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Sample records for product variational formulation

  1. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  2. New Variational Formulations of Hybrid Stress Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Sumihara, K.; Kang, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the variational formulations of finite elements by the Hu-Washizu and Hellinger-Reissner principles the stress equilibrium condition is maintained by the inclusion of internal displacements which function as the Lagrange multipliers for the constraints. These versions permit the use of natural coordinates and the relaxation of the equilibrium conditions and render considerable improvements in the assumed stress hybrid elements. These include the derivation of invariant hybrid elements which possess the ideal qualities such as minimum sensitivity to geometric distortions, minimum number of independent stress parameters, rank sufficient, and ability to represent constant strain states and bending moments. Another application is the formulation of semiLoof thin shell elements which can yield excellent results for many severe test cases because the rigid body nodes, the momentless membrane strains, and the inextensional bending modes are all represented.

  3. Variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, Alain J.; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.

  4. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers. PMID:11048573

  5. Variational formulation of a moment problem quantization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Carlos R.; Maweu, John; Atterberry, Leticia Soto

    1996-03-01

    The eigenvalue moment method (EMM) has proven to be an effective technique for generating converging lower and upper bounds to the bosonic ground state energy of singular, strongly coupled, quantum systems. Application of EMM theory requires an appropriate linearization of the highly nonlinear Hankel-Hadamard (HH) moment determinant constraints for the (n+1)×(n+1) Hankel matrices Mn[u]≡M̂n0+∑i=1msM̂niu i), dependent on the missing moment variables {u(i)}≡u. We propose an alternate variational formulation utilizing the functions Det(Mn+1[u])/Det(Mn[u]), which we prove to be locally convex over the missing moment subset satisfying the HH positivity conditions Det(Mν[u])≳0, for ν≤n. Additional features of this variational formulation facilitate its application to important problems such as the octic, sextic, and quartic anharmonic oscillators.

  6. Variational formulation of macro-particle plasma simulation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B. A. Stamm, A. B.; Evstatiev, E. G.

    2014-05-15

    A variation formulation of macro-particle kinetic plasma models is discussed. In the electrostatic case, the use of symplectic integrators is investigated and found to offer advantages over typical generic methods. For the electromagnetic case, gauge invariance and momentum conservation are considered in detail. It is shown that, while the symmetries responsible for these conservation laws are broken in the presence of a spatial grid, the conservation laws hold in an average sense. The requirements for exact invariance are explored and it is shown that one viable option is to represent the potentials with a truncated Fourier basis.

  7. Immunoglobulin: production, mechanisms of action and formulations

    PubMed Central

    Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago; Dinardo, Carla Luana

    2011-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin (Ig) began to be applied in the clinical practice with the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Quickly, applications of Ig increased, as its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions were elucidated. Currently, Ig is the most commonly used blood product. Ig is obtained by processing plasma; methods, in particular, techniques to reduce plasma viral loads have been evolving over the years and include: pasteurization, solvent/ detergent treatment, caprylic acid treatment and nanofiltration. These methods contribute to increased safety and quality of blood products. The mechanisms of action of Ig not only involve the blockade of Fc receptors of phagocytes, but also control complement pathways, idiotype-anti-idiotype dimer formation, blockage of superantigen binding to T cells, inhibition of dendritic cells and stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). There are several formulations of Ig available, each one with its own peculiar characteristics. In Brazil, there is stringent legislation regulating the quality of Ig. Only Ig products that completely fulfill the quality control criteria are released for use. These standards involve different tests from visual inspection to determination of anti-complementary activity. This paper will further review the history and current status of Ig, including its production and mechanisms of action. The formulations available in Brazil and also the criteria of quality control currently applied will be presented. PMID:23049343

  8. Partial differential equation transform — Variational formulation and Fourier analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform’s controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  9. Variation in captopril formulations in pharmacies across Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Mihir Dipakkumar; Thomas, Jason E; Mondal, Tapas Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used to manage congestive heart failure in the paediatric population, has limited data on efficacy and safety. Its variety of liquid formulations dispensed by different pharmacies poses a challenge in optimizing captopril dosing in patients. Fourteen tertiary paediatric centre pharmacies across Canada were contacted to decipher the type of captopril formulation they dispense, their recipe and the stability of each formulation. Of the 14 centres surveyed, four dispensed solid tablets, two dispensed either solid tablets or liquid formulations, and eight dispensed extemporaneously prepared liquid formulations. There was also great variety in the solutions used to prepare the liquid formulations. The bioequivalence of these preparations has not been studied. As a result, physicians cannot be certain about the effective dose of captopril. Uniformity is recommended among paediatric pharmacies in Canada when preparing medications such as captopril. Proper testing of the stability and bioequivalence of medications is recommended. PMID:22468132

  10. A variational formulation of constrained dislocation dynamics coupled with heat and vacancy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2014-05-01

    We present a formulation of the discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) method based on Onsager's variational principle. The motion of discrete dislocations is treated as a generalized irreversible flux associated with conjugate thermodynamic forces causing internal production of entropy. Intrinsic in the variational principle is the role of physical constraints that limit the choice of generalized fluxes. We leverage the concept of constrained maximization to introduce the requirement that dislocation climb must be sustained by the flux of vacancies into the dislocation core. The constrained variational approach results naturally in the coupling between plastic deformation induced by discrete dislocations, vacancy diffusion, and heat propagation in solid crystals. In particular, this coupling requires that dislocation velocity and chemical potential of vacancies at the dislocation core be found simultaneously. A new numerical formulation of DD that accounts for generalized constraints imposed on dislocations is presented, based on a network discretization of the dislocation configuration. Applications illustrate the significance of constrained motion of dislocations confined in channels and pillars, and the attainment of heterogeneous dislocation structures.

  11. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  12. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  13. A variational formulation for time-dependent climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    A variational principle for time dependent diffusion problems is presented and is demonstrated by applying it to simple seasonal climate models. Two cases are treated. The first, a North-Coakley-type model with constant properties, is used as a tutorial example for the application of the technique. For the second case, heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to be latitude dependent in order to treat the effects of land/ocean distribution on the seasonal temperature distribution over the earth. The variational equations are derived and approximate analytical solutions are developed which delineate the influences of the physical asymmetries of the hemispheres in producing an asymmetric annual cycle.

  14. Variational formulation of covariant eikonal theory for vector waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.N.; Ye, H.; Hui, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The eikonal theory of wave propagation is developed by means of a Lorentz-covariant variational principle, involving functions defined on the natural eight-dimensional phase space of rays. The wave field is a four-vector representing the electromagnetic potential, while the medium is represented by an anisotropic, dispersive nonuniform dielectric tensor D/sup ..mu nu../(k,x). The eikonal expansion yields, to lowest order, the Hamiltonian ray equations, which define the Lagrangian manifold k(x), and the wave-action conservation law, which determines the wave-amplitude transport along the rays. The first-order contribution to the variational principle yields a concise expression for the transport of the polarization phase. The symmetry between k-space and x-space allows for a simple implementation of the Maslov transform, which avoids the difficulties of caustic singularities.

  15. Variational formulation for Black-Scholes equations in stochastic volatility models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulov, Tihomir B.; Valkov, Radoslav L.

    2012-11-01

    In this note we prove existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to a boundary value problem arising from stochastic volatility models in financial mathematics. Our settings are variational in weighted Sobolev spaces. Nevertheless, as it will become apparent our variational formulation agrees well with the stochastic part of the problem.

  16. Variation in nutrients formulated and nutrients supplied on 5 California dairies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, H A; Aly, S S

    2013-01-01

    Computer models used in ration formulation assume that nutrients supplied by a ration formulation are the same as the nutrients presented in front of the cow in the final ration. Deviations in nutrients due to feed management effects such as dry matter changes (i.e., rain), loading, mixing, and delivery errors are assumed to not affect delivery of nutrients to the cow and her resulting milk production. To estimate how feed management affects nutrients supplied to the cow and milk production, and determine if nutrients can serve as indexes of feed management practices, weekly total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for 4 pens (close-up cows, fresh cows, high-milk-producing, and low-milk-producing cows, if available) for 7 to 12 wk on 5 commercial California dairies. Differences among nutrient analyses from these samples and nutrients from the formulated rations were analyzed by PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk fat and milk protein percentages did not vary as much [coefficient of variation (CV) = 18 to 33%] as milk yield (kg; CV = 16 to 47 %) across all dairies and pens. Variability in nutrients delivered were highest for macronutrient fat (CV = 22%), lignin (CV = 15%), and ash (CV = 11%) percentages and micronutrients Fe (mg/kg; CV = 48%), Na (%; CV = 42%), and Zn (mg/kg; CV = 38%) for the milking pens across all dairies. Partitioning of the variability in random effects of nutrients delivered and intraclass correlation coefficients showed that variability in lignin percentage of TMR had the highest correlation with variability in milk yield and milk fat percentage, followed by fat and crude protein percentages. But, variability in ash, fat, and lignin percentages of total mixed ration had the highest correlation with variability in milk protein percentage. Therefore, lignin, fat, and ash may be the best indices of feed management to include effects of variability in nutrients on variability in milk yield, milk fat, and milk

  17. On variational formulation of current drive problem in uniformly magnetized relativistic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. M.; Hu, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified test function for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is investigated in uniformly magnetized plasma. The term of the momentum conserving constraint in Hirshman’s variational calculation is studied. The model developed is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u\\gg 1 when {{Z}\\text{eff}}\\gg 1 , and the results obtained are suited to facilitate the development of a rigorous variational formulation of current drive efficiency in tokamak plasma.

  18. A variational justification of the assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to study the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements from a variational standpoint. The study is based on two hybrid extensions of the Reissner-type functional that uses strains and displacements as independent fields. One of the forms is a genuine variational principle that contains an independent boundary traction field, whereas the other one represents a restricted variational principle. Two procedures for element level elimination of the strain field are discussed, and one of them is shown to be equivalent to the inclusion of incompatible displacement modes. Also, the 4-node C(exp 0) plate bending quadrilateral element is used to illustrate applications of this theory.

  19. Superconducting axisymmetric finite elements based on a gauged potential variational principle. Part 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, James J.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program for the numerical simulation of electromagnetic (EM) fields within conventional Ginzburg-Landau (GL) superconductors. The final goal of this research is to formulate, develop and validate finite element (FE) models that can accurately capture electromagnetic thermal and material phase changes in a superconductor. The formulations presented here are for a time-independent Ginzburg-Landau superconductor and are derived from a potential-based variational principle. We develop an appropriate variational formulation of time-independent supercontivity for the general three-dimensional case and specialize it to the one-dimensional case. Also developed are expressions for the material-dependent parameters alpha and beta of GL theory and their dependence upon the temperature T. The one-dimensional formulation is then discretized for finite element purposes and the first variation of these equations is obtained. The resultant Euler equations contain nonlinear terms in the primary variables. To solve these equations, an incremental-iterative solution method is used. Expressions for the internal force vector, external force vector, loading vector and tangent stiffness matrix are therefore developed for use with the solution procedure.

  20. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  1. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  2. 7 CFR 1217.62 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product... Promotion, Research, and Information § 1217.62 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions, product formulations,...

  3. Hamiltonian magnetohydrodynamics: Helically symmetric formulation, Casimir invariants, and equilibrium variational principles

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2012-05-15

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to construct variational principles for continuously symmetric equilibrium configurations of magnetized plasma, including flow. In particular, helical symmetry is considered, and results on axial and translational symmetries are retrieved as special cases of the helical configurations. The symmetry condition, which allows the description in terms of a magnetic flux function, is exploited to deduce a symmetric form of the noncanonical Poisson bracket of MHD. Casimir invariants are then obtained directly from the Poisson bracket. Equilibria are obtained from an energy-Casimir principle and reduced forms of this variational principle are obtained by the elimination of algebraic constraints.

  4. Variations on Slavnov's scalar product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2012-10-01

    We consider the rational six-vertex model on an L× L lattice with domain wall boundary conditions and restrict N parallel-line rapidities, N ≤ L/2, to satisfy length- L XXX spin-1/2 chain Bethe equations. We show that the partition function is an ( L - 2 N )- parameter extension of Slavnov's scalar product of a Bethe eigenstate and a generic state, with N magnons each, on a length- L XXX spin-1/2 chain. Decoupling the extra parameters, we obtain a third determinant expression for the scalar product, where the first is due to Slavnov [1], and the second is due to Kostov and Matsuo [2]. We show that the new determinant is Casoratian, and consequently that tree-level {N}=4 SYM structure constants that are known to be determinants, remain determinants at 1-loop level.

  5. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks..., copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, or product formulations developed through...

  7. Generic development of topical dermatologic products: formulation development, process development, and testing of topical dermatologic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rong-Kun; Raw, Andre; Lionberger, Robert; Yu, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This review presents considerations which can be employed during the development of a semi-solid topical generic product. This includes a discussion on the implementation of quality by design concepts during development to ensure the generic drug product has similar desired quality attributes to the reference-listed drug (RLD) and ensure batch to batch consistency through commercial production. This encompasses the concept of reverse-engineering to copy the RLD as a strategy during product development to ensure qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) formulation similarity, as well as similarity in formulation microstructure (Q3). The concept of utilizing in vitro skin permeation studies as a tool to justify formulation differences between the test generic product and the RLD to ensure a successful pharmacodynamic or clinical endpoint bioequivalence study is discussed. The review concludes with a discussion on drug product evaluation and quality tests as well as in vivo bioequivalence studies. PMID:23054971

  8. Mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF) for lower hybrid full-wave calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peysson, Y.; Roche, J. R.; Bertrand, P.; Chatenet, J.-H.; Kirsch, C.; Mokrani, A.; Labrunie, S.

    2009-11-01

    In the continuation of the works led in cylindrical geometry [2], a full toroidal description for an arbitrary poloidal cross-section of the plasma has been developed. For simulation purpose a mixed augmented variational formulation (MAVF), which is particularly well suited for solving Maxwell equations, is considered [4]. The discretization of the MAVF is carried out using Taylor-Hood P2-iso-P1 finite elements. This formulation provide a natural implementation for parallel processing, a particularly important aspect when simulations for plasmas of large size must be considered. Details on the specific application of the MAVF to the LH problem are presented, as well as the structure of the corresponding matrices. A first application to a realistic small tokamak configuration is considered.

