity removal and recovery of TiH2. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO2 per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A comparison of the new process and the

  18. Gas Atomization Precursor Powder Approach for Simplified Large-Scale Production of Oxide Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, John; Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-based alloys show promise for future energy applications that require high-temperature and oxidation resistant properties. Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS), with a mixed (Ar/O{sub 2}) atomization gas, is being developed as a simplified route for producing ODS precursor powders. Internal oxidation studies determined Ni-Cr-Y-(Hf or Ti) containing systems are suitable for production of ODS alloys via hot consolidation, which is used to encourage oxygen exchange between the less stable surface oxide phase and reactive alloying elements, resulting in highly stable nano-metric dispersoid formation. Size control of powders is key to optimizing microstructural and strengthening features. Aspiration and, previously, water modeling experiments were used to develop atomization process parameters that encourage controlled powder production while maintaining reduced operating costs when implemented on an industrial scale. For an increase in pour tube extension: aspiration base pressure at any given operating pressure was found to decrease while wake closure pressure was found to increase. Aspiration hysteresis was observed as recorded previously in the literature. Light emission was observed above wake closure pressures.

  19. Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Heidloff, Andy; Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    As the technology for titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) becomes more readily available, efficient Ti alloy fine powder production methods are required. An update on a novel close-coupled gas atomization system has been given. Unique features of the melting apparatus are shown to have measurable effects on the efficiency and ability to fully melt within the induction skull melting system (ISM). The means to initiate the melt flow were also found to be dependent on melt apparatus. Starting oxygen contents of atomization feedstock are suggested based on oxygen pick up during the atomization and MIM processes and compared to a new ASTM specification. Forming of titanium by metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) has been extensively studied with regards to binders, particle shape, and size distribution and suitable de-binding methods have been discovered. As a result, the visibility of Ti-MIM has steadily increased as reviews of technology, acceptability, and availability have been released. In addition, new ASTM specification ASTM F2885-11 for Ti-MIM for biomedical implants was released in early 2011. As the general acceptance of Ti-MIM as a viable fabrication route increases, demand for economical production of high quality Ti alloy powder for the preparation of Ti-MIM feedstock correspondingly increases. The production of spherical powders from the liquid state has required extensive pre-processing into different shapes thereby increasing costs. This has prompted examination of Ti-MIM with non-spherical particle shape. These particles are produced by the hydride/de-hydride process and are equi-axed but fragmented and angular which is less than ideal. Current prices for MIM quality titanium powder range from $40-$220/kg. While it is ideal for the MIM process to utilize spherical powders within the size range of 0.5-20 {mu}m, titanium's high affinity for oxygen to date has prohibited the use of this powder size range. In order to meet oxygen requirements the top size

  20. Two component tungsten powder injection molding - An effective mass production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution.

  1. Design Studies of ``100% Pu'' Mox Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-01-11

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  2. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. PMID:20965326

  3. A comprehensive review on the hydro metallurgical process for the production of nickel and copper powders by hydrogen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A. . E-mail: archana@nmlindia.com; Kumar, V.; Pandey, B.D.; Sahu, K.K.

    2006-04-13

    Production of nickel and copper powders from leach solutions and other aqueous streams by hydrogen reduction under pressure has been reviewed in the present paper. By optimising the optimum process condition, powders or composite materials of required specification could be produced from different types of acidic and alkaline solutions by coating nickel or copper powders on the secondary materials such as graphite, tungsten carbide and aluminium. The paper also highlights the kinetics of reduction and the use of various inorganic and organic additives to improve the quality of the powder on bench and commercial scale. Effect of various experimental factors such as pH of the solution, concentration of metals, particle size and nature of additives, operating condition of autoclave, etc. on the rate of reduction and quality of powder are also discussed.

  4. Study of the IDGS technique for mixed plutonium-uranium (MOX) samples

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. K.; Vo, Duc T.; Sumi, M.; Suzuki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique has been demonstrated for simultaneously measuring concentrations and isotopic compositions of plutonium in spent-fuel input dissolver solutions. For timely analyzing nuclear materials on the purpose of material accountancy and quality control/assurance, we have performed a feasibility study to implement the IDGS for measuring mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) samples at the Plutonium Fuel Center (PFC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Proof-of-principle experiments and analysis have been conducted for developing simultaneous plutonium and uranium measurements in MOX samples with wide variation of Pu/U ratios including powder, pellets and process scraps from the MOX fuel fabrication plant at PFC. We have shown that FRAM can be used with the IDGS technique to simultaneously determine plutonium and uranium isotopic compositions and concentrations in MOX samples at PFC, JNC. The uncertainties of the results are somewhat large due to weak statistics. If better statistics are obtained by either using more plutonium in the measurements, acquire the data for longer time, or using higher efficiency detector then the results can be better. The accuracy of the results can also be improved by a factor of 2-3 by using the generalized IDGS technique instead of this traditional IDGS.

  5. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  6. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method. PMID:26960288

  7. Development of Low Cost Gas Atomization of Precursor Powders for Simplified ODS Alloy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2014-08-05

    A novel gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) method was developed in this project to enable production (at our partner’s facility) a precursor Ni-Cr-Y-Ti powder with a surface oxide and an internal rare earth (RE) containing intermetallic compound (IMC) phase. Consolidation and heat-treatment experiments were performed at Ames Lab to promote the exchange of oxygen from the surface oxide to the RE intermetallic to form nano-metric oxide dispersoids. Alloy selection was aided by an internal oxidation and serial grinding experiments at Ames Lab and found that Hf-containing alloys may form more stable dispersoids than Ti-containing alloy, i.e., the Hf-containing system exhibited five different oxide phases and two different intermetallics compared to the two oxide phases and one intermetallic in the Ti-containing alloys. Since the simpler Ti-containing system was less complex to characterize, and make observations on the effects of processing parameters, the Ti-containing system was selected by Ames Lab for experimental atomization trials at our partner. An internal oxidation model was developed at Ames Lab and used to predict the heat treatment times necessary for dispersoid formation as a function of powder size and temperature. A new high-pressure gas atomization (HPGA) nozzle was developed at Ames Lab with the aim of promoting fine powder production at scales similar to that of the high gas-flow and melt-flow of industrial atomizers. The atomization nozzle was characterized using schlieren imaging and aspiration pressure testing at Ames Lab to determine the optimum melt delivery tip geometry and atomization pressure to promote enhanced secondary atomization mechanisms. Six atomization trials were performed at our partner to investigate the effects of: gas atomization pressure and reactive gas concentration on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the oxygen content of the resulting powder. Also, the effect on the rapidly solidified microstructure (as a

  8. Design Studies of ''Island'' Type MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-31

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <> type MOX LTA design are presented. The characteristics both for infinite MOX grids and for VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are calculated. the neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  9. A novel process for production of spherical PBT powders and their processing behavior during laser beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Zhao, Meng; Fanselow, Stephanie; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing processes like laser beam melting of polymers are established for production of prototypes and individualized parts. The transfer to other areas of application and to serial production is currently hindered by the limited availability of polymer powders with good processability. Within this contribution a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability has been established and applied to produce polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) powders. Moreover, the applicability of the PBT powders in selective laser beam melting and the dependencies of process parameters on device properties will be outlined. First, polymer micro particles are produced by a novel wet grinding method. To improve the flowability the produced particles the particle shape is optimized by rounding in a heated downer reactor. A further improvement of flowability of the cohesive spherical PBT particles is realized by dry coating. An improvement of flowability by a factor of about 5 is achieved by subsequent rounding of the comminution product and dry-coating as proven by tensile strength measurements of the powders. The produced PBT powders were characterized with respect to their processability. Therefore thermal, rheological, optical and bulk properties were analyzed. Based on these investigations a range of processing parameters was derived. Parameter studies on thin layers, produced in a selective laser melting system, were conducted. Hence appropriate parameters for processing the PBT powders by laser beam melting, like building chamber temperature, scan speed and laser power have been identified.

  10. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, M.L.; Rosenstein, R.G.

    1998-10-13

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs.

  11. Mox fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-05-15

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion. characteristics of the assembly.

  12. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  13. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-07-17

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  14. Powder Injection Molding for mass production of He-cooled divertor parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, S.; Norajitra, P.; Piotter, V.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.-J.

    2011-10-01

    A He-cooled divertor for future fusion power plants has been developed at KIT. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are presently considered the most promising materials for functional and structural divertor components. The advantages of tungsten materials lie, e.g. in the high melting point, and low activation, the disadvantages are high hardness and brittleness. The machinig of tungsten, e.g. milling, is very complex and cost-intensive. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a method for cost effective mass production of near-net-shape parts with high precision. The complete W-PIM process route is outlined and, results of product examination discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a grain size distribution in the range 0.7-1.7 μm FSSS, and a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed. After heat treatment, the successfully finished samples showed promising results, i.e. 97.6% theoretical density, a grain size of approximately 5 μm, and a hardness of 457 HV0.1.

  15. Continuous process for the production of powdered uranium dioxide from uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Divins, L.A.; Runion, H.L.

    1987-04-07

    A method is described of producing uranium dioxide powder for the fabrication of nuclear fuel from acidic solutions containing uranyl nitrate, comprising the sequence of steps of: (a) continuously reacting an acidic aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate with ammonium hydroxide added in less than stoichiometric amount for complete uranium precipitation, neutralizing any free acid and precipitating a portion of the uranium content of the solution as ammonium uranate solids; (b) continuously aging the product resulting from reacting the uranyl nitrate of the solution with less than a stoichiometric amount of ammonium hydroxide, including the precipitated ammonium uranate solids while maintaining the solids substantially suspended in the medium of the aqueous solution; (c) thereafter continuously reacting the aged product comprising uranyl nitrate and precipitated ammonium uranate with additional added ammonium hydroxide in amount at least sufficient to complete the precipitation of the uranium of the solution as ammonium uranate solids; and (e) calcining the dewatered ammonium uranate solids in a reducing atmosphere and thereby converting the ammonium uranate solids in a reducing atmosphere and thereby converting the ammonium uranate to uranium dioxide powder.

  16. Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L.; Gellene, G.I.

    1999-05-01

    Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

  17. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J.; Murray, P.

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  18. Au and Pt nanoparticle supported catalysts tailored for H-2 production: From models to powder catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    T. D. Nguyen-Phan; Baber, A. E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Senanayake, S. D.

    2015-12-10

    The use of metal nanoparticles (NPs), including Au and Pt, supported over oxides has been pivotal, and is ever increasing in enabling catalytic reactions which target the production of hydrogen. We review here the most recent works pertaining to the fundamental understanding of the structure, morphology, growth, characterization, and intrinsic phenomenological properties of Au– and Pt– based catalysts that influence the reactivity and selectivity to target hydrogen production. We draw on surface science and theoretical methods of model and powder catalysts using high resolution imaging, spectroscopy, scattering experiments, and theoretical studies. Based on these insights we identify key aspects ofmore » studies of supported metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for several reactions. The main focus of this review is on the intersection of catalytic chemistry related to the water-gas shift (WGS), oxygenate steam reforming (OSR), and solarassisted reactions (SAR).« less

  19. Au and Pt nanoparticle supported catalysts tailored for H-2 production: From models to powder catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    T. D. Nguyen-Phan; Baber, A. E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Senanayake, S. D.

    2015-12-10

    The use of metal nanoparticles (NPs), including Au and Pt, supported over oxides has been pivotal, and is ever increasing in enabling catalytic reactions which target the production of hydrogen. We review here the most recent works pertaining to the fundamental understanding of the structure, morphology, growth, characterization, and intrinsic phenomenological properties of Au– and Pt– based catalysts that influence the reactivity and selectivity to target hydrogen production. We draw on surface science and theoretical methods of model and powder catalysts using high resolution imaging, spectroscopy, scattering experiments, and theoretical studies. Based on these insights we identify key aspects of studies of supported metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for several reactions. The main focus of this review is on the intersection of catalytic chemistry related to the water-gas shift (WGS), oxygenate steam reforming (OSR), and solarassisted reactions (SAR).

  20. Water milling and gas passivation method for production of corrosion resistant Nd-Fe-B-N/C powder and magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatin, Y.; Robinson, M.; Ormerod, J.

    1991-11-01

    Nd-Fe-B powder produced by conventional methods is pyrophoric, and exhibits poor corrosion resistance. Magnets made from powder are also susceptible to corrosion. Conventional methods of production are complicated, potentially hazardous, and relatively expensive. A novel, low cost, less hazardous method of producing powder and magnets with high corrosion resistance and Curie point is discussed. Nd-Fe-B alloys are milled in water, vacuum dried, and passivated at a suitable temperature in a nitrogen or carbon dioxide medium. During passivation, a protective layer, comprised of nitride and/or carbide phases, is formed in the surface region of the powder particles. This powder is not pyrophoric, and may be stored in a laboratory air environment for an extended period of time with no loss in magnetic properties. Compacted and sintered magnets produced from this powder are also highly corrosion resistant, and exhibit a higher Curie point compared to conventionally produced magnets. A description of the novel technology, and a discussion of the properties of Nd-Fe-B-C/N powder and magnets is given.

  1. MOX recycling in GEN 3 + EPR Reactor homogeneous and stable full MOX core

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Villele, E. de; Gauthier, J.C.; Marincic, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the case of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) reactor, 100% MOX core management is possible with simple design adaptations which are not significantly costly. 100% MOX core management offers several highly attractive advantages. First, it is possible to have the same plutonium content in all the rods of a fuel assembly instead of having rods with 3 different plutonium contents, as in MOX assemblies in current PWRs. Secondly, the full MOX core is more homogeneous. Thirdly, the stability of the core is significantly increased due to a large reduction in the Xe effect. Fourthly, there is a potential for the performance of the MOX fuel to match that of new high performance UO{sub 2} fuel (enrichment up to 4.95 %) in terms of increased burn up and cycle length. Fifthly, since there is only one plutonium content, the manufacturing costs are reduced. Sixthly, there is an increase in the operating margins of the reactor, and in the safety margins in accident conditions. The use of 100% MOX core will improve both utilisation of natural uranium resources and reductions in high level radioactive waste inventory.

  2. Shipping Cask Studies with MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-05-17

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  3. Process Conditions of Forming the Surface Layer of Aluminum Powder Product by Layer-by-layer Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Ibragimov, E. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents data on state of the art in selective laser sintering of products. Layer-by-layer sintering is shown to be a future-oriented technology, making it possible to synthesize products of metal powder materials. Factors, influencing the quality of a sintered product, are revealed in the paper. It presents outcomes of experiments, focused on the dependence of surface layer thickness of sintered aluminum powder PA-4 on laser processing conditions. Basic factors, influencing the quality of a sintered surface layer include laser power, speeds of scanning and moving the laser beam on the layer of powder. Thickness of the sintered layer varies from 0.74 to 1.55 mm, as the result of changing the laser processing conditions.

  4. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  5. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 115 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 97 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  10. Production and Characterization of Atomized U-Mo Powder by the Rotating Electrode Process

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; B.R. Muntifering; J.F. Jue

    2007-09-01

    In order to produce feedstock fuel powder for irradiation testing, the Idaho National Laboratory has produced a rotating electrode type atomizer to fabricate uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel. Operating with the appropriate parameters, this laboratory-scale atomizer produces fuel in the desired size range for the RERTR dispersion experiments. Analysis of the powder shows a homogenous, rapidly solidified microstructure with fine equiaxed grains. This powder has been used to produce irradiation experiments to further test adjusted matrix U-Mo dispersion fuel.

  11. [Study on key physical properties of granulated products of Andrographis mixed powder by high-speed mixing wet method].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Li, Zhe; Ming, Liang-Shan; Luo, Juan; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Liang, Xin-Li

    2014-10-01

    The impact of key physical properties on granulated products by the high-speed mixing wet method was studied. Andrographis extracts were utilized as the model drug. Four processing methods were adopted to prepare mixed powder of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and starch with the mass ratio 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 by the high-speed mixing wet method. The properties of the prepared granules were evaluated with such indexes as granule yield, the ratio of lumps and fine powder, granule-AOR and granule-HR. The impact of key physical properties on granulated products was analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that angle of repose, moisture content, pore volume, density and contact angle with water were key physical properties of the powder. The key physical properties of Chinese medical extracts powder are the important factor impacting granulated products made by the high-speed mixing wet method. In this study, the impact of key physical properties on granulated products of Chinese medical extracts was analyzed from the physical angle. PMID:25612432

  12. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  13. The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

  14. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. Methods The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Results Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of the same amounts of Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p < 0.003 and p < 0.02, respectively). However there was no significant difference when using 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p < 0.01). Conclusion Four grams of Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap

  15. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  16. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-06-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  17. Continuous production of granular or powder Ti, Zr and Hf or their alloy products

    DOEpatents

    White, Jack C.; Oden, Laurance L.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous process for producing a granular metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr or Hf under conditions that provide orderly growth of the metal free of halide inclusions comprising: a) dissolving a reducing metal selected from the group consisting of Na, Mg, Li or K in their respective halide salts to produce a reducing molten salt stream; b) preparing a second molten salt stream containing the halide salt of Ti, Zr or Hf; c) mixing and reacting the two molten streams of steps a) and b) in a continuous stirred tank reactor; d) wherein steps a) through c) are conducted at a temperature range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. so that a weight percent of equilibrium solubility of the reducing metal in its respective halide salt varies from about 1.6 weight percent at about 900.degree. C. to about 14.4 weight percent at about 1062.degree. C.; and wherein a range of concentration of the halide salt of Ti, Zn or Hf in molten halides of Na, Mg, Li or K is from about 1 to about 5 times the concentration of Na, Mg, Li or K; e) placing the reacted molten stream from step c) in a solid-liquid separator to recover an impure granular metal product by decantation, centrifugation, or filtration; and f) removing residual halide salt impurity by vacuum evaporator or inert gas sweep at temperatures from about 850.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. or cooling the impure granular metal product to ambient temperature and water leaching off the residual metal halide salt.

  18. Efficient 2,3-Butanediol Production from Cassava Powder by a Crop-Biomass-Utilizer, Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (BD) is considered as one of the key platform chemicals used in a variety of industrial applications. It is crucial to find an efficient sugar-utilizing strain and feasible carbon source for the economical production of BD. Methodology/Principal Findings Efficient BD production by a newly isolated Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM was studied using crop-biomass cassava powder as substrate. The culture conditions and fermentation medium for BD production were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, 78.3 g l−1 of BD was produced after 24 h in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with a yield of 0.42 g BD g−1 cassava powder and a specific productivity of 3.3 g l−1 h−1. A higher BD concentration (93.9 g l−1) was produced after 47 h in fed-batch SSF. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that strain SDM is a good candidate for the BD production, and cassava powder could be used as an alternative substrate for the efficient production of BD. PMID:22792324

  19. Development of a rapid detection system for opportunistic pathogenic Cronobacter spp. in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jennifer; Schmidt, Herbert; Loessner, Martin J; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-09-01

    Certain species of the genus Cronobacter are considered opportunistic pathogens, but their detection in milk products according to ISO/TS 22964 may take up to six days. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive PCR-based detection system for these species including enrichment, DNA-isolation and detection by real-time PCR, using the outer membrane protein gene ompA as a target. The assay was successfully validated using type strains of the genus Cronobacter, as well as 18 strains of closely related genera as controls. A total of 40 Cronobacter spp. food isolates yielded positive results, while the food matrix itself did not influence the PCR reaction. An equal detection limit as achieved with the ISO/TS 22964 method was established in this study, when 0.01 CFU Cronobacter sakazakii DSM 4485(T) per gram powdered infant formula were successfully detected after 28 days of storage at ambient temperature. In comparison to the ISO/TS 22964 method, the method described here has an equal detection limit, but offers a specific detection at the genus level in an analysis time of 24 h. PMID:24929712

  20. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ki Hong; Hwang, Yoon Seon; Kim, Young Boong; Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Dae; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (p<0.05). The noodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  1. Effects of Ground, Concentrated, and Powdered Beef on the Quality of Noodle Products

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of beef on the quality characteristics, such as color, texture profile, water absorption ratio, volume, turbidity, and sensory evaluation, of noodle products. Various types of beef were added to the flour at a mixture ratio of ground beef (BG) 10, 15, 20, 25%; concentrated beef (BC) 9, 11, 13, 15%; and powdered beef (BP) 1, 3, 5, 7%. Each treatment was analyzed and compared with a 100% flour noodle as a control. With increasing BG, BC, and BP ratios, the L and b values for color decreased, while the a value increased, from that in the control. The hardness of the noodles treated with BG increased with increasing mixture ratios, but hardness decreased in the BC and BP treatments with increasing mixture ratios (p<0.05). The noodles with the largest beef composition in the mixtures of each treatment exhibited the highest turbidity scores, which was believed to be because the solid contents would be transferred to the soup during heating. In the sensory evaluation of cooked noodles, the BG 10%, BC 9%, and BP 1% treatments exhibited the best color. In an overall preference test, 20% of BG and 3% of BP could be added to the noodles. The best palatability was exhibited by the BG 10%, BC 13%, and BP 3% treatments. PMID:26761675

  2. Effect of passivated iron powder on final-product distribution in Fe-supported denitrification.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Zhang, Keqiang; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    An integrated nitrate treatment using passivated iron powder (PIP) and Alcaligenes eutrophus, which is a kind of hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, was conducted to investigate the effect of iron oxide coating on final-product distribution in hydrogenotrophic denitrification. Based on the results, the autotrophic denitrification supported by PIP could completely remove about 50 mg·L(-1) of nitrate within 4 days, and almost 80% of nitrate was changed into N2O (under acetylene blocking) without residual nitrite or ammonium. While only 53% of the nitrate was removed using acid-washed iron (AWI) instead of PIP, about 70% was converted into ammonium. Furthermore, a layer of FeOOH converted from hematite (α-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4), which may block direct chemical nitrate reduction, was observed on the iron surface when PIP was used to support hydrogenotrophic denitrification. In addition, increasing pH from 5 to 8 increased nitrite generation from 1.19 to 4.91%, and decreased ammonium formation from 4.23 to 0%. PMID:23579818

  3. Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov., isolated from fruit powder, infant formula and an infant formula production environment.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Roger; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Iversen, Carol; Joosten, Han; De Vos, Paul; Lehner, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    Six Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid rod-shaped isolates were obtained from fruit powder (n=3), infant formula (n=2) and an infant formula production environment (n=1) and investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated the isolates to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rpoB gene sequence similarities (91.2-95.8%) were obtained with Enterobacter helveticus, Enterobacter radicincitans, Enterobacter turicensis and Enterobacter sakazakii and the phylogenetic branch formed by these species was supported by a high bootstrap value. Biochemical data revealed that the isolates could be differentiated from their nearest neighbours by their ability to utilize melibiose, sucrose, D-arabitol, mucate and 1-O-methyl-alpha-galactopyranoside and their negative reactions for D-sorbitol utilization and the Voges-Proskauer test. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization data, and unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Enterobacter, Enterobacter pulveris sp. nov. The type strain is 601/05(T) (=LMG 24057(T)=DSM 19144(T)). PMID:18175715

  4. Opportunities for the Multi Recycling of Used MOX Fuel in the US - 12122

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.; Bailly, F.; Bouvier, E.; Gain, T.; Lelievre, F.; Senentz, G.H.; Collins, E.

    2012-07-01

    Over the last 50 years the US has accumulated an inventory of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the region of 64,000 metric tons in 2010, and adds an additional 2,200 metric tons each year from the current fleet of 104 Light Water Reactors. This paper considers a fuel cycle option that would be available for a future pilot U.S. recycling plant that could take advantage of the unique opportunities offered by the age and size of the large U.S. UNF inventory. For the purpose of this scenario, recycling of UNF must use the available reactor infrastructure, currently LWR's, and the main product of recycling is considered to be plutonium (Pu), recycled into MOX fuel for use in these reactors. Use of MOX fuels must provide the service (burn-up) expected by the reactor operator, with the required level of safety. To do so, the fissile material concentration (Pu-239, Pu-241) in the MOX must be high enough to maintain criticality, while, in current recycle facilities, the Pu-238 content has to be kept low enough to prevent excessive heat load, neutron emission, and neutron capture during recycle operations. In most countries, used MOX fuel (MOX UNF) is typically stored after one irradiation in an LWR, pending the development of the GEN IV reactors, since it is considered difficult to directly reuse the recycled MOX fuel in LWRs due to the degraded Pu fissile isotopic composition. In the US, it is possible to blend MOX UNF with LEUOx UNF from the large inventory, using the oldest UNF first. Blending at the ratio of about one MOX UNF assembly with 15 LEUOx UNF assemblies, would achieve a fissile plutonium concentration sufficient for reirradiation in new MOX fuel. The Pu-238 yield in the new fuel will be sufficiently low to meet current fuel fabrication standards. Therefore, it should be possible in the context of the US, for discharged MOX fuel to be recycled back into LWR's, using only technologies already industrially deployed worldwide. Building on that possibility, two scenarios

  5. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240–260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180–210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time. PMID:26837848

  6. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time.

  7. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency.

    PubMed

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time. PMID:26837848

  8. Behavior of Si impurity in Np-Am-MOX fuel irradiated in the experimental fast reactor Joyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koji; Sasaki, Shinji; Kato, Masato; Kihara, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    The irradiation behavior of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels containing a large amount of silicon impurity was examined by post-irradiation examination. Influences of Si impurity on fuel restructuring and cladding attack were investigated in detail. Si impurity, along with Am, Pu and O were transported by spherical pores and cylindrical tubular pores to the fuel center during fuel restructuring of the Np-Am-MOX fuel, where a eutectic reaction of fuel and Si-rich inclusions occurred. After fuel restructuring of the Np-Am-MOX fuel, Si-rich inclusions without fuel constituents were agglomerated at fuel crack openings where shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding were seen. Such shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding were likewise observed near the location of fuel cracks in long-term steady-state irradiated MOX fuels. Evidence of these shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding remained after fuel restructuring in normal MOX fuel. However, grain boundary corrosion of the cladding inner wall at the opening of the fuel cracks was selective and was marked in MOX fuel at higher oxygen potential by the release of reactive fission products such as Cs and Te in comparison with other regions of cladding wall.

  9. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Brian A.; Sams, James I.; Smith, Bruce D.; Harbert, William

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  10. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  11. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D.; Harbert, W.

    2008-01-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated towater salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin. ?? 2008 2008 Society of ExplorationGeophysicists. All rights reserved.

  12. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  13. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-03-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience. PMID:24471111

  14. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag2(W1 -xMox)O4 heterostructures: Nucleation of Ag, morphology, and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. D. P.; Gonçalves, R. F.; Nogueira, I. C.; Longo, V. M.; Mondoni, L.; Moron, M. G.; Santana, Y. V.; Longo, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ag2W1 -xMoxO4 (x = 0.0 and 0.50) powders were synthesized by the co-precipitation (drop-by-drop) method and processed using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. We report the real-time in situ formation and growth of Ag filaments on the Ag2W1 -xMoxO4 crystals using an accelerated electron beam under high vacuum. Various techniques were used to evaluate the influence of the network-former substitution on the structural and optical properties, including photoluminescence (PL) emission, of these materials. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the phases obtained by the synthesis methods. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant changes in local order-disorder as a function of the network-former substitution. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the shape as well as dimensions of the Ag2W1 -xMoxO4 heterostructures. The PL spectra showed that the PL-emission intensities of Ag2W1 -xMoxO4 were greater than those of pure Ag2WO4, probably because of the increase of intermediary energy levels within the band gap of the Ag2W1 -xMoxO4 heterostructures, as evidenced by the decrease in the band-gap values measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

  15. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag₂(W(1-x)Mox)O₄ heterostructures: Nucleation of Ag, morphology, and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, M D P; Gonçalves, R F; Nogueira, I C; Longo, V M; Mondoni, L; Moron, M G; Santana, Y V; Longo, E

    2016-01-15

    Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 (x=0.0 and 0.50) powders were synthesized by the co-precipitation (drop-by-drop) method and processed using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. We report the real-time in situ formation and growth of Ag filaments on the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 crystals using an accelerated electron beam under high vacuum. Various techniques were used to evaluate the influence of the network-former substitution on the structural and optical properties, including photoluminescence (PL) emission, of these materials. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the phases obtained by the synthesis methods. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant changes in local order-disorder as a function of the network-former substitution. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the shape as well as dimensions of the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 heterostructures. The PL spectra showed that the PL-emission intensities of Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 were greater than those of pure Ag2WO4, probably because of the increase of intermediary energy levels within the band gap of the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 heterostructures, as evidenced by the decrease in the band-gap values measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. PMID:26361214

  16. Production of ultra clean gas-atomized powder by the plasma heated tundish technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tingskog, T.A.; Andersson, V.

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the improvements in cleanliness for different types of gas atomized powders produced by holding the melt in a Plasma Heated Tundish (PHT) before atomization. The cleanliness is measured on Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) or extruded samples. Significant improvements in slag levels and material properties have been achieved. On extruded powder metallurgy stainless steel and nickel alloy tubes, the rejection rate in ultra-sonic testing was reduced drastically. Tool steels and high speed steels have greatly improved ductility and bend strength.

  17. Co-fermentation of water hyacinth and beverage wastewater in powder and pellet form for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Lay, Chyi-How; Sen, Biswarup; Chen, Chin-Chao; Wu, Jou-Hsien; Lee, Shih-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production potential of water hyacinth (WH) and beverage wastewater (BW) mixture in powder and pellet form at various combination ratios were evaluated. Batch co-fermentation results showed peak biogas production of 105.5 mL and H2 production of 55.6 mL at the combination ratio of 1.6 g WH and 2.4 g BW in pellet form. With the same ratio in pellet form, the maximum H2 production rate 542 mL H2/L-d, maximum specific H2 production rate 869 mL H2/g VSS-d and H2 yield 13.65 mL/g feedstock were obtained, and were 88, 88 and 34% higher than its powder form. The predominant soluble metabolite was acetate in the concentration of 1059-2639 mg COD/L (40-79% of total metabolites) in most runs during co-fermentation of mixed feedstock. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the physical form of the combined feedstock are essential criteria for optimum H2 production. Co-fermentation also alleviates the waste disposal problem of the industries. PMID:22850173

  18. Twin screw wet granulation: Effect of process and formulation variables on powder caking during production.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    This work focuses on monitoring the behaviour and the mass of the built up/caking of powder during wet granulation using Twin Screw Granulator (TSG). The variables changed during this work are; powder (α-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)), the screw configuration (conveying and kneading elements) and the weight percentage of hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose (HPMC) dissolved in the granulation liquid (i.e. changing liquid viscosity). Additionally, the effect of these variables on the size distribution, of the granules produced, was determined. The experiments were conducted using an acrylic transparent barrel. A stainless steel barrel was then used to conduct the two extreme granulation liquid viscosities with two different screw configurations, using lactose only. This was done to compare the findings to those obtained from the transparent barrel for validation purpose. These variables showed to affect the behaviour and the mass of the powder caking as well as the size distribution of granules. Overall, the use of kneading element resulted in uniform behaviour in caking with higher mass. Furthermore, increasing the amount of HPMC resulted in a reduction of the mass of powder caking for lactose, while showing inconsistent trend for MCC. Furthermore, lactose showed to have a greater tendency to cake in comparison to MCC. The results, for lactose, obtained from the stainless steel barrel compared well with their corresponding conditions from the transparent barrel, as the screw configuration and HPMC mass varied. PMID:26536529

  19. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH POWDER COATING. Project Summary (EPA/600/SR-96/152)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clea...

  20. Ceramic Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In developing its product line of specialty ceramic powders and related products for government and industrial customers, including companies in the oil, automotive, electronics and nuclear industries, Advanced Refractory Technologies sought technical assistance from NERAC, Inc. in specific areas of ceramic materials and silicon technology, and for assistance in identifying possible applications of these materials in government programs and in the automotive and electronics industry. NERAC conducted a computerized search of several data bases and provided extensive information in the subject areas requested. NERAC's assistance resulted in transfer of technologies that helped ART staff develop a unique method for manufacture of ceramic materials to precise customer specifications.

  1. Injection molding as a one-step process for the direct production of pharmaceutical dosage forms from primary powders.

    PubMed

    Eggenreich, K; Windhab, S; Schrank, S; Treffer, D; Juster, H; Steinbichler, G; Laske, S; Koscher, G; Roblegg, E; Khinast, J G

    2016-05-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step process for the production of tablets directly from primary powder by means of injection molding (IM), to create solid-dispersion based tablets. Fenofibrate was used as the model API, a polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer served as a matrix system. Formulations were injection-molded into tablets using state-of-the-art IM equipment. The resulting tablets were physico-chemically characterized and the drug release kinetics and mechanism were determined. Comparison tablets were produced, either directly from powder or from pre-processed pellets prepared via hot melt extrusion (HME). The content of the model drug in the formulations was 10% (w/w), 20% (w/w) and 30% (w/w), respectively. After 120min, both powder-based and pellet-based injection-molded tablets exhibited a drug release of 60% independent of the processing route. Content uniformity analysis demonstrated that the model drug was homogeneously distributed. Moreover, analysis of single dose uniformity also revealed geometric drug homogeneity between tablets of one shot. PMID:27012981

  2. Comparison of effective parameters for copper powder production via electrorefining and electrowinning cells and improvement using DOE methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Ebrahim; Shakib, Sayyed Esmaeil

    2011-12-01

    The influences of cupric ion concentration (5-35 g/L), current density (500-2000 A/m2), circulation rate of the electrolyte solution (15-120 mL/min), and temperature (25-60°C) on the physical and chemical properties of copper powders obtained in electrolysis cells were investigated. Two industrial processes, electrorefining (ER) cells with a synthetic electrolyte and electrowinning (EW) cells with an original solution of copper mineral leaching, were utilized to produce copper powders. Finally, the statistical full factorial method of design of experiments (DOE) was employed to investigate the interaction or the main effects of processes. The results show that increasing the copper concentration and temperature can increase the grain size, apparent density, and electrical energy consumption. On the other hand, increasing the current density and circulation rate of the electrolyte can decrease them. This production process is optimized via DOE to control the interactive and main effects to produce copper powders with favorable properties.

  3. Method for forming pyrrone molding powders and products of said method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. T.; Mchenry, R. J. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    The formation of pyrrone resins of the ladder or semiladder structure is described. The technique involves initial formation of fully cyclized prepolymers having an average degree of polymerization of about 1.5, one with acidic terminal groups, another with amine terminal groups. Thereafter the prepolymers are intimately admixed on a 1:1 stoichiometric basis. The resulting powder mixture is molded at elevated pressures and temperatures to form a fully cyclized resin.

  4. Characteristics and production of tantalum powders for solid-electrolyte capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae Sik; Kim, Byung Il

    The effects of using K 2TaF 7 as the raw material and sodium as the reducing agent on the characteristics of tantalum powder are investigated. Batch-type metallothermic reduction (BTMR) is used to charge the reactor with the raw material and the reducing agent, and external continuous supply metallothermic reduction (ESMR) is used to supply the raw material and the reducing agent at a constant rate at the temperature of the reduction reaction. In the case of ESMR, the yield increases by several tens of percent because of the uniform reaction between the raw material and the reducing agent. It is possible to obtain a powder of over 99.5% purity. The powder particles obtained with BTMR are relatively large (4-6 μm) and have a coarse lamellar shape, while those prepared via ESMR are of uniform 1-2 μm size with a coral-like shape. Measurements of the electric properties show that the leakage current and the dielectric dissipation are low with higher reliability in ESMR than in BTMR, and the capacitance is 26,000 and 8400 CV for ESMR and in BTMR, respectively.

  5. Powder River Basin coalbed methane: The USGS role in investigating this ultimate clean coal by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stanton, R.W.

    2000-07-01

    For the past few decades, the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin has supplied the Nation with comparatively clean low ash and low sulfur coal. However, within the past few years, coalbed methane from the same Fort Union coal has become an important energy by-product. The recently completed US Geological Survey coal resource assessment of the Fort Union coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999) has added useful information to coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin has rapidly accelerated in the past three years. During this time more than 800 wells have been drilled and recent operator forecasts projected more than 5,000 additional wells to be drilled over the next few years. Development of shallow (less than 1,000 ft. deep) Fort Union coal-bed methane is confined to Campbell and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming, and Big Horn County, Montana. The purpose of this paper is to report on the US Geological Survey's role on a cooperative coalbed methane project with the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Wyoming Reservoir Management Group and several gas operators. This paper will also discuss the methodology that the USGS and the BLM will be utilizing for analysis and evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The USGS and BLM need additional information of coalbed methane reservoirs to accomplish their respective resource evaluation and management missions.

  6. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %. PMID:24665070

  7. De-agglomeration Effect of the US Pharmacopeia and Alberta Throats on Carrier-Based Powders in Commercial Inhalation Products.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Leung, Cassandra; Decharaksa, Janwit; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-11-01

    The US pharmacopeia (USP) and Alberta throats were recently reported to cause further de-agglomeration of carrier-free powders emitted from some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). This study assessed if they have similar influences on commercially available carrier-based DPIs. A straight tube, a USP throat, and an Alberta throat (non-coated and coated) were used for cascade impaction testing. Aerosol fine particle fraction (FPF ≤ 5 μm) was computed to evaluate throat-induced de-agglomeration. Computational fluid dynamics are employed to simulate airflow patterns and particle trajectories inside the USP and Alberta throats. For all tested products, no significant differences in the in vitro aerosol performance were observed between the USP throat and the straight tube. Using fine lactose carriers (<10 μm), Symbicort(®) and Oxis(™) showed minimal impaction inside the Alberta throat and resulted in similar FPF among all induction ports. For products using coarse lactose carriers (>10 μm), impaction frequency and energy inside the Alberta throat were significant. Further de-agglomeration was noted inside the non-coated Alberta throat for Seretide(®) and Spiriva(®), but agglomerates emitted from Relenza(®), Ventolin(®), and Foradil(®) did not further break up into smaller fractions. The coated Alberta throat considerably reduced the FPF values of these products due to the high throat retention, but they generally agreed better with the in vivo data. In conclusion, depending on the powder formulation (including carrier particle size), the inhaler, and the induction port, further de-agglomeration could happen ex-inhaler and create differences in the in vitro measurements. PMID:26201967

  8. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  9. Optimization of process parameters for the production of spray dried Ber (Ziziphus jujube L.) powder.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Pandey, Sheela; Pare, Akash; Singh, R B

    2014-12-01

    The study covers effect of operating variables of spray dryer i.e. inlet temperature (170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 °C,), aspirator blower capacity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 %) and feed pump capacity (9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 %) and processing parameters of feed i.e. total soluble solid (TSS) of feed (7.5 %) and encapsulating material, maltodextrin (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 %), aerosil (1.0 %), citric acid (0.25 %) upon the physical properties (colour, packed density and hygroscopicity) of powder were observed. After complete evaluation and analysis of all the attributes for physical properties i.e. colour, packed density (0.45 g/cc) and hygroscopicity (0.17 g/g dry matter), it was concluded that best quality of Ber powder were obtained at inlet air temperature 190 °C, aspirator blower capacity 60 %, feed pump capacity 15 %, encapsulating material 8 %. PMID:25477666

  10. Production of Ultrafine, High-purity Ceramic Powders Using the US Bureau of Mines Developed Turbomill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, Jesse L.

    1993-01-01

    Turbomilling, an innovative grinding technology developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the early 1960's for delaminating filler-grade kaolinitic clays, has been expanded into the areas of particle size reduction, material mixing, and process reaction kinetics. The turbomill, originally called an attrition grinder, has been used for particle size reduction of many minerals, including natural and synthetic mica, pyrophyllite, talc, and marble. In recent years, an all-polymer version of the turbomill has been used to produce ultrafine, high-purity, advanced ceramic powders such as SiC, Si3N4, TiB2, and ZrO2. In addition to particle size reduction, the turbomill has been used to produce intimate mixtures of high surface area powders and whiskers. Raw materials, TiN, AlN, and Al2O3, used to produce a titanium nitride/aluminum oxynitride (TiN/AlON) composite, were mixed in the turbomill, resulting in strength increases over samples prepared by dry ball milling. Using the turbomill as a leach vessel, it was found that 90.4 pct of the copper was extracted from the chalcopyrite during a 4-hour leach test in ferric sulfate versus conventional processing which involves either roasting of the ore for Cu recovery or leaching of the ore for several days.

  11. Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology: Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Fossil Energy; National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of applying multiseam [well] completion (MSC) technology to the massive stack of low-rank coals in the Powder River Basin. As part of this, the study objectives are: Estimate how much additional CBM resource would become accessible and technically recoverable--compared to the current practice of drilling one well to drain a single coal seam; Determine whether there are economic benefits associated with MSC technology utilization (assuming its widespread, successful application) and if so, quantify the gains; Briefly examine why past attempts by Powder River Basin CBM operators to use MSC technology have been relatively unsuccessful; Provide the underpinnings to a decision whether a MSC technology development and/or demonstration effort is warranted by DOE. To a great extent, this assessment builds on the previously published study (DOE, 2002), which contains many of the key references that underlie this analysis. It is available on the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy technology Laboratory, Strategic Center for Natural Gas website (www.netl.doe.gov/scng). It is suggested that readers obtain a copy of the original study to complement the current report.

  12. Effect of production conditions on the corrosion resistance of lanthanum hexaboride powders and parts made from them

    SciTech Connect

    Paderno, Y.B.; Dudnik, E.M.; Masyuk, T.V.; Tkasch, A.V.; Zaitseva, A.Z.

    1985-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of chemical and thermal treatments of an industrial LaB6 powder on the corrosion resistance of the powder itself and parts pressed hot from it. To start, two batches of an industrial lanthanum hexaboride powder were used; and any boron oxide present removed by washing the powders with warm distilled water. To free the powders of lanthanum borates and lanthanum oxide, the powders were treated with a hydrochloric acid solution. The authors determine that this hydrochloric acid cleaning method is an effective means of ridding an industrial lanthanum hexaboride powder of impurities. It is also shown that acid treatment of industrial LaB6 powders substantially improves the corrosion resistance of parts made from them by powder metallurgy techniques. Also, a mechanism of rupture of hotpressed and sintered lanthanum hexaboride parts is proposed.

  13. An integrated approach for the verification of fresh mixed oxide fuel (MOX) assemblies at light water reactor MOX recycle reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Lee, Sang - Yoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach for the verification of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to their being loaded into the reactor. There is a coupling of the verification approach that starts at the fuel fabrication plant and stops with the transfer of the assemblies into the thermal reactor. The key measurement points are at the output of the fuel fabrication plant, the receipt at the reactor site, and the storage in the water pool as fresh fuel. The IAEA currently has the capability to measure the MOX fuel assemblies at the output of the fuel fabrication plants using a passive neutron coincidence counting systems of the passive neutron collar (PNCL) type. Also. at the MOX reactor pool, the underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) has been developed to measure the MOX assemblies in the water. The UWCC measurement requires that the fuel assembly be lifted about two meters up in the storage rack to avoid interference from the fuel that is stored in the rack. This paper presents a new method to verify the MOX fuel assemblies that are in the storage rack without the necessity of moving the fuel. The detector system is called the Underwater MOX Verification System (UMVS). The integration and relationship of the three measurements systems is described.

  14. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance. PMID:27144766

  15. A micro powder injection molding apparatus for high aspect ratio metal micro-structure production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gang; Tor, Shubeng; Loh, Ngiaphiang; Tay, Beeyen; Hardt, David E.

    2007-09-01

    A new variotherm molding apparatus is presented in this paper for the fabrication of high aspect ratio 316L stainless steel micro-structures using micro powder injection molding (μPIM) technology. The molding apparatus prototype includes an injection mold in which a silicon insert with an array of 24 × 24 (576) microcavities is mounted, a set of rapid tempering systems for the mold and a set of vacuum systems. The key advantage of this molding apparatus lies in the real-time monitoring and rapid adjustment of the mold cavity temperature during injection molding and part ejection, which makes molding and demolding of high aspect ratio green micro-structures possible. For example, incomplete filling occurs while injection molding micro-structures of 60 µm × height 191 µm with an aspect ratio of 3.2 using a conventional mold. In comparison, smaller micro-structures with higher aspect ratio are produced successfully in the case of the new molding apparatus, e.g. micro-structures of 40 µm × height 174 µm with an aspect ratio of 4.35 and 20 µm × height 160 µm with an aspect ratio of 8 were molded successfully.

  16. Studies of Flexible MOX/LEU Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Alonso-Vargas, G.

    1999-03-01

    This project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and North Carolina State University as well as Texas A and M University. The background, briefly, is that the US is planning to use some of its excess weapons Plutonium (Pu) to make mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for existing light-water reactors (LWRs). Considerable effort has already gone into designing fuel assemblies and core loading patterns for the transition from full-uranium cores to partial-MOX and full-MOX cores. However, these designs have assumed that any time a reactor needs MOX assemblies, these assemblies will be supplied. In reality there are many possible scenarios under which this supply could be disrupted. It therefore seems prudent to verify that a reactor-based Pu-disposition program could tolerate such interruptions in an acceptable manner. Such verification was the overall aim of this project. The task assigned to the Texas A and M team was to use the HELIOS code to develop libraries of two-group homogenized cross sections for the various assembly designs that might be used in a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that is burning weapons-grade MOX fuel. The NCSU team used these cross sections to develop optimized loading patterns under several assumed scenarios. Their results are documented in a companion report.

  17. CANDU MOX initiative: Report on a stakeholders` debate

    SciTech Connect

    Gizewski, P.

    1997-12-31

    The safe, secure disposition of excess plutonium from dismantled Russian and US nuclear warheads is a significant international priority. One option being considered involves the fabrication outside of Canada of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel bundles for CANDU reactors. These bundles would contain up to 3% plutonium in oxide form, mixed with uranium oxide. This option is the subject of growing controversy, both in terms of its substance as well as the process by which the MOX option proposal has thus far unfolded. This report summarizes a meeting held to debate the MOX initiative and its implications. Participants include representatives from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ontario Hydro, federal and provincial governments, non-governmental organizations, and interested citizens. The report highlights the main features of the initiative, the nature of the arguments advanced in favor and against it, and the manner in which the debate was conducted. Issues discussed include international security implications, alternatives to the MOX scheme, MOX fuel transportation and security, health-related concerns, the regulatory process, community perspectives, and the policy process.

  18. Test plan for the Parallex CANDU-MOX irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    One of several options being considered by the United States and the Russian Federation for the disposition of excess plutonium from dismantled weapons is to convert it to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for use in Canadian uranium-deuterium (CANDU) reactors. This report describes an irradiation test demonstrating the feasibility of this concept with laboratory quantities of MOX fuel placed in the pressurized loops of the National Research Universal test reactor at the Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories. The objective of the Parallex (for parallel experiment) test is to simultaneously test laboratory-produced quantities of US and R.F. MOX fuel in a test reactor under heat generation rates representing those expected in the CANDU reactors. The MOX fuel will be produced with plutonium from disassembled weapons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and at the Bochvar Institute in the Russian Federation. Thus, the test will serve to demonstrate the accomplishment of many parts of the disposition mission: disassembly of weapons, conversion of the plutonium to oxide, fabrication of MOX fuel, assembly of fuel elements and bundles, shipment to a reactor, irradiation, and finally, storage of the spent fuel elements awaiting eventual disposition in a geologic repository in Canada.

  19. Hot Cell Examination of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured with weapons-grade MOX and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg. As part of the fuel qualification process, five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This is the first hot cell examination of weapons-grade MOX fuel. The rods have been examined nondestructively with the ADEPT apparatus and are currently being destructively examined. Examinations completed to date include length measurements, visual examination, gamma scanning, profilometry, eddy-current testing, gas measurement and analysis, and optical metallography. Representative results of these examinations are reviewed and found to be consistent with predictions and with prior experience with reactor-grade MOX fuel. The results will be used to support licensing of weapons-grade MOX for batch use in commercial power reactors.

  20. Production and characterization of engineered alginate-based microparticles containing ECM powder for cell/tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Calvitti, Mario; Calafiore, Riccardo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen F

    2011-03-01

    A method for the production of engineered alginate-based microparticles, containing extracellular matrix and neonatal porcine Sertoli cells (SCs), is described. As a source for extracellular matrix, a powder form of isolated and purified urinary bladder matrix (UBM) was employed. We demonstrated that the incorporation of UBM does not significantly alter the morphological and dimensional characteristics of the microparticles. The alginate microparticles were used for SC encapsulation as an immunoprotective barrier for transplant purposes, while the co-entrapped UBM promoted retention of cell viability and function. These engineered microparticles could represent a novel approach to enhancing immunological acceptance and increasing the functional life-span of the entrapped cells for cell/tissue engineering applications. In this respect, it is noteworthy that isolated neonatal porcine SCs, administered alone in highly biocompatible microparticles, led to diabetes prevention and reversion in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. PMID:20950716

  1. Using ergonomics to enhance safe production at a surface coal mine--a case study with powder crews.

    PubMed

    Torma-Krajewski, Janet; Wiehagen, William; Etcheverry, Ann; Turin, Fred; Unger, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck. PMID:19626526

  2. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    SciTech Connect

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R.

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  3. Tamarind kernel powder: a novel agro-residue for the production of cellobiose dehydrogenase under submerged fermentation by Termitomyces clypeatus.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tanima; Sasmal, Soumya; Alam, Shariful; Das, Nirmalendu

    2014-04-16

    The study investigates the potential of substitution of the conventional carbohydrate nutrient (cellulose) in media with cheap agro-residues for cellobiose dehydrogenase production by Termitomyces clypeatus (CDHtc) under submerged conditions. Different agro-residues tested for enzyme production were characterized using FTIR and XRD analysis. As CDHtc production was highest with tamarind kernel powder (TKP), it was selected for process optimizations through shake-flask fermentations. The optimized parameters were then applied to batch cultures in a 5 L bioreactor that gave enzyme yield (57.4 U mL⁻¹) similar to that obtained under shake-flask fermentations (57.05 U mL⁻¹). The study also made an attempt to predict CDHtc production with respect to time of fermentation and mycelial growth. The specific growth rate and carrying capacity of the mycelia were also determined, and the values lie in the ranges of 0.024-0.027 h⁻¹ and 7.2-7.1 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. PMID:24678724

  4. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  5. Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents. PMID:16381734

  6. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  7. Talcum powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder As a filler in street drugs, like heroin Other products may also contain talc. ... have developed serious lung damage and cancer. Injecting heroin that contains talc into a vein may lead ...