  9. Variational method for nonconservative field theories: Formulation and two PT-symmetric case examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent publication [5 Galley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 174301 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.174301], Galley proposed an initial value problem formulation of Hamilton's principle that enables consideration of dissipative systems. Here we explore this formulation at the level of field theories with infinite degrees of freedom. In particular, we illustrate that it affords a previously unwarranted and appealing as well as broadly relevant possibility, namely, to generalize the popular collective coordinate or variational method to open systems, i.e., nonconservative ones. To showcase the relevance or validity of the method we explore two case examples from the timely area of PT-symmetric variants of field theories, in this case for a sine-Gordon and for a ϕ4 model.

  10. Alternative formulations of isotropic hardening for Mises materials, and associated variational inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtin, Morton E.; Reddy, B. Daya

    2009-07-01

    This work provides insight into aspects of classical Mises-Hill plasticity, its extension to the Aifantis theory of gradient plasticity, and the formulations of both theories as variational inequalities. Firstly, it is shown that the classical isotropic hardening rule, which is dissipative in nature, may equally well be characterized via a defect energy—and, what is striking, this energetically based hardening rule mimics dissipative behavior by describing loading processes that are irreversible. A second aspect concerns the equivalence between the conventional form of the flow rule and its formulation in terms of dissipation. This equivalence has been previously established using the tools of convex analysis (cf., e.g., Han and Reddy, Plasticity: mathematical theory and numerical analysis, Springer, New York, 1999)—in the current work this equivalence is derived directly from the constitutive equations and the specific form of the dissipation, without recourse to such machinery. Variational inequalities corresponding to the dissipative and energetic forms of the flow rule are derived; these inequalities involve only the displacement and plastic strain and are well suited to computational studies. Finally, it is shown that the framework developed for the classical theory is easily extended to incorporate the gradient-plasticity theory of Aifantis (Trans ASME J Eng Mater Technol 106:326-330, 1984).

  11. Production, acceptability and microbiological evaluation of weaning food formulations.

    PubMed

    Badau, M H; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2006-06-01

    Weaning food formulations were produced from pearl millet cultivar (SOSAT C-88), cowpea and groundnut in the ratio of 70:20:10 and 5 per cent malt from six pearl millet cultivars (SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV IS 94206, GWAGWA, GB 8735) and one sorghum cultivar (ICSV III) were added to produce seven formulations plus the one without malt. Microbiological quality of eight weaning food formulations was evaluated. Twenty weaning mothers were used to determine the acceptability of gruels from the eight weaning food formulations using a nine-point hedonic scale. Addition of 5 per cent malt did not affect the microbial count of weaning food formulations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Klebsiella aerogenes and Aspergillus niger were found in all the weaning food formulations. Shigella and Salmonella were not encountered in this study. Addition of 5 per cent SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV-IS 94206 and GWAGWA malt improved the taste and texture of weaning food formulations. The population of micro-organisms isolated from weaning formulations was not high enough to produce effective dose. However, the need for processors of weaning foods to adopt strict hygiene practices cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16169859

  12. 7 CFR 1212.62 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1212.62 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product... invention, any patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications developed through...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research... development of such patent, copyright, trademark, invention, publication, or product formulation in a...

  14. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  15. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1280.231 Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications developed through the use of...

  19. Proactive management of fermentation and formulation interactions to improve biocontrol product performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key components of biocontrol product development; discovery, fermentation, and formulation, are interactively linked to each other and ultimately, to product performance. The fermentation environment can be managed to maximize the quantity and quality of biomass and bioproducts produced which, ...

  20. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  2. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1215.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or product...

  4. Large eddy simulation models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics derived from the variational multiscale formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sondak, David; Oberai, Assad A.

    2012-10-15

    Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.

  5. Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. I. Variational formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, Fulvio; Chen, Liu

    2014-07-15

    A unified theoretical framework is presented for analyzing various branches of drift Alfvén waves and describing their linear and nonlinear behaviors, covering a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Nonlinear gyrokinetic quasineutrality condition and vorticity equation, derived for drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles in fusion plasmas, are cast in integral form, which is generally variational in the linear limit; and the corresponding gyrokinetic energy principle is obtained. Well known forms of the kinetic energy principle are readily recovered from this general formulation. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate that the general fishbone like dispersion relation, obtained within the present theoretical framework, provides a unified description of drift Alfvén waves excited by energetic particles as either Alfvén eigenmodes or energetic particle modes. The advantage of the present approach stands in its capability of extracting underlying linear and nonlinear physics as well as spatial and temporal scales of the considered fluctuation spectrum. For these reasons, this unified theoretical framework can help understanding experimental observations as well as numerical simulation and analytic results with different levels of approximation. Examples and applications are given in Paper II [F. Zonca and L. Chen, “Theory on excitations of drift Alfvén waves by energetic particles. II. The general fishbone-like dispersion relation,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 072121 (2014)].

  6. Regularized formulation of the variational brittle fracture with unilateral contact: Numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Hanen; Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurini, Corrado

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a modified regularized formulation of the Ambrosio-Tortorelli type to introduce the crack non-interpenetration condition in the variational approach to fracture mechanics proposed by Francfort and Marigo [1998. Revisiting brittle fracture as an energy minimization problem. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 46 (8), 1319-1342]. We focus on the linear elastic case where the contact condition appears as a local unilateral constraint on the displacement jump at the crack surfaces. The regularized model is obtained by splitting the strain energy in a spherical and a deviatoric parts and accounting for the sign of the local volume change. The numerical implementation is based on a standard finite element discretization and on the adaptation of an alternate minimization algorithm used in previous works. The new regularization avoids crack interpenetration and predicts asymmetric results in traction and in compression. Even though we do not exhibit any gamma-convergence proof toward the desired limit behavior, we illustrate through several numerical case studies the pertinence of the new model in comparison to other approaches.

  7. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Nikdoust, Shima; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid). Results: Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially. Conclusion: These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. PMID:27516979

  8. Variational formulation and stability analysis of a three dimensional superelastic model for shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.

  9. Studies on application of annatto (Bixa orellena L.) dye formulations in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Sathiya Mala, Kripanand; Prabhakara Rao, Pamidighantam; Prabhavathy, Manda Babu; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2015-02-01

    Annatto is often used to add color to dairy products such as butter, cheese, or puddings. In India usage of annatto is restricted to butter and cheese, however there are no tailor made formulations available to obtain standardized colour shades for the products. Hence a study was initiated to develop the appropriate annatto dye formulations and level of application in few dairy products (butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream). Dye extracted from annatto seeds was used for the preparation of water soluble potassium carbonate formulation (nor-bixin, 11.24 %), oil soluble formulation (1.35 % bixin) and an oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation (PG formulation, 1.31 % bixin). Lovibond tintometer colour units of the commercial butter, cheese and biscuit cream samples were measured for standardizing the colour concentration in the experimental products. The present study evaluates the application and stability of these formulations in butter, cheese, paneer, biscuit cream, icing cream. The products were evaluated for stability of colour and bixin during storage period. The oil/water soluble propylene glycol formulation was found to be tailor-made for all the dairy products studied though the standardized levels varied between 3.75 and 5.0 mg/kg for butter, 3.75 mg/kg for cheese, 5.0-400 mg/kg for biscuit cream, 12.25 and 25 mg/kg for paneer, 5.0-500 mg/kg for icing cream. Increasing concentration in the range of 30-500 mg/kg yielded products with light cream to orange shades, useful for decorating cakes. The average recovery of bixin from the products immediately after processing was 90-98 %. Significant changes (P ≤ 0.05) were noticed in the colour units and recovery of bixin in all the products during storage of 6 months. PMID:25694700

  10. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. PMID:26319638

  11. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  12. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  14. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  15. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks... General Provisions Miscellaneous § 63.501 Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks,...

  16. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and..., Research, and Consumer Information Order Miscellaneous § 1209.75 Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, or...

  18. A variational justification of the assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements. I - Variational principles. II - The C(0) four-node plate element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1990-01-01

    The assumed natural strain formulation of finite elements is interpreted from a variational standpoint. The approach is based on hybrid extensions of the Reissner-type functional which uses the strains and displacements as independent fields. Consideration is restricted to linear elasticity. The four-node C(0) plate-bending quadrilateral is used as a specific example to illustrate the application of the present interpretation. A key finding is that any change in the strain-displacement interpolation from the variationally consistent interpolation must be associated in some way to the addition of incompatible displacement modes.

  19. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performingmore » microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.« less

  20. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.

    PubMed

    Fox, L; Anthony, G D; Lau, E P

    1976-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure is described for the analysis of the chemical sweetener L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). Using a strong cation exchange column and pressures less than 1000 psig, an analysis can be performed in less than 15 min. The technique has been applied to a wide range of food products and formulations. No interferences were found in the samples studied. Recoveries are quantitative, and the coefficients of variation for replicate analyses are less than or equal to 2.5%. PMID:965327

  2. Zinc oxide as a new antimicrobial preservative of topical products: interactions with common formulation ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) appears as a promising preservative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. The other ingredients of the formulations may have specific interactions with ZnO that alter its antimicrobial properties. The influence of common formulation excipients on the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO has been investigated in simple model systems and in typical topical products containing a complex formulation. A wide variety of formulation excipients have been investigated for their interactions with ZnO: antioxidants, chelating agents, electrolytes, titanium dioxide pigment. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO against Escherichia coli was partially inhibited by NaCl and MgSO4 salts. A synergistic influence of uncoated titanium dioxide has been observed. The interference effects of antioxidants and chelating agents were quite specific. The interactions of these substances with ZnO particles and with the soluble species released by ZnO were discussed so as to reach scientific guidelines for the choice of the ingredients. The preservative efficacy of ZnO was assessed by challenge testing in three different formulations: an oil-in-water emulsion; a water-in-oil emulsion and a dry powder. The addition of ZnO in complex formulations significantly improved the microbiological quality of the products, in spite of the presence of other ingredients that modulate the antimicrobial activity. PMID:25527211

  3. Variational finite element-tensor formulation for the large deflection random vibration of composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Jay H.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical integration routine is derived from a set of unified single step integration algorithms using a weighted satisfaction of the equilibrium equation governing the large deflection random response of laminated composite plates. The equilibrium equation is derived using a constant matrix large deflection finite-element formulation. In-plane inertia terms are considered in the formulation, however, rotary inertia terms are assumed negligible. Probability density, spectral density and autocorrelation functions of the maximum displacement and strain responses are presented for three acoustic excitation levels. Classical thin plate boundary conditions and pseudo white noise excitation are used in this investigation.

  4. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. PMID:24859305

  5. Formulation and Storage of Platelet-Rich Plasma Homemade Product

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Laurent; Veran, Julie; Magalon, Jeremy; Coudreuse, Jean-Marie; Magalon, Guy; Dubois, Christophe; Serratrice, Nicolas; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy based on platelet-healing properties. Here, we developed a simple and reproducible PRP purification protocol based on two successive centrifugations. We evaluated different centrifugation speeds and time-storage durations on the platelet quantity and quality. Sterility and stability of our PRP homemade product were also performed. We prepared PRP from 54 healthy volunteers. We tested activation state, reactivity, and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using basal and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced P-selectin expression markers; growth factor release after platelet activation by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); platelet aggregation capacity by aggregrometry assays; clot formation and retraction by thromboelastography; and platelet morphology by ultrastructural analysis. About 130 and 250 g successive speed centrifugations further concentrated platelets while preserving their bioactivity during 6 h (after that, platelet functions were significantly altered). In these conditions, we obtained a highly concentrated pure PRP product (with a low leukocyte count) suitable to study platelet properties. To avoid the loss of efficacy, we recommend injecting PRP under 3 h after preparation. PMID:23516671

  6. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  7. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  8. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUSED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  9. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  10. Challenging the requirement for chronic fish toxicity studies on formulated plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Creton, Stuart; Douglas, Mark; Wheeler, James R; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2010-11-30

    Ecotoxicity testing of pesticide active ingredients and formulated plant protection products (PPPs) prior to their commercial use is required by authorities around the world. Such studies are important for the conduct of risk assessments to protect wildlife and the environment, but they should only be conducted when their use is scientifically justified. One test of questionable scientific merit is the chronic fish toxicity test when conducted with formulated PPPs, which is a potential requirement under European legislation: chronic exposure to the formulated product per se rarely occurs in the environment and therefore it is generally not possible to use the data from chronic formulation studies in a meaningful risk assessment. A recent survey of European crop protection companies to explore the scientific merits and regulatory drivers for chronic fish toxicity studies has shown that current practice in deciding on the need for chronic fish toxicity testing of formulated PPPs varies substantially between companies. The most commonly cited reason for conducting such studies was solely to meet regulatory requirements. We conclude that chronic formulation testing is rarely if ever scientifically justified, and recommend that the forthcoming revision of the EU Aquatic Toxicology Guidance Document takes account of this by including a requirement that justification must be provided for conducting the test, rather than the current situation where the onus is on the registrant to provide a justification for not conducting the test. PMID:20832457

  11. Variational formulation of hybrid problems for fully 3-D transonic flow with shocks in rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Gao-Lian

    1991-01-01

    Based on previous research, the unified variable domain variational theory of hybrid problems for rotor flow is extended to fully 3-D transonic rotor flow with shocks, unifying and generalizing the direct and inverse problems. Three variational principles (VP) families were established. All unknown boundaries and flow discontinuities (such as shocks, free trailing vortex sheets) are successfully handled via functional variations with variable domain, converting almost all boundary and interface conditions, including the Rankine Hugoniot shock relations, into natural ones. This theory provides a series of novel ways for blade design or modification and a rigorous theoretical basis for finite element applications and also constitutes an important part of the optimal design theory of rotor bladings. Numerical solutions to subsonic flow by finite elements with self-adapting nodes given in Refs., show good agreement with experimental results.

  12. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits. PMID:26617410

  13. 7 CFR 1218.56 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. 1218.56 Section 1218.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 7 CFR 63.501 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. 63.501 Section 63.501 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 7 CFR 1215.75 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, publications, and product formulations. 1215.75 Section 1215.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN...

  16. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  17. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  18. 7 CFR 1219.57 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and..., and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.57 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, publications, and product formulations. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions,...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.123 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations. 1221.123 Section 1221.123 Agriculture Regulations of the... Promotion, Research, and Information Order Promotion, Research, and Information § 1221.123...