  8. The Mars oxidant experiment (MOx) for Mars '96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Lane, A. L.; Herring, M.; Bartman, R. K.; Ksendzov, A.; Manning, C. M.; Lamb, J. L.; Williams, R. M.; Ricco, A. J.; Butler, M. A.; Murray, B. C.; Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.; Klein, H. P.; Levin, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    The MOx instrument was developed to characterize the reactive nature of the martian soil. The objectives of MOx were: (1) to measure the rate of degradation of organics in the martian environment; (2) to determine if the reactions seen by the Viking biology experiments were caused by a soil oxidant and measure the reactivity of the soil and atmosphere: (3) to monitor the degradation, when exposed to the martian environment, of materials of potential use in future missions; and, finally, (4) to develop technologies and approaches that can be part of future soil analysis instrumentation. The basic approach taken in the MOx instrument was to place a variety of materials composed as thin films in contact with the soil and monitor the physical and chemical changes that result. The optical reflectance of the thin films was the primary sensing-mode. Thin films of organic materials, metals, and semiconductors were prepared. Laboratory simulations demonstrated the response of thin films to active oxidants.

  9. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data related with the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Íris; Andrade, Rita; Pinto, João F; Temtem, Márcio

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals as part of the research article entitled "Green production of cocrystals using a new solvent-free approach by spray congealing" (Duarte et al., 2016) [1]. More specifically, here we present the thermal analysis and the X-ray powder diffraction data for pure Glutaric Acid, used as a raw material in [1]. We also include the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data obtained for the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystal (form II) produced using the cooling crystallization method reported in "Operating Regions in Cooling Cocrystallization of Caffeine and Glutaric Acid in Acetonitrile" (Yu et al., 2010) [2]. Lastly, we show the X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for assessing the purity of the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric cocrystals produced in [1]. PMID:27331096

  10. High-temperature strength of prealloyed-powder products increased by heat/pressure treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.; Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Heat treatment process involves heating products to a temperature above the solidus, and subsequently applying pressure at a temperature below the solidus. Technique can be modified to one step process involving simultaneous application if both high pressure and heat. Process is not limited to cobalt-base alloys.

  11. A Numerical Study of Material Parameter Sensitivity in the Production of Hard Metal Components Using Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Daniel C.; Lindskog, Per; Staf, Hjalmar; Larsson, Per-Lennart

    2014-06-01

    Modeling of hard metal powder inserts is analyzed based on a continuum mechanics approach. In particular, one commonly used cutting insert geometry is studied. For a given advanced constitutive description of the powder material, the material parameter space required to accurately model the mechanical behavior is determined. These findings are then compared with the corresponding parameter space that can possibly be determined from a combined numerical/experimental analysis of uniaxial die powder compaction utilizing inverse modeling. The analysis is pertinent to a particular WC/Co powder and the finite element method is used in the numerical investigations of the mechanical behavior of the cutting insert.

  12. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  13. Evaluation of powder metallurgy plates made by Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    These plates, numbered 13129, 13130, 13133, 13137, and 13146 were fabricated by Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., and were received at the Savannah plant in February, 1956. All of the plates were of the wide, ribless design. A summary of the data obtained by Sylvania on these and on {open_quotes}companion{close_quotes} plates is given in Table I, and a summary of the data obtained upon examining the plates at the Savannah River Laboratory is contained in Table II.

  14. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future. PMID:25605047

  15. X-ray Powder Diffraction in Conservation Science: Towards Routine Crystal Structure Determination of Corrosion Products on Heritage Art Objects.

    PubMed

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Fischer, Andrea; Eggert, Gerhard; Runčevski, Tomče; Wahlberg, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure determination and refinement process of corrosion products on historic art objects using laboratory high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is presented in detail via two case studies. The first material under investigation was sodium copper formate hydroxide oxide hydrate, Cu4Na4O(HCOO)8(OH)2∙4H2O (sample 1) which forms on soda glass/copper alloy composite historic objects (e.g., enamels) in museum collections, exposed to formaldehyde and formic acid emitted from wooden storage cabinets, adhesives, etc. This degradation phenomenon has recently been characterized as "glass induced metal corrosion". For the second case study, thecotrichite, Ca3(CH3COO)3Cl(NO3)2∙6H2O (sample 2), was chosen, which is an efflorescent salt forming needlelike crystallites on tiles and limestone objects which are stored in wooden cabinets and display cases. In this case, the wood acts as source for acetic acid which reacts with soluble chloride and nitrate salts from the artifact or its environment. The knowledge of the geometrical structure helps conservation science to better understand production and decay reactions and to allow for full quantitative analysis in the frequent case of mixtures. PMID:27341300

  16. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

  17. ANALYSIS AND EXAMINATION OF MOX FUEL FROM NONPROLIFERATION PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Kevin; Machut, Dr McLean; Morris, Robert Noel; Blanpain, Patrick; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio of less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. The performance of the rods was analyzed with AREVA s next-generation GALILEO code. The results of the analysis confirmed that the fuel rods had performed safely and predictably, and that GALILEO is applicable to MOX fuel with a low 240Pu/239Pu ratio as well as to standard MOX. The results are presented and compared to the GALILEO database. In addition, the fuel cladding was tested to confirm that traces of gallium in the fuel pellets had not affected the mechanical properties of the cladding. The irradiated cladding was found to remain ductile at both room temperature and 350 C for both the axial and circumferential directions.

  18. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  19. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films and powders

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650 C and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures. 2 figs.

  20. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 thin films and powders

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650.degree. C. and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures.

  1. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  2. The production of niobium-tin powders by vapor-deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorucu, H.; Sale, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    The concomitant reduction of SnCl2 and NbCl5 with hydrogen has been investigated for the production of NbSn2 upon static Nb substrates and upon fluidized Nb and A12O3 seed particles. The maximum reaction temperature studied was 800 °C since NbSn2 is not stable above 845 °C. NbSn2 has been produced on niobium strip at 700 °C from a vapor phase containing SnCl2 and NbCl5 of ratio 2.6:1. However, the same vapor phase, and ones containing a ratio of up to 5:1, SnCl2 to NbCl5, have been shown to yield only Nb3Sn upon fluidized particles over the temperature range 650 to 750 °C. This observation is explained in terms of an enhanced vapor etching reaction that occurs with Nb seed particles and the inability to nucleate a tin-rich liquid phase, which appears to be necessary for the growth of NbSn2, upon the alumina seed particles.

  3. The production of niobium-tin powders by vapor-deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorucu, H.; Sale, F. R.

    1982-12-01

    The concomitant reduction of SnCl2 and NbCl5 with hydrogen has been investigated for the production of NbSn2 upon static Nb substrates and upon fluidized Nb and Al2O3 seed particles. The maximum reaction temperature studied was 800°C since NbSn2 is not stable above 845°C. NbSn2 has been produced on niobium strip at 700°C from a vapor phase containing SnCl2 and NbCl5 of ratio 2.6:1. However, the same vapor phase, and ones containing a ratio of up to 5:1, SnCl2 to NbCl5, have been shown to yield only Nb3Sn upon fluidized particles over the temperature range 650 to 750°C. This observation is explained in terms of an enhanced vapor etching reaction that occurs with Nb seed particles and the inability to nucleate a tin-rich liquid phase, which appears to be necessary for the growth of NbSn2, upon the alumina seed particles.

  4. Tungsten and tungsten-alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications-excluding lamps. November 1971-July 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys including various applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying-element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of various cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 60 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Integrated fixed-film activated sludge ANITA™Mox process--a new perspective for advanced nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Veuillet, F; Lacroix, S; Bausseron, A; Gonidec, E; Ochoa, J; Christensson, M; Lemaire, R

    2014-01-01

    ANITA™Mox is a Veolia process using moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology tested and validated in full-scale for energy- and cost-effective autotrophic N-removal from sidestream effluent using anammox (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) bacteria. In order to increase the ANITA™Mox process performances under different operating conditions (e.g. mainstream and sidestream application), substrate transport and accessibility inside the biofilm must be enhanced. In this work, (i) two laboratory scale biofilm ANITA™Mox reactors were operated using different configurations (IFAS - integrated fixed-film activated sludge - and MBBR) and (ii) the distribution of the anammox (AnAOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the suspended sludge and the biofilm was characterized using molecular tools (qPCR). This study showed that in IFAS configuration, the ANITA™Mox process achieved very high N-removal rate (up to 8 gN/m².d), which was three to four times higher than that achieved in the pure MBBR mode. The high concentration of suspended solids (mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)) in the bulk obtained within the IFAS mode induces a very efficient bacterial distribution between the AOB and AnAOB population. AnAOB activity mainly occurs in the biofilm (96% of total AnAOB in the reactor), whereas nitritation by AOB mostly takes place in the suspended phase (93% of total AOB). This spatial distribution observed in the IFAS reactor results from a natural selection due to more easily substrate accessibility for AOB in the bulk (NH4(+), O2) creating higher nitrite concentration in the bulk liquid compare to pure MBBR mode. The efficient control of MLSS level in the IFAS reactor is a key parameter to enhance the nitrite production by AOB and increase the substrate availability in the AnAOB-enriched biofilm leading to higher N-removal rate. These promising results obtained at laboratory scale have been further confirmed in on-going full-scale IFAS ANITA™Mox trials opening

  6. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dose<5μm) was determined with the NGI at defined time points. The amorphous amounts showed a major effect on dispersion behavior, the mixtures of the two APIs showed differences at the beginning of the study and significant differences in storage stability. The FPF values for SBS decreased during storage (FPF: from 35% to <27%) for the blend with high amorphous amounts, in contrast the initially re-crystallized sample achieved a comparable constant level of about 25%. For the hydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was

  7. Method of making polymer powders and whiskers as well as particulate products of the method and atomizing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2001-01-09

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  8. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  9. ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

  10. Flow Cytometric and 16S Sequencing Methodologies for Monitoring the Physiological Status of the Microbiome in Powdered Infant Formula Production

    PubMed Central

    Anvarian, Amir H. P.; Cao, Yu; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Fanning, Séamus; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop appropriate protocols for flow cytometric (FCM) and 16S rDNA sequencing investigation of the microbiome in a powdered infant formula (PIF) production facility. Twenty swabs were collected from each of the three care zones of a PIF production facility and used for preparing composite samples. For FCM studies, the swabs were washed in 200 mL phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were harvested by three-step centrifugation followed by a single stage filtration. Cells were dispersed in fresh PBS and analyzed with a flow cytometer for membrane integrity, metabolic activity, respiratory activity and Gram characteristics of the microbiome using various fluorophores. The samples were also plated on agar plates to determine the number of culturable cells. For 16S rDNA sequencing studies, the cells were harvested by centrifugation only. Genomic DNA was extracted using a chloroform-based method and used for 16S rDNA sequencing studies. Compared to the dry low and high care zones, the wet medium care zone contained a greater number of viable, culturable, and metabolically active cells. Viable but non-culturable cells were also detected in dry-care zones. In total, 243 genera were detected in the facility of which 42 were found in all three care zones. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was observed in low care. The genera present in low, medium and high care were mostly associated with soil, water, and humans, respectively. The most prevalent genera in low, medium and high care were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Streptococcus, respectively. The integration of FCM and metagenomic data provided further information on the density of different species in the facility. PMID:27446009

  11. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Thomas A. Moe; Melanie D. Hetland; Margaret L. Laumb

    2001-06-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will further affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. This project, a cooperative effort between the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant, and the University of North Dakota Department of Civil Engineering, consists of several interrelated tasks. The objective of the research was to evaluate a cost-effective PAC produced from North Dakota lignite for removing NOM from water and reducing trihalomethane formation potential. The research approach was to develop a statistically valid testing protocol that can be used to compare dose-response relationships between North Dakota lignite-derived PAC and commercially available PAC products. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether significant correlations exist between operating conditions, water properties, PAC properties, and dose-response behavior. Pertinent physical and chemical properties were also measured for each of the waters and each of the PACs.

  12. Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.

    PubMed

    Moncalvo, Alessandro; Marinoni, Laura; Dordoni, Roberta; Duserm Garrido, Guillermo; Lavelli, Vera; Spigno, Giorgia

    2016-07-01

    Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in extracts at very low levels, while potential allergenic amines, tyramine and histamine, were never detected. Different pesticides were present in both skins and extracts. Pb and Cd were found in trace only in the powders, and K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in both skin powders and extracts. Concentrations of the different contaminants were related to fibre content or total phenolics content of powders and extracts, respectively, in order to evaluate their use in the food sector. PMID:27295010

  13. Demonstration of a silicon nitride attrition mill for production of fine pure Si and Si3N4 powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Orth, N. W.

    1984-01-01

    To avoid metallic impurities normally introduced by milling ceramic powders in conventional steel hardware, an attrition mill (high-energy stirred ball mill) was constructed with the wearing parts (mill body, stirring arms, and media) made from silicon nitride. Commercial silicon and Si3N4 powders were milled to fine uniform particles with only minimal contamination - primarily from wear of the sintered Si3N4 media.

  14. Sugarcane molasses and yeast powder used in the Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611.

    PubMed

    Dorta, Claudia; Cruz, Rubens; de Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moura, Danilo José Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Different concentrations of sucrose (3-25% w/v) and peptone (2-5% w/v) were studied in the formulation of media during the cultivation of Aspergillus japonicus-FCL 119T and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. Moreover, cane molasses (3.5-17.5% w/v total sugar) and yeast powder (1.5-5% w/v) were used as alternative nutrients for both strains' cultivation. These media were formulated for analysis of cellular growth, beta-Fructosyltransferase and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production. Transfructosylating activity (U ( t )) and FOS production were analyzed by HPLC. The highest enzyme production by both the strains was 3% (w/v) sucrose and 3% (w/v) peptone, or 3.5% (w/v) total sugars present in cane molasses and 1.5% (w/v) yeast powder. Cane molasses and yeast powder were as good as sucrose and peptone in the enzyme and FOS (around 60% w/w) production by studied strains. PMID:16835781

  15. Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of {+-}-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, {alpha}-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging {alpha}-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

  16. International safeguards for a modern MOX (mixed-oxide) fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1987-03-01

    Bulk-handling facilities that process plutonium for commercial fuel cycles offer considerable challenges to nuclear materials safeguards. Modern fuel fabrication facilities that handle mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium (MOX) often have large inventories of special nuclear materials in their process lines and in storage areas for feed and product materials. In addition, the remote automated processing prevalent at new MOX facilities, which is necessary to minimize radiation exposures to personnel, tends to limit access for measurements and inspections. The facility design considered in this study incorporates all these features as well as state-of-the-art measurement technologies for materials accounting. Key elements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards for such a fuel-cycle facility have been identified in this report, and several issues of primary importance to materials accountancy and IAEA verifications have been examined. We have calculated detection sensitivities for abrupt and protracted diversions of plutonium assuming a single materials balance area for all processing areas. To help achieve optimal use of limited IAEA inspection resources, we have calculated sampling plans for attributes/variables verification. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of calculating sigma/sub (MUF-D)/ and detection probabilities corresponding to specified material-loss scenarios and resource allocations. The data developed and the analyses performed during this study can assist both the facility operator and the IAEA in formulating necessary safeguards approaches and verification procedures to implement international safeguards for special nuclear materials.

  17. On the Methods to Measure Powder Flow.

    PubMed

    Tan, Geoffrey; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependent nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing. PMID:26446467

  18. Rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis affected by mangosteen peel powder supplement in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-03-01

    Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P < 0.01) while methanogens and protozoal population were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of MSP supplementation. Increasing level of MSP supplement could decrease rumen methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26885988

  19. Oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX47 fuel subjected to water radiolysis: Solution chemistry and surface characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; De Bonfils, J.; Broudic, V.; Peuget, S.; Vercouter, T.; Roudil, D.

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX fuel (MIMAS TU2®) subjected to water radiolysis were investigated experimentally by leaching spent MOX47 fuel samples in pure water at 25 °C under different oxidizing conditions (with and without external gamma irradiation); the leached surfaces were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The highly oxidizing conditions resulting from external gamma irradiation significantly increased the concentration of plutonium (Pu(V)) and uranium (U(VI)) compared with a benchmark experiment (without external irradiation). The oxidation behavior of the plutonium-enriched aggregates differed significantly from that of the UO 2 matrix after several months of leaching in water under gamma irradiation. The plutonium in the aggregates appears to limit fuel oxidation. The only secondary phases formed and identified to date by Raman spectroscopy are uranium peroxides that generally precipitate on the surface of the UO 2 grains. Concerning the behavior of plutonium, solution analysis results appear to be compatible with a conventional explanation based on an equilibrium with a Pu(OH) 4(am) phase. The fission product release - considered as a general indicator of matrix alteration - from MOX47 fuel also increases under external gamma irradiation and a change in the leaching mode is observed. Diffusive leaching was clearly identified, coinciding with the rapid onset of steady-state actinide concentrations in the bulk solution.

  20. MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, R.L.; Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

  1. Isotopic Details of the Spent Catawba-1 MOX Fuel Rods at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ronald James

    2015-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy funded Shaw/AREVA MOX Services LLC to fabricate four MOX Lead Test Assemblies (LTA) from weapons-grade plutonium. A total of four MOX LTAs (including MX03) were irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station (Unit 1) Catawba-1 PWR which operated at a total thermal power of 3411 MWt and had a core with 193 total fuel assemblies. The MOX LTAs were irradiated along with Duke Energy s irradiation of eight Westinghouse Next Generation Fuel (NGF) LEU LTAs (ref.1) and the remaining 181 LEU fuel assemblies. The MX03 LTA was irradiated in the Catawba-1 PWR core (refs.2,3) during cycles C-16 and C-17. C-16 began on June 5, 2005, and ended on November 11, 2006, after 499 effective full power days (EFPDs). C-17 started on December 29, 2006, (after a shutdown of 48 days) and continued for 485 EFPDs. The MX03 and three other MOX LTAs (and other fuel assemblies) were discharged at the end of C-17 on May 3, 2008. The design of the MOX LTAs was based on the (Framatome ANP, Inc.) Mark-BW/MOX1 17 17 fuel assembly design (refs. 4,5,6) for use in Westinghouse PWRs, but with MOX fuel rods with three Pu loading ranges: the nominal Pu loadings are 4.94 wt%, 3.30 wt%, and 2.40 wt%, respectively, for high, medium, and low Pu content. The Mark-BW/MOX1 (MOX LTA) fuel assembly design is the same as the Advanced Mark-BW fuel assembly design but with the LEU fuel rods replaced by MOX fuel rods (ref. 5). The fabrication of the fuel pellets and fuel rods for the MOX LTAs was performed at the Cadarache facility in France, with the fabrication of the LTAs performed at the MELOX facility, also in France.

  2. On-line monitoring of blend uniformity in continuous drug product manufacturing process--The impact of powder flow rate and the choice of spectrometer: Dispersive vs. FT.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenqi; McGhehey, Kathryn C; Leavesley, Ian M; Manley, Leo F

    2016-01-25

    One of the commonly acknowledged issues in continuous manufacturing of drug products is how to provide a representative sampling on flowing powder to assure its blend uniformity. An investigation was conducted to improve understanding on the impact of powder flow rate under different continuous manufacturing conditions and the impact of optical parameters (such as resolution, co-adds, and integration time) on NIR spectral quality with respect to a dispersive and a Fourier transform instrument. A partial least squares (PLS)-based spectral pretreatment was found useful to tackle the impact of different flow rates on NIR spectral signals. Multivariate figures of merit (FOM) were used to evaluate performances across different instruments and optical settings and discover the advantageous selectivity and sensitivity on the Fourier transform than the dispersive instrument regardless of the use of co-adds. PMID:26580823

  3. Comparison between solid-state and powder-state alkali pretreatment on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Shabina; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0.75% NaOH pretreatment (32.31%). The surface of rice straw was disrupted by the 0.75% NaOH and 1.00% NaOH pretreated samples as observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, absorbance of hydroxyl groups at 1,050 cm(-1) due to the OH group of lignin was gradually decreased with the increase of NaOH concentration. The greatest amounts of glucose and ethanol were obtained in 1.00% NaOH solid-state pretreated and powder-state hydrolyzed samples (0.804 g g(-1) and 0.379 g g(-1), respectively), which was statistically similar to the use of 0.75% NaOH (0.763 g g(-1) and 0.358 g g(-1), respectively). Thus, solid-state pretreatment with 0.75% NaOH and powder-state hydrolysis appear to be suitable for fermentation and bioethanol production from rice straw. PMID:25806867

  4. Comparison of REMIX vs. MOX fuel characteristics in multiple recycling in VVER reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dekusar, V.M.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, E.N.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Puzakov, A.Y.

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycling of regenerated uranium-plutonium fuel in thermal reactors of VVER-1000 type with high enriched uranium feeding (REMIX-fuel) gives a possibility to terminate the accumulation of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and Pu and decrease the accumulation of irradiated uranium by an order of magnitude. Results of comparison of VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle characteristics vs different fuel types such as UOX, MOX and REMIX-fuel have been presented. REMIX fuel (Regenerated Mixture of U-, Pu oxides) is the mixture of plutonium and uranium extracted from SNF and refined from other actinides and fission products with the addition of enriched uranium to provide the power potential necessary. The savings in terms of uranium quantities and separation works in the nuclear energy system (NES) with reactors using REMIX-fuel compared to the NES with uranium-fuelled reactors are shown to be of about 30% and 8%, respectively. For the NES with thermal reactors partially loaded with MOX-fuel, the uranium and separation works saving of about 14% would be obtained. Production of neptunium and americium in reactors with REMIX-fuel in steady state increases by a factor 3, and production of curium - by 10 compared to the reactors with UOX-fuel. This increase of minor actinide buildup is owed to the multiple recycling of plutonium. It should be noted that in this case all fuel assemblies contain high-background plutonium, and their manufacturing involves an expensive technology. Besides, management of REMIX-fuel will require special protection measures even during the fresh fuel manufacturing phase. The above-said gives ground to state that the use of REMIX fuel would be questionable in economic aspect.

  5. Novelty shop 'itching powder'.

    PubMed

    Albert, M R

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate causes of itch, commercial 'itching powders' were sought for evaluation. Only one product, produced in Germany and consisting of ground rose hips, is currently sold in novelty shops in the Boston area. These plant fibres appear to provoke itch and prickle sensations by non-allergic mechanical stimulation, similar to the action of wool fibres. PMID:9737050

  6. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:25656210

  7. Final assessment of MOX fuel performance experiment with Japanese PWR specification fuel in the HBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Hajime; Teshima, Hideyuki; Kanasugi, Katsumasa; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain high burn-up MOX fuel irradiation performance data, SBR and MIMAS MOX fuel rods with Pu-fissile enrichment of about 6 wt% had been irradiated in the HBWR from 1995 to 2006. The peak burn-up of MOX pellet achieved 72 GWd/tM. In this test, fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length and cladding length were measured for MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel as reference. MOX fuel temperature is confirmed to have no significant difference in comparison with UO{sub 2}, taking into account of adequate thermal conductivity degradation due to PuO{sub 2} addition and burn-up development. And the measured fuel temperature agrees well with FINE code calculation up to high burn-up region. Fission gas release of MOX is possibly greater than UO{sub 2} based on temperature and pressure assessment. No significant difference is confirmed between SBR and MIMAS MOX on FGR behavior. MOX fuel swelling rate agrees well with solid swelling rate in the literature. Cladding elongation data shows onset of PCMI in high power region. (authors)

  8. Issues in the use of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel in VVER-1000 Nuclear Reactors: Comparison of UO2 and MOX Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    2005-05-27

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the differences between mixed oxide (MOX) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and to assess in reasonable detail the potential impacts of MOX fuel use in VVER-1000 nuclear power plants in Russia. This report is a generic tool to assist in the identification of plant modifications that may be required to accommodate receiving, storing, handling, irradiating, and disposing of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. The report is based on information from work performed by Russian and U.S. institutions. The report quantifies each issue, and the differences between LEU and MOX fuels are described as accurately as possible, given the current sources of data.

  9. A Neutronic Analysis of TRU Recycling in PWRs Loaded with MOX-UE Fuel (MOX with U-235 Enriched U Support)

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; S. Bays

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study dealing with the homogeneous recycling of either Pu or Pu+Np or Pu+Np+Am or Pu+Np+Am+Cm in PWRs using MOX-UE fuel, i.e. standard MOX fuel with a U235 enriched uranium support instead of the standard tail uranium (0.25%) for standard MOX fuel. This approach allows to multirecycle Pu or TRU (Pu+MA) as long as U235 is available, by keeping the Pu or TRU content in the fuel constant and at a value ensuring a negative moderator void coefficient (i.e. the loss of the coolant brings imperatively the reactor to a subcritical state). Once this value is determined, the U235 enrichment of the MOX-UE fuel is adjusted in order to reach the target burnup (51 GWd/t in this study).

  10. Transportation and packaging issues involving the disposition of surplus plutonium as MOX fuel in commercial LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S.B.; Welch, D.E.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides a view of anticipated transportation, packaging, and facility handling operations that are expected to occur at mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and commercial reactor facilities. This information is intended for use by prospective contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) who plan to submit proposals to DOE to manufacture and irradiate MOX fuel assemblies in domestic commercial light-water reactors. The report provides data to prospective consortia regarding packaging and pickup of MOX nuclear fuel assemblies at a MOX fuel manufacturing plant and transport and delivery of the MOX assemblies to nuclear power plants. The report also identifies areas where data are incomplete either because of the status of development or lack of sufficient information and specificity regarding the nuclear power plant(s) where deliveries will take place.