  20. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  1. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational data assimilation systems . Part I - System overview and formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.; Broquet, Gregoire; Powell, Brian S.; Weaver, Anthony T.; Zavala-Garay, Javier

    2011-10-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is one of the few community ocean general circulation models for which a 4-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) capability has been developed. The ROMS 4D-Var capability is unique in that three variants of 4D-Var are supported: a primal formulation of incremental strong constraint 4D-Var (I4D-Var), a dual formulation based on a physical-space statistical analysis system (4D-PSAS), and a dual formulation representer-based variant of 4D-Var (R4D-Var). In each case, ROMS is used in conjunction with available observations to identify a best estimate of the ocean circulation based on a set of a priori hypotheses about errors in the initial conditions, boundary conditions, surface forcing, and errors in the model in the case of 4D-PSAS and R4D-Var. In the primal formulation of I4D-Var the search for the best circulation estimate is performed in the full space of the model control vector, while for the dual formulations of 4D-PSAS and R4D-Var only the sub-space of linear functions of the model state vector spanned by the observations (i.e. the dual space) is searched. In oceanographic applications, the number of observations is typically much less than the dimension of the model control vector, so there are clear advantages to limiting the search to the space spanned by the observations. In the case of 4D-PSAS and R4D-Var, the strong constraint assumption (i.e. that the model is error free) can be relaxed leading to the so-called weak constraint formulation. This paper describes the three aforementioned variants of 4D-Var as they are implemented in ROMS. Critical components that are common to each approach are conjugate gradient descent, preconditioning, and error covariance models, which are also described. Finally, several powerful 4D-Var diagnostic tools are discussed, namely computation of posterior errors, eigenvector analysis of the posterior error covariance, observation impact, and observation sensitivity.

  2. Sensitivity of secondary production and export flux to choice of trophic transfer formulation in marine ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Hessen, Dag O.; Mitra, Aditee; Mayor, Daniel J.; Yool, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The performance of four contemporary formulations describing trophic transfer, which have strongly contrasting assumptions as regards the way that consumer growth is calculated as a function of food C:N ratio and in the fate of non-limiting substrates, was compared in two settings: a simple steady-state ecosystem model and a 3D biogeochemical general circulation model. Considerable variation was seen in predictions for primary production, transfer to higher trophic levels and export to the ocean interior. The physiological basis of the various assumptions underpinning the chosen formulations is open to question. Assumptions include Liebig-style limitation of growth, strict homeostasis in zooplankton biomass, and whether excess C and N are released by voiding in faecal pellets or via respiration/excretion post-absorption by the gut. Deciding upon the most appropriate means of formulating trophic transfer is not straightforward because, despite advances in ecological stoichiometry, the physiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain incompletely understood. Nevertheless, worrying inconsistencies are evident in the way in which fundamental transfer processes are justified and parameterised in the current generation of marine ecosystem models, manifested in the resulting simulations of ocean biogeochemistry. Our work highlights the need for modellers to revisit and appraise the equations and parameter values used to describe trophic transfer in marine ecosystem models.

  3. Variational Formulation of Particle Algorithms for Kinetic E&M Plasma Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Alexander; Shadwick, Bradley; Evstatiev, Evstati

    2013-10-01

    A rigorous variational method was used to derive a self-consistent set of equations of motion from a discretized Lagrangian to study kinetic plasmas. Discretization of the Lagrangian was performed by reduction of the phase-space distribution function to a collection of finite-sized macro-particles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. The equations of motion were then obtained by demanding the action be stationary. This approach may be used in both lab frame and moving window coordinates, which improve computational efficiency when modeling laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads to energy conservation and avoids difficulties with grid heating. Additionally, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to a decrease in numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent ordering and is amiable to higher order methods in both space and time. Simulations conducted with the new equations of motion demonstrate the desired energy conservation and a decrease in numerical noise. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Education grant P200A090156 and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-08ER55000.

  4. Current perspectives on stability of protein drug products during formulation, fill and finish operations.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Nitin; Rajan, Rahul S

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of protein-based therapeutics is a challenging task in part due to the difficulties in maintaining protein solutions safe and efficacious throughout the drug product development process, storage, transportation and patient administration. Bulk drug substance goes through a series of formulation, fill and finish operations to provide the final dosage form in the desired formulation and container or delivery device. Different process parameters during each of these operations can affect the purity, activity and efficacy of the final product. Common protein degradation pathways and the various physical and chemical factors that can induce such reactions have been extensively studied for years. This review presents an overview of the various formulation-fill-finish operations with a focus on processing steps and conditions that can impact product quality. Various manufacturing operations including bulk freeze-thaw, formulation, filtration, filling, lyophilization, inspection, labeling, packaging, storage, transport and delivery have been reviewed. The article highlights our present day understanding of protein instability issues during biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides guidance on process considerations that can help alleviate these concerns. PMID:18484778

  5. A Variational Formulation for the Finite Element Analysis of Sound Wave Propagation in a Spherical Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebiedzik, Catherine

    1995-01-01

    Development of design tools to furnish optimal acoustic environments for lightweight aircraft demands the ability to simulate the acoustic system on a workstation. In order to form an effective mathematical model of the phenomena at hand, we have begun by studying the propagation of acoustic waves inside closed spherical shells. Using a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction model based upon variational principles, we have written a finite element analysis program and are in the process of examining several test cases. Future investigations are planned to increase model accuracy by incorporating non-linear and viscous effects.

  6. Final Report on the “ New Directions in the Variational Multiscale Formulation of Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence”

    SciTech Connect

    Assad A. Oberai

    2007-07-13

    The work performed as part of this grant may be described in the context of developing numerical methods for solving an abstract, nonlinear variational problem for which the straightforward Galerkin approximation on a space of reasonable dimension is inaccurate. Target applications include flows with turbulence and systems with shocks. With this in mind, an alternate finite dimensional problem is proposed in which a model term (with unknown parameters) is added to the Galerkin approximation to improve its performance. We have developed new formulations for this model term especially for turbulent flows and for systems with shocks. We have also developed a dynamic approach for evaluating the parameters that appear in this model term. We have conducted several numerical studies to confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  7. Multi-variate joint PDF for non-Gaussianities: exact formulation and generic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan F.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2013-06-01

    We provide an exact expression for the multi-variate joint probability distribution function of non-Gaussian fields primordially arising from local transformations of a Gaussian field. This kind of non-Gaussianity is generated in many models of inflation. We apply our expression to the non-Gaussianity estimation from Cosmic Microwave Background maps and the halo mass function where we obtain analytical expressions. We also provide analytic approximations and their range of validity. For the Cosmic Microwave Background we give a fast way to compute the PDF which is valid up to more than 7σ for fNL values (both true and sampled) not ruled out by current observations, which consists of expressing the PDF as a combination of bispectrum and trispectrum of the temperature maps. The resulting expression is valid for any kind of non-Gaussianity and is not limited to the local type. The above results may serve as the basis for a fully Bayesian analysis of the non-Gaussianity parameter.

  8. Multi-variate joint PDF for non-Gaussianities: exact formulation and generic approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan F.; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu E-mail: a.heavens@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    We provide an exact expression for the multi-variate joint probability distribution function of non-Gaussian fields primordially arising from local transformations of a Gaussian field. This kind of non-Gaussianity is generated in many models of inflation. We apply our expression to the non-Gaussianity estimation from Cosmic Microwave Background maps and the halo mass function where we obtain analytical expressions. We also provide analytic approximations and their range of validity. For the Cosmic Microwave Background we give a fast way to compute the PDF which is valid up to more than 7σ for f{sub NL} values (both true and sampled) not ruled out by current observations, which consists of expressing the PDF as a combination of bispectrum and trispectrum of the temperature maps. The resulting expression is valid for any kind of non-Gaussianity and is not limited to the local type. The above results may serve as the basis for a fully Bayesian analysis of the non-Gaussianity parameter.

  9. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. PMID:26231106

  10. Sources of variation in developmental language disorders: evidence from eye-tracking studies of sentence production

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2014-01-01

    Skilled sentence production involves distinct stages of message conceptualization (deciding what to talk about) and message formulation (deciding how to talk about it). Eye-movement paradigms provide a mechanism for observing how speakers accomplish these aspects of production in real time. These methods have recently been applied to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (LI) in an effort to reveal qualitative differences between groups in sentence production processes. Findings support a multiple-deficit account in which language production is influenced not only by lexical and syntactic constraints, but also by variation in attention control, inhibition and social competence. Thus, children with ASD are especially vulnerable to atypical patterns of visual inspection and verbal utterance. The potential to influence attentional focus and prime appropriate language structures are considered as a mechanism for facilitating language adaptation and learning. PMID:24324237

  11. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-01-01

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth. PMID:25535716

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of the fat source and composition of formulated dry-cured meat products.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Edith Corona; García-Pérez, Jose Vicente; Canillas, Sonia Ventanas; Fort, Jose Javier Benedito

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the feasibility of using ultrasonic measurements to estimate the fat content and identify the fat sources used in formulated dry-cured pork meat products. For that purpose, dry-cured sausages were prepared using different fat sources (two Iberian pork backfats, Iberian lard, and sunflower oil) and contents (fat content from 3% to 17% wet basis) and characterized by measuring the ultrasonic velocity (at 2 degrees C, 6 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C), fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and composition. The fatty acid composition affected the melting behavior of the sausages, which also involved different ultrasonic velocities, depending on the fat source used for the sausage formulation. Significant (p < 0.05) linear relationships were established between the ultrasonic velocity and the percentage of melted fat, by means of which the sausage batches were differentiated according to the fat source used. The ultrasonic velocity temperature dependence allowed the determination of the fat content (explained variance 96.1%) by measuring the ultrasonic velocity in the dry-cured sausages at 2 degrees C and 25 degrees C and using a semi-empirical equation. Therefore, the ultrasonic measurements could be considered as a reliable tool for the characterization and differentiation of formulated dry-cured meat products with different fat sources and contents. PMID:23751543

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    PubMed

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  14. Optimization of a fermented soy product formulation with a kefir culture and fiber using a simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Baú, Tahis Regina; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a fermented soy product formulation with kefir and soy, oat and wheat fibers and to evaluate the fiber and product characteristics. A simplex-centroid mixture design was used for the optimization. Soymilk, soy, oat and wheat fiber mixtures, sucrose and anti-foaming agent were used for the formulation, followed by thermal treatment, cooling and the addition of flavoring. Fermentation was performed at 25 °C with a kefir culture until a pH of 4.5 was obtained. The products were cooled, homogenized and stored for analysis. From the mathematical models and variables response surface and desirability an optimal fermented product was formulated containing 3% (w/w) soy fiber. Compared with the other formulations, soy fermented product with 3% soy fiber had the best acidity, viscosity, syneresis, firmness and Lactococcus lactis count. PMID:23876105

  15. A variational formulation for vibro-acoustic analysis of a panel backed by an irregularly-bounded cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Hui; Qu, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    A weak form variational based method is developed to study the vibro-acoustic responses of coupled structural-acoustic system consisting of an irregular acoustic cavity with general wall impedance and a flexible panel subjected to arbitrary edge-supporting conditions. The structural and acoustical models of the coupled system are formulated on the basis of a modified variational method combined with multi-segment partitioning strategy. Meanwhile, the continuity constraints on the sub-segment interfaces are further incorporated into the system stiffness matrix by means of least-squares weighted residual method. Orthogonal polynomials, such as Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind, are employed as the wholly admissible unknown displacement and sound pressure field variables functions for separate components without meshing, and hence mapping the irregular physical domain into a square spectral domain is necessary. The effects of weighted parameter together with the number of truncated polynomial terms and divided partitions on the accuracy of present theoretical solutions are investigated. It is observed that applying this methodology, accurate and efficient predictions can be obtained for various types of coupled panel-cavity problems; and in weak or strong coupling cases for a panel surrounded by a light or heavy fluid, the inherent principle of velocity continuity on the panel-cavity contacting interface can all be handled satisfactorily. Key parametric studies concerning the influences of the geometrical properties as well as impedance boundary are performed. Finally, by performing the vibro-acoustic analyses of 3D car-like coupled miniature, we demonstrate that the present method seems to be an excellent way to obtain accurate mid-frequency solution with an acceptable CPU time.

  16. Relative toxicities of formulated glycol aircraft deicers and pure glycol products to duckweed (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene and propylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to both remove snow and ice from aircraft, and to retard the accumulation of those materials. Snow and ice often pile up at airports during the winter and are then flushed into the storm sewer system during warmer temperatures or rainfall. Some of this water containing deicers may enter waterbodies without prior treatment, While previous studies have investigated the effects of deicers on aquatic animals and algae, data are not available on the effects on aquatic macrophytes, Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulated mixtures used on aircraft; pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Duckweed (Lemna minor) fronds were exposed to various concentrations of pure and formulated glycol mixtures. The number of fronds at test termination and chlorophyll concentration (measured using a spectrophotometer) were the measured endpoints. Based upon glycol concentration, the formulated products were more toxic than the pure material. These results are consistent with results seen in other animal and plant studies.

  17. A full variational calculation based on a tensor product decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senese, Frederick A.; Beattie, Christopher A.; Schug, John C.; Viers, Jimmy W.; Watson, Layne T.

    1989-08-01

    A new direct full variational approach exploits a tensor (Kronecker) product decomposition of the Hamiltonian. Explicit assembly and storage of the Hamiltonian matrix is avoided by using the Kronecker product structure to form matrix-vector products directly from the molecular integrals. Computation-intensive integral transformations and formula tapes are unnecessary. The wavefunction is expanded in terms of spin-free primitive kets rather than Slater determinants or configuration state functions, and the expansion is equivalent to a full configuration interaction expansion. The approach suggests compact storage schemes and algorithms which are naturally suited to parallel and pipelined machines.