  11. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance. This article is for information ... The ingredients in face powder that can be harmful are: Baking soda Talcum powder Many other types of powder

  12. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R L; Haygood, M G; Lidstrom, M E

    1988-01-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes, and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs. Images PMID:3129400

  13. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L.; Haygood, M.G.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1988-05-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes,a and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs.

  14. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  15. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  16. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  17. TRIPOLI-4 criticality calculations for MOX fuelled SNEAK 7A and 7B fast critical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. K.

    2012-07-01

    A prototype Generation IV fast neutron reactor is under design and development in France. The MOX fuel will be introduced into this self-generating core in order to demonstrate low net plutonium production. To support the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo transport code in criticality calculations of fast reactors, the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}eff estimation and the Probability Tables (PT) option to treat the unresolved resonance region of cross-sections are two essentials. In this study, TRIPOLI-4 calculations have been made using current nuclear data libraries JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 to benchmark the reactor physics parameters of the MOX fuelled SNEAK 7A and 7B fast critical assemblies. TRIPOLI-4 calculated K{sub eff} and {beta}eff of the homogeneous R-Z models and the 3D multi-cell models have been validated against the measured ones. The impact of the PT option on K{sub eff} is 340 {+-} 10 pcm for SNEAK 7A core and 410 {+-} 12 pcm for 7B. Four-group spectra and energy spectral indices, f8/f5, f9/f5, and c8/f5 in the two SNEAK cores have also been calculated with the TRIPOLI-4 mesh tally. Calculated spectrum-hardening index f8/f5 is 0.0418 for SNEAK 7A and 0.0315 for 7B. From this study the SNEAK 3D models have been verified for the next revision of IRPhE (International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments). (authors)

  18. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Powder River Basin for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    SciTech Connect

    Kvasnicka, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Powder River Basin. General research, based on a review of published literature from both private and public sources, indicates that the shallow, thick subbituminous coal seams found in the Powder River Basin exhibit significant potential for the application of this patented process. These coal deposits can be characterized, on the basis of established coalbed methane production, as being highly water productive. The desorption and economic recovery of coalbed methane, widely believed to be biogenic in origin, from these low-grade deposits will require the subsequent dewatering of these geologic formations. The patented process, developed by Mr. McIntyre and described in the compendium of this study, may offer a cost-effective means of methane recovery and downhole disposal of produced groundwaters.

  19. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  20. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  1. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  2. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup.more » The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.« less

  3. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup. The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.

  4. Melting temperatures of the ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K.; Sugata, H.; Shibata, K.; Sato, D.

    2013-07-01

    Severe accidents occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Units 1-3 on March 11, 2011. MOX fuels were loaded in the Unit 3. For the thermal analysis of the severe accident, melting temperature and phase state of MOX corium were investigated. The simulated coriums were prepared from 4%Pu-containing MOX, 8%Pu-containing MOX and ZrO{sub 2}. Then X-ray diffraction, density and melting temperature measurements were carried out as a function of zirconium and plutonium contents. The cubic phase was observed in the 25%Zr-containing corium and the tetragonal phase was observed in the 50% and 75%Zr-containing coria. The lattice parameter and density monotonically changed with Pu content. Melting temperature increased with increasing Pu content; melting temperature were estimated to be 2932 K for 4%Pu MOX corium and 3012 K for 8%Pu MOX corium in the 25%ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system. The lowest melting temperature was observed for 50%Zr-containing corium. (authors)

  5. Measurement and analysis of fission gas release from BNFL's SBR MOX fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. J.; Fisher, S. B.; Cook, P. M. A.; Stratton, R.; Walker, C. T.; Palmer, I. D.

    2001-01-01

    Puncture results are presented for seven SBR MOX fuel rods from the first prototypical commercial irradiation that was carried out in the Beznau-1 PWR. The rod average burn-up ranged from 31.2 to 35.6 MWd/kgHM. Comparison is made with the percentage of gas released from French MOX fuels and UO 2 fuel. The results show that in the burn-up range investigated, SBR MOX fuel and MIMAS MOX fuel perform similarly, releasing up to about 1% of the fission gas inventory. Comparisons with the Halden Criterion show that SBR MOX has the same release threshold as UO 2 and this suggests that the mechanisms of release in the two fuels are similar. This is further supported by calculations made with the ENIGMA fuel performance code. It is concluded that the apparent differences in fission gas release between SBR MOX and UO 2 fuel, at least in the early stages of release, can be explained by the higher temperatures experienced by MOX fuel.

  6. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the powder river basin, wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Repert, D.A.; Hart, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A. study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 ??M. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 ??M, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Geochemistry of Inorganic Nitrogen in Waters Released from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 µM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 µM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25-30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day-1 entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  8. Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D.

    2007-01-15

    Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

  9. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of Cr1-xMoxSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Mohamad, Afiqa; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    The thermoelectric properties of Mo-substituted CrSi2 were studied. Dense polycrystalline samples of Mo-substituted hexagonal C40 phase Cr1-xMoxSi2 (x=0-0.30) were fabricated by arc melting followed by spark plasma sintering. Mo substitution substantially increases the carrier concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity of CrSi2 at room temperature was reduced from 9.0 to 4.5 W m-1 K-1 by Mo substitution due to enhanced phonon-impurity scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, increases with increasing Mo content because of the reduced lattice thermal conductivity. The maximum ZT value obtained in the present study was 0.23 at 800 K, which was observed for the sample with x=0.30. This value is significantly greater than that of undoped CrSi2 (ZT=0.13).

  11. Measurement of the adhesion force between particles for high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkawa, K.; Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    In the industrial plants such as foods, medicines or industrial materials, there are big amount of issues on contamination by metallic wear debris originated from pipes of manufacturing lines. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under the dry process by using superconducting magnet to remove the ferromagnetic particles. One of the major problems of dry HGMS systems is, however, the blockage of magnetic filter caused by particle coagulation or deposition. In order to actualize the magnetic separation without blockage, we introduced pneumatic conveyance system as a new method to feed the powder. It is important to increase the drag force acting on the sufficiently dispersed particles, which require strong magnetic fields. To generate the strong magnetic fields, HGMS technique was examined which consists of a magnetic filter and a superconducting solenoid magnet. As a result of the magnetic separation experiment, it was shown that the separation efficiency changes due to the difference of the cohesive property of the particles. On the basis of the result, the adhesion force which acts between the ferromagnetic particles and the medium particles used for the magnetic separation was measured by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and cohesion of particles was studied from the aspect of interparticle interaction. We assessed a suitable flow velocity for magnetic separation according to the cohesive property of each particle based on the result.

  12. System Applies Polymer Powder To Filament Tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer powder applied uniformly and in continuous manner. Powder-coating system applies dry polymer powder to continuous fiber tow. Unique filament-spreading technique, combined with precise control of tension on fibers in system, ensures uniform application of polymer powder to web of spread filaments. Fiber tows impregnated with dry polymer powders ("towpregs") produced for preform-weaving and composite-material-molding applications. System and process valuable to prepreg industry, for production of flexible filament-windable tows and high-temperature polymer prepregs.

  13. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  14. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  15. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Salay, Michael; Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  16. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  17. Enhanced coagulation with powdered activated carbon or MIEX secondary treatment: a comparison of disinfection by-product formation and precursor removal.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The removal of both organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors prior to disinfection is important in mitigating DBP formation, with halide removal being particularly important in salinity-impacted water sources. A matrix of waters of variable alkalinity, halide concentration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) followed by anion exchange (MIEX resin) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the subsequent disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBP-FPs) assessed and compared to DBP-FPs for untreated samples. Halide and DOC removal were also monitored for both treatment processes. Bromide and iodide adsorption by MIEX treatment ranged from 0 to 53% and 4-78%, respectively. As expected, EC and PAC treatments did not remove halides. DOC removal by EC/PAC was 70 ± 10%, while EC/MIEX enabled a DOC removal of 66 ± 12%. Despite the halide removals achieved by MIEX, increases in brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation were observed relative to untreated samples, when favourable Br:DOC ratios were created by the treatment. However, the increases in formation were less than what was observed for the EC/PAC treated waters, which caused large increases in Br-DBP formation when high Br-DBP-forming water quality conditions occurred. The formation potential of fully chlorinated DBPs decreased after treatment in all cases. PMID:25462752

  18. Compaction and Sintering of Mo Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, Stephen D; Kiggans, Jim; Bryan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Mo metal powders were evaluated for compaction and sintering characteristics as they relate to Mo-100 accelerator target disk fabrication. Powders having a natural isotope distribution and enriched Mo-100 powder were examined. Various powder characteristics are shown to have an effect on both the compaction and sintering behavior. Natural Mo powders could be cold pressed directly to >90% density. All of the powders, including the Mo-100 samples, could be sintered after cold pressing to >90% density. As an example, a compacted Mo-100 disk reached 89.7% density (9.52 g/cm3) after sintering at 1000 C for 1 hr. in flowing Ar/4%H2. Higher sintering temperatures were required for other powder samples. The relationships between processing conditions and the resulting densities of consolidated Mo disks will be presented.

  19. Insecticidal activity of the granulosis virus in combination with neem products and talc powder against the potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarin, G M; Delalibera, I

    2012-06-01

    The potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is an important agricultural pest that causes significant economic losses to potato growers worldwide. The addition of an effective method of biological control for the potato tuberworm is greatly needed, and is currently unavailable in Brazil. The granulosis virus (Baculoviridae) is a promising biological control agent to protect post-harvest potatoes and in storage from the potato tuberworm. However, the control measure must be economically feasible. Liquid suspensions of a granulosis virus applied alone or in mixture with two commercial neem oil-based products (DalNeem™ and NeemAzal™), and a dry powder formulation of viral granules were evaluated for control of potato tuberworm larvae by treating potato tubers under laboratory conditions. High larval mortality (86.7%) was achieved when DalNeem and virus were applied together at 4 mg of azadirachtin/L and 10(4) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mL, respectively. This combination resulted in ≥50% efficacy in relation to their counterparts alone. Conversely, NeemAzal did not enhance virus effectiveness against larvae of the potato tuberworm. The talc-based virus formulation was used for dusting seed tubers at different concentrations and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 5 × 10(8) OBs/g. Formulated and unformulated virus provided 50% mortality at 166 OBs/g and at 5.0 × 10(5) OBs/mL, respectively. As a result, talc-based virus formulation had a better control efficiency on potato tuberworm than the aqueous virus suspension. The granulosis virus combined with DalNeem at low rates or formulated with talc powder is a viable option to control the potato tuberworm under storage conditions. PMID:23950047

  20. Comparative Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Cronobacter Species Cultured from Four Powdered Infant Formula Production Facilities: Indication of Pathoadaptation along the Food Chain

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Wang, Juan; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Cao, Yu; Martins, Marta; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Stephan, Roger; Lampel, Keith; Tall, Ben D.

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment. Among the seven Cronobacter species, Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST-4) is predominantly associated with recorded cases of infantile meningitis. This study reports on a 26-month powdered infant formula (PIF) surveillance program in four production facilities located in distinct geographic regions. The objective was to identify the ST(s) in PIF production environments and to investigate the phenotypic features that support their survival. Of all 168 Cronobacter isolates, 133 were recovered from a PIF production environment, 31 were of clinical origin, and 4 were laboratory type strains. Sequence type 1 (n = 84 isolates; 63.9%) was the dominant type in PIF production environments. The majority of these isolates clustered with an indistinguishable pulsotype and persisted for at least an 18-month period. Moreover, DNA microarray results identified two phylogenetic lineages among ST-4 strains tested. Thereafter, the ST-1 and -4 isolates were phenotypically compared. Differences were noted based on the phenotypes expressed by these isolates. The ST-1 PIF isolates produced stronger biofilms at both 28°C and 37°C, while the ST-4 clinical isolates exhibited greater swimming activity and increased binding to Congo red dye. Given the fact that PIF is a low-moisture environment and that the clinical environment provides for an interaction between the pathogen and its host, these differences may be consistent with a form of pathoadaptation. These findings help to extend our current understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of Cronobacter species in PIF production environments. PMID:25911470

  1. Comparative Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Cronobacter Species Cultured from Four Powdered Infant Formula Production Facilities: Indication of Pathoadaptation along the Food Chain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Wang, Juan; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Cao, Yu; Martins, Marta; Gopinath, Gopal R; Stephan, Roger; Lampel, Keith; Tall, Ben D; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-07-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment. Among the seven Cronobacter species, Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST-4) is predominantly associated with recorded cases of infantile meningitis. This study reports on a 26-month powdered infant formula (PIF) surveillance program in four production facilities located in distinct geographic regions. The objective was to identify the ST(s) in PIF production environments and to investigate the phenotypic features that support their survival. Of all 168 Cronobacter isolates, 133 were recovered from a PIF production environment, 31 were of clinical origin, and 4 were laboratory type strains. Sequence type 1 (n = 84 isolates; 63.9%) was the dominant type in PIF production environments. The majority of these isolates clustered with an indistinguishable pulsotype and persisted for at least an 18-month period. Moreover, DNA microarray results identified two phylogenetic lineages among ST-4 strains tested. Thereafter, the ST-1 and -4 isolates were phenotypically compared. Differences were noted based on the phenotypes expressed by these isolates. The ST-1 PIF isolates produced stronger biofilms at both 28°C and 37°C, while the ST-4 clinical isolates exhibited greater swimming activity and increased binding to Congo red dye. Given the fact that PIF is a low-moisture environment and that the clinical environment provides for an interaction between the pathogen and its host, these differences may be consistent with a form of pathoadaptation. These findings help to extend our current understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of Cronobacter species in PIF production environments. PMID:25911470

  2. Complete genome sequence and phenotype microarray analysis of Cronobacter sakazakii SP291: a persistent isolate cultured from a powdered infant formula production facility

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiongqiong; Power, Karen A.; Cooney, Shane; Fox, Edward; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Grim, Christopher J.; Tall, Ben D.; McCusker, Matthew P.; Fanning, Séamus

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of human infection linked to the powdered infant formula (PIF) food chain and associated with the bacterium Cronobacter, are of concern to public health. These bacteria are regarded as opportunistic pathogens linked to life-threatening infections predominantly in neonates, with an under developed immune system. Monitoring the microbiological ecology of PIF production sites is an important step in attempting to limit the risk of contamination in the finished food product. Cronobacter species, like other microorganisms can adapt to the production environment. These organisms are known for their desiccation tolerance, a phenotype that can aid their survival in the production site and PIF itself. In evaluating the genome data currently available for Cronobacter species, no sequence information has been published describing a Cronobacter sakazakii isolate found to persist in a PIF production facility. Here we report on the complete genome sequence of one such isolate, Cronobacter sakazakii SP291 along with its phenotypic characteristics. The genome of C. sakazakii SP291 consists of a 4.3-Mb chromosome (56.9% GC) and three plasmids, denoted as pSP291-1, [118.1-kb (57.2% GC)], pSP291-2, [52.1-kb (49.2% GC)], and pSP291-3, [4.4-kb (54.0% GC)]. When C. sakazakii SP291 was compared to the reference C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894, which is also of PIF origin, the annotated genome data identified two interesting functional categories, comprising of genes related to the bacterial stress response and resistance to antimicrobial and toxic compounds. Using a phenotypic microarray (PM), we provided a full metabolic profile comparing C. sakazakii SP291 and the previously sequenced C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894. These data extend our understanding of the genome of this important neonatal pathogen and provides further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the PIF environment. PMID:24032028

  3. Use of Cation Exchange Resins for Production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Suitable for the Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Powder Metallurgy Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    2001-09-17

    This report describes the production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders from three types of cation exchange resins: Dowex 50W, a strong acid, sulfonate resin; AG MP-50, a macroporous form of sulfonate resin; and Bio-Rex 70, a weak acid, carboxylic resin.

  4. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  5. Magnetic properties of the ammonolysis product of α-Fe powder containing a small amount of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugawa, Yuta; Maubuchi, Yuji; Motohashi, Teruki; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2015-02-15

    Magnetite was prepared containing a small amount of aluminum and its nitride was generated through low temperature ammonolysis following reduction under hydrogen. The nitrided product was determined by XRD to be a mixture of “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” having a slightly deformed crystal structure from α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} and the residual α-Fe. Magnetic coercivity of the mixture was decreased from the value of 150 mT obtained for the nitride product made without aluminum, due to the precipitation of nonmagnetic amorphous alumina in the low temperature nitrided bcc (Fe{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}) with x≤0.03. The aluminum-doped nitride product in which the “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” fraction was 30 at% exhibited magnetization at 1.5 T of approximately 200 Am{sup 2}kg{sup −1} at room temperature and its magnetic coercivity was 20 mT. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic iron nitride particles were separated by nonmagnetic amorphous γ-alumina. Magnetic coercivity was decreased by reducing the magnetic interaction between the particles. - Highlights: • Magnetic coercivity decreased in α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} like compound as a soft magnet. • Small amount of Al addition was effective in its preparation. • Magnetic interaction decreased between the “α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” particles.

  6. Characterization of candidate DOE sites for fabricating MOX fuel for lead assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Holdaway, R.F.; Miller, J.W.; Sease, J.D.; Moses, R.J.; O`Connor, D.G.; Carrell, R.D.; Jaeger, C.D.; Thompson, M.L.; Strasser, A.A.

    1998-03-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is directing the program to disposition US surplus weapons-usable plutonium. For the reactor option for disposition of this surplus plutonium, MD is seeking to contract with a consortium, which would include a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabricator and a commercial US reactor operator, to fabricate and burn MOX fuel in existing commercial nuclear reactors. This option would entail establishing a MOX fuel fabrication facility under the direction of the consortium on an existing DOE site. Because of the lead time required to establish a MOX fuel fabrication facility and the need to qualify the MOX fuel for use in a commercial reactor, MD is considering the early fabrication of lead assemblies (LAs) in existing DOE facilities under the technical direction of the consortium. The LA facility would be expected to produce a minimum of 1 metric ton heavy metal per year and must be operational by June 2003. DOE operations offices were asked to identify candidate sites and facilities to be evaluated for suitability to fabricate MOX fuel LAs. Savannah River Site, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were identified as final candidates to host the LA project. A Site Evaluation Team (SET) worked with each site to develop viable plans for the LA project. SET then characterized the suitability of each of the five plans for fabricating MOX LAs using 28 attributes and documented the characterization to aid DOE and the consortium in selecting the site for the LA project. SET concluded that each option has relative advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other options; however, each could meet the requirements of the LA project as outlined by MD and SET.

  7. Variant 22: Spatially-Dependent: Transient Processes in MOX Fueled Core

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    This work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of spatial kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of spatial neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, and to compare in future point and spatial kinetics models (on the base of a set of selected accidents) in view of eventual creation of RELAP option with 3D kinetics. The document contains input data and results of model operation of three emergency dynamic processes in the VVER-1000 core: (1) Central control rod ejection by pressure drop caused by destroying of the moving mechanism cover. (2) Overcooling of the reactor core caused by steam line rupture and non-closure of steam generator stop valve. (3) The boron dilution of coolant in part of the VVER-1000 core caused by penetration of the distillate slug into the core at start up of non-working loop. These accidents have been applied to: (1) Uranium reference core that is the so-called Advanced VVER-1000 core with Zirconium fuel pins claddings and guide tubes. A number of assemblies contained 18 boron BPRs while first year operating. (2) MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel. At a solving it was supposed that MOX-fuel thermophysical characteristics are identical to uranium fuel ones. The calculations were carried out with the help of the program NOSTRA/1/, simulating VVER dynamics that is briefly described in Chapter 1. Chapter 3 contains the description of reference Uranium and MOX cores that are used in calculations. The neutronics calculations of MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel are named ''Variant 2 1''. Chapters 4-6 contain the calculational results of three above mentioned benchmark accidents that compose in a whole the ''Variant 22''.

  8. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  9. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  10. Magnetotransport properties of Mo substituted La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xMoxO3 perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jenq-Wei; Rao, G. Narsinga

    2016-03-01

    We studied the effects of Mo substitution on the structural, transport, and magnetic properties of the La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xMoxO3 (x ≤ 0.1) samples. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the samples studied crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with space group Pbnm. Both particle size and morphology change significantly as the Mo content x varies. The metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI) and Curie temperature (TC) decrease monotonically as x increases. Magnetization data reveal that long-range FM ordering persists in all samples and the saturation moment decreases linearly as x increases. The smaller depression rate of dTC/dx observed is mainly ascribed to the increased amount of Mn2+ ions with Mo doping, which opens the FM coupling between Mn2+-O-Mn3+ in the samples.

  11. Evaluation of codisposal viability of MOX (FFTF) DOE-owned fuel: Phase 2 -- Degraded mode calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.; Angers, L.; Davis, J.W.; Stockman, H.; Gottlieb, P.; Montierth, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    The authors provide the degraded criticality information that supports the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fast Flux Test facility (FFTF) in the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. FFTF is one of more than 250 forms of DOE-owned SNF. Because of the variety of the SNF, the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program has designated nine representative fuel groups for disposal criticality analyses based on fuel matrix, primary fissile isotope, and enrichment. The FFTF fuel is a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides and is representative of the mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) group. The analyses were performed according to the disposal criticality analysis methodology that was documented in the topical report submitted to the US nuclear Regulatory Commission (YMP/TR-004Q). The methodology includes analyzing the geochemical and physical processes that can breach the waste package and degrade the waste forms. This paper summarizes the results of geochemistry degradation analysis and the criticality calculations using the degradation products.

  12. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  13. Wastes associated with recycling spent MOX fuel into fast reactor oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, G.; Meze, F.; McGee, D.; Murray, P.; Bader, S.

    2013-07-01

    A study sponsored by the DOE has been performed by AREVA to estimate the process and secondary wastes produced from an 800 MTIHM/yr (initial metric tons heavy metal a year) recycling plant proposed to be built in the U.S. utilizing the COEX process and utilized some DOE defined assumptions and constraints. In this paper, this plant has been analyzed for a recycling campaign that included 89% UO{sub x} and 11% MOX UNF to estimate process and secondary waste quantities produced while manufacturing 28 MTIHM/yr of SFR fuel. AREVA utilized operational data from its backend facilities in France (La Hague and MELOX), and from recent advances in waste treatment technology to estimate the waste quantities. A table lists the volumes and types of the different final wastes for a recycling plant. For instance concerning general fission products the form of the final wastes is vitrified glass and its volume generation rate is 135 l/MTHM, concerning Iodine 129 waste its final form is synthetic rock and its volume generation rate is 0.625 l/MTIHM.

  14. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  15. Chemical Reduction of SIM MOX in Molten Lithium Chloride Using Lithium Metal Reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Kurata, Masaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Sims, Howard E.; Jenkins, Jan A.

    2007-09-01

    A simulated spent oxide fuel in a sintered pellet form, which contained the twelve elements U, Pu, Am, Np, Cm, Ce, Nd, Sm, Ba, Zr,Mo, and Pd, was reduced with Li metal in a molten LiCl bath at 923 K. More than 90% of U and Pu were reduced to metal to form a porous alloy without significant change in the Pu/U ratio. Small fractions of Pu were also combined with Pd to form stable alloys. In the gap of the porous U-Pu alloy, the aggregation of the rare-earth (RE) oxide was observed. Some amount of the RE elements and the actinoides leached from the pellet. The leaching ratio of Am to the initially loaded amount was only several percent, which was far from about 80% obtained in the previous ones on simple MOX including U, Pu, and Am. The difference suggests that a large part of Am existed in the RE oxide rather than in the U-Pu alloy. The detection of the RE elements and actinoides in the molten LiCl bath seemed to indicate that they dissolved into the molten LiCl bath containing the oxide ion, which is the by-product of the reduction, as solubility of RE elements was measured in the molten LiCl-Li2O previously.

  16. Powder metal technologies and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, W.B.; Ferguson, B.L.; German, R.M.; Iacocca, R.; Lee, P.W.; Madan, D.; Moyer, K.; Sanderow, H.; Trudel, Y.

    1998-12-31

    This volume is: (1) a completely updated and expanded edition in all areas of powder production, sampling, characterization, shaping, consolidation, sintering, quality control, machining, heat treating, and P/M applications; (2) single source for practical engineering information on sintering practices, tool design, P/M metallography, dimensional control, part design, powders, binders, lubricants, and the processing, properties, and performance of P/M materials in different production technologies and applications; (3) comprehensive coverage of P/M technologies and applications including warm compaction, injection molding, rapid prototyping, thermal spray forming, reactive sintering, and P/M gears, bearings, high-performance parts, composites, machine parts, electric contacts, magnetic materials, metallic foams, hardfacing powders, automotive parts, and more.

  17. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J.; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  18. Genotyping and Source Tracking of Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus Isolates from Powdered Infant Formula and an Infant Formula Production Factory in China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Man, Chaoxin; Lou, Binbin; Forsythe, Stephen J; Chai, Yunlei; Li, Ran; Niu, Jieting; Jiang, Yujun

    2015-08-15

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly defined as Enterobacter sakazakii) are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. In this study, we analyzed 70 Cronobacter isolates from powdered infant formula (PIF) and an infant formula production facility in China to determine possible contamination routes. The strains were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, and ompA and rpoB sequence analyses. The isolates were primarily Cronobacter sakazakii (66/70) or Cronobacter malonaticus (4/70). The strains were divided into 38 pulsotypes (PTs) using PFGE and 19 sequence types (STs) by MLST. In contrast, rpoB and ompA sequence analyses divided the strains into 10 overlapping clusters each. PCR serotyping of the 66 C. sakazakii and 4 C. malonaticus strains resulted in the identification of four C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, O4, and O7) and a single C. malonaticus serotype, O2. The dominant C. sakazakii sequence types from PIF and an infant formula production factory in China were C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) (n = 19), ST1 (n = 14), and ST64 (n = 11). C. sakazakii CC4 is a clonal lineage strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. In the process of manufacturing PIF, the spray-drying, fluidized-bed-drying, and packing areas were the main areas with Cronobacter contamination. C. sakazakii strains with the same pulsotypes (PT3 and PT2) and sequence types (ST1 and ST64) were isolated both from processing equipment and from the PIF finished product. PMID:26048942

  19. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  20. The enhanced removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-product precursors using integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Gao, Naiyun; Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Pilot-scale tests were performed to reduce the formation of a range of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-, N-DBPs), by removing or transforming their precursors, with an integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption (PM-PAC) treatment process before conventional water treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration, abbreviated as CPs). Compared with the CPs, PM-PAC significantly enhanced the removal of DOC, DON, NH3(+)-N, and algae from 52.9%, 31.6%, 71.3%, and 83.6% to 69.5%, 61.3%, 92.5%, and 97.5%, respectively. PM pre-oxidation alone and PAC pre-adsorption alone did not substantially reduce the formation of dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and dichloroacetamide. However, the PM-PAC integrated process significantly reduced the formation of both C-DBPs and N-DBPs by 60-90% for six C-DBPs and 64-93% for six N-DBPs, because PM oxidation chemically altered the molecular structures of nitrogenous organic compounds and increased the adsorption capacity of the DBP precursors, thus highlighting a synergistic effect of PM and PAC. PM-PAC integrated process is a promising drinking water technology for the reduction of a broad spectrum of C-DBPs and N-DBPs. PMID:26065622

  1. Powdered activated carbon coupled with enhanced coagulation for natural organic matter removal and disinfection by-product control: application in a Western Australian water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna

    2011-04-01

    The removal of organic precursors of disinfection by-products (DBPs), i.e. natural organic matter (NOM), prior to disinfection and distribution is considered as the most effective approach to minimise the formation of DBPs. This study investigated the impact of the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to an enhanced coagulation treatment process at an existing water treatment plant on the efficiency of NOM removal, the disinfection behaviour of the treated water, and the water quality in the distribution system. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of plant-scale application of PAC combined with enhanced coagulation on an Australian source water. As a result of the PAC addition, the removal of NOM improved by 70%, which led to a significant reduction (80-95%) in the formation of DBPs. The water quality in the distribution system also improved, indicated by lower concentrations of DBPs in the distribution system and better maintenance of disinfectant residual at the extremities of the distribution system. The efficacy of the PAC treatment for NOM removal was shown to be a function of the characteristics of the NOM and the quality of the source water, as well as the PAC dose. PAC treatment did not have the capacity to remove bromide ion, resulting in the formation of more brominated DBPs. Since brominated DBPs have been found to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues, their preferential formation upon PAC addition must be considered, especially in source waters containing high concentrations of bromide. PMID:21353285

  2. Early age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in natural zeolite blended cements: Reaction kinetics and products by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, R.; Mertens, G.; Cizer, O.; Elsen, J.

    2010-12-15

    The in situ early-age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in cements blended with natural zeolites were investigated by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. Chabazite and Na-, K-, and Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite materials were mixed with Portland cement in a 3:7 weight ratio and hydrated in situ at 40 {sup o}C. The evolution of phase contents showed that the addition of natural zeolites accelerates the onset of C{sub 3}S hydration and precipitation of CH and AFt. Kinetic analysis of the consumption of C{sub 3}S indicates that the enveloping C-S-H layer is thinner and/or less dense in the presence of alkali-exchanged clinoptilolite pozzolans. The zeolite pozzolanic activity is interpreted to depend on the zeolite exchangeable cation content and on the crystallinity. The addition of natural zeolites alters the structural evolution of the C-S-H product. Longer silicate chains and a lower C/S ratio are deduced from the evolution of the C-S-H b-cell parameter.

  3. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  4. 21 CFR 520.441 - Chlortetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlortetracycline powder. 520.441 Section 520.441 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.441 Chlortetracycline powder. (a) Specifications....

  5. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  6. MOXE: An x-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E.E.; Moss, C.E.; Kelley, R.L.; Holt, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Our objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5/sigma/) in 1 day, and cover the 2-20 keV band. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  7. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  8. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  9. The MOXE X-ray all-sky monitor for Spectrum-X-Gamma

    SciTech Connect

    In`t Zand, J.J.M.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Moss, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor to be flown on the Russian Spectrum-X-Gamma satellite, to be launched in a few years. It will monitor several hundred X-ray sources on a daily basis, and will be the first instrument to monitor most of the X-ray sky most of the time. MOXE will alert users of more sensitive instruments on Russia`s giant high energy astrophysics observatory and of other instruments to transient activity. MOXE consists of an array of 6 X-ray pinhole cameras, sensitive from 3 to 25 keV, which views 4{pi} steradians (except for a 20{degree} {times} 80{degree} patch which includes the Sun). The pinhole apertures of 0.625 {times} 2.556 cm{sup 2} imply an angular resolution of 2{degree}.4 {times} 9{degree}.7 (on-axis). The MOXE hardware program includes an engineering model, now delivered, and a flight model. The flight instrument will mass approximately 118 kg and draw 38 Watts. For a non-focusing all-sky instrument that is limited by sky background, the limiting sensitivity is a function only of detector area. MOXE, with 6,000 cm{sup 2} of detector area, will, for a 24 hrs exposure, have a sensitivity of approximately 2 mCrab. MOXE distinguishes itself with respect to other all-sky monitors in its high duty cycle, thus being particularly sensitive to transient phenomena with time scales between minutes and hours.

  10. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project: Feasibility of BNFP Site as MOX Fuel Supply Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    An evaluation was made of the technical feasibility, cost, and schedule for converting the existing unused Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Facility (BNFP) into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) CANDU fuel fabrication plant for disposition of excess weapons plutonium. This MOX fuel would be transported to Ontario where it would generate electricity in the Bruce CANDU reactors. Because CANDU MOX fuel operates at lower thermal load than natural uranium fuel, the MOX program can be licensed by AECB within 4.5 years, and actual Pu disposition in the Bruce reactors can begin in 2001. Ontario Hydro will have to be involved in the entire program. Cost is compared between BNFP and FMEF at Hanford for converting to a CANDU MOX facility.

  11. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  12. Composite powder particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

  13. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  14. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flumerfelt, Joel Fredrick

    In recent years, the aluminum powder industry has expanded into non-aerospace applications. However, the alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the surface oxide film on aluminum powder require high cost powder processing routes. A driving force for this research is to broaden the knowledge base about aluminum powder metallurgy to provide ideas for fabricating low cost aluminum powder components. The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization commercial inert gas atomization and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). The commercial atomization methods are bench marks of current aluminum powder technology. The GARS process is a laboratory scale inert gas atomization facility. A benefit of using pure aluminum powders is an unambiguous interpretation of the results without considering the effects of alloy elements. A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a

  15. Novel hollow powder porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sypeck, D.J.; Parrish, P.A.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1998-12-31

    Recent finite element calculations indicate that structures constructed from partially compacted hollow spheres exhibit a greater stiffness and strength than many other cellular structures at comparable density. It has been observed that gas atomization of metallic powders often leads to entrapment of the flow field gas. The resulting hollow powders are an unwanted by-product in the sense that they lead to porosity and future sites of defect in solid parts. Here a method is developed to separate the hollow powders according to their size, shape and density. They are then consolidated to a porous structure. Examples of this are given for both a titanium alloy and a nickel-base superalloy. The compressive mechanical properties are measured and compared to those of other porous structures.

  16. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  17. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.

    2012-04-25

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after {approx}4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  18. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E. A.; King, W. D.

    2012-07-31

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after ~4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  19. Adding multiple micronutrient powders to a homestead food production programme yields marginally significant benefit on anaemia reduction among young children in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Osei, Akoto K; Pandey, Pooja; Spiro, David; Adhikari, Debendra; Haselow, Nancy; De Morais, Caroline; Davis, Dale

    2015-12-01

    Anaemia affects 46% of preschool-aged children in Nepal. A cluster-randomised study was conducted in rural Nepal to test whether providing micronutrient powders (MNP) in addition to enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) programme, consisting of home gardens, poultry and nutrition education, could lead to a higher reduction in anaemia compared with providing only EHFP. This sub-study enrolled 335 children aged 6-9 months into one of three groups: (1) EHFP + MNP; (2) EHFP; or (3) control. The EHFP + MNP group received 60 sachets of MNP for flexible consumption at the start and 6 months later for a total supplementation period of 11 months. The MNP contained 15 micronutrients including iron (10 mg encapsulated ferrous fumarate). Haemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post-MNP supplementation. Mean ± SE haemoglobin concentration increased significantly in all groups, with a slightly higher but non-significant increase in the EHFP + MNP and EHFP compared with control (difference-in-differences: 4.1 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. control; 3.6 g L(-1) for EHFP vs. control; 0.5 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. EHFP). Anaemia decreased at a slightly higher magnitude in the EHFP + MNP [51.5 percentage points (PP)] than the EHFP (48.6 PP) and control (39.6 PP), with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) at post-supplementation of 0.52 (0.25-1.12) for EHFP + MNP and 0.69 (0.35-1.36) for EHFP, compared with control. There was no impact on child growth. Combining EHFP and MNP programmes yielded a marginally significant reduction in anaemia among children. PMID:25682798

  20. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when

  1. 21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlortetracycline powder. 520.445b Section 520... powder. (a) Specifications. Chlortetracycline powder contains not less than 15 milligrams per gram... not slaughter animals for food within 24 hours of treatment; do not administer this product with...

  2. 21 CFR 520.540a - Dexamethasone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dexamethasone powder. 520.540a Section 520.540a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.540a Dexamethasone powder. (a) Specifications. Dexamethasone powder is packaged in packets containing 10 milligrams of dexamethasone....

  3. 21 CFR 520.540a - Dexamethasone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dexamethasone powder. 520.540a Section 520.540a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.540a Dexamethasone powder. (a) Specifications. Dexamethasone powder is packaged in packets containing 10 milligrams of dexamethasone....

  4. 21 CFR 520.2123b - Spectinomycin powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectinomycin powder. 520.2123b Section 520.2123b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123b Spectinomycin powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of powder contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2123b - Spectinomycin powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin powder. 520.2123b Section 520.2123b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123b Spectinomycin powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram (g) of powder contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone in...) Amount. Hold container about 6 to 12 inches from the eye or affected area and apply only enough powder...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2345d - Tetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetracycline powder. 520.2345d Section 520.2345d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345d Tetracycline powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound of powder contains 25, 102.4, or 324 grams tetracycline hydrochloride. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2261b - Sulfamethazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfamethazine powder. 520.2261b Section 520.2261b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2261b Sulfamethazine powder. (a) Specifications. A soluble powder composed of 100 percent sulfamethazine sodium. (b) Sponsors....

  9. 21 CFR 520.1720e - Phenylbutazone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phenylbutazone powder. 520.1720e Section 520.1720e... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720e Phenylbutazone powder. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 1.15 grams (g) of powder contains 1 g phenylbutazone. (2) Each 10 g...

  10. 21 CFR 520.540a - Dexamethasone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dexamethasone powder. 520.540a Section 520.540a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.540a Dexamethasone powder. (a) Specifications. Dexamethasone powder is packaged in packets containing 10 milligrams of dexamethasone....

  11. 21 CFR 520.2261b - Sulfamethazine powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfamethazine powder. 520.2261b Section 520.2261b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2261b Sulfamethazine powder. (a) Specifications. A soluble powder composed of 100 percent sulfamethazine sodium. (b) Sponsors....

  12. 21 CFR 520.2345d - Tetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline powder. 520.2345d Section 520.2345d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345d Tetracycline powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound of powder contains 25, 102.4, or 324 grams tetracycline hydrochloride. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone in...) Amount. Hold container about 6 to 12 inches from the eye or affected area and apply only enough powder...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1720e - Phenylbutazone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone powder. 520.1720e Section 520.1720e... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720e Phenylbutazone powder. (a) Specifications—(1) Each 1.15 grams (g) of powder contains 1 g phenylbutazone. (2) Each 10 g...

  15. 21 CFR 520.540a - Dexamethasone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dexamethasone powder. 520.540a Section 520.540a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.540a Dexamethasone powder. (a) Specifications. Dexamethasone powder is packaged in packets containing 10 milligrams of dexamethasone....

  16. Powder pressing in a macrosonic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protipopescu, A.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to extend the technology of powder product manufacturing to new forms and sizes, to improve their quality as well as pressing efficiency and to reduce waste. In the course of metal and nonmetal powder briquette pressing, macrosounds were associated with the external static pressing force, which led to an increase in the relative height, density and physicomechanical characteristics of the briquettes. This method permits the extension of the range of products that can be manufactured from powders and the improvement of their quality.

  17. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process powder; definitions and... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.544 Spray process powder; definitions and requirements. (a) Definition of product: (1) Primary powder is that powder which is...

  18. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray process powder; definitions and... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.544 Spray process powder; definitions and requirements. (a) Definition of product: (1) Primary powder is that powder which is...

  19. Isolation of the human MOX2 homeobox gene and localization to chromosome 7p22.1-p21.3

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriou, M.; Theodorakis, K.; Mankoo, B.

    1995-04-10

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding a novel human homeobox gene, MOX2, the homologue of the murine mox-2 gene. The MOX2 protein contains all of the characteristic features of Mox-2 proteins of other vertebrate species, namely the homeobox, the polyhistidine stretch, and a number of potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. The homeodomain of MOX2 protein is identical to all other vertebrate species reported so far (rodents and amphibians). Outside the homeodomain, Mox-2 proteins share a high degree of identity, except for a few amino acid differences encountered between the human and the rodent polypeptides. A polyhistidine stretch of 12 amino acids in the N terminal region of the protein is also conserved among humans, rodents, and (only partly) amphibians. The chromosomal position of MOX2 was assigned to 7p22.1-p21.3. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  1. The MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha is ultrasensitive to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Dusny, Christian; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Redesigning biology towards specific purposes requires a functional understanding of genetic circuits. We present a quantitative in-depth study on the regulation of the methanol-specific MOX promoter system (PMOX) at the single-cell level. We investigated PMOX regulation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula (Ogataea) polymorpha with respect to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression. This promoter system is particularly delicate as the glucose as carbon and energy source in turn represses MOX promoter activity. Decoupling single cells from population activity revealed a hitherto underrated ultrasensitivity of the MOX promoter to glucose repression. Environmental control with single-cell technologies enabled quantitative insights into the balance between activation and repression of PMOX with respect to extracellular glucose concentrations. While population-based studies suggested full MOX promoter derepression at extracellular glucose concentrations of ∼1 g L(-1), we showed that glucose-mediated catabolite repression already occurs at concentrations as low as 5 × 10(-4) g L(-1) These findings demonstrate the importance of uncoupling single cells from populations for understanding the mechanisms of promoter regulation in a quantitative manner. PMID:27527102

  2. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  3. Interaction study between MOX fuel and eutectic lead-bismuth coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Popa, Karin; Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Gardeur, Sébastien; Freis, Daniel; Somers, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the MYRRHA reactor project, the interaction between fuel pellets and the reactor coolant is essential for safety evaluations, e.g. in case of a pin breach. Therefore, interaction tests between uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) pellets and molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) have been performed and three parameters were studied, namely the interaction temperature (500 °C and 800 °C), the oxygen content in LBE and the stoichiometry of the MOX (U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00). After 50 h of interaction in closed containers, the pellet integrity was preserved in all cases. Whatever the conditions, neither interaction compounds (crystalline or amorphous) nor lead and bismuth diffusion into the surface regions of the MOX pellets has been detected. In most of the conditions, actinide releases into LBE were very limited (in the range of 0.01-0.15 mg), with a homogeneous release of the different actinides present in the MOX. Detected values were significantly higher in the 800 °C and low LBE oxygen content tests for both U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00, with 1-2 mg of actinide released in these conditions.

  4. Effect of Ce ions on MOX codeposition in oxide-electrowinning reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, F.; Fukushima, M.; Myochin, M.; Namba, T.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.; Ishunin, V. S.; Bychkov, A. V.; Inagaki, T.

    2005-02-01

    An experiment of MOX codeposition from U Pu Ce containing molten salt in oxide -electrowinning reprocessing was performed. Composition of O2/Cl2/Ar mixed gas, Ce concentration and U/Pu concentration in the salt were chosen as variable parameters. Ten tests were performed in this experiment. Current efficiency in each test was about 60 99%, and apparent dependence of the current efficiency on concentration of Ce in the salt was not seen in this experiment. Recovered MOX deposits contained about 5 19 wt% of Pu and 0.5 2 wt% of Ce. Concentration of Pu and Ce in the MOX deposit was influenced by O2/Cl2/Ar mixed gas composition and Ce concentration in the salt, respectively. Microphotographs of cross-section show that the MOX deposit was a complex of small columnar crystals. Some parts of the cross-section were analyzed by EPMA. These results indicated that a U rich region (concentration of U: about 80 wt%) exists in central part of the crystal and Pu rich regions (concentration of Pu: about 80 wt%) scatter on its surface and Ce is distributed rather uniformly.

  5. In Situ Production of Fe-TiC Nanocomposite by Mechanical Activation and Heat Treatment of the Fe2O3/TiO2/C Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi Ghiasabadi, Sara; Raygan, Shahram

    2012-11-01

    In this study, Fe-TiC nanocomposite was synthesized by carbothermic reduction of activated Fe2O3, TiO2, and graphite powder mixture. The effect of 0, 5, and 20 h of high energy ball milling of mixture on the reduction process was also investigated. Comparing the results of the thermogravimetry analysis of milled and un-milled mixtures clearly showed that the reduction temperature decreased due to the milling process. XRD pattern of 20 h milled powder mixture proved that Fe-TiC nanocomposite was formed after the heat treatment of activated powder at 1100°C for 1 h under vacuum. The microstructure studies of the milled mixture by scanning electron microscope revealed homogenous distribution of TiC particles in the Fe matrix.

  6. Tantalum powder consolidation, modeling and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bingert, S.R.; Vargas, V.D.; Sheinberg, H.C.

    1996-10-01

    A systematic approach was taken to investigate the consolidation of tantalum powders. The effects of sinter time, temperature and ramp rate; hot isostatic pressing (HIP) temperature and time; and powder oxygen content on consolidation density, kinetics, microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties have been evaluated. In general, higher temperatures and longer hold times resulted in higher density compacts with larger grain sizes for both sintering and HIP`ing. HIP`ed compacts were consistently higher in density than sintered products. The higher oxygen content powders resulted in finer grained, higher density HIP`ed products than the low oxygen powders. Texture analysis showed that the isostatically processed powder products demonstrated a near random texture. This resulted in isotropic properties in the final product. Mechanical testing results showed that the HIP`ed powder products had consistently higher flow stresses than conventionally produced plates, and the sintered compacts were comparable to the plate material. A micromechanics model (Ashby HIP model) has been employed to predict the mechanisms active in the consolidation processes of cold isostatic pressing (CIP), HIP and sintering. This model also predicts the density of the end product and whether grain growth should be expected under the applied processing conditions.

  7. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  8. Raman micro-spectroscopy of UOX and MOX spent nuclear fuel characterization and oxidation resistance of the high burn-up structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegou, C.; Gennisson, M.; Peuget, S.; Desgranges, L.; Guimbretière, G.; Magnin, M.; Talip, Z.; Simon, P.

    2015-03-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to study the structure and oxidation resistance of UO2 (burnup 60 GWd/tHM) and MOX (burnup 47 GWd/tHM) irradiated fuels. The Raman technique, adapted to working under extreme conditions, enabled structural information to be obtained at the cubic micrometer scale in various zones of interest within irradiated fuel (central and zones like the Rim for UOX60, and the plutonium-enriched agglomerates for MOX47 characterized by a high burn-up structure), and the study of their oxidation resistance. As regards the structural information after irradiation, the spectra obtained make up a set of data consistent with the systematic presence of the T2g band characteristic of the fluorite structure, and of a triplet band located between 500 and 700 cm-1. The existence of this triplet can be attributed to the presence of defects originating in changes to the fuel chemistry occurring in the reactor (presence of fission products) and to the accumulation of irradiation damage. As concerns the oxidation resistance of the different zones of interest, Raman spectroscopy results confirmed the good stability of the restructured zones (plutonium-enriched agglomerates and Rim) rich in fission products compared to the non-restructured UO2 grains. A greater structural stability was noticed in the case of high plutonium content agglomerates, as this element favors the maintenance of the fluorite structure.

  9. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  10. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  11. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  12. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Keiichiro; Kambara, Makoto; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2014-04-01

    Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) at a material throughput of 480 g h-1. The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ˜20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  13. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  16. Method for agglomerating powdered coal by compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, L.D.; Byrne, B.J.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described for preparing a powdered carboniferous composition and forming this composition into solid product shapes suitable for handling, transporting and burning, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing (1) powdered carboniferous material with (2) an amount of surfactant effective for wetting the powdered carboniferous material with water but for which no appreciable binding occurs between the surfactant and carboniferous material upon compaction and (3) an amount of water effective to bring the moisture content of the resultant mixture within the range of about 32 to 35% by weight; (b) working the mixture to obtain a homogeneous composition comprising a uniform dispersion of the water, surfactant, and powdered carboniferous material; and (c) compacting the resultant homogeneous composition into the desired solid product shape by extruding the homogeneous composition through a ring pelletizing extruder.

  17. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  18. The Supplementation of Yam Powder Products Can Give the Nutritional Benefits of the Antioxidant Mineral (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se) Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Young; Cho, Young-Eun; Park, Chana; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Kwun, In-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Yam has been recognized having the beneficial effects for the prevention of various diseases, such as cancer, immunity, infection and obesity etc. There is increasing consideration to supplement the antioxidant nutrients to make up the lack of the antioxidant nutrient intakes. No study has been reported for the analysis of antioxidant mineral contents and comparison to dietary recommended intake for the sense of health promotion. In our study, we analyzed the contents of antioxidant trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents in cultivated Korean yam powders for evaluation of nutrient intake aspects. We collected the commercial yam powders from six different cultivated areas in the South Korea and measured antioxidant minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se) and Cr contents using trace element-free plasma spectrometer (ICP) or atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) after dry-ashing and then wet-acid digestion. The accuracy of mineral analysis method was confirmed by the mineral analysis of standard reference material. Each analyzed element contents in yam were compared to dietary reference intakes of Koreans (KDRIs). The average levels of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr) in yam powders were 18.3, 11.9, 36.0, 3.7, 1.9 and 1.27 μg/g yam powder, respectively. The intakes of Zn, Fe, Cu and Se of which KDRIs is determined, are accounted as being up to 23.8%, 55.6%, 32.5% and 236% recommended intake (RI) of KDRIs, if daily yam supplementation (50 g) of commercial instruction would be considered. The intake of Mn is about 25% adequate intake (AI) of KDRIs with the daily supplementation of yam powder. Most of mineral intakes from daily yam supplementation were with the range of non-detectable to <10% upper limit (UL) level, which is very much safe. The study results show that daily supplementation of Korean yam power is beneficial to provide the supplemental nutrient intake and also is safe, if the suggested dosage would be considered. PMID:24471100

  19. Corrosion of irradiated MOX fuel in presence of dissolved H 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbol, P.; Fors, P.; Van Winckel, S.; Spahiu, K.

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of irradiated MOX fuel (47 GWd/tHM) has been studied in an autoclave experiment simulating repository conditions. Fuel fragments were corroded at room temperature in a 10 mM NaCl/2 mM NaHCO 3 solution in presence of dissolved H 2 for 2100 days. The results show that dissolved H 2 in concentration 1 mM and higher inhibits oxidation and dissolution of the fragments. Stable U and Pu concentrations were measured at 7 × 10 -10 and 5 × 10 -11 M, respectively. Caesium was only released during the first two years of the experiment. The results indicate that the UO 2 matrix of a spent MOX fuel is the main contributor to the measured dissolution, while the corrosion of the high burn-up Pu-rich islands appears negligible.

  20. Overcoming the slow recovery of MOX gas sensors through a system modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Javier G; González-Jiménez, Javier; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOX) gas transducers are one of the preferable technologies to build electronic noses because of their high sensitivity and low price. In this paper we present an approach to overcome to a certain extent one of their major disadvantages: their slow recovery time (tens of seconds), which limits their suitability to applications where the sensor is exposed to rapid changes of the gas concentration. Our proposal consists of exploiting a double first-order model of the MOX-based sensor from which a steady-state output is anticipated in real time given measurements of the transient state signal. This approach assumes that the nature of the volatile is known and requires a precalibration of the system time constants for each substance, an issue that is also described in the paper. The applicability of the proposed approach is validated with several experiments in real, uncontrolled scenarios with a mobile robot bearing an e-nose. PMID:23202015

  1. Overcoming the Slow Recovery of MOX Gas Sensors through a System Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Javier G.; González-Jiménez, Javier; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOX) gas transducers are one of the preferable technologies to build electronic noses because of their high sensitivity and low price. In this paper we present an approach to overcome to a certain extent one of their major disadvantages: their slow recovery time (tens of seconds), which limits their suitability to applications where the sensor is exposed to rapid changes of the gas concentration. Our proposal consists of exploiting a double first-order model of the MOX-based sensor from which a steady-state output is anticipated in real time given measurements of the transient state signal. This approach assumes that the nature of the volatile is known and requires a precalibration of the system time constants for each substance, an issue that is also described in the paper. The applicability of the proposed approach is validated with several experiments in real, uncontrolled scenarios with a mobile robot bearing an e-nose. PMID:23202015

  2. CONVERSION OF RUSSIAN WEAPON-GRADE PLUTONIUM INTO OXIDE FOR MIXED OXIDE (MOX) FUEL FABRICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Glagovski, E.; Kolotilov, Y.; Glagolenko, Y.; Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Mason, C. F. V.; Hahn, W. K.; Durrer, R. E.; Thomas, S.; Sicard, B.; Herlet, N.; Fraize, G.; Villa, A.