  18. A Tensor Product Formulation of Strassen's Matrix Multiplication Algorithm with Memory Reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kumar, B.; Huang, C. -H.; Sadayappan, P.; Johnson, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we present a program generation strategy of Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm using a programming methodology based on tensor product formulas. In this methodology, block recursive programs such as the fast Fourier Transforms and Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm are expressed as algebraic formulas involving tensor products and other matrix operations. Such formulas can be systematically translated to high-performance parallel/vector codes for various architectures. In this article, we present a nonrecursive implementation of Strassen's algorithm for shared memory vector processors such as the Cray Y-MP. A previous implementation of Strassen's algorithm synthesized from tensor product formulas required workingmore » storage of size O(7 n ) for multiplying 2 n × 2 n matrices. We present a modified formulation in which the working storage requirement is reduced to O(4 n ). The modified formulation exhibits sufficient parallelism for efficient implementation on a shared memory multiprocessor. Performance results on a Cray Y-MP8/64 are presented.« less

  19. Validation of radiolabeling of drug formulations for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Sunalene G; Chan, Hak-Kim; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Newman, Stephen; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Radiolabeling of inhaler formulations for imaging studies is an indirect method of determining lung deposition and regional distribution of drug in human subjects. Hence, ensuring that the radiotracer and drug exhibit similar aerodynamic characteristics when aerosolized, and that addition of the radiotracer has not significantly altered the characteristics of the formulation, are critical steps in the development of a radiolabeling method. The validation phase should occur during development of the radiolabeling method, prior to commencement of in vivo studies. The validation process involves characterization of the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug in the reference formulation, and of both drug and radiotracer in the radiolabeled formulation, using multistage cascade impaction. We propose the adoption of acceptance criteria similar to those recommended by the EMA and ISAM/IPAC-RS for determination of therapeutic equivalence of orally inhaled products: (a) if only total lung deposition is being quantified, the fine particle fraction ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to that of the reference drug should fall between 0.85 and 1.18, and (b) if regional lung deposition (e.g., outer and inner lung regions) is to be quantified, the ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to reference drug on each impactor stage or group of stages should fall between 0.85 and 1.18. If impactor stages are grouped together, at least four separate groups should be provided. In addition, while conducting in vivo studies, measurement of the APSD of the inhaler used on each study day is recommended to check its suitability for use in man. PMID:23215848

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea K; Benson, Jenna M; Muanza, Dave N; Smith, Jerry R; Shepherd, David M

    2011-03-01

    The popularity and availability of herbal extracts has increased dramatically over the last decade, providing an inexpensive manner of self-medication. Although the efficacy of individual extracts is currently being studied intensively, research regarding complex mixtures is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of three complex formulations, including BRC-301, a polyherbal extract; BRC-304, a mixture of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant enzymes, botanical extracts, and carotenoids; and BRC-306, a proprietary blend of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) and Phytolens(®) on murine dendritic cells (DCs). We hypothesized that these formulations would decrease the inflammatory responsiveness and innate function of DCs. In order to address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of BRC-301, BRC-304, and BRC-306 on DC2.4 cells and assessed the effects of BRC-301 on bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of DC2.4 cells and bmDCs induced production of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6, a response that was modulated by concomitant treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of BRC-301. In contrast, only the production of NOor IL-6 by LPS-activated DC2.4 cells was affected by BRC-304 or BRC-306, respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation following concurrent BRC-301 and LPS treatment revealed an increased relative expression of CD11c, CD86, and CD54 on bmDCs and an increased frequency of bmDCs expressing MHC II. Finally, BRC-301 enhanced the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ovalbumin by bmDCs. Taken together, these results suggest that these commercially available formulations modulate the innate responsiveness of murine DCs and may enhance their ability to initiate T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21399725

  1. Can low-dose combination products for inhalation be formulated in single crystalline particles?

    PubMed

    Kumon, Michiko; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Adi, Handoko; Heng, Desmond; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-04-16

    This study aims to produce and test the performance of novel crystalline respirable particles containing two low-dose active ingredients and mannitol. This technique overcomes the usual requirement of blending with lactose carriers in formulating combination inhalation products. Ternary powders were produced by co-spray drying solutions containing an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA), and mannitol as a crystalline excipient. Two formulations comprising widely used ICS and LABA were studied: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate/mannitol (B/F/M-SD) and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate/mannitol (F/S/M-SD). Various physicochemical properties of the powders were analyzed. Aerosol performance was evaluated by dispersing each powder from an Aerolizer at 60 and 100 L/min into a Next Generation Impactor. We obtained partially hollow spherical particles (volume median diameters of 2 microm) with drug-enriched surfaces. Both formulations contained alpha-mannitol, and the ICSs were crystalline. The content of each drug component in the powder was found to conform to the theoretical dose. The ternary powders generated high fine particle fractions (>50% of the loaded dose), with concomitant drug deposition on the impactor stages. The aerosol performance of B/F/M-SD was maintained after storage over silica gel at 22 degrees C for 11 weeks. In conclusion, co-spray dried particles of ICS/LABA/M-SD were largely crystalline, stable and showed excellent aerosol performance. They may provide an attractive alternative strategy to develop combination products without lactose blends. PMID:20172026

  2. An Improved Formulation of Hybrid Model Predictive Control With Application to Production-Inventory Systems.

    PubMed

    Nandola, Naresh N; Rivera, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    We consider an improved model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems described by mixed logical dynamical (MLD) models. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom parametrization that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on objective function weights (such as move suppression) traditionally used in MPC schemes. The controller formulation is motivated by the needs of non-traditional control applications that are suitably described by hybrid production-inventory systems. Two applications are considered in this paper: adaptive, time-varying interventions in behavioral health, and inventory management in supply chains under conditions of limited capacity. In the adaptive intervention application, a hypothetical intervention inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children, is examined. In the inventory management application, the ability of the algorithm to judiciously alter production capacity under conditions of varying demand is presented. These case studies demonstrate that MPC for hybrid systems can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions involving noise and uncertainty. PMID:24348004

  3. Microvesicle formulations used in topical drugs and cosmetics affect product efficiency, performance and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to improve the formulations of topical products are continuing processes (ie, to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects, and protect ingredients from degradation). The development of micro- and nanovesicular systems has led to the marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics that use these technologies. Several articles have reported improved clinical efficacy by the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals in vesicular systems, and the numbers of publications and patents are rising. Some vesicular systems may deliver the drug deeper in the skin as compared to conventional vehicles, or even make transdermal delivery more efficient for a number of drugs. Vesicular systems may also allow a more precise drug delivery to the site of action (ie, the hair follicles) and thereby minimize the applied drug concentration, reducing potential side effects. On the other hand, this may increase the risk of other side effects. Few case reports have suggested that microvesicle formulations may affect the allergenicity of topical products. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge about the topical use of microvesicular systems and the dermatoallergologic aspects. PMID:20920408

  4. Formulation of Gammaoryzanol-Loaded Nanoparticles for Potential Application in Fortifying Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Serveh; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Mohammadhassani, Zahra; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The field of nanoparticle delivery systems for nutrients and nutraceuticals with poor water solubility has attracted a great attention during the last decades. Methods: Ethyl cellulose (EC) based GO-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The effects of formulation parameters on nanoparticle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the crystalline behavior of GO and EC after the preparation of nanoparticles. Stability of the prepared nanoparticle was investigated during five weeks of storage. Results: Particle sizes of all formulation were in the range of 70-100 nm with narrow size distribution. Increase in the time of sonication from 1 to 5 minutes decreased the particle size. However, the mean particle size was increased when the sonication time increased from 5 to 7 minutes. The results showed that in the same concentration of PVA, increasing the ratio of EC:GO led to an increase in the GO encapsulation efficiency and decrease in loading efficiency. During five weeks, the mean diameter and size distribution indexes (SPAN values) of nanoparticles did not show significant changes. DSC and XRD studies indicated that crystallinity of GO was decreased in nanoparticles. Conclusion: EC based nanoparticles are promising carriers for addition of GO as a water insoluble antioxidant to fortify liquid food products without any change in quality of products. PMID:25671188

  5. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  6. Variations in Physicochemical Properties of a Traditional Mercury-Based Nanopowder Formulation: Need for Standard Manufacturing Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, S. U.; Pemiah, B.; Rajan, K. S.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Sethuraman, S.; Krishnan, U. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rasasindura is a mercury-based nanopowder synthesized using natural products through mechanothermal processing. It has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial for various therapeutic purposes such as rejuvenation, treatment of syphilis and in genital disorders. Rasasindura is said to be composed of mercury, sulphur and organic moieties derived from the decoction of plant extracts used during its synthesis. There is little scientific understanding of the preparation process so far. Though metallic mercury is incorporated deliberately for therapeutic purposes, it certainly raises toxicity concerns. The lack of gold standards in manufacturing of such drugs leads to a variation in the chemical composition of the final product. The objective of the present study was to assess the physicochemical properties of Rasasindura samples of different batches purchased from different manufacturers and assess the extent of deviation and gauge its impact on human health. Modern characterization techniques were employed to analyze particle size and morphology, surface area, zeta potential, elemental composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and degradation. Average particle size of the samples observed through scanning electron microscope ranged from 5-100 nm. Mercury content was found to be between 84 and 89% from elemental analysis. Despite batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer variations in the physicochemical properties, all the samples contained mercury in the form of HgS. These differences in the physicochemical properties may ultimately impact its biological outcome. PMID:25593382

  7. Oral tacrolimus oil formulations for enhanced lymphatic delivery and efficient inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Kiyo; Yoshioka, Tatsunobu; Tsutsui, Yuuki; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Oral oil formulations have been reported to deliver drugs into the lymph. Lymphatic delivery of immunomodulatory drugs can more efficiently expose the drugs to T-cells in lymph, consequently induce higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this study, effects of tacrolimus oral oil formulations on drug blood exposure, and on inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were investigated in rats. Oil formulations (sunflower oil, cacao butter, medium chain triglyceride, and palm oil) dissolving tacrolimus showed lower drug blood concentration than a solid dispersion formulation (SDF). The sunflower oil, and cacao butter formulations suppressed drug blood exposure to 50% of the SDF, and inhibited T-cell's IL-2 production similar to the SDF. In vitro digestion tests indicated that slower digestion of the oils might reduce amount and rate of tacrolimus blood absorption. The cacao butter formulations showed 3.0 times more rapid tacrolimus absorption to lymphatic fluid than the SDF. Ratio of the rate constants of absorption into lymph to that into blood was higher in oil formulations (15 times in cacao butter, 15 times sunflower oil, and 3.5 times palm oil) than in the SDF. These results indicated that the oral oil formulations might be suitable for reduced tacrolimus blood concentration for low systemic side effects, and keep high lymph concentration for high efficacy in organ transplantation patients. PMID:26748381

  8. Formulation of criteria for pollution control on cement products produced from solid wastes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yu; Huang, Zechun; Wang, Qi

    2011-08-01

    The process of producing cement products from solid waste can increase the level of pollutants in the cement products. Therefore, it is very important to establish a pollution control standard for cement products to protect the environment and human health. This paper presents acceptance limits for the availability of heavy metals in cement products which have been produced from solid wastes and explains how the limits have been calculated. The approach and method used to formulate these criteria were based on EN 12920. The typical exposure scenarios used in this paper involve concrete being used for drinking water supply pipelines and concrete pavements and are based on an analysis of typical applications of cement in China, and the potential for contact with water. The parameters of a tank test which was based on NEN 7375 were set in accordance with the environmental conditions of typical scenarios in China. Mechanisms controlling the release of heavy metals in concrete and a model for that release were obtained using the leaching test. Finally, based on acceptance criteria for drinking water and groundwater quality in China, limit values for the availability of heavy metals in concrete were calculated. PMID:21514989

  9. Variations of cosmogenic radionuclide production rates along the meteorite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Laubenstein, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Ustinova, G. K.

    2015-08-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in meteorites during their motion in space are natural detectors of the GCR intensity and variations along the meteorite orbits. On the basis of measured and calculated contents of cosmogenic radionuclides in the freshly fallen Chelyabinsk and Košice chondrites some peculiarities of generation of cosmogenic radionuclides of different half-lives in the chondrites of different orbits and dates of fall onto the Earth are demonstrated. Dependence of production rates of the radionuclides on the GCR variations in the heliosphere is analyzed. Using radionuclides with different half-lives it is possible to compare the average GCR intensity over various time periods. The measurement and theoretical analysis of cosmogenic radionuclides in consecutively fallen chondrites provide a unique information on the space-time continuum of the cosmogenic radionuclide production rates and their variations over a long time scale, which could be useful in correlative analyses of processes in the heliosphere. Some applications of cosmogenic radionuclide depth distribution in chondrites for estimation of their pre-atmospheric sizes are illustrated.

  10. Variational formulation and numerical accuracy of a quantitative phase-field model for binary alloy solidification with two-sided diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We present the variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for isothermal low-speed solidification in a binary dilute alloy with diffusion in the solid. In the present formulation, cross-coupling terms between the phase field and composition field, including the so-called antitrapping current, naturally arise in the time evolution equations. One of the essential ingredients in the present formulation is the utilization of tensor diffusivity instead of scalar diffusivity. In an asymptotic analysis, it is shown that the correct mapping between the present variational model and a free-boundary problem for alloy solidification with an arbitrary value of solid diffusivity is successfully achieved in the thin-interface limit due to the cross-coupling terms and tensor diffusivity. Furthermore, we investigate the numerical performance of the variational model and also its nonvariational versions by carrying out two-dimensional simulations of free dendritic growth. The nonvariational model with tensor diffusivity shows excellent convergence of results with respect to the interface thickness. PMID:26871136

  11. Variational formulation and numerical accuracy of a quantitative phase-field model for binary alloy solidification with two-sided diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Munekazu; Takaki, Tomohiro; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We present the variational formulation of a quantitative phase-field model for isothermal low-speed solidification in a binary dilute alloy with diffusion in the solid. In the present formulation, cross-coupling terms between the phase field and composition field, including the so-called antitrapping current, naturally arise in the time evolution equations. One of the essential ingredients in the present formulation is the utilization of tensor diffusivity instead of scalar diffusivity. In an asymptotic analysis, it is shown that the correct mapping between the present variational model and a free-boundary problem for alloy solidification with an arbitrary value of solid diffusivity is successfully achieved in the thin-interface limit due to the cross-coupling terms and tensor diffusivity. Furthermore, we investigate the numerical performance of the variational model and also its nonvariational versions by carrying out two-dimensional simulations of free dendritic growth. The nonvariational model with tensor diffusivity shows excellent convergence of results with respect to the interface thickness.

  12. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  13. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  14. Effect of fermentation media on the production, efficacy and storage stability of Metarhizium brunneum microsclerotia formulated as a prototype granule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New liquid fermentation techniques for the production of the bioinsecticidal fungus Metarhizium brunneum strain F-52 have resulted in the formation of microsclerotia (MS), a compact, melonized-hyphal structure capable of surviving desiccation and formulation as dry granules. When rehydrated, these M...

  15. ESTIMATION OF THE RATE OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM SOLVENT-BASED INDOOR COATING MATERIALS BASED ON PRODUCT FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two computational methods are proposed for estimation of the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from solvent-based indoor coating materials based on the knowledge of product formulation. The first method utilizes two previously developed mass transfer models with ...

  16. Variational Monte Carlo simulations using tensor-product projected states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Olga; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chou, Chung-Pin; Pollmann, Frank; Kao, Ying-Jer

    2015-04-01

    We propose an efficient numerical method, which combines the advantages of recently developed tensor-network based methods and standard trial wave functions, to study the ground-state properties of quantum many-body systems. In this approach, we apply a projector in the form of a tensor-product operator to an input wave function, such as a Jastrow-type or Hartree-Fock wave function, and optimize the tensor elements via variational Monte Carlo. The entanglement already contained in the input wave function can considerably reduce the bond dimensions compared to the regular tensor-product state representation. In particular, this allows us to also represent states that do not obey the area law of entanglement entropy. In addition, for fermionic systems, the fermion sign structure can be encoded in the input wave function. We show that the optimized states provide good approximations of the ground-state energy and correlation functions in the cases of two-dimensional bosonic and fermonic systems.

  17. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 2: single-crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    Variational formulations are constructed for rate-independent problems in small-deformation single-crystal strain-gradient plasticity. The framework, based on that of Gurtin (J Mech Phys Solids 50: 5-32, 2002), makes use of the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function. Provision is made for energetic and dissipative microstresses. Both recoverable and non-recoverable defect energies are incorporated into the variational framework. The recoverable energies include those that depend smoothly on the slip gradients, the Burgers tensor, or on the dislocation densities (Gurtin et al. J Mech Phys Solids 55:1853-1878, 2007), as well as an energy proposed by Ohno and Okumura (J Mech Phys Solids 55:1879-1898, 2007), which leads to excellent agreement with experimental results, and which is positively homogeneous and therefore not differentiable at zero slip gradient. Furthermore, the variational formulation accommodates a non-recoverable energy due to Ohno et al. (Int J Mod Phys B 22:5937-5942, 2008), which is also positively homogeneous, and a function of the accumulated dislocation density. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for the various examples of defect energy, with or without the presence of hardening or slip resistance.

  18. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Y; Laudon, M; Tauman, R; Zisapel, N

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the normal range of nocturnal urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6SMT) in a large sample of healthy full-term infants (8 and 16 wk old) and assess whether the endogenous production of melatonin changes with season. 6SMT was assessed in urine samples extracted from disposable diapers removed from full-term, 8- (n = 317) and 16-wk-old (n = 93) infants over the nocturnal period (19:00-08:00 h). In addition, 6SMT was assessed in 8-wk-old (n = 35) healthy infants over the entire 24-h period. 6SMT was determined by an ELISA assay. 6SMT excretion at 8 wk of age exhibited diurnal variations with (mean +/- SD) 61 +/- 18% of the daily production excreted during the nocturnal period regardless of season. The nocturnal 6SMT values in the entire cohort (at 8 as well as 16 wk of age) were found to significantly depart from normal distribution (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). A normal distribution was obtained using a natural base logarithmic (ln) transformation of the data. The normal range (2.5-97.5 percentile of the ln 6SMT excretion per night) was thus defined as 4.66-8.64 (106-5646 ng/night) for 8-wk-old and 5.19-9.67 (180-15,820 ng/night) for 16-wk-old infants. A significant effect of the month of birth on 6SMT production at the age of 8 wk was found (ANOVA, p < 0.002) with maximal levels produced by infants born in June (summer solstice) and minimal excretion in infants born in December (winter solstice). Short-photoperiod-born infants excreted on average about threefold less 6SMT compared with long-photoperiod-born infants (t test, p = 0. 01). The seasonal variations were no longer present at 16 wk of age. No effect of breast-feeding at the time of sampling on seasonality of 6SMT was found. Normal ranges for the nocturnal urinary excretion of 6SMT in full-term infants at 8 and 16 wk of age are defined. This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor

  19. Formulation and solution of the delayed gamma dose rate problem using the concept of effective delayed gamma production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.

    1989-06-01

    With appropriate approximations, the delayed gamma dose rate problem can be formulated in terms of the effective delayed gamma production cross section. The coupled neutron-delayed-gamma transport equations then take the same form as the coupled neutron-prompt-gamma transport equations and they can, therefore, be solved directly in the same manner. This eliminates the need for the tedious and error prone flux coupling step in conventional calculations. Mathematical formulation and solution algorithms are derived. The advantages of this method are illustrated by an example of its application in the solution of a practical design problem. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A probabilistic model framework for evaluating year-to-year variation in crop productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokozawa, M.; Iizumi, T.; Tao, F.

    2008-12-01

    Most models describing the relation between crop productivity and weather condition have so far been focused on mean changes of crop yield. For keeping stable food supply against abnormal weather as well as climate change, evaluating the year-to-year variations in crop productivity rather than the mean changes is more essential. We here propose a new framework of probabilistic model based on Bayesian inference and Monte Carlo simulation. As an example, we firstly introduce a model on paddy rice production in Japan. It is called PRYSBI (Process- based Regional rice Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference; Iizumi et al., 2008). The model structure is the same as that of SIMRIW, which was developed and used widely in Japan. The model includes three sub- models describing phenological development, biomass accumulation and maturing of rice crop. These processes are formulated to include response nature of rice plant to weather condition. This model inherently was developed to predict rice growth and yield at plot paddy scale. We applied it to evaluate the large scale rice production with keeping the same model structure. Alternatively, we assumed the parameters as stochastic variables. In order to let the model catch up actual yield at larger scale, model parameters were determined based on agricultural statistical data of each prefecture of Japan together with weather data averaged over the region. The posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) of parameters included in the model were obtained using Bayesian inference. The MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) algorithm was conducted to numerically solve the Bayesian theorem. For evaluating the year-to-year changes in rice growth/yield under this framework, we firstly iterate simulations with set of parameter values sampled from the estimated posterior PDF of each parameter and then take the ensemble mean weighted with the posterior PDFs. We will also present another example for maize productivity in China. The

  1. Subvisible Particle Content, Formulation, and Dose of an Erythropoietin Peptide Mimetic Product Are Associated With Severe Adverse Postmarketing Events.

    PubMed

    Kotarek, Joseph; Stuart, Christine; De Paoli, Silvia H; Simak, Jan; Lin, Tsai-Lien; Gao, Yamei; Ovanesov, Mikhail; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Brown, Janice; Bai, Yun; Metcalfe, Dean D; Marszal, Ewa; Ragheb, Jack A

    2016-03-01

    Peginesatide (Omontys(®); Affymax, Inc., Cupertino, CA) was voluntarily withdrawn from the market less than a year after the product launch. Although clinical trials had demonstrated the drug to be safe and efficacious, 49 cases of anaphylaxis, including 7 fatalities, were reported not long after market introduction. Commercialization was initiated with a multiuse vial presentation, which differs in formulation from the single-use vial presentation used in phase 3 studies. Standard physical and chemical testing did not indicate any deviation from product specifications in either formulation. However, an analysis of subvisible particulates using nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow imaging revealed a significantly higher concentration of subvisible particles in the multiuse vial presentation linked to the hypersensitivity cases. Although it is unknown whether the elevated particulate content is causally related to these serious adverse events, this report illustrates the utility of characterizing subvisible particulates not captured by conventional light obscuration. PMID:26886324

  2. Controlling the simultaneous production of laccase and lignin peroxidase from Streptomyces cinnamomensis by medium formulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of crude ligninase of bacterial origin is one of the most promising ways to improve the practical biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. However, lignin is composed of diverse monolignols with different abundance levels in different plant biomass and requires different proportions of ligninase to realize efficient degradation. To improve activity and reduce cost, the simultaneous submerged fermentation of laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP) from a new bacterial strain, Streptomyces cinnamomensis, was studied by adopting formulation design, principal component analysis, regression analysis and unconstrained mathematical programming. Results The activities of laccase and LiP from S. cinnamomensis cultured with the optimal medium formulations were improved to be five to eight folders of their initial activities, and the measured laccase:LiP activity ratios reached 0.1, 0.4 and 1.7 when cultured on medium with formulations designed to produce laccase:LiP complexes with theoretical laccase:LiP activity ratios of 0.05 to 0.1, 0.5 to 1 and 1.1 to 2. Conclusion Both the laccase and LiP activities and also the activity ratio of laccase to LiP could be controlled by the medium formulation as designed. Using a crude laccase-LiP complex with a specially designed laccase:LiP activity ratio has the potential to improve the degradation of various plant lignins composed of diverse monolignols with different abundance levels. PMID:22429569

  3. Lexical or Syntactic Control of Sentence Formulation? Structural Generalizations from Idiom Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopka, Agnieszka E; Bock, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    To compare abstract structural and lexicalist accounts of syntactic processes in sentence formulation, we examined the effectiveness of nonidiomatic and idiomatic phrasal verbs in inducing structural generalizations. Three experiments made use of a syntactic priming paradigm in which participants recalled sentences they had read in rapid serial…

  4. Climate Variations and Alaska Tundra Vegetation Productivity Declines in Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Bieniek, P.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.; Comiso, J. C.; Pinzon, J. E.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    While sea ice has continued to decline, vegetation productivity increases have declined particularly during spring in Alaska as well as many parts of the Arctic tundra. To understand the processes behind these features we investigate spring climate variations that includes temperature, circulation patterns, and snow cover to determine how these may be contributing to spring browning. This study employs remotely sensed weekly 25-km sea ice concentration, weekly surface temperature, and bi-weekly NDVI from 1982 to 2014. Maximum NDVI (MaxNDVI, Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI), Summer Warmth Index (SWI, sum of degree months above freezing during May-August), atmospheric reanalysis data, dynamically downscaled climate data, meteorological station data, and snow water equivalent (GlobSnow, assimilated snow data set). We analyzed the data for the full period (1982-2014) and for two sub-periods (1982-1998 and 1999-2014), which were chosen based on the declining Alaska SWI since 1998. MaxNDVI has increased from 1982-2014 over most of the Arctic but has declined from 1999 to 2014 southwest Alaska. TI-NDVI has trends that are similar to those for MaxNDVI for the full period but display widespread declines over the 1999-2014 period. Therefore, as the MaxNDVI has continued to increase overall for the Arctic, TI-NDVI has been declining since 1999 and these declines are particularly noteworthy during spring in Alaska. Spring declines in Alaska have been linked to increased spring snow cover that can delay greenup (Bieniek et al. 2015) but recent ground observations suggest that after an initial warming and greening, late season freezing temperature are damaging the plants. The late season freezing temperature hypothesis will be explored with meteorological climate/weather data sets for Alaska tundra regions. References P.A. Bieniek, US Bhatt, DA Walker, MK Raynolds, JC Comiso, HE Epstein, JE Pinzon, CJ Tucker, RL Thoman, H Tran, N M

  5. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study

    PubMed Central

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants’ tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. Methods We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Results Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21–41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of

  6. A palette of fine-scale eddy viscosity and residual-based models for variational multiscale formulations of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberai, Assad A.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.

    2016-04-01

    We explore a general family of eddy viscosity models for the large-eddy simulation of turbulence within the framework of the Variational Multiscale Method. Our investigation encompasses various fine-scale eddy viscosities and coarse-scale residual-based constructs. We delineate the domain of parameter space in which physically and mathematically suitable models exist, and identify several sub-families of potentially useful models that are either entirely new or extend previously proposed ones. We also combine classical modeling ideas, that lead to turbulent kinetic energy evolution equations, with the residual-based approach to derive a new residual-driven, one-equation dynamic model.

  7. Variational formulation of oscillating fluid clusters and oscillator-like classification. II. Numerical study of pinned liquid clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzeja, Patrick S.; Steeb, Holger

    2014-04-01

    A numerical study of pinned, oscillating water clusters is presented. Two main models represent a liquid bridge between the walls of two particles and a water column enclosed in a slender pore channel, respectively. Variations include material properties (density, viscosity, surface tension, contact angle) and geometric properties (volume, slenderness, winding, interfacial areas). They are initially based on water clusters in 1 mm pore-space, which are weakly damped at eigenfrequencies around a few hundred Hz. Stiffness and damping are characterized by eigenfrequency and damping coefficient of an equivalent 1-dim. harmonic-oscillator model. Finally, frequency dependence of the dynamical properties is demonstrated. The comprehensive quantitative analysis extends and explains relationships between geometric and material properties and the response to harmonic stimulation. Furthermore, interpolation functions of characteristic dynamic properties are provided for use in multiphase theories. The frequency dependence of cluster stiffness and damping was proven and of limited influence on the stimulation of two typical, weakly damped liquid clusters.

  8. Historical variation of structural novelty in a natural product library.

    PubMed

    Kong, De-Xin; Guo, Ming-Yue; Xiao, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the potential of natural products as novel structure suppliers, a historical analysis was performed on the structural novelty of a natural product library, viz., the Chapman & Hall/CRC Dictionary of Natural Products. The results show that although the unexplored natural product universe is still ample, it is more and more difficult to find novel agents from nature, with the discovery probability of novel structures and scaffolds being lower than 50% in the near future, which mainly results from the intrinsic redundancy of natural products and, thus, is unlikely to be reversed merely through technical progresses. PMID:22083910

  9. Interactions between the stratum corneum and topically applied products: regulatory, instrumental and formulation issues with focus on moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2014-09-01

    Virtually everyone in Europe will use at least one cosmetic product every day. The extensive use of cosmetics and results from measurements of quality of life in patients with skin diseases demonstrate the importance of a healthy skin. The skin is not only a barrier against desiccation and intrusion of harmful materials, but also an organ of social communication, where dry, scaly, rough stratum corneum is unappealing to touch, inducing anxiety and depression. Knowledge about the skin biochemistry and the use of noninvasive instruments facilitate the development of topical products and quantification of their effects. The presentation of the products and mode of action determine the regulatory demands and the approval process, as they can fall into different regulatory entities, such as cosmetics, medicinal products, medical devices and as other chemical products. The majority of the topical products on the market are regulated as cosmetics. For example, facial skin care and daily moisturizing routines are frequently used. However, despite visible relief of dryness symptoms, some products are reported to result in deterioration of the skin barrier function. New clinical outcomes show important clinical differences between formulations and the relapse of eczema. In a worst case scenario, treatment with a moisturizing cream may increase the risks of eczema and asthma. In the present overview, product presentations and mode of actions are reflected against the regulatory demands in Europe. The regulations are continuously revisited and new guidelines are being implemented, such as the new cosmetic regulation with advice on testing and responsible marketing. PMID:25040916

  10. Quality by design in formulation and process development for a freeze-dried, small molecule parenteral product: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Linas N; Paul, Timothy W; Pease, Nathan A; Harper, Nancy J; Basu, Prabir K; Oslos, Elizabeth A; Sacha, Gregory A; Kuu, Wei Y; Hardwick, Lisa M; Karty, Jacquelyn J; Pikal, Michael J; Hee, Eun; Khan, Mansoor A; Nail, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in aqueous solution, and dimer formation from a Diels-Alder condensation in the freeze-dried solid state. When the drug crystallizes in a frozen solution, the eutectic melting temperature is above -5°C. Crystallization in the frozen system is affected by pH in the range of pH 6-8 and buffer concentration in the range of 5-50 mM, where higher pH and lower buffer concentration favor crystallization. Physical state of the drug is critical to solid state stability, given the relative instability of amorphous drug. Stability was shown to vary considerably over the ranges of pH and buffer concentration examined, and vial-to-vial variability in degree of crystallinity is a potential concern. The formulation design space was constructed in terms of pH and drug concentration, and assuming a constant 5 mM concentration of buffer. The process design space is constructed to take into account limitations on the process imposed by the product and by equipment capability. PMID:21932931

  11. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, John W.; Katz, Richard F.; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H.; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth’s interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor.