    2001-01-01

    Progress has been made in the Russian Federation towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program is funded both by French Commissariat x 1'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The French program was started as a way to make available their expertise gained from manufacturing MOX fuel. The US program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease available w-Pu. Russia has selected both the conversion process and the manufacturing site. This paper discusses the present state of development towards fulfilling this mission: the demonstration plant designed to process small amounts of Pu and validate all process stages and the industrial plant that will process up to 5 metric tons of Pu per year.

  3. Manual for the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Detector (ENMC) for Measurement of Impure MOX and Plutonium Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Kroncke, K. E.; DeAguero, K. J.

    2004-05-01

    We have designed a high-efficiency neutron detector for passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting of dirty scrap and bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for the measurement of impure plutonium samples at the JNC MOX fabrication facility in Japan. The counter can also be used to create working standards from bulk process MOX. The detector uses advanced design 3He tubes to increase the efficiency and to shorten the neutron die-away time. The efficiency is 64% and the die-away time is 19.1 μs. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) is designed for high-precision measurements of bulk plutonium samples with diameters of less than 200 mm. The average neutron energy from the sample can be measured using the ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes to the outer ring. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the ENMC.

  4. Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Characteristics in Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2006-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energy’s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2(MCWO). MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements and the irradiated WG-MOX post irradiation examination (PIE) data.

  5. Ordered mesoporous CoMOx (M = Al or Zr) mixed oxides for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Il; Lee, Yun Jo; Um, Soong Ho; Bae, Jong Wook

    2016-04-01

    A superior structural stability of the ordered mesoporous CoMOx synthesized by using the KIT-6 template was observed under Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions. The enhanced stability was attributed to a strong interaction of the irreducible metal oxides with the mesoporous Co3O4 by forming Co3O4-ZrO2 (or Co3O4-Al2O3), which resulted in showing a stable activity. PMID:26963504

  6. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-07-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO{sub 2} fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  7. Creation of Computational Benchmarks for LEU and MOX Fuel Assemblies Under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A M; Kalashnikov, A G; Kalugin, M A; Lazarenko, A P; Maiorov, L V; Sidorenko, V D

    1999-11-01

    The result of VVER-1000 computational benchmarks, calculations obtained with the use of various Russian codes (such as MCU-RFFI/A, TVS-M and WIMS-ABBN) are presented. List of benchmarks includes LEU and MOX cells with fresh and spent fuel under various conditions (for calculation of kinetic parameters, Doppler coefficient, reactivity effect of decreasing the water density). Calculations results are compared with each other and results of this comparison are discussed.

  8. Calcining influence on the powder properties of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Gibson, I R; Ke, S; Best, S M; Bonfield, W

    2001-02-01

    The effect of different calcination temperatures on the powder characteristics and the sintered density of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) powders, produced using two different processing routes, was examined. Powders were produced by either drying, milling and sieving an as-precipitated HA or by spray-drying a slurry of precipitated HA. Calcining the two powders at temperatures between 400 and 1000 degrees C did not significantly affect the powder particle size. The specific surface areas of the two powders, however, were reduced from 70-80 m2/g for a calcination temperature of 400 degrees C to approximately 5-7 m2/g for 1000 degrees C. Analysis of the surfaces of the HA powders using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) illustrated the coarsening and subsequent sintering of the sub-micron crystallites that constitute a powder particle as the calcination temperature increased, corresponding to the decrease in surface area of the powders. The sintered densities of the final ceramics were not significantly affected by calcining the powders. Microhardness measurements of ceramics prepared from powders calcined at different temperatures showed no significant variations with calcination temperature or powder processing method. The results of this study have illustrated that for applications where HA may be used in powder form, for example in plasma-spraying and for the production of HA-polymer composites, calcining the HA will significantly affect the powder properties, namely the surface area and morphology of the powders. For applications requiring HA in a dense ceramic form, for example as granules or blocks, calcining the powders does not significantly affect the properties of the final ceramic. PMID:15348326

  9. A Clear Success for International Transport of Plutonium and MOX Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Jacot, P.; Bariteau, J.P.; Jensen, A.; Meyers, G.; Yapuncich, F.

    2006-07-01

    An Agreement between the United States and Russia to eliminate 68 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium provided the basis for the United States government and its agency, the Department of Energy (DOE), to enter into contracts with industry leaders to fabricate mixed oxide (MOX) fuels (a blend of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide) for use in existing domestic commercial reactors. DOE contracted with Duke, COGEMA, Stone and Webster (DCS), a limited liability company comprised of Duke Energy, COGEMA Inc. and Stone and Webster to design a Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) which would be built and operated at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. During this same time frame, DOE commissioned fabrication and irradiation of lead test assemblies in one of the Mission Reactors to assist in obtaining NRC approval for batch implementation of MOX fuel prior to the operations phase of the MFFF facility. On February 2001, DOE directed DCS to initiate a pre-decisional investigation to determine means to obtain lead assemblies including all international options for manufacturing MOX fuels. This lead to implementation of the EUROFAB project and work was initiated in earnest on EUROFAB by DCS on November 7, 2003. (authors)

  10. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively. PMID:27213809

  11. Disposition of excess plutonium using ``off-spec`` MOX pellets as a sintered ceramic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.; Jardine, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a potential strategy for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium in a way that minimizes (1) technological risks, (2) implementation costs and completion schedules, and (3) requirements for constructing and operating new or duplicative Pu disposition facilities. This is accomplished by an optimized combination of (1) using existing nuclear power reactors to ``burn`` relatively pure excess Pu inventories as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and (2) using the same MOX fuel fabrication facilities to fabricate contaminated or impure excess Pu inventories into an ``off-spec`` MOX solid ceramic waste form for geologic disposition. Diversion protection for the SCWF to meet the ``spent fuel standard`` introduced by the National Academy of Sciences can be achieved in at least three ways. (1) One can utilize the radiation field from defense high-level nuclear waste by first packaging the SCWF pellets in 2- to 4-L cans that are subsequently encapsulated in radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass canisters (a ``can-in-canister`` approach). (2) One can add {sup 137}Cs (recovered from defense wastes at Hanford and currently stored as CsCl in capsules) to an encapsulating matrix such as cement for the SCWF pellets in a small hot-cell facility and thus fabricate large monolithic forms. (3) The SCWF can be fabricated into reactor fuel-like pellets and placed in tubes similar to fuel assemblies, which can then be mixed in sealed repository containers with irradiated spent nuclear fuel for geologic disposition.

  12. Removing Undesired Fine Powder From Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagella, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Fluidized-bed reactor produces highly pure polycrystalline silicon particles with diameters approximately greater than 400 micrometers. Operates by pyrolysis of silane in reaction zone, which is bed of silicon seed particles fluidized by flow of silane and carrier gas. Above reaction zone, gas mixture flows rapidly enough to entrain silicon powders, but not larger seed and product particles. Entrained particles swept out of reactor. Applicable to other processes such as production of fine metal and ceramic powders where control of sizes of product needed.

  13. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  14. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  15. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  16. Structural and Thermal Characterization of Zolpidem Hemitartrate Hemihydrate (Form E) and Its Decomposition Products by Laboratory X-Ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, I.; Dinnebier, R

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (I, Form E) has been solved from high-resolution laboratory powder diffraction data. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group with a = 22.4664(6) {angstrom}, b = 26.0420(7) {angstrom}, and c = 7.4391(1) {angstrom}. Protonation of zolpidem molecules could not be unambiguously determined. Thermal stability of Form E has been investigated by TG-DTA and in situ by temperature resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Water loss occurs between 50 C {le} t {le} 100 C while structure decomposition commences at approximately 120 C yielding zolpidem tartrate (II) and pure zolpidem base (III) in approximately equimolar amounts. Crystal structures of II and III have been solved simultaneously from a single powder pattern of thermally decomposed I. Zolpidem tartrate crystallizes in the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group with a = 19.9278(8) {angstrom}, b = 15.1345(8) {angstrom}, and c = 7.6246(2) {angstrom} (at 140 C). Zolpidem base crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pcab space group with a = 9.9296(4) {angstrom}, b = 18.4412(9) {angstrom}, and c = 18.6807(9) {angstrom} (at 140 C). In the reported crystal structures zolpidem molecules form stacks through {pi}-{pi} interaction or dipole-dipole interactions while tartrate moieties, if present, form hydrogen bonded chains. Water molecule in I forms a hydrogen bond to the imidazole nitrogen atom of the zolpidem molecule. Free space in the crystal structure of I could allow for the additional water molecules and thus a variable water content.

  17. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    PubMed

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale. PMID:23522795

  18. Ceramic powder synthesis in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Cesarano, J; Tadros, M.E.; Voigt, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Gas-phase processing plays an important role in the commercial production of a number of ceramic powders. These include titanium dioxide, carbon black, zinc oxide, and silicon dioxide. The total annual output of these materials is on the order of 2 million tons. The physical processes involved in gas-phase synthesis are typical of those involved in solution -phase synthesis: chemical reaction kinetics, mass transfer, nucleation, coagulation, and condensation. This report focuses on the work done under a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that explored the use of various high pressure techniques for ceramic powder synthesis. Under this project, two approaches were taken. First, a continuous flow, high pressure water reactor was built and studied for powder synthesis. And second, a supercritical carbon dioxide static reactor, which was used in conjunction with surfactants, was built and used to generate oxide powders.

  19. Gelcasting superalloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and has been used to produce ceramic parts from over a dozen different ceramic compositions ranging from alumina-based refractories to high-performance silicon nitride. Recently, gelcasting has been applied to forming superalloy powders into complex shapes. This application has posed several challenges not previously encountered in ceramics. In particular, problems were caused by the larger particle size and the higher density of the particles. Additional problems were encountered with binder removal. How these problems were overcome will be described.

  20. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  1. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  2. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-08

    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes.

  3. Effects of nanocrystalline powders (Fe, Co and Cu) on the germination, growth, crop yield and product quality of soybean (Vietnamese species DT-51)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu Ngo, Quoc; Hien Dao, Trong; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Tin Tran, Xuan; Van Nguyen, Tuong; Duong Khuu, Thuy; Huynh, Thi Ha

    2014-03-01

    Superdispersive iron, cobalt and copper nanocrystalline powders were synthesized in a water-ethanol medium by the reduction method using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and carboxymethyl cellulose as a stabilizer (for Fe and Co nanoparticles). Transmission electron microscopy micrographs and x-ray diffraction analyses of the freshly prepared nanocrystalline powders indicated that they were in a zerovalent state with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nm. The soybean seeds were treated with an extra low nanocrystalline dose (not more than 300 mg of each metal per hectare) and then sowed on an experimental landfill plot consisting of a farming area of 180 m2. This pre-sowing treatment of soybean seeds, which does not exert any adverse effect on the soil environment, reliably changed the biological indices of the plant growth and development. In particular, in laboratory experiments, the germination rates of soybean seeds treated with zerovalent Cu, Co and Fe were 65, 80 and 80%, respectively, whereas 55% germination was observed in the control sample; in the field experiment, for all of the nanoscale metals studied, the chlorophyll index increased by 7-15% and the number of nodules by 20-49% compared to the control sample, and the soybean crop yield increased up to 16% in comparison with the control sample.

  4. Powder Diffraction: By Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, William I. F.

    This introductory chapter reviews the first 100 years of powder diffraction, decade by decade, from the earliest X-ray powder diffraction measurements of the crystal structure of graphite through to the diversity and complexity of twenty-first century powder diffraction. Carbon features as an illustrative example throughout the discussion of these ten decades from graphite and the disorder of carbon black through to lonsdaleite, the elusive hexagonal polymorph of diamond, and C60, the most symmetrical of molecules. Electronics and computing have played a leading role in the development of powder diffraction, particularly over the past 60 years, and the Moore's Law decade-by-decade rise in computing power is clear in the increasing complexity of powder diffraction experiments and material systems that can be studied. The chapter concludes with a final discussion of decades - the four decades of length-scale from the ångstrom to the micron that not only represent the domain of powder diffraction but are also the distances that will dominate twenty-first century science and technology.

  5. [Making tablets of powdered milk and the physical properties].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Nakane, Shota; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Compressed baby milk powder has proven to be very convenient for parents due to the ease with which it can be handled, and the fact that use of a measuring scoop is not necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a compressed baby milk powder and analyze the resulting physical properties. The basic production process consisted of the following steps: 1) molding milk powder by low compression pressure, 2) humidification at 25°C·97%RH and 3) drying with use of a desiccant. No chemical additives were used for solidification; therefore the chemical composition of the compressed milk powder is identical to the base milk powder. The important properties of the compressed milk powder are both ready solubility and the strength of the solid. The compressed milk powder obtained at low pressure was too brittle for practical use, but the strength was increased by humidification followed by drying. During the humidification process, the powder particles located close to the surface of the compressed milk powder partially dissolve resulting in bridging structures between the particles, leading to an increase in strength. Both specific surface area and the volume ratio of the compressed milk powder decreased. Testing showed that caking between the particles occurred following humidification, and that the volume of caking affected the ease with which the compressed milk powder dissolves in water. PMID:21963978

  6. Method for classifying ceramic powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takabe, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, powder A of particles of less than 10 microns, and carrier powder B, whose average particle diameter is more than five times that of powder A, are premixed so that the powder is less than 40 wt.% of the total mixture, before classifying.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  12. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  13. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  14. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  15. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  16. Glass powder blended cement hydration modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Huda

    .17, H/S ratio of 2.5 and N/S ratio of 0.18. In the second phase of this research, theoretical models are built using a modified version of an existing cement hydration modelling code, "CEMHYD3D", to simulate the chemical reaction of the activated glass powder hydration and glass powder in cement. The modified model, which is referred to as the "MOD-model" is further used to predict the types, compositions and quantities of reaction products. Furthermore, the glass powder hydration data, which is obtained experimentally, is incorporated into the MOD-model to determine the effect of adding glass powder to the paste on the process of cement hydration and resulting paste properties. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are made to evaluate the developed models. The MOD-model predictions have been validated using the experimental results, and were further used to investigate various properties of the hydrated glass powder cement paste. These properties include, for example, CH content of the paste, porosity, hydration degree of the glass powder and conventional C-S-H and GP CS-H contents. The results show that the MOD-model is capable of accurately simulating the hydration process of glass powder-blended cement paste and can be used to predict various properties of the hydrating paste.

  17. Hydroxyapatite ceramics from hydrothermally prepared powders

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Huang, C.W.; Chang, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH)) is an effective material for artificial human bone production. Hydroxyapatite powders were hydrothermally produced in this work by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O in an autoclave at various temperature and for various times. The particle size of hydroxyapatite was observed to be very fine, uniform, around 50 nm, as well as independent of reaction time. The hydroxyapatite powders were compacted and sintered at various temperatures for 2 hrs. The density, grain size, and hardness of the hydroxyapatite ceramics were measured and compared with those of the hydroxyapatite ceramics produced by the powders from the commercial source. The hydroxyapatite ceramics from the hydrothermal powders were found to have a higher density, smaller grain size, and higher hardness. After the hydroxyapatite ceramics were dipped in a simulated biological body liquid for 10 days, the density and hardness of the hydroxyapatite ceramics from the hydrothermal powders were less deteriorated than those of the hydroxyapatite ceramics from the commercial powder.

  18. PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPTIMIZATION IN SUPPORT OF THE MOX FUEL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY, DEVIN W.; COSTA, DAVID A.

    2007-02-02

    After Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel completed polishing 125 Kg of plutonium as highly purified PuO{sub 2} from surplus nuclear weapons, Duke, COGEMA, Stone, and Webster (DCS) required as the next process stage, the validation and optimization of all phases of the plutonium polishing flow sheet. Personnel will develop the optimized parameters for use in the upcoming 330 kg production mission.

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. Magnetic hardening of CeFe12-xMox and the effect of nitrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE

    2014-01-15

    We report the magnetic hardening of CeFe12-xMox by melt spinning at surface wheel speeds between 10 m/s and 30 m/s. The synthesis range of CeFe12-xMox has been extended to CeFe11Mo, which uses the least amount of Mo substitution to stabilize the ThMn12-type structure. X-ray diffraction indicates that as-spun samples are multi-phased, typically consisting of a primary ThMn12-type phase with impurity phases of Fe-Mo alloy, Ce2Fe17 and CeFe2. However, nearly pure ThMn12-type phase can be obtained either by directly melt spinning at specific wheel speeds or by annealing the over-quenched ribbons at an optimum temperature. The magnetic moment of CeFe12-xMox is found to be affected not only by the number of Fe atoms but also by weakening of the Fe moment from Mo substitution. Nitriding is effective in enhancing the Curie temperature T-c and saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s. Tc was enhanced by at least 151 degrees C after nitrogenation for all compositions. The newly identified CeFe11Mo compound exhibits the best magnetic properties in the alloy series, having T-c = 370 degrees C and 4 pi M-s > 13.0 kG after nitriding and (BH)(max) = 0.3 MGOe after annealing. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of codisposal viability of MOX (FFTF) DOE-owned fuel: Phase 1 -- Intact mode calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.; Davis, J.W.; Montierth, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    The authors provide the intact criticality information that supports the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. FFTF is one of more than 250 forms of DOE-owned SNF. Because of the variety of the DOE SNF, the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program has designated nine representative fuel groups for disposal criticality analyses based on fuel matrix, primary fissile isotope, and enrichment. The FFTF fuel is representative of the mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) group.

  2. Thermophysical Properties of MOX and UO2 Fuels Including the Effects of Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    2001-01-11

    Available open literature on thermophysical properties of both MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels has been reviewed, and the best set of thermal properties has been selected. The properties reviewed are solidus and liquidus temperatures of the uranium-plutonium dioxide system (melting temperature), thermal expansion, density, heat of fusion, enthalpy, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. Only fuel properties are studied in this report. The selected properties are used in thermal-hydraulic codes to study design basis accidents. The majority of the properties presented are for solid fuel.

  3. Detecting Changes of a Distant Gas Source with an Array of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an open sampling system. The main challenge is the turbulent nature of gas dispersion and the response dynamics of the sensors. We propose a change point detection approach and evaluate it on individual gas sensors in an experimental setup where a gas source changes in intensity, compound, or mixture ratio. We also introduce an efficient sensor selection algorithm and evaluate the change point detection approach with the selected sensor array subsets. PMID:23443385

  4. Nuclear data uncertainties by the PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} core rod ejection benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyk, I.; Klein, M.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.; Pautz, A.

    2012-07-01

    Rod ejection transient of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} core benchmark is considered under the influence of nuclear data uncertainties. Using the GRS uncertainty and sensitivity software package XSUSA the propagation of the uncertainties in nuclear data up to the transient calculations are considered. A statistically representative set of transient calculations is analyzed and both integral as well as local output quantities are compared with the benchmark results of different participants. It is shown that the uncertainties in nuclear data play a crucial role in the interpretation of the results of the simulation. (authors)

  5. Neutronics and safety characteristics of a 100% MOX fueled PWR using weapons grade plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, D.; Rathbun, R.; Lee, Si Young; Rosenthal, P.

    1993-12-31

    Preliminary neutronics and safety studies, pertaining to the feasibility of using 100% weapons grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in an advanced PWR Westinghouse design are presented in this paper. The preliminary results include information on boron concentration, power distribution, reactivity coefficients and xenon and control rode worth for the initial and the equilibrium cycle. Important safety issues related to rod ejection and steam line break accidents and shutdown margin requirements are also discussed. No significant change from the commercial design is needed to denature weapons-grade plutonium under the current safety and licensing criteria.

  6. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  7. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  8. Preparation of Single-Layer MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) and Mox W1- x S2 Nanosheets with High-Concentration Metallic 1T Phase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoliang; Zhao, Wei; Chaturvedi, Apoorva; Fei, Zhen; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Ercius, Peter; Luo, Zhimin; Qi, Xiaoying; Chen, Bo; Lai, Zhuangchai; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Zong, Yun; Jin, Chuanhong; Zheng, Haimei; Kloc, Christian; Zhang, Hua

    2016-04-01

    The high-yield and scalable production of single-layer ternary transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets with ≈66% of metallic 1T phase, including MoS2x Se2(1-x) and Mox W1-x S2 is achieved via electrochemical Li-intercalation and the exfoliation method. Thin film MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) nanosheets drop-cast on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate are used as an efficient electrocatalyst on the counter electrode for the tri-iodide reduction in a dye-sensitized solar cell. PMID:26915628

  9. Characterization by X-Ray Absorption, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, and Magnetic Susceptibility of Cu Zn Co Al Containing Hydroxycarbonates, Oxycarbonates, Oxides, and Their Products of Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, Piero; Morpurgo, Simone; Pettiti, Ida

    1996-02-01

    Copper-zinc-cobalt-aluminium-containing crystalline hydroxycarbonates having hydrotalcite structure have been prepared by coprecipitation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), magnetic susceptibility, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that Cu2+, Zn2+, and Co2+are present in an octahedral environment. Calcination of the hydroxycarbonates at 723 K produces quasi-amorphous oxycarbonates where Cu2+and Co2+still retain octahedral coordination and cobalt is almost completely oxidized to Co3+. The coordination of Zn2+, at this stage, is intermediate between the octahedral one of the precursors and the tetrahedral one of ZnO and Zn-based spinels. Further calcination at 973 K produces a mixture of crystalline oxides such as CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4, ZnAl2O4, and ZnCo2O4. EXAFS analysis of these samples indicates that copper is mainly in a fourfold coordination (although two longer Cu-O distances are also detected), zinc is tetrahedral, and cobalt (as Co3+) is essentially octahedral. EXAFS and XANES investigations performed afterin situreduction (10% H2/N2, at 523 and 623 K) on the oxycarbonates and oxides reveal that the total Cu2+→ Cu0reduction occurs only at 623 K in both series of samples, Co3+is reduced to Co2+only at 623 K in the oxycarbonates, and Zn2+is never reduced.

  10. Analysis of the IFA-432, IFA-597, and IFA-597 MOX Fuel Performance Experiments by FRAPCON-3.4

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Ott, Larry J; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E

    2012-08-01

    Validation of advanced nuclear fuel modeling tools requires careful comparison with reliable experimental benchmark data. A comparison to industry-accepted codes, that are well characterized, and regulatory codes is also a useful evaluation tool. In this report, an independent validation of the FRAPCON-3.4 fuel performance code is conducted with respect to three experimental benchmarks, IFA-432, IFA-597, and IFA-597mox. FRAPCON was found to most accurately model the mox rods, to within 2% of the experimental data, depending on the simulation parameters. The IFA-432 and IFA-597 rods were modeled with FRAPCON predicting centerline temperatures different, on average, by 21 percent.

  11. 21 CFR 520.28 - Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. 520.28 Section 520.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.28 Acetazolamide sodium soluble powder. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone aerosol powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Furazolidone aerosol powder. 524.1005 Section 524.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Furazolidone aerosol powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V powder. 520.1696c Section 520.1696c... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V powder. 520.1696c Section 520.1696c... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696c Penicillin V powder. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V....

  15. 21 CFR 520.905d - Fenbendazole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole powder. 520.905d Section 520.905d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905d Fenbendazole powder....

  16. 21 CFR 520.905d - Fenbendazole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fenbendazole powder. 520.905d Section 520.905d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905d Fenbendazole powder....

  17. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  18. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263c Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder....

  20. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  1. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.88d Section 520.88d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88d Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1265 - Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder. 520.1265 Section 520.1265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1265 Lincomycin and spectinomycin powder....

  3. 21 CFR 520.90e - Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder. 520.90e Section 520.90e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.90e Ampicillin trihydrate soluble powder....

  4. High-performance Ni3Al synthesized from composite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Wen-Chih; Hu, Chen-Ti

    1994-05-01

    Specimens of Ni3Al + B of high density (>99.3 Pct RD) and relatively large dimension have been synthesized from composite powders through processes of replacing plating and electroless Ni-B plating on Al powder, sintering, and thermal-mechanical treatment. The uniformly coated Ni layer over fine Al or Ni core particles constituting these coating/core composite powders has advantages such as better resistance to oxidation relative to pure Al powder, a greater green density as a compacted powder than prealloyed powder, the possibility of atomically added B to the material by careful choice of a suitable plating solution, and avoidance of the expensive powder metallurgy (PM) equipment such as a hot isostatic press (HIP), hot press (HP), etc. The final Ni3Al + B product is made from Ni-B-Al and Ni-B-Ni mixed composite powders by means of traditional PM processes such as compacting, sintering, rolling, and annealing, and therefore, the dimensions of the product are not constrained by the capacity of an HIP or HP. The properties of Ni3Al composite powder metallurgy (CPM) specimens tested at room temperature have been obtained, and comparison with previous reports is conducted. A tensile elongation of about 16 Pct at room temperature was attained.

  5. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  6. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  7. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  8. Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.