  12. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Crowley, John W; Katz, Richard F; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-03-13

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between oceans and continents, causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with consequences for the melting of Earth's interior. Using Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations as a forcing function, theoretical models of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that include melt transport predict temporal variations in crustal thickness of hundreds of meters. New bathymetry from the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows statistically significant spectral energy near the Milankovitch periods of 23, 41, and 100 thousand years, which is consistent with model predictions. These results suggest that abyssal hills, one of the most common bathymetric features on Earth, record the magmatic response to changes in sea level. The models and data support a link between glacial cycles at the surface and mantle melting at depth, recorded in the bathymetric fabric of the sea floor. PMID:25766231

  13. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. F.; Crowley, J. W.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents, causing long-wavelength changes of static pressure in the upper mantle. Previous work has shown that subaerial, glaciated volcanoes respond to these changes with variation in eruption rates (Jull & McKenzie 1996, Huybers & Langmuir 2009), and has suggested that the magmatic flux at mid-ocean ridges may vary with changes in sea-level (Huybers & Langmuir 2009, Lund & Asimow 2011). The latter is speculative, however, because previous theory has assumed highly simplified melt transport and neglected the dependence of the ridge thermal structure on spreading rate. Moreover, it remains a challenge to connect model predictions of variations arising from sea-level change with sea-floor observations. Here we present results from a theoretical model of a mid-ocean ridge based on conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and composition for two phases (magma & mantle) and two thermodynamic components (enriched & depleted) (Katz 2008, 2010). The model is driven by imposed variations in the static pressure within the mantle. We consider both the geochemically inferred record of past sea-level variation, as well as simpler harmonic and instantaneous variations. The output of these models is compared with observations of bathymetry at ridges that are undisturbed by off-axis volcanism. The comparison is preliminary but suggests that some abyssal hills on the sea-floor are, at least in part, the result of glacial cycles. To understand the simulation results in more detail, we develop analytical solutions for a reduced-complexity model. This model is derived according to the idea that the melting induced by sea-level changes can be thought of as a small perturbation to a steady-state system. We obtain a Green's function solution for crustal thickness as a function of sea-level change with the associated dependencies on geophysical parameters of the magma/mantle system. We show that this solution captures much of the

  14. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2-71.2% during 1982-2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms. PMID:27243565

  15. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms.

  16. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingzhu; Zhu, Wenquan; Schwartz, Mark W.; Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Williamson, Matthew A.; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with climate-induced potential productivity showed that the trends in average productivity in nearly 40% of global grassland areas have been significantly affected by climate change. The contribution of climate change to variability in grassland productivity was 15.2–71.2% during 1982–2011. Climate change contributed significantly to long-term trends in grassland productivity mainly in North America, central Eurasia, central Africa, and Oceania; these regions will be more sensitive to future climate change impacts. The impacts of climate change on variability in grassland productivity were greater in the Western Hemisphere than the Eastern Hemisphere. Confirmation of the observed trends requires long-term controlled experiments and multi-model ensembles to reduce uncertainties and explain mechanisms. PMID:27243565

  17. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  18. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation. PMID:27249670

  19. Proactive Management of Fermentation and Formulation Interactions to Improve Biocontrol Product Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key components of biocontrol product development—discovery, fermentation, and formulation—are interactively linked to each other and ultimately to product performance. To identify biocontrol agents suited for commercial development, our discovery programs utilize a cumulative ranking system tha...

  20. Vanadium(V) and -(IV) complexes of anionic polysaccharides: Controlled release pharmaceutical formulations and models of vanadium biotransformation products.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Lauren E; McLeod, Andrew I; Aitken, Jade B; Levina, Aviva; Lay, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Uncontrolled reactions in biological media are a main obstacle for clinical translation of V-based anti-diabetic or anti-cancer pro-drugs. We investigated the use of controlled-release pharmaceutical formulations to ameliorate this issue with a series of V(V) and (IV) complexes of anionic polysaccharides. Carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, or alginic acid formulations were prepared by the reactions of [VO4](3-) with one or two molar equivalents of biological reductants, L-ascorbic acid (AA) or L-cysteine (Cys), in the presence of excess polysaccharide at pH~7 or pH~4. XANES studies with the use of a previously developed library of model V(V), V(IV) and V(III) complexes showed that reactions in the presence of AA led mostly to the mixtures of five- and six-coordinate V(IV) species, while the reactions in the presence of Cys led predominantly to the mixtures of five- and six-coordinate V(V) species. The XANES spectra of some of these samples closely matched those reported previously for [VO4](3-) biotransformation products in isolated blood plasma, red blood cells, or cultured adipocytes, which supports the hypothesis that modified polysaccharides are major binders of V(V) and V(IV) in biological systems. Studies by EPR spectroscopy suggested predominant V(IV)-carboxylato binding in complexes with polysaccharides. One of the isolated products (a V(IV)-alginato complex) showed selective release of low-molecular-mass V species at pH~8, but not at pH~2, which makes it a promising lead for the development of V-containing formulations for oral administration that are stable in the stomach, but release the active ingredient in the intestines. PMID:25958254

  1. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it’s HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation. PMID:27610150

  2. Formulation of a Traditionally Used Polyherbal Product for Burn Healing and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Its Phenolic Contents.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Shirin; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, plants have been considered as powerful agents for treatment of disorders regarding to their traditional use. In Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), plants have a special role in the treatment of various diseases. Burns with their devastating outcomes have been discussed in ITM as well. In the present study, a polyherbal ointment (PHO), retrieved from ITM, was formulated for burn healing and it's HPTLC fingerprint was prepared. Aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals (4.85%, 4.85% and 33%, respectively) were added to white beeswax, eucerin and white petrolatum as ointment base. In addition to the microbiological tests, physical stability and rheological behavior of the product were assessed. Fingerprinting of phytochemical constituents of PHO was performed by using silica gel plates and toluene: ethyl acetate: acetic acid (60:40:1) and ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (100:11:11:10) as mobile phases. The results showed that PHO was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Moreover, PHO exhibited plastic behavior which is in favor of a topical burn product. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting of PHO demonstrated the presence of several phenolic constituents corresponding to the plant extracts. Regarding to the role of phenolic compounds in wound healing process, PHO could be an appropriate candidate for burn healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. Moreover, HPTLC fingerprinting could be utilized as an applicable method for quality control of the prepared formulation. PMID:27610150

  3. A novel in situ hydrophobic ion paring (HIP) formulation strategy for clinical product selection of a nanoparticle drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Ho; Shin, Eyoung; Wang, Hong; Nolan, Jim; Low, Susan; Parsons, Donald; Zale, Stephen; Ashton, Susan; Ashford, Marianne; Ali, Mir; Thrasher, Daniel; Boylan, Nicholas; Troiano, Greg

    2016-05-10

    preclinical efficacy and tolerability data were generated for the pamoic acid lead formulation, which has been selected for evaluation in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT 02579226). This work clearly demonstrates the importance of assessing a wide range of drug release rates during formulation screening as a critical step for new drug product development, and how utilizing hydrophobic ion pairing enabled this promising nanoparticle formulation to proceed into clinical development. PMID:27001894

  4. Effect of fermentation media on the production, efficacy, and storage stability of Metarhizium brunneum microsclerotia formulated as a prototype granule.

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Jackson, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    New liquid fermentation techniques for the production of the bioinsecticidal fungus Metarhizium brunneum strain F-52 have resulted in the formation of microsclerotia (MS), a compact, melonized-hyphal structure capable of surviving desiccation and formulation as dry granules. When rehydrated, these MS granules germinate to produce conidia that can infect susceptible insects. Fermentation media containing cottonseed or soy flours as nitrogen sources and formulated at two carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N), 30:1 or 50:1, were evaluated forproduction of microsclerotia. Dry MS granule samples were compared for storage stability based on conidia production, and insecticidal activity against larvae of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), using a potting soil bioassay. Cottonseed and soy flours were equivalent for production, MS granule viability, and insecticidal activity. Fermentation media containing higher nitrogen concentrations (30:1 C:N) resulted in greater biomass accumulation and greater production of conidia from granules regardless of the nitrogen source. MS granules made with M. brunneum cultures grown in media with 30:1 C:N produced 8.5 x 10(9) conidia per gram of granules after 8-d incubation, significantly higher than MS granules made using fungus produced using 50:1 C:N media (5.5 x 10(9) conidia per gram dry MS granules). The LC50 for larval mortality was 8.05 x 10(5) conidia per cup, equivalent to applications of 94 or 147 microg granules per cup for granules made from high and low nitrogen media, respectively. Measurements of water activity were not significantly different among granule samples (0.28-0.29) even though granules made from high nitrogen media had higher moisture content (> 5.2%) compared with granules made from low nitrogen media (< 4.6%). Higher initial conidial production was reflected in longer storage stability at 25 degrees C, with half-lives estimated at 3.7 and 1.7 wk for 30:1 and 50:1 C:N ratios, respectively. These

  5. Finding temporal variations of tectonic uplift rate through inversion of long profiles of rivers: Formulation, algorithm, and application to tilted blocks in the western Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, L.; Fox, M.; Willett, S.

    2012-12-01

    A major forcing agent responsible for the evolution of fluvial landscapes is the rate of tectonic uplift. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that temporal changes in uplift rate affect the longitudinal profiles of rivers by introducing variations of river steepness and migrating knickpoints. An important and challenging question is thus whether and how the inverse problem may be solved, i.e. can tectonic uplift rates, U, be extracted reliably from the longitudinal profiles of rivers? A well-established formulation relates the change of landscape elevation through time to tectonic uplift rate and to erosion rate, which is described as a power law function of the upstream drainage area, Am, and the local slope, Sn, where m and n are positive exponents. In this work, we present a close form integral solution to the above formulation for the linear case, where n=1. The integral solution is formulated as an inverse problem and used to extract U/K as a function of K-scaled time, where K, the erodibility, depends on geological and climatic conditions. The inversion algorithm is unexpectedly simple and computationally efficient. We apply the inversion procedure to several tilted blocks in the western Basin and Range area that form part of the eastern California shear zone. The blocks are bounded by faults, and we analyze rivers that drain toward fault segments with significant dip-slip component. Each group of rivers draining to a particular fault segment is treated separately, in order to resolve the independent uplift history of each of the tilted blocks. For each group of rivers, we first demonstrate that n=1 is a suitable assumption, and we constrain the best-fit value of m, which is found to be similar for the different tilted blocks. Then, we simultaneously invert the rivers' long profiles of each group to find the tectonic uplift history of its block. This represents the time dependent dip-slip component of velocity along the normal fault that bounds the

  6. Advanced stable lipid-based formulations for a patient-centric product design.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karin; Saurugger, Eva-Maria; Kienberger, Diana; Lopes, Diogo; Haack, Detlev; Köberle, Martin; Stehr, Michael; Lochmann, Dirk; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2016-01-30

    Multiparticulate dosage forms are a recent strategy to meet the special needs of children, elderly people and patients suffering from dysphagia. Our study presents a novel and cost-efficient approach for the manufacturing of a taste-masked multiparticulate system with a stable immediate release profile by applying lipid-based excipients in a solvent-free hot melt coating process. The thermosensitive N-acetylcysteine (N-ac) was used as model drug and hot-melt coated with a mixture of tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. A predictive in vitro method for the evaluation of the taste masking efficiency was developed based on the deprotonation of the carboxyl group of N-ac and the decline of pH, responsible for the unpleasant sour taste of the compound. The method was confirmed using in vivo studies. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering experiments revealed polymorphic transformation and its dependency on transformation time, temperature and emulsifier concentration. During the process, the coating was transformed almost completely into the stable β-polymorph, leading to an unaltered dissolution profile during storage. A statistical design was conducted that revealed the critical process parameters affecting the taste masking efficiency and drug release. This study shows the successful application of solvent-free hot-melt coating in the development of a taste-masked and stable formulation. PMID:26621689

  7. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  8. UNDERSTANDING PRODUCTIVITY VARIATION ON UN-IRRIGATED CLAYPAN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high clay-content argillic horizon occurring 10 to 100 cm below the surface restricts soil water movement and reduces nutrient efficiency of claypan soils, which affect soil quality related to production and environmental buffering. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of long-...

  9. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  10. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  11. PR notice 87-6. Notice to manufacturers, formulators, procedures, and registrants of pesticide products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces certain policies designed to reduce the potential for adverse effects from the use of pesticide products containing toxic inert ingredients. The agency is encouraging the use of the least toxic inert ingredient available and requiring the development of data necessary to determine the conditions of safe use of products containing toxic inert ingredients. In support of these policies, the Agency has categorized inert ingredients according to toxicity.

  12. Coherent States for Kronecker Products of Non Compact Groups: Formulation and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Agarwal, Girish S.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and study the properties of a class of coherent states for the group SU(1,1) X SU(1,1) and derive explicit expressions for these using the Clebsch-Gordan algebra for the SU(1,1) group. We restrict ourselves to the discrete series representations of SU(1,1). These are the generalization of the 'Barut Girardello' coherent states to the Kronecker Product of two non-compact groups. The resolution of the identity and the analytic phase space representation of these states is presented. This phase space representation is based on the basis of products of 'pair coherent states' rather than the standard number state canonical basis. We discuss the utility of the resulting 'bi-pair coherent states' in the context of four-mode interactions in quantum optics.

  13. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil: comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-07-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed. PMID:23914751

  14. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  15. Geographical variation in sound production in the anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos

    PubMed Central

    Parmentier, E; Lagardère, J.P; Vandewalle, P; Fine, M.L

    2005-01-01

    Because of pelagic-larval dispersal, coral-reef fishes are distributed widely with minimal genetic differentiation between populations. Amphiprion akallopisos, a clownfish that uses sound production to defend its anemone territory, has a wide but disjunct distribution in the Indian Ocean. We compared sounds produced by these fishes from populations in Madagascar and Indonesia, a distance of 6500 km. Differentiation of agonistic calls into distinct types indicates a complexity not previously recorded in fishes' acoustic communication. Moreover, various acoustic parameters, including peak frequency, pulse duration, number of peaks per pulse, differed between the two populations. The geographic comparison is the first to demonstrate ‘dialects’ in a marine fish species, and these differences in sound parameters suggest genetic divergence between these two populations. These results highlight the possible approach for investigating the role of sounds in fish behaviour in reproductive divergence and speciation. PMID:16087425

  16. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour. PMID:26446284

  17. Variation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions with furosemide injection.

    PubMed

    Mills, D M; Rubel, E W

    1994-06-15

    Cochlear function was monitored in adult gerbils using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) during intraperitoneal injection of furosemide. All stimulus parameters were varied independently over a wide range, the stimulus frequencies f1 and f2 from 1 to 16 kHz, and the stimulus levels L1 and L2 from 20 to 80 dB SPL. The observed emissions at 2f1-f2 and 3f1-2f2 could be considered to be made up of two distinct components: (1) an 'active' source which depended in a complex way on the stimulus frequencies and levels, which was dominant at low and moderate stimulus levels, and which, by definition, was eliminated by sufficient furosemide intoxication; and (2) a 'passive' source which was essentially the same at all frequencies, with a level dependence given approximately by a simple power law distribution. The change from the active to the passive source was usually accompanied by an abrupt shift in emission phase angle. A simple summation model was shown to account for the observed form of this transition. The amount of the decrease in 2f1-f2 emission amplitude after furosemide injection was approximately independent of frequency and consistent for the middle frequency ratios and intensity levels (f2/f1 approximately equal to 1.3, L1 x L2 approximately equal to 55 x 50 dB SPL). It was concluded that the combination of DPOAE with furosemide injection can usefully be employed as a probe of active cochlear mechanics. PMID:7928730

  18. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    PubMed

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils. PMID:23240181

  19. Centennial-scale variations in diatom productivity off Peru over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Sophie; Crosta, Xavier; Schneider, Ralph; Blanz, Thomas; Ther, Olivier; Martinez, Philippe; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian coastal upwelling is one of the most productive systems in the global ocean, with important impacts on the carbon cycle. Primary productivity there displays strong variations at the inter-annual to decadal timescales. However, down-core investigations rarely reach sufficient temporal resolution to assess the response of productivity to climatic variations at these timescales beyond the instrumental and historical periods. We here analyzed diatom assemblages, sea-surface temperatures, nitrogen and organic carbon contents on a laminated sediment core from the Peruvian continental shelf to trace variations in regional productivity over the last 3000 years. Our record provides evidence for different climatic and oceanic conditions with more humid and less productive conditions older than 2500 Cal years BP and drier and more productive conditions younger than 2500 Cal years BP. The last 2500 years also present much stronger centennial-scale variability with the occurrence of six intervals with higher total diatom abundances and stronger percentages in upwelling-related diatom species, representative of intensified productivity, congruent to lower percentages in benthic diatoms, indicative of reduced rainfall. These six periods were synchronous to intervals of enhanced Walker circulation, suggesting a strong imprint of the Pacific zonal circulation on productivity variations off Peru. Our record also demonstrates that SSTs did not vary in phase with productivity, arguing against the idea of regional SSTs controlled by the upwelling intensity, but were rather in agreement to SST records off southern Chile, suggesting that Peruvian SSTs variations were largely controlled by oceanic currents at southern high latitudes.

  20. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory. PMID:25620723

  1. Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.; Gribble, N.; Riley, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

  2. Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-05-21

    Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol. PMID:24802243

  3. LC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of six glucocorticoids in pharmaceutical formulations and counterfeit cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Jessica; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2014-03-01

    A screening method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of six corticosteroids (betamethasone 17-valerate BM 17-V, beclomethasone BC, beclomethasone dipropionate BCDP, methylprednisolone MP, budesonide BD, flunisolide FN) was developed in order to control their illegal use in cosmetic and natural products. Indeed, despite corticosteroids are banned in cosmetics, counterfeit products might be present on the market, representing a health hazard. Therefore, effective analytical methods are required to rapidly screen over the counter products in health care shops for counterfeit corticosteroids. The analytical method involves the employment of a Waters Synergy C18 column (150mm×2.0mm I.D.) by using the following mobile phase: A (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile), B (0.1% formic acid in water) in a linear gradient (from A-B 25:75, v/v to A-B 95:5, v/v in 30min) at the flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The detection was performed with an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer in positive polarity, total ion current (TIC) and tandem mass modalities for qualitative purpose; single ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantitative analysis on the ESI generated most abundant ion for each steroid. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, recovery, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of corticosteroids in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetic products. The mean recovery of BM 17-V, BC, BCDP, MP, BD and FN were found to be 101.3, 101.5, 98.8, 98.9, 98.1, 99.0%, respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were comprised in the range 29-95ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time this mix of glucocorticoids were simultaneously determined in cosmetic products by using a fully validated method. BMV, in its two isomeric forms BM 17-V and BM 21-V, was found to be illegally present in one cream sample (A) with the total concentration level

  4. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806356

  5. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results. PMID:15582208

  6. Robust SMO methodology for exposure tool and mask variations in high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takaki; Kai, Yasunobu; Masukawa, Kazuyuki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    A robust source mask optimization (RSMO) methodology has been developed for the first time to decrease variations of critical dimension (CD) and overlay displacement on wafer caused by extremely complex exposure tools and mask patterns. The RSMO methodology takes into account exposure tool variations of source shape, aberrations and mask as well as dose and focus to get source shapes and mask patterns robust to the exposure tool variations. A comparison between the conventional SMO and the new RSMO found that the RSMO improved the edge placement error (EPE) and displacement sensitivity to coma and astigmatism aberrations by 14% and 40%, respectively. Interestingly, even a greatly-simplified source from the RSMO provides totally smaller EPE than uselessly complex source shape from the conventional SMO. Thus, the RSMO methodology is much more effective for semiconductor products with high volume production.

  7. An Application of Variational Theory to an Integrated Walrasian Model of Exchange, Consumption and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M. B.; Milasi, M.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-09-01

    An existence result of a Walrasian equilibrium for an integrated model of exchange, consumption and production is obtained. The equilibrium model is characterized in terms of a suitable generalized quasi-variational inequality; so the existence result comes from an original technique which takes into account tools of convex and set-valued analysis.

  8. Comparative genomics reveals multiple causes of variation in mycotoxin production among Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively, species of Fusarium produce a structurally diverse array of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites (SMs), but individual species contribute to only a fraction of this diversity. To elucidate causes of variation in SM production among species, we are examining the distribution and e...

  9. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  10. A thermodynamic interpretation of Budyko and L'vovich formulations of annual water balance: Proportionality Hypothesis and maximum entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dingbao; Zhao, Jianshi; Tang, Yin; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2015-04-01

    The paper forms part of the search for a thermodynamic explanation for the empirical Budyko Curve, addressing a long-standing research question in hydrology. Here this issue is pursued by invoking the Proportionality Hypothesis underpinning the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method widely used for estimating direct runoff at the event scale. In this case, the Proportionality Hypothesis posits that the ratio of continuing abstraction to its potential value is equal to the ratio of direct runoff to its potential value. Recently, the validity of the Proportionality Hypothesis has been extended to the partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evaporation at the annual time scale as well. In this case, the Proportionality Hypothesis dictates that the ratio of continuing evaporation to its potential value is equal to the ratio of runoff to its potential value. The Budyko Curve could then be seen as the straightforward outcome of the application of the Proportionality Hypothesis to estimate mean annual water balance. In this paper, we go further and demonstrate that the Proportionality Hypothesis itself can be seen as a result of the application of the thermodynamic principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). In this way, we demonstrate a possible thermodynamic basis for the Proportionality Hypothesis, and consequently for the Budyko Curve. As a further extension, the L'vovich formulation for the two-stage partitioning of annual precipitation is also demonstrated to be a result of MEP: one for the competition between soil wetting and fast flow during the first stage; another for the competition between evaporation and base flow during the second stage.

  11. Longitudinal and depth variation of bacterioplankton productivity and related factors in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peierls, Benjamin L.; Paerl, Hans W.

    2011-11-01

    Bacterioplankton productivity (BP) spatial variation was investigated in relation to potential resources, including primary productivity and dissolved organic matter, in the micro-tidal Neuse River-Pamlico Sound estuarine system, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine BP was predicted to correlate with the trophic gradient, decreasing along the salinity gradient in parallel with the decrease in organic matter and primary productivity. This prediction was tested over four years at spatial scales ranging from kilometers to meters along the riverine axis and with depth. The general pattern of BP across the salinity gradient was unimodal and matched the phytoplankton patterns in peak location and variability. Peak locations varied with discharge, especially in 2003 when above average discharge moved peaks downstream. Spatial coherence of BP with other variables was much less at short time scales. The effect of temperature, nutrients, and phytoplankton on BP varied by location, especially fresh versus brackish stations, although only temperature explained more than 20% of the BP variation. Depth variation of BP was as great as longitudinal variation and bottom samples were often higher than surface. BP was strongly correlated with particulate organic carbon at the pycnocline and bottom, highlighting the importance of particulate matter as a resource. Station-averaged BP and phytoplankton data corresponded well with two published meta-analyses, although the offset of the freshwater station suggested longitudinal differences in community composition or resource availability.

  12. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  13. 40 CFR 152.43 - Alternate formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.43 Alternate formulations... label text of the alternate formulation product must be identical to that of the basic formulation....

  14. Modelling natural grass production and its spatio-temporal variations in a semiarid Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Susanne; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Maneta-López, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Natural grasses are found in semiarid rangelands with disperse tree cover of part of the Iberian Peninsula and constitute a resource with high ecologic and economic value worth, being an important source of food for livestock, playing a significant role in the hydrologic cycle, controlling the soil thermal regime, and are a key factor in reducing soil erosion and degradation. However, increasing pressure on the resources, changes in land use as well as possible climate variations threaten the sustainability of natural grasses. Despite of their importance, the spatio-temporal variations of pasture production over whole watersheds are poorly known. In this sense, previous studies by other authors have indicated its dependence on a balance of positive and negative effects brought about by the main limiting factors: water, light, nutrients and space. Nevertheless, the specific weight of each factor is not clear because they are highly variable due to climate characteristics and the structure of these agroforestry systems. We have used a physical spatially-distributed ecohydrologic model to investigate the specific weight of factors that contribute to pasture production in a semiarid watershed of 99.5 ha in western Spain. This model couples a two layer (canopy and understory) vertical local closure energy balance scheme, a hydrologic model and a carbon uptake and vegetation growth component, and it was run using a synthetic daily climate dataset generated by a stochastic weather generator, which reproduced the range of climatic variations observed under mediterranean current climate. The modelling results reproduced satisfactorily the seasonality effects of climate as precipitation and temperatures, as well as annual and inter-annual variations of pasture production. Spatial variations of pasture production were largely controlled by topographic and tree effects, showing medium-low values depending of considered areas. These low values require introduction of feed to

  15. Comparison of bioavailability between the most available generic tablet formulation containing artemether and lumefantrine on the Tanzanian market and the innovator’s product

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existence of anti-malarial generic drugs with low bioavailability marketed on sub-Saharan Africa raises a concern on patients achieving therapeutic concentrations after intake of such products. This work compared bioavailability of one generic tablet formulation with innovator’s product. Both were fixed dose combination tablet formulations containing artemether and lumefantrine. Methodology The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in which a survey of the most abundant generic containing artemether-lumefantrine tablet formulation was carried out in retail pharmacies. The most widely available generic (Artefan®, Ajanta Pharma Ltd, Maharashtra, India) was sampled for bioavailability comparison with Coartem® (Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland) - the innovator’s product. A randomized, two-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 18 healthy Tanzanian black male volunteers. Each volunteer received Artefan® (test) and Coartem® (as reference) formulation separated by 42 days of drug-free washout period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 168 hours after oral administration of a single dose of each treatment. Quantitation of lumefantrine plasma levels was done using HPLC with UV detection. Bioequivalence of the two products was assessed in accordance with the US Food and Drug Authority (FDA) guidelines. Results The most widely available generic in pharmacies was Artefan® from India. All eighteen enrolled volunteers completed the study and both test and reference tablet formulations were well tolerated. It was possible to quantify lumefantrine alone, therefore, the pharmacokinetic parameters reported herein are for lumefantrine. The geometric mean ratios for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84% in all cases and within FDA recommended bioequivalence limits of 80% – 125%, but the 90% confidence intervals were outside FDA recommended limits (CI 49–143%, 53 - 137%, 52 - 135% respectively). There were no statistical significant

  16. Decadal variations of Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation from multiple ocean products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun; Hu, Dunxin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we examine the decadal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude (NBL) averaged over upper 100 m and underlying dynamics over the past six decades using 11 ocean products, including seven kinds of ocean reanalyzes based on ocean data assimilation systems, two kinds of numerical simulations without assimilating observations and two kinds of objective analyzes based on in situ observations only. During the period of 1954-2007, the multiproduct mean of decadal NBL anomalies shows maxima around 1965/1966, 1980/1981, 1995/1996, and 2003/2004, and minima around 1958, 1971/1972, 1986/1987, and 2000/2001, respectively. The NBL decadal variations are related to the first Empirical Orthogonal Function mode of decadal anomalies of sea surface height (SSH) in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean, which shows spatially coherent variation over the whole region and explains most of the total variance. Further regression and composite analyzes indicate that northerly/southerly NBL corresponds to negative/positive SSH anomalies and cyclonic/anticyclonic gyre anomalies in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. These decadal circulation variations and thus the decadal NBL variations are governed mostly by the first two vertical modes and attribute the most to the first baroclinic mode. The NBL decadal variation is highly positively correlated with the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) around the zero time lag. With a lead of about half the decadal cycle the NBL displays closer but negative relationship to TPDV in four ocean products, possibly manifesting the dynamical role of the circulation in the northwestern tropical Pacific in the phase-shifting of TPDV.

  17. Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Relevant to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, A. J.; Coors, J. G.; de Leon, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Hames, B. R.; Sluiter, A. D.; Weimer, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would also be beneficial for feedstock production, and examine relationships between traits that are relevant to selective breeding. We evaluated grain hybrids, germplasm bred for silage production, brown-midrib hybrids, and a leafy hybrid. Yield and composition traits were measured in four environments. There was a 53% difference in stover yield between commercial grain hybrids that were equivalent for other production-related traits. Silage germplasm may be useful for increasing stover yield and reducing lignin concentration. We found much more variation among hybrids than either in vitro ruminal fermentability or polysaccharide concentration. Correlations between traits were mostly favorable or nonexistent. Our results suggest that utilizing standing genetic variation of maize in breeding programs could substantially increase the amount of biofuels produced from stover per unit area of land.