  9. 100% MOX BWR experimental program design using multi-parameter representative

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, P.; Fougeras, P.; Cathalau, S.

    2012-07-01

    A new multiparameter representative approach for the design of Advanced full MOX BWR core physics experimental programs is developed. The approach is based on sensitivity analysis of integral parameters to nuclear data, and correlations among different integral parameters. The representativeness method is here used to extract a quantitative relationship between a particular integral response of an experimental mock-up and the same response in a reference project to be designed. The study is applied to the design of the 100% MOX BASALA ABWR experimental program in the EOLE facility. The adopted scheme proposes an original approach to the problem, going from the initial 'microscopic' pin-cells integral parameters to the whole 'macroscopic' assembly integral parameters. This approach enables to collect complementary information necessary to optimize the initial design and to meet target accuracy on the integral parameters to be measured. The study has demonstrated the necessity of new fuel pins fabrication, fulfilling minimal costs requirements, to meet acceptable representativeness on local power distribution. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of fuel cycle scenarios on MOX fuel recycling in PWRs and SFRs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlier, B.; Caron-Charles, M.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Senentz, G.; Serpantie, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    Prospects on advanced fuel cycle scenario are considered for achieving a progressive integration of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology within the current French Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear fleet, in a view to benefit from fissile material multi-recycling capability. A step by step process is envisioned, and emphasis is put on its potential implementation through the nuclear mass inventory calculations with the COSAC code. The overall time scale is not optimized. The first step, already implemented in several countries, the plutonium coming from the reprocessing of used Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels is recycled into a small number of LWRs. The second step is the progressive introduction of the first SFRs, in parallel with the continuation of step 1. This second step lets to prepare the optimized multi recycling of MOX fuel which is considered in step 3. Step 3 is characterized by the introduction of a greater number of SFR and MOX management between EPR reactors and SFRs. In the final step 4, all the fleet is formed with SFRs. This study assesses the viability of each step of the overall scenario. The switch from one step to the other one could result from different constrains related to issues such as resources, waste, experience feedback, public acceptance, country policy, etc.

  11. Dry powder coating of pharmaceuticals: a review.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Dorothea; Cerea, Matteo; DiNunzio, James; McGinity, James

    2013-12-01

    Over the last half century, film coating technology has evolved significantly in terms of compositions and manufacturing processes, allowing for greater functionality, flexibility and efficiency. Driven by a combination of cost considerations and functionality, a range of dry powder coating technologies have been developed in both academic and industrial settings. These technologies can be generally classified into three major types based on the layer formation process: liquid assisted, thermal adhesion and electrostatic. In addition to specific manufacturing processes that must be implemented to achieve the desired product attributes, many of these techniques also require the use of novel excipients and specific formulations to provide acceptable manufacturability. This review summarizes the current dry powder coating technologies and highlights their industrial applicability with publicly disclosed case studies. Commentary on the future directions of dry powder coating is also provided. PMID:23428881

  12. Recent analytical developments for powder characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, E.; Pages, S.; Dugne, O.; Podor, R.

    2015-07-01

    Powders and divided solid materials are widely represented as finished or intermediary products in industries as widely varied as foodstuffs, cosmetics, construction, pharmaceuticals, electronic transmission, and energy. Their optimal use requires a mastery of the transformation process based on knowledge of the different phenomena concerned (sintering, chemical reactivity, purity, etc.). Their modelling and understanding need a prior acquisition of sets of data and characteristics which are more or less challenging to obtain. The goal of this study is to present the use of different physico-chemical characterization techniques adapted to uranium-containing powders analyzed either in a raw state or after a specific preparation (ionic polishing). The new developments touched on concern dimensional characterization techniques for grains and pores by image analysis, chemical surface characterization and powder chemical reactivity characterization. The examples discussed are from fabrication process materials used in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  13. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  14. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  15. Polymer powders for selective laser sintering (SLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Manfred; Amado, Antonio; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is close to be accepted as a production technique (Additive Manufacturing). However, one problem limiting employment of SLS for additive manufacturing in a wide-ranging industrial scope is the narrow variety of applicable polymers. The commonly applied SLS powder to date is polyamide 12 (PA 12). PA 12 or ccompounds of PA 12 (dry blends) are approximately 90 % of complete industrial consumption. The remaining small quantity is distributed on polyamide 11 (PA11) and some other `exotic' polymers (TPU, PEBA, P(E)EK). Industry is awaiting commodity polymers like polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE) crucial to open new market segments. But several approaches launching those polymers failed. But what are the reasons for the difficulties in developing new SLS powders? The contribution is to answer this and highlights the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic polymer properties necessary to generate a polymer powder promising for SLS application. Particle shape, powder distribution, thermal, rheological and optical requirements must be considered and only a particularly controlled property combination leads to successful SLS implementation. Thermal behavior, particle shape and -distribution is discussed in detail, although the other properties can't be disregarded for providing new commercially successful SLS powder finally.

  16. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. PMID:26296055

  17. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Richard Andrew; Kiggans Jr., James O.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Parten, Randy J.

    2015-12-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  18. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.

    2000-02-08

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: (a) forming a melt comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; (b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and (c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}.

  19. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  20. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  1. Irradiation performance of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with ferritic/martensitic cladding irradiated to high burnups

    SciTech Connect

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Katsuyama, Kozo; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Carmack, Jon

    2011-06-16

    The ACO-3 irradiation test, which attained extremely high burnups of about 232 GWd/t and resisted a high neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of about 39E26 n/m2 as one of the lead tests of the Core Demonstration Experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility, demonstrated that the fuel pin cladding made of ferritic/martensitic HT-9 alloy had superior void swelling resistance. The measured diameter profiles of the irradiated ACO-3 fuel pins showed axially extensive incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region and localized incremental strain near the interfaces between the MOX fuel and upper blanket columns. These incremental strains were as low as 1.5% despite the extremely high level of the fast neutron fluence. Evaluation of the pin diametral strain indicated that the incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region was substantially due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep caused by internal fission gas pressure, while the localized strain near the MOX fuel/upper blanket interface was likely the result of the pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) caused by cesium/fuel reactions. The evaluation also suggested that the PCMI was effectively mitigated by a large gap size between the cladding and blanket column.

  2. Irradiation performance of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with ferritic/martensitic cladding irradiated to high burnups

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoyuki Uwaba; Masahiro Ito; Kozo Katsuyama; Bruce J. Makenas; David W. Wootan; Jon Carmack

    2011-05-01

    The ACO-3 irradiation test, which attained extremely high burnups of about 232 GWd/t and resisted a high neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of about 39 × 1026 n/m2 as one of the lead tests of the Core Demonstration Experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility, demonstrated that the fuel pin cladding made of ferritic/martensitic HT-9 alloy had superior void swelling resistance. The measured diameter profiles of the irradiated ACO-3 fuel pins showed axially extensive incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region and localized incremental strain near the interfaces between the MOX fuel and upper blanket columns. These incremental strains were as low as 1.5% despite the extremely high level of the fast neutron fluence. Evaluation of the pin diametral strain indicated that the incremental strain in the MOX fuel column region was substantially due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep caused by internal fission gas pressure, while the localized strain near the MOX fuel/upper blanket interface was likely the result of the pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) caused by cesium/fuel reactions. The evaluation also suggested that the PCMI was effectively mitigated by a large gap size between the cladding and blanket column.

  3. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement.

  4. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  5. Temperature dependent EXAFS study on transition metal dichalcogenides MoX2 (X  =  S, Se, Te).

    PubMed

    Caramazza, S; Marini, C; Simonelli, L; Dore, P; Postorino, P

    2016-08-17

    The local structure of molybdenum dichalcogenide MoX2 (X  =  S, Se, Te) single crystal has been studied by means of multi-edge (Mo, Se, and Te K-edges) extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy as function of temperature. The temperature dependences of the interatomic distances Mo-X, Mo-Mo and X-X (X  =  S, Se, and Te) and of the corresponding Debye-Waller factors have been extracted over the 70-500 K temperature range. Exploiting the correlated Einstein model, we found that the Einstein frequencies of Mo-X and X-X bonds obtained by present data are in close agreement with the frequencies of the optical (Raman and infrared) stretching modes for both MoS2 and MoSe2, whereas a significant deviation has been found for MoTe2. A similar anomaly has been found for the force constants related to the Mo-X bonds in the MoTe2 case. Our findings, accordingly with the results reported in a recent theoretical paper, support the idea that the optical vibrational modes have a dominant role in MoS2 and MoSe2, whereas the effects of acoustic vibrational modes cannot be neglected in the case of MoTe2. PMID:27345937

  6. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  7. Prediction of Elastic Behavior of Sintered Metal Powder from the Ultrasonic Velocities of Green Compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phani, K. K.; Sanyal, Dipayan

    2008-04-01

    A novel procedure for the estimation of the elastic properties of the sintered and compacted metal powders from the ultrasonic velocities of the green compact alone has been proposed in this article. The methodology has been validated for sintered iron powder and copper powder compacts as well as for consolidated silver powder compacts of various processing histories, powder sizes, and pore morphology. The predicted elastic moduli, including the derived modulus (Poisson’s ratio), are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the measured data reported in the literature. The proposed method can be developed as a potent tool for the quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) of powder metallurgy products.

  8. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  9. Scale-Up of Palladium Powder Production Process for Use in the Tritium Facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC/Summary of FY99-FY01 Results for the Preparation of Palladium Using the Sandia/LANL Process

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Baldwin; Daniel S. Zamzow; R. Dennis Vigil; Jesse T. Pikturna

    2001-08-24

    Palladium used at Savannah River (SR) for process tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to understand the processes involved in preparing this material, SR is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material. The material specifications are shown in Table 1. An improved understanding of the chemical processes should help to guarantee a continued reliable source of Pd in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Ames Laboratory (AL) was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing Pd powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies, USDOE (the Mound muddy water process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. During FY99 and FY00, the process for producing Pd powder that has been used previously at Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories (the Sandia/LANL process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in the morphology of the final Pd product. During FY01, scale-up of the process to batch sizes greater than 600 grams of Pd using a 20-gallon Pfaudler reactor was conducted by the Iowa State University (ISU) Chemical Engineering Department. This report summarizes the results of FY99-FY01 Pd processing work done at AL and ISU using the Sandia/LANL process. In the Sandia/LANL process, Pd is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. A number of chemical processing steps are performed to yield an intermediate species, diamminedichloropalladium (Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, or DADC-Pd), which is isolated. In the final step of the process, the Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} intermediate is subsequently redissolved, and Pd is precipitated by the addition of a reducing agent (RA) mixture of formic acid and sodium formate. It is at this point that the morphology of the Pd product is

  10. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  11. Cost-effective nanoporous Agar-Agar polymer/Nickel powder composite particle for effective bio-products adsorption by expanded bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Setareh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2014-09-26

    In the present work a novel kind of dense nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application has been successfully first prepared with Nickel powder as a densifier and was covered with Agar-Agar layer as a skeleton, through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. Agar-Agar is a porous and inexpensive polymer. In order to fabricate cost-effective adsorbent with favorable qualities Agar-Agar polymer was used. Thereafter, the customized composite particle was modified by pseudo-affinity dye-ligand, Reactive Blue 4 (RB4), aimed at preparing a pseudo-affinity adsorbent (RB4-Agar-Ni) for bioprodut adsorption from aqueous solution. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was selected as a model protein to investigate the adsorption behavior in batchwise and expanded bed chromatography, and the obtained results were evaluated with that of Streamline™ (Amersham-Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden). Spherical appearance and porous structure of composite particles were observed by the optical microscope (OM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results suggested that the matrices followed the logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 65-300 μm and average diameter of 126.81-151.47 μm, proper wet density of 1.64-2.78 g/ml, water content of 62.74-34%, porosity of 98-90% and pore size of about 38-130 nm. For better comprehension of the impact of solid phase properties on the performance of the expanded bed, the expansion and hydrodynamic properties of a composite matrix with a series of densities was evaluated and estimated by the retention time distribution method (RTD) in an expanded bed and was compared with that of other matrices. According to obtained results the expansion factors under the same fluid velocity decreased by increasing the matrix density. Moreover, the axial dispersion coefficient (Dax) is the most appropriate parameter for evaluating the stability of expanded bed, on various operating conditions, such as different flow velocity, bed expansion

  12. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  13. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  14. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  15. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  16. THERMALLY-INDUCED GALLIUM REMOVAL FROM PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR MOX FUEL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    D. KOLMAN; M. GRIEGO; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    A process for the separation of gallium oxide from plutonium dioxide using a ''dry'' process has been developed. The process uses a reducing gas to generate a volatile gallium specie which is collected downstream. The effects of temperature, duration, flow rate, and sample size have been examined. Results indicate that temperature plays a strong role in the efficacy of gallium removal. Other variables have a much smaller effect on gallium removal efficiency. Gallium removal to approximately 1 ppm (atomic) has been observed. Gallium removal to sub-ppm levels appears feasible based on results-to-date.

  17. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  18. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities

    PubMed Central

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M.; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914). PMID:26561812

  19. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities.

    PubMed

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914). PMID:26561812

  20. Insulator to Correlated Metal Transition in V1−xMoxO2

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, K.; McQueen, T; Williams, A; Klimczuk, T; Stephens, P; Zandbergen, H; Xu, Q; Ronning, F; Cava, R

    2009-01-01

    Although many materials display the transition from insulating to metallic behavior on doping, only a few, such as VO2, have the right combination of crystal structure and physical properties to serve as model systems. Here we report the electronic and structural characteristics of the insulator to metal transition in V1-xMoxO2, which we have studied over the range 0.0=x=0.50 through characterization of the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and average- and short-range crystal structures. We find that metal-metal pairing exists in small domains in the doped metallic phases and an unexpected phenomenology for the crossover between a Curie-Weiss insulating regime and an intermediate mass metallic regime. An electronic phase diagram is presented.

  1. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactivities for UO2 and MOX fueled PWR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Foad, Basma; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our improved method for calculating sensitivities and uncertainties of reactivity responses for UO{sub 2} and MOX fueled pressurized water reactor cells. The improved method has been used to calculate sensitivity coefficients relative to infinite dilution cross-sections, where the self-shielding effect is taken into account. Two types of reactivities are considered: Doppler reactivity and coolant void reactivity, for each type of reactivity, the sensitivities are calculated for small and large perturbations. The results have demonstrated that the reactivity responses have larger relative uncertainty than eigenvalue responses. In addition, the uncertainty of coolant void reactivity is much greater than Doppler reactivity especially for large perturbations. The sensitivity coefficients and uncertainties of both reactivities were verified by comparing with SCALE code results using ENDF/B-VII library and good agreements have been found.

  2. Pericles and Attila results for the C5G7 MOX benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wareing, T. A.; McGhee, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Recently the Nuclear Energy Agency has published a new benchmark entitled, 'C5G7 MOX Benchmark.' This benchmark is to test the ability of current transport codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. The benchmark includes both a two- and three-dimensional problem. We have calculated results for these benchmark problems with our Pericles and Attila codes. Pericles is a one-,two-, and three-dimensional unstructured grid discrete-ordinates code and was used for the twodimensional benchmark problem. Attila is a three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete-ordinate code and was used for the three-dimensional problem. Both codes use discontinuous finite element spatial differencing. Both codes use diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) for accelerating the inner iterations.

  3. Development of an integrated, unattended assay system for LWR-MOX fuel pellet trays

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Pollat, L.L.

    1994-08-01

    Four identical unattended plutonium assay systems have been developed for use at the new light-water-reactor mixed oxide (LWR-MOX) fuel fabrication facility at Hanau, Germany. The systems provide quantitative plutonium verification for all MOX pellet trays entering or leaving a large, intermediate store. Pellet-tray transport and storage systems are highly automated. Data from the ``I-Point`` (information point) assay systems will be shared by the Euratom and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Inspectorates. The I-Point system integrates, for the first time, passive neutron coincidence counting (NCC) with electro-mechanical sensing (EMS) in unattended mode. Also, provisions have been made for adding high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The system accumulates data for every tray entering or leaving the store between inspector visits. During an inspection, data are analyzed and compared with operator declarations for the previous inspection period, nominally one month. Specification of the I-point system resulted from a collaboration between the IAEA, Euratom, Siemens, and Los Alamos. Hardware was developed by Siemens and Los Alamos through a bilateral agreement between the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US DOE. Siemens also provided the EMS subsystem, including software. Through the USSupport Program to the IAEA, Los Alamos developed the NCC software (NCC COLLECT) and also the software for merging and reviewing the EMS and NCC data (MERGE/REVIEW). This paper describes the overall I-Point system, but emphasizes the NCC subsystem, along with the NCC COLLECT and MERGE/REVIEW codes. We also summarize comprehensive testing results that define the quality of assay performance.

  4. Methodology for the Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Analysis in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2005-08-01

    A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2, and is therefore called the MCWO. MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO is capable of handling a large number of fuel burnup and material loading specifications, Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) lobe powers, and irradiation time intervals. MCWO processes user input that specifies the system geometry, initial material compositions, feed/removal specifications, and other code-specific parameters. Calculated results from MCNP, ORIGEN-2, and data process module calculations are output in succession as MCWO executes. The principal function of MCWO is to transfer one-group cross-section and flux values from MCNP to ORIGEN-2, and then transfer the resulting material compositions (after irradiation and/or decay) from ORIGEN-2 back to MCNP in a repeated, cyclic fashion. The basic requirements of MCWO are a working MCNP input file and some additional input parameters; all interaction with ORIGEN-2 as well as other calculations are performed by CMO. This paper presents the MCWO-calculated results for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiments RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 as well as the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) fuel testing in ATR. Calculations performed for the WG-MOX test irradiation, which is managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), supports the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The MCWO-calculated results are compared with measured data.

  5. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    PubMed

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. PMID:24607997

  6. LARC powder prepreg system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  7. Injection Moulding of Wood Powder with Low Binder Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imanishi, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kouzou

    This study is aimed at exploring possibilities to improve the injectability of wood powder and the mechanical properties of the injected product while keeping the amount of binder to its minimum. In the preliminary experiment, injection moulding of Japanese cedar wood powder was conducted. The effects of binder content (PE; pellet-size) and nozzle temperature on the tensile strength and strain at break of the product were investigated. Results showed that under such conditions, injection moulding of wood powder only was not possible due to insufficient fluidity. Increasing the binder content and the nozzle temperature resulted to a decrease in the maximum injection pressure and improvement in the fluidity of the powder. Using the same PE content, increasing the temperature resulted to an increase in tensile strength of the injected product. However, the strain at break was decreased. Moreover, at PE content below 50%, the strength and strain decreased considerably.

  8. A SCALE 5.0 Reactor Physics Assessment using the Module TRITON against Mixed Oxide (MOX) OECD/NEA Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Saccheri, J.G.B.; Diamond, D.J.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor physics numerical benchmarks have been performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the software package SCALE 5.0 and its TRITON module to assess their capability to predict neutronics parameters for mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. The results of such calculations are herein presented. Specifically, BNL results for neutron multiplication factors (kINF), neutron fluxes and fuel burnup have been added to published OECD/NEA benchmarks for MOX fuels and particular emphasis has been given to the impact of cross-section libraries and their energy structure on the results. Among the OECD/NEA published benchmarks two have been considered here: the first one models a fuel pin surrounded by moderator, in which two different MOX fuels can be introduced, and for each one of them kINF and neutron fluxes as a function of burnup are calculated. The second one includes both a fuel pin case and a macro-cell case (a heterogeneous 30 by 30 configuration of fuel pins), for which the void coefficient is determined by calculating kINF at zero burnup as a function of moderation. The calculations are repeated for several combinations of MOX and uranium oxide fuels using several different cross-section libraries. The final results have been compared with each other. This study shows that SCALE 5.0 (with TRITON) overall performs in line with the other codes in the benchmark, but the results are dependent on the energy group structure of the cross section libraries used. For instance, when fissile plutonium is increased in the fuel, TRITON results become slightly divergent with burnup (with respect to the other codes in the benchmark) and if the standard 44-group library provided with SCALE 5.0 is used void coefficient calculations become inadequate for very low void (below 10% of the operating value of moderator density). Moreover, the prediction capabilities of the code are shown to be dependent on the MOX fuel enrichment and the MOX isotopic composition. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  10. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  11. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  12. Use of in-die powder densification parameters in the implementation of process analytical technologies for tablet production on industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Perinelli, Diego R; Casettari, Luca; Bonacucina, Giulia; Caporicci, Giuseppe; Rendina, Filippo; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2014-12-30

    The use of process analytical technologies (PAT) to ensure final product quality is by now a well established practice in pharmaceutical industry. To date, most of the efforts in this field have focused on development of analytical methods using spectroscopic techniques (i.e., NIR, Raman, etc.). This work evaluated the possibility of using the parameters derived from the processing of in-line raw compaction data (the forces and displacement of the punches) as a PAT tool for controlling the tableting process. To reach this goal, two commercially available formulations were used, changing the quantitative composition and compressing them on a fully instrumented rotary pressing machine. The Heckel yield pressure and the compaction energies, together with the tablets hardness and compaction pressure, were selected and evaluated as discriminating parameters in all the prepared formulations. The apparent yield pressure, as shown in the obtained results, has the necessary sensitivity to be effectively included in a PAT strategy to monitor the tableting process. Additional investigations were performed to understand the criticalities and the mechanisms beyond this performing parameter and the associated implications. Specifically, it was discovered that the efficiency of the apparent yield pressure depends on the nominal drug title, the drug densification mechanism and the error in pycnometric density. In this study, the potential of using some parameters derived from the compaction raw data has been demonstrated to be an attractive alternative and complementary method to the well established spectroscopic techniques to monitor and control the tableting process. The compaction data monitoring method is also easy to set up and very cost effective. PMID:25304091

  13. Monte Carlo Modeling of Fast Sub-critical Assembly with MOX Fuel for Research of Accelerator-Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, A.; Barashenkov, V.; Puzynin, I.; Rakhno, I.; Sissakian, A.

    It is considered a sub-critical assembly driven with existing 660 MeV JINR proton accelerator. The assembly consists of a central cylindrical lead target surrounded with a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (PuO2 + UO2) and with reflector made of beryllium. Dependence of the energetic gain on the proton energy, the neutron multiplication coefficient, and the neutron energetic spectra have been calculated. It is shown that for subcritical assembly with a mixed-oxide (MOX) BN-600 fuel (28%PuO 2 + 72%UO2) with effective density of fuel material equal to 9 g/cm 3 , the multiplication coefficient keff is equal to 0.945, the energetic gain is equal to 27, and the neutron flux density is 1012 cm˜2 s˜x for the protons with energy of 660 MeV and accelerator beam current of 1 uA.

  14. A Deterministic Study of the Deficiency of the Wigner-Seitz Approximation for Pu/MOX Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-09-27

    The Wigner-Seitz pin-cell approximation has long been applied as a modeling approximation in analysis of UO2 lattice fuel cells. In the past, this approximation has been appropriate for such fuel. However, with increasing attention drawn to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels with significant plutonium content, it is important to understand the implications of the approximation in a uranium-plutonium matrix. The special geometric capabilities of the deterministic NEWT computer code have been used to assess the adequacy of the Wigner-Seitz cell in such an environment, as part of a larger study of computational aspects of MOX fuel modeling. Results of calculations using various approximations and boundary conditions are presented, and are validated by comparison to results obtained using KENO V.a and XSDRNPM.

  15. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  16. Antioxidant components and physico-chemical characteristics of jamun powder supplemented pear juice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Swati; Ranote, Pushpinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    Studies were conducted to develop jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Two drying methods (Hot air cabinet drying and freeze drying) were used to prepare jamun pulp powder. Jamun powder was then blended with pear juice at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % levels for preparation of jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Among the drying methods used, freeze dried powder retained better bioactive compounds and possessed higher antioxidant activity as compared to hot air dried jamun powder. Analysis of color properties (L*, a*, b*) revealed lower L*, b* values and higher a* values with progression of supplementation levels indicating decreased brightness of product. Pear juice supplemented with 4 % jamun powder received highest overall acceptability scores and was chosen for development of final product. Physico-chemical characteristics of control pear juice did not vary much from when compared to jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Bioactive components mainly total phenols enhanced (9.24 % higher) with addition of jamun powder in pear juice. Addition of anthocyanins from jamun powder to pear juice upon blending improved antioxidant activity of the final product. Supplemented pear juice had 18.13 % higher antioxidant activity than pear juice without supplementation. Storage period of 6 months resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in jamun powder supplemented pear juice. PMID:27407197

  17. Plasma Influence on Tungsten Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A.; Begrambekova, S.; Grunin, A.

    Modifications of tungsten powder comprised of micro particles with dimensions: 1 ± 0.2 μm and 5 ± 1.5 μm ("small" and «large" particles) under the influence of heating, electric field and hydrogen- and argon ion irradiation are investigated in this work. The processes in irradiated powder are described and discussed. Among them there are powder outgassing, particle emission from the powder surface in the electric field, pasting of small particles all over the large ones, integration of the adhered small particles and formation of the uniform layer around the groups of large particles, cone growth on uniform layers, formation of volumetric chains of sticking together tungsten particles and their transformations. Driving forces and processes providing different types of powder modifications and the role of each of them in the specific phenomena are discussed.

  18. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  19. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  20. Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagan, Richard C. (Inventor); Wu, Jin J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

  1. Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders

    DOEpatents

    Flagan, Richard C.; Wu, Jin J.

    1991-02-19

    A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

  2. Oxidative dissolution of unirradiated Mimas MOX fuel (U/Pu oxides) in carbonated water under oxic and anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jégou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly; Martin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Few studies exist concerning the alteration of Mimas Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel, a mixed plutonium and uranium oxide, and data is needed to better understand its behavior under leaching, especially for radioactive waste disposal. In this study, two leaching experiments were conducted on unirradiated MOX fuel with a strong alpha activity (1.3 × 109 Bq.gMOX-1 reproducing the alpha activity of spent MOX fuel with a burnup of 47 GWd·tHM-1 after 60 years of decay), one under air (oxic conditions) for 5 months and the other under argon (anoxic conditions with [O2] < 1 ppm) for one year in carbonated water (10-2 mol L-1). For each experiment, solution samples were taken over time and Eh and pH were monitored. The uranium in solution was assayed using a kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (KPA), plutonium and americium were analyzed by a radiochemical route, and H2O2 generated by the water radiolysis was quantified by chemiluminescence. Surface characterizations were performed before and after leaching using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) and Raman spectroscopy. Solubility diagrams were calculated to support data discussion. The uranium releases from MOX pellets under both oxic and anoxic conditions were similar, demonstrating the predominant effect of alpha radiolysis on the oxidative dissolution of the pellets. The uranium released was found to be mostly in solution as carbonate species according to modeling, whereas the Am and Pu released were significantly sorbed or precipitated onto the TiO2 reactor. An intermediate fraction of Am (12%) was also present as colloids. SEM and EPMA results indicated a preferential dissolution of the UO2 matrix compared to the Pu-enriched agglomerates, and Raman spectroscopy showed the Pu-enriched agglomerates were slightly oxidized during leaching. Unlike Pu-enriched zones, the UO2 grains were much more sensitive to oxidative dissolution, but the presence of carbonates did not enable observation of an

  3. Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Cathcart, James D.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A.; O'Connor, Joseph T.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Hower, James C.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana utility company to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products from a coal-fired power plant. The Indiana power plant utilizes a low-sulfur (0.23 to 0.47 weight percent S) and lowash (4.9 to 6.3 weight percent ash) subbituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Based on scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of feed coal samples, two mineral suites were identified: (1) a primary or detrital suite consisting of quartz (including beta-form grains), biotite, feldspar, and minor zircon; and (2) a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The primary mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be of volcanic origin, whereas the authigenic mineral suite is interpreted, in part, to be the result of the alteration of the volcanic minerals. The mineral suites have contributed to the higher amounts of barium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, strontium, and titanium in the Powder River Basin feed coals in comparison to eastern coals. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that (1) fly ash is mostly aluminate glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals; and (2) bottom ash is predominantly quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite, and spinel group minerals. Microprobe and scanning electron microscope analyses of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, and monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, wollastonite, and periclase. The abundant calcium and

  4. Device for preparing combinatorial libraries in powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shoufeng; Evans, Julian R G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a powder-metering, -mixing, and -dispensing mechanism that can be used as a method for producing large numbers of samples for metallurgical evaluation or electrical or mechanical testing from multicomponent metal and cermet powder systems. It is designed to make use of the same commercial powders that are used in powder metallurgy and, therefore, to produce samples that are faithful to the microstructure of finished products. The particle assemblies produced by the device could be consolidated by die pressing, isostatic pressing, laser sintering, or direct melting. The powder metering valve provides both on/off and flow rate control of dry powders in open capillaries using acoustic vibration. The valve is simple and involves no relative movement, avoiding seizure with fine powders. An orchestra of such valves can be arranged on a building platform to prepare multicomponent combinatorial libraries. As with many combinatorial devices, identification and evaluation of sources of mixing error as a function of sample size is mandatory. Such an analysis is presented. PMID:15244416

  5. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  6. powder in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped γ-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and β-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped γ-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of θ-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The β-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

  7. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  8. Low Temperature heat capacity of Uranium-Plutonium MOX single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Eloirdi, Rachel; Caciuffo, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of the basic properties of actinides based materials is crucial for the understanding of conventional and advanced nuclear fuels. Accessing ground state properties at very low temperature for these systems gives a direct overview of their fundamental features. Moreover, when these materials can be produced as single crystals, side effects due to the presence of grains and impurities phases are drastically reduced, giving a very powerful add-in for theoretical and industrial oriented studies. This clearly ensures the reliability of the parameters determined while existing models of these strategic materials can be probed especially in the purpose of applications/developments and safety concerns. Here we report on heat capacity measurements performed on U-Pu MOX in single crystal form. Tiny crystals with mass of 2 to 15 mg have been produced by solid-solid chemical vapour transport technique with several different compositions ranging from pure UO2 to PuO2. Compositions close to UO2 (U rich) present a persistent signature similarly to the magnetic transition reported for the pure phase TN ~ 31 K while plutonium rich concentrations do not show any hint of the magnetic transition down to the minimum temperature achieved.

  9. TREFEX: Trend Estimation and Change Detection in the Response of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Schaffernicht, Erik; Trincavelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Many applications of metal oxide gas sensors can benefit from reliable algorithms to detect significant changes in the sensor response. Significant changes indicate a change in the emission modality of a distant gas source and occur due to a sudden change of concentration or exposure to a different compound. As a consequence of turbulent gas transport and the relatively slow response and recovery times of metal oxide sensors, their response in open sampling configuration exhibits strong fluctuations that interfere with the changes of interest. In this paper we introduce TREFEX, a novel change point detection algorithm, especially designed for metal oxide gas sensors in an open sampling system. TREFEX models the response of MOX sensors as a piecewise exponential signal and considers the junctions between consecutive exponentials as change points. We formulate non-linear trend filtering and change point detection as a parameter-free convex optimization problem for single sensors and sensor arrays. We evaluate the performance of the TREFEX algorithm experimentally for different metal oxide sensors and several gas emission profiles. A comparison with the previously proposed GLR method shows a clearly superior performance of the TREFEX algorithm both in detection performance and in estimating the change time. PMID:23736853

  10. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  11. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  12. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  13. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  14. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    PubMed

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  15. Evaluation of the behavior of ceramic powders under mechanical vibration and its effect on the mechanics of auto-granulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Nicholas

    In ceramic powder processing, the correlations between the constituent particles and the product structure-property outcomes are well established. However, the influence of static powder properties on the dynamic bulk powder behavior in such advance powder processes remains elusive. A multi-scale evaluation is necessary to understand the full effects of the particle ensemble on the bulk powder behavior, ranging from the particle micro-scale to the bulk powder macro-scale. Fine powders, with particle size of 10 ?m or less, often exhibit cohesive behavior. Cohesion in powders can cause poor flowability, affect agglomerate formation, as well as induce powder caking, all of which can be detrimental to the processing of the powders and/or final product structure-property outcomes. For this reason, it is critical to correlate the causal properties of the powders to this detrimental behavior. In this study, the bulk behavior of ceramic powders is observed under a simple powder process: harmonic, mechanical vibration. Four powder samples, two titania and two alumina powders, were studied. The main difference between the two powder variants of each material is particle size. The two alumina (Al2O3) powder samples had a primary particle size at 50% less than, or d50 of, 0.5 and 2.3 microm and the titania (TiO2) powder samples had a d 50 particle size of 0.1 and 1 microm. Due to mechanical vibration, the titania powder variant with a primary particle size of 0.1 microm exhibited a clustering behavior known as auto-granulation. Auto-granulation is the growth of particle clusters within a dry, fine powder bed without the addition of any binder or liquid to the system. The amplitude and frequency of the mechanical vibration was varied to view the effect on the equilibrium granule size and density. Furthermore, imaging of cross-sections of the granules was conducted to provide insight into to the internal microstructure and measure the packing fraction of the constituent

  16. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  17. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  18. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spray process powder; definitions and requirements. 590.544 Section 590.544 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.544 Spray process powder;...

  19. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spray process powder; definitions and requirements. 590.544 Section 590.544 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.544 Spray process powder;...

  20. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spray process powder; definitions and requirements. 590.544 Section 590.544 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.544 Spray process powder;...

  1. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  2. Rheological behavior of magnetic powder mixtures for magnetic PIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, See Jo; Park, Seong Jin; Mun, Jun Ho; Kang, Tae Gon; Park, Jang Min

    2012-06-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a promising manufacturing technology for the net-shape production of small, complex, and precise metal or ceramic components. In order to manufacture high quality magnets using PIM, the magneto-rheological (MR) properties of the PIM feedstock, i.e. magnetic powder-binder mixture, should be investigated experimentally and theoretically. The current research aims at comprehensive understanding of the rheological characteristics of the PIM feedstock. The feedstock used in the experiment consists of strontium ferrite powder and paraffin wax. Steady and oscillatory shear tests have been carried out using a plate-and-plate rheometer, under the influence of a uniform magnetic field applied externally. Rheological properties of the PIM feedstock have been measured and characterized for various conditions by changing the temperature, the powder fraction and the magnetic flux density.

  3. Metastable nanosized aluminum powder as a reactant in energetic formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.; Tepper, F.; Ivanov, G.V.; Lerner, M.I.; Davidovich, V.

    1998-12-01

    Aluminum powder is an important ingredient in many propellant, explosives and pyrotechnic applications. The production of nanosized aluminum powder by the electroexplosion of metal wire has been practices in the former USSR since the mid 1970`s. Differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and x-ray phase analysis was performed on aluminum powder both before and after air passivation, as well as aluminum that was protected under kerosene, pentane, toluene and hexane. Earlier Soviet reports of unexplained thermal releases and metastable behavior have been investigated. Anomalous behavior previously reported included phase transformations at temperatures far below melting with the release of heat and chemoluminescence and self sintering of particles with a heat release large enough to melt the powders.

  4. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj; Yotkaew, Thanyaporn; Krataitong, Rungtip; Wila, Pongsak; Sir-on, Autcharaporn; Muthitamongkol, Pennapa; Tosangthum, Nattaya

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid → η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ή-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  5. A review on flow characterization methods for cereal grain-based powders.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Jan, Shumaila; Siliveru, Kaliramesh

    2016-01-30

    Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain-based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non-uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain-based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost-effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no-flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage. PMID:26095631

  6. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  7. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  8. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  9. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  10. Fermi arc electronic structure and Chern numbers in the type-II Weyl semimetal candidate MoxW1 -xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Zheng, Hao; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Yun; Bian, Guang; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Song, You; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Yao, Nan; Rault, Julien E.; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Kaminski, Adam; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that electronic band structures in crystals can give rise to a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion, which violates Lorentz invariance and, consequently, is forbidden in particle physics. It was further predicted that MoxW1 -xTe2 may realize such a type-II Weyl fermion. Here, we first show theoretically that it is crucial to access the band structure above the Fermi level ɛF to show a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 . Then, we study MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES and we directly access the band structure >0.2 eV above ɛF in experiment. By comparing our results with ab initio calculations, we conclude that we directly observe the surface state containing the topological Fermi arc. We propose that a future study of MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES may directly pinpoint the Fermi arc. Our work sets the stage for the experimental discovery of the first type-II Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 .

  11. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 – 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  12. A fluidized bed process for electron sterilization of powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Sam V.; Wood, James C.; Desrosiers, Marc F.; Nagy, Vitaly Yu.

    1998-06-01

    A small capacity (100 g.s -1) pilot system is described for presentation of powders and fine aggregates at high velocity, to an electron beam. Electron beam dose rate is continuously monitored in real time, while the thickness of the fluidized bed used to pneumatically transport the product can be monitored and controlled using beta-gauge techniques. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, alanine power mixed with the product is used for precise determination of dose delivered to the powder stream. Thin film dosimeters transported in the bed are also used for dose determination. Results with a variety of products are presented using both dose rate and velocity as the independent variables. Lethality data for the bioburdens present in several powdered foodstuffs are discussed.

  13. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  14. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  15. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  16. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  17. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  4. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.1646 Section 73.1646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of...

  6. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  9. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  10. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOEpatents

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  11. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  12. Gas-Phase Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelbaum, R. L.; Lottes, C. R.; Huertas, J. I.; Rosen, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Due to its combined properties of high electrical resistivity and high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) is a highly desirable material for electronics applications. Methods are being sought for synthesis of unagglomerated, nanometer-sized powders of this material, prepared in such a way that they can be consolidated into solid compacts having minimal oxygen content. A procedure for synthesizing these powders through gas-phase combustion is described. This novel approach involves reacting AlCl3, NH3, and Na vapors. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations show that 100% yields can be obtained for these reactants with the products being AlN, NaCl, and H2. The NaCl by-product is used to coat the AlN particles in situ. The coating allows for control of AlN agglomeration and protects the powders from hydrolysis during post-flame handling. On the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, two different approaches were employed to produce the powder, in co-flow diffusion flame configurations. In the first approach, the three reactants were supplied in separate streams. In the second, the AlCl3 and NH3 were premixed with HCl and then reacted with Na vapor. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of as-produced powders show only NaCl for the first case and NaCl and AlN for the second. After annealing at 775 C tinder dynamic vacuum, the salt was removed and XRD spectra of powders from both approaches show only AlN. Aluminum metal was also produced in the co-flow flame by reacting AlCl3 with Na. XRD spectra of as-produced powders show the products to be only NaCl and elemental aluminum.

  13. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  14. Glove powder: implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Dave, J; Wilcox, M H; Kellett, M

    1999-08-01

    Gloves are increasingly promoted for use by healthcare workers, but this use is not without risk. Data associating powdered gloves with an increased risk of latex allergy is available and there is circumstantial evidence that the powder used may increase bacterial environmental contamination. In animal models, corn starch, the material used as glove powder, promotes wound infection. Infection control teams need to be aware of this evidence and should support switching from use of powdered to powder free gloves. PMID:10467541

  15. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery. PMID:27212477

  16. [Recent progress of dry powder inhalation of proteins and peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie-yu; Zhang, Lan; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-07-01

    To provide theoretical and practical basis for the successful formulation design of physically-mixed inhalation dry powder of proteins and peptides, related references were collected, analyzed and summarized. In this review drug micronization technology and commonly used carriers for inhalation dry powder preparation were introduced. For proteins and peptides, supercritical fluid technology and spray-drying are more suitable because of their capabilities of keeping drug activity. Being approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration, lactose has been extensively used as carriers in many inhalation products. Formulation and process factors influencing drug deposition in the lung, including carrier properties, drug-carrier ratio, blending order, mixing methods, mixing time and the interaction between drug and carrier, were elucidated. The size, shape and surface properties of carries all influence the interaction between drug and carrier. Besides, influence of micromeritic properties of the dry powder, such as particle size, shape, density, flowability, charge, dispersibility and hygroscopicity, on drug deposition in the lung was elaborated. Among these particle size plays the most crucial role in particle deposition in the lung. Moreover, based on the mechanisms of powder dispersity, some strategies to improve drug lung deposition were put forward, such as adding carrier fines, adding adhesive-controlling materials and reprocessing micronized drug. In order to design physically-mixed inhalation dry powder for proteins and peptides with high lung deposition, it is essential to study drug-carriers interactions systematically and illustrate the potential influence of formulation, process parameters and micromeritic properties of the powder. PMID:26552141

  17. Permanent magnet microstructures using dry-pressed magnetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Bowers, Benjamin J.; Shetye, Sheetal B.; Wang, Naigang; Arnold, David P.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents microfabrication methods and performance analysis of bonded powder permanent magnets targeting dimensions ranging from 10 µm to greater than 1 mm. For the structural definition and pattern transfer, a doctor blade technique is used to dry press magnetic powders into pre-etched cavities in a silicon substrate. The powders are secured in the cavities by one of the three methods: capping with a polyimide layer, thermal reflow of intermixed wax-binder particles, or conformal coating with a vapor-deposited parylene-C film. A systematic study of micromagnets fabricated using these methods is conducted using three different types of magnetic powders: 50 µm Nd-Fe-B, 5 µm Nd-Fe-B and 1 µm barium ferrite powder. The isotropic magnets are shown to exhibit intrinsic coercivities (Hci) as high as 720 kA m-1, remanences (Br) up to 0.5 T and maximum energy products (BHmax) up to 30 kJ m-3, depending on the magnetic powder used. Process compatibility experiments demonstrate the potential for the magnets to withstand typical microfabrication chemical exposure and thermal cycles, thereby facilitating their integration into more complex process flows. The remanences are also characterized at elevated temperatures to determine thermal sensitivities and maximum operating temperature ranges.

  18. Glucose-induced production of recombinant proteins in Hansenula polymorpha mutants deficient in catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Krasovska, Olena S; Stasyk, Olena G; Nahorny, Viktor O; Stasyk, Oleh V; Granovski, Nikolai; Kordium, Vitaliy A; Vozianov, Oleksandr F; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2007-07-01

    The most commonly used expression platform for production of recombinant proteins in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha relies on the strong and strictly regulated promoter from the gene encoding peroxisomal enzyme alcohol (or methanol) oxidase (P(MOX)). Expression from P(MOX) is induced by methanol and is partially derepressed in glycerol or xylose medium, whereas in the presence of hexoses, disaccharides or ethanol, it is repressed. The need for methanol for maximal induction of gene expression in large-scale fermentation is a significant drawback, as this compound is toxic, flammable, supports a slow growth rate and requires extensive aeration. We isolated H. polymorpha mutants deficient in glucose repression of P(MOX) due to an impaired HpGCR1 gene, and other yet unidentified secondary mutations. The mutants exhibited pronounced defects in P(MOX) regulation only by hexoses and xylose, but not by disaccharides or ethanol. With one of these mutant strains as hosts, we developed a modified two-carbon source mode expression platform that utilizes convenient sugar substrates for growth (sucrose) and induction of recombinant protein expression (glucose or xylose). We demonstrate efficient regulatable by sugar carbon sources expression of three recombinant proteins: a secreted glucose oxidase from the fungus Aspergillus niger, a secreted mini pro-insulin, and an intracellular hepatitis B virus surface antigen in these mutant hosts. The modified expression platform preserves the favorable regulatable nature of P(MOX) without methanol, making a convenient alternative to the traditional system. PMID:17163508

  19. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. PMID:23871034

  20. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  1. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2000-06-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

  2. Mechanically Activated Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Powders of Ferroelectric Bismuth Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantha, K.; Subbanna, G. N.; Varma, K. B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical milling of a stoichiometric mixture of Bi2O3and V2O5yielded nanosized powders of bismuth vanadate, Bi2VO5.5(BiV). Structural evolution of the desired BiV phase, through an intermediate product (BiVO4), was monitored by subjecting the powders, ball milled for various durations to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. XRD studies indicate that the relative amount of the BiV phase present in the ball-milled mixture increases with increase in milling time and its formation reaches completion within 54 h of milling. Assynthesized powders were found to stabilize in the high-temperature tetragonal (γ) phase. DTA analyses of the powders milled for various durations suggest that the BiV phase-formation temperature decreases with increase in milling time. The nanometric size (30 nm) of the crystallites in the final product was confirmed by TEM and XRD studies. TEM studies clearly demonstrate the growth of BiV onBi2O3crystallites.

  3. Augmented Switching Linear Dynamical System Model for Gas Concentration Estimation with MOX Sensors in an Open Sampling System

    PubMed Central

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector. PMID:25019637

  4. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, Baokai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by an exotic Fermi arc surface state. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in k space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2 via our first-principles calculations, where the Fermi arc length can be continuously changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength of the system. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1-xTe2 where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure driven superconductivity have been observed.

  5. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, Baokai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Zahid Hasan, M.

    2016-02-01

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1-xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1-xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.

  6. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1−xTe2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, BaoKai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Zahid Hasan, M.

    2016-01-01

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1−xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1−xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed. PMID:26875819

  7. Diametral strain of fast reactor MOX fuel pins with austenitic stainless steel cladding irradiated to high burnup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Maeda, Koji

    2011-09-01

    The C3M irradiation test, which was conducted in the experimental fast reactor, "Joyo", demonstrated that mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pins with austenitic steel cladding could attain a peak pellet burnup of about 130 GWd/t safely. The test fuel assembly consisted of 61 fuel pins, whose design specifications were similar to those of driver fuel pins of a prototype fast breeder reactor, "Monju". The irradiated fuel pins exhibited diametral strain due to cladding void swelling and irradiation creep. The cladding irradiation creep strain were due to the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) as well as the internal gas pressure. From the fuel pin ceramographs and 137Cs gamma scanning, it was found that the PCMI was associated with the pellet swelling which was enhanced by the rim structure formation or by cesium uranate formation. The PCMI due to cesium uranate, which occurred near the top of the MOX fuel column, significantly affected cladding hoop stress and thermal creep, and the latter effect tended to increase the cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of the cladding though the CDF indicated that the cladding still had some margin to failure due to the creep damage.

  8. Criticality Calculations of Fresh LEU and MOX Assemblies for Transport and Storage at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.

    2001-01-11

    Transportation of low-enriched uranium (LEU) and mixed-oxide (MOX) assemblies to and within the VVER-1000-type Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant is investigated. Effective multiplication factors for fresh fuel assemblies on the railroad platform, fresh fuel assemblies in the fuel transportation vehicle, and fresh fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool are calculated. If there is no absorber between the units, the configurations with all MOX assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors than the configurations with all LEU assemblies when the system is dry. When the system is flooded, the configurations with all LEU assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors. For normal operating conditions, effective multiplication factors for all configurations are below the presumed upper subcritical limit of 0.95. For an accident condition of a fully loaded fuel transportation vehicle that is flooded with low-density water (possibly from a fire suppression system), the presumed upper subcritical limit is exceeded by configurations containing LEU assemblies.

  9. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, BaoKai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; et al

    2016-02-15

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal’s boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1₋xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touchingmore » points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Lastly,our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1₋xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.« less

  10. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  11. Amorphous soft magnetic composite-cores with various orientations of the powder-flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Xia, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    Fe78Si9B13 amorphous powder cores were prepared by cold pressing the amorphous powders crushed from amorphous ribbons and orientated with an external magnetic field. Three orientations of magnetic powder cores were obtained: (i) the disorderedly orientated amorphous magnetic powder core (DOAMP), (ii) the circularly orientated amorphous magnetic powder core (COAMP), and (iii) the radially orientated amorphous magnetic powder core (ROAMP). The effect of the shape anisotropy of the flake powders on the magnetic properties of the powder cores was investigated. The powders parallel to external magnetic field is beneficial for achieving the excellent performance of the cores. Below 100 kHz the product of the effective permeability and the quality factor of COAMP core increases by 9.1% and 21.2% compared to that of the DOAMP and the ROAMP cores, respectively, while the coercive field and the magnetic induction intensity keep almost the same. Pressing magnetic powders under a magnetic field to form preferred orientation is suitable for optimal design of soft magnetic cores toward practical applications.

  12. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOEpatents

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  13. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOEpatents

    Capone, Donald W.; Dusek, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice.

  14. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning tungsten powder preparation and processing. Studies include sintering, densification, shrinkage, phase analysis, and heat treatment. The physical and mechanical properties of tungsten powder metal products are included. The effects of additives and particle size on the sintering and sintered articles are also described. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Mathematical modeling of jet flow around of bodies when applying polymer powder coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyaev, V. L.; Galimov, E. R.; Gimranov, I. R.; Takhaviev, M. S.; Morenko, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of processes occurring during the spraying of polymer powder compositions on the surface of parts and products is considered. Relations describing the flow around processed bodies, movement of the powder particles in a stream of the carrying medium, dynamics of their deposition on the body surface are presented.

  16. Developments in Die Pressing Strategies for Low-Cost Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Weil, K. Scott; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent developments in the production of low-cost titanium powders have rejuvenated interest in manufacturing titanium powder metallurgy components by direct press and sinter techniques. However excessive friction typically observed during titanium powder pressing operations leads to numerous problems ranging from non-homogeneous green densities of the compacted powder to excessive part ejection forces and reduced die life due to wear and galling. An instrumented double-acting die press was developed to both investigate the mechanics of titanium powder pressing (particularly for the new low-cost powder morphologies) and to screen potential lubricants that could reduce frictional effects. As will be discussed, the instrument was used to determine friction coefficients and to evaluate a number of candidate lubricants. These results were then used to optimize the lubricant system to reduce die-wall stresses and improve part density uniformity.

  17. SYSTEM FOR APPLYING POWDERED GELLING AGENTS TO SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been conducted to develop a blended material that would optimally immobilize a wide range of liquid chemicals detrimental to the environment. The product of this research was Multipurpose Gelling Agent (MGA), a blend of four polymers and an inorganic powder. When app...

  18. Advancements in application of thermoplastic powder coatings for railcar linings

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.; Loustaunau, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Powder coatings offer many benefits for coating applications. These products offer zero VOC emissions and improved performance. Railcars have been largely excluded from these applications due to their physical size. With innovative coating materials and coating techniques, these parts may be economically lined with high performance polymer coatings.

  19. 21 CFR 522.468 - Colistimethate sodium powder for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colistimethate sodium powder for injection. 522.468 Section 522.468 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.468 Colistimethate...

  20. Powder metallurgy of vanadium and its alloys (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Radomysel'skii, I.D.; Solntsev, V.P.; Evtushenko, O.V.

    1987-10-01

    This article reviews the current powder metallurgy technology of vanadium and its alloys. Data are given on sintering, compacting, electrowinning and other current production techniques, as well as on the corrosion behavior and mechanical and physical properties of alloys produced by these different methods. The use of vanadium alloys as reactor and jet engine materials is also briefly discussed.