  18. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  19. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed. PMID:24330043

  20. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-09-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October. PMID:27240238

  1. Submerged Culture of a Mycelial Formulation of a Bioherbicidal Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria with Mitigated Mycotoxin Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361390) was shown to be highly efficacious in controlling the exotic invasive weed kudzu. The mycelium can be rapidly (48 h) produced in several media including soy flour-cornmeal medium. HPLC analyses revealed that the mycelial formu...

  2. Variation in the pulmonary hypertensive responsiveness of broilers to lipopolysaccharide and innate variation in nitric oxide production by mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Bowen, O T; Wideman, R F; Anthony, N B; Erf, G F

    2006-08-01

    Variability among broilers in their pulmonary hypertensive (PH) responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appears to reflect innate variation in the types or proportions of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors released by leukocytes and endothelial cells. Two experiments were designed to evaluate possible correlations between the PH responsiveness to LPS in vivo and the quantities of nitric oxide (NO; a potent pulmonary vasodilator) produced by mononuclear cells in vitro. In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected from male broilers from a base population (control group) and from survivors of a 60% lethal dose i.v. injection of cellulose microparticles (MP survivor group). In Experiment 2, blood samples were collected from male broilers from a relaxed line and from lines known to be susceptible or resistant to pulmonary hypertension syndrome. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) from each blood sample were cultured at 2 million cells per well, remained unstimulated, or were stimulated with LPS to elicit the expression of inducible NO synthase, and the 24-h production of NO was measured. In both experiments, unstimulated PMNC cultures did not produce consistently detectable levels of NO, whereas LPS-stimulated cultures produced quantities of NO that varied widely among individuals. Nitric oxide production by cultured PMNC also was evaluated by flow cytometry, demonstrating that LPS-stimulated PMNC produced substantially more NO than did unstimulated cells in all of the groups evaluated. Moreover, NO-producing PMNC were identified to be monocytes. The same broilers from which PMNC had been isolated were catheterized subsequently to record pulmonary arterial pressure, LPS was injected i.v. to assess the amplitudes of peak and postpeak PH responses, then N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was injected to inhibit ongoing NO production. In Experiment 1, the amplitude of the peak and postpeak PH responses to LPS were correlated with the quantity of NO produced by LPS

  3. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars obtained from Monte Carlo variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Nishimura, N.; Hirschi, R.; Cescutti, G.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear data uncertainties in the production of p nuclei in massive stars have been quantified in a Monte Carlo procedure. Bespoke temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned to different types of reactions involving nuclei from Fe to Bi. Their simultaneous impact was studied in postprocessing explosive trajectories for three different stellar models. It was found that the grid of mass zones in the model of a 25 M⊙ star, which is widely used for investigations of p nucleosynthesis, is too crude to properly resolve the detailed temperature changes required for describing the production of p nuclei. Using models with finer grids for 15 M⊙ and 25 M⊙ stars with initial solar metallicity, it was found that most of the production uncertainties introduced by nuclear reaction uncertainties are smaller than a factor of two. Since a large number of rates were varied at the same time in the Monte Carlo procedure, possible cancellation effects of several uncertainties could be taken into account. Key rates were identified for each p nucleus, which provide the dominant contribution to the production uncertainty. These key rates were found by examining correlations between rate variations and resulting abundance changes. This method is superior to studying flow patterns, especially when the flows are complex, and to individual, sequential variation of a few rates.

  4. Ion Implantation Angle Variation to Device Performance and the Control in Production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.Y.; Hendrix, D.; Wu, L.Y.; Cusson, B.K.

    2003-08-26

    As the device features get smaller and aspect ratios of photoresist openings get steeper, shadowing effect has more impact on the performance of devices. Many of the traditional 7 deg. tilt implants have progressed to 0 deg. implants. But shadowing may still occur if the tilt angle deviates from normal direction. Some implants, such as halo implants, demand even more stringent angle control to reduce device performance variation. The demand for implant angle control and monitoring thus becomes more obvious and important. However, statistical process control (SPC) cannot be done on shadowing effect without special test structures. Channeling, on the other hand, provides good sensitivity in regard to implant angle changes. It is the authors' intention to introduce channeling implant in different channels to monitor the implant angle variation. The incoming <100> silicon wafers have a cut-angle spec of +/- 1.0 deg. This poses a difficulty if one wants to control the implant angle's accuracy within +/- 0.5 deg. Other measures have to be taken to ensure the consistency of test wafers and to have prompt diagnosis feedback when needed. This paper will discuss the effect of implant tilt angle on device parameters and how to control the angle variation in production. Correlations of implant tilt angle variation to ThermaWave, sheet resistance (Rs), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and device parameters will be covered with certain implant conditions.

  5. Ion Implantation Angle Variation to Device Performance and the Control in Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Hendrix, D.; Wu, L. Y.; Cusson, B. K.

    2003-08-01

    As the device features get smaller and aspect ratios of photoresist openings get steeper, shadowing effect has more impact on the performance of devices. Many of the traditional 7° tilt implants have progressed to 0° implants. But shadowing may still occur if the tilt angle deviates from normal direction. Some implants, such as halo implants, demand even more stringent angle control to reduce device performance variation. The demand for implant angle control and monitoring thus becomes more obvious and important. However, statistical process control (SPC) cannot be done on shadowing effect without special test structures. Channeling, on the other hand, provides good sensitivity in regard to implant angle changes. It is the authors' intention to introduce channeling implant in different channels to monitor the implant angle variation. The incoming <100> silicon wafers have a cut-angle spec of +/- 1.0°. This poses a difficulty if one wants to control the implant angle's accuracy within +/- 0.5°. Other measures have to be taken to ensure the consistency of test wafers and to have prompt diagnosis feedback when needed. This paper will discuss the effect of implant tilt angle on device parameters and how to control the angle variation in production. Correlations of implant tilt angle variation to ThermaWave™, sheet resistance (Rs), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and device parameters will be covered with certain implant conditions.

  6. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  7. Inter- and intra-annual variations of clumping index derived from the MODIS BRDF product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liming; Liu, Jane; Chen, Jing M.; Croft, Holly; Wang, Rong; Sprintsin, Michael; Zheng, Ting; Ryu, Youngryel; Pisek, Jan; Gonsamo, Alemu; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Clumping index quantifies the level of foliage aggregation, relative to a random distribution, and is a key structural parameter of plant canopies and is widely used in ecological and meteorological models. In this study, the inter- and intra-annual variations in clumping index values, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product, are investigated at six forest sites, including conifer forests, a mixed deciduous forest and an oak-savanna system. We find that the clumping index displays large seasonal variation, particularly for the deciduous sites, with the magnitude in clumping index values at each site comparable on an intra-annual basis, and the seasonality of clumping index well captured after noise removal. For broadleaved and mixed forest sites, minimum clumping index values are usually found during the season when leaf area index is at its maximum. The magnitude of MODIS clumping index is validated by ground data collected from 17 sites. Validation shows that the MODIS clumping index can explain 75% of variance in measured values (bias = 0.03 and rmse = 0.08), although with a narrower amplitude in variation. This study suggests that the MODIS BRDF product has the potential to produce good seasonal trajectories of clumping index values, but with an improved estimation of background reflectance.

  8. Advanced protein formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529

  9. Strain variation in microalgal lipid production during mixotrophic growth with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Kiran; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2016-03-01

    Algal cultivation at high latitudes is challenged by the relatively low annual solar flux. One possible scenario to overcome this limitation is the use of mixotrophic growth to potentially boost biomass and lipid production. Here the effect of glycerol addition on the growth and lipid production by twelve indigenous microalgae was examined. The results show that there is considerable strain dependent variation in the maximum growth rate under mixotrophic conditions with the addition of glycerol causing in some cases up to a 2.4-fold increase in growth rate and a up to a 1.9-fold increase in biomass. In addition, glycerol increased total lipid production 40-60% in some strains. These results also show the value in screening culture collections for desired traits independent of strain identification since here one (PCH02) of the five Chlorella strains showed a large increase in lipid with glycerol. PMID:26773947

  10. Roller compaction, granulation and capsule product dissolution of drug formulations containing a lactose or mannitol filler, starch, and talc.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chialu Kevin; Alvarez-Nunez, Fernando A; Rinella, Joseph V; Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Sueda, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of excipient composition to the roller compaction and granulation characteristics of pharmaceutical formulations that were comprised of a spray-dried filler (lactose monohydrate or mannitol), pregelatinized starch, talc, magnesium stearate (1% w/w) and a ductile active pharmaceutical ingredient (25% w/w) using a mixed-level factorial design. The main and interaction effects of formulation variables (i.e., filler type, starch content, and talc content) to the response factors (i.e., solid fraction and tensile strength of ribbons, particle size, compressibility and flow of granules) were analyzed using multi-linear stepwise regression analysis. Experimental results indicated that roller compacted ribbons of both lactose and mannitol formulations had similar tensile strength. However, resulting lactose-based granules were finer than the mannitol-based granules because of the brittleness of lactose compared to mannitol. Due to the poor compressiblility of starch, increasing starch content in the formulation from 0% to 20% w/w led to reduction in ribbon solid fraction by 10%, ribbon tensile strength by 60%, and granule size by 30%. Granules containing lactose or more starch showed less cohesive flow than granules containing mannitol and less starch. Increasing talc content from 0% to 5% w/w had little effect to most physical properties of ribbons and granules while the flow of mannitol-based granules was found improved. Finally, it was observed that stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH over 12 weeks, gelatin capsules containing lactose-based granules had reduced dissolution rates due to pellicle formation inside capsule shells, while capsules containing mannitol-based granules remained immediate dissolution without noticeable pellicle formation. PMID:18459052

  11. The steady-state serum concentration of genistein aglycone is affected by formulation: a bioequivalence study of bone products.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μ g molybdenum, 250 μ g boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β -glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μ M), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption. PMID:23484100

  12. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures. PMID:20501041

  13. Case study of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions and factors influencing emission variations in secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Chen; Li, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-04-01

    Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑(1-8)PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4 mg t(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5 mg t(-1). The average emission factors of ∑(1-8)PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5 ng t(-1) and 0.13 ng t(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. PMID:25637821

  14. SEBAL For Detecting Spatial Variation Of Water Productivity For Wheat In The Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwart, S. J.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    Although the use of water productivity is gaining importance for evaluating good management practices, there is no standardized framework that aids the calculations. A methodology has been developed to quantify spatial variation of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water productivity (WPET) using the SEBAL algorithm and high and low resolution satellite images. SEBAL estimated ET was validated over a wheat dominated area in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico and proved to be accurate. Estimated average wheat yields of 5.5 ton ha-1 were well within the range of measured yields reported in the literature. Area average WPET was 1.37 kg m-3 and could be considered high compared to other irrigated systems around the world It is concluded that the proposed methodology is accurate and that better knowledge of the spatial variation of WP provides valuable information for regional water managers to seek local solutions for boosting the productivity of agricultural water use by means of sharing and exchanging good management practices.

  15. Recent geographic variations in terrestrial carbon cycle based on new production efficiency model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Ichii, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon budget must be understood more accurately for the prediction of future changes in climate and carbon cycle. The goal of this study is to estimate spatial and temporal patterns of the carbon fluxes more accurately using the newly developed terrestrial biosphere model and satellite data. Our model consists of terrestrial carbon cycle and hydrology submodels. An advantage is a new approach in the LUE (Light Use Efficiency) concept, which calculates temperature and water stress factor in LUE model from a photosynthetic model and stomatal conductance formulation. In carbon cycle model, GPP is calculated from the LUE concept and satellite-based fPAR dataset. The soil carbon cycle model is based on CENTURY model with optimized water and temperature factor. Hydrological submodel is based on BIOME3, calculating ET is used by Penman-Monteith method. The model was run for 18 years (1982-1999) on a global scale, and we simulated the geographic distributions of the terrestrial carbon fluxes. We have checked simulated vegetation growth limiting factor with stress factor of MODIS NPP algorithm. Large differences were found in the northern mid and high latitude forests because soil moisture stress is not incorporated into MODIS NPP algorithm. Although responses of stress factors in MODIS NPP algorithm are mostly similar to our theoretically based one, our model works well in the soil moisture limited regions. Global total NPP was estimated at 61.7GtC/yr, and total NEP variations are strongly related with ENSO. Validation using measured values from the GPPDI database showed that our NPP estimation was within a reasonable range. The temporal patterns of the terrestrial carbon flux showed that NPP increased in the northern middle/high latitudes, central Africa, and India. In contrast, NPP decreased in the south Amazon region, the middle latitudes of the southern hemisphere, a part of North America, and Southeast Asia. Sensitivity analysis indicated that NPP

  16. Formation Sequences of Iron Minerals in the Acidic Alteration Products and Variation of Hydrothermal Fluid Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2008-12-01

    Iron minerals have important role in environmental issues not only on the Earth but also other terrestrial planets. Iron mineral species related to alteration products of primary minerals with surface or subsurface fluids are characterized by temperature, acidity and redox conditions of the fluids. We can see various iron- bearing alteration products in alteration products around fumaroles in geothermal/volcanic areas. In this study, zonal structures of iron minerals in alteration products of the geothermal area are observed to elucidate temporal and spatial variation of hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of the pyroxene-amphibole andesite of Garan-dake volcano, Oita, Japan occurs by the acidic hydrothermal fluid to form cristobalite leaching out elements other than Si. Hand specimens with unaltered or weakly altered core and cristobalite crust show various sequences of layers. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Intermediately altered layers are characterized by occurrence including alunite, pyrite, kaolinite, goethite and hematite. A specimen with reddish brown core surrounded by cristobalite-rich white crust has brown colored layers at the boundary of core and the crust. Reddish core is characterized by occurrence of crystalline hematite by XRD. Another hand specimen has light gray core, which represents reduced conditions, and white cristobalite crust with light brown and reddish brown layers of ferric iron minerals between the core and the crust. On the other hand, hornblende crystals, typical ferrous iron-bearing mineral of the host rock, are well preserved in some samples with strongly decolorized cristobalite-rich groundmass. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of iron-rich basaltic material shows iron mineral species depend on acidity and temperature of the fluid. Oxidation states of the iron-bearing mineral species are strongly influenced by the acidity and redox conditions. Variations of alteration

  17. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  18. Variation of the reactivity of solids near the interface reagent-product of the topochemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, V. V.; Lomovsky, O. I.; Zaikova, T. O.; Gavrilov, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    During the topochemical decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and copper hypophosphite an enhanced acid concentration occurs near the reagent-product interface. Concentration profiles of the acid were observed after the treatment of the partially decomposed crystals by indicator solution and by microphotometry. Profiles exhibit the diffusive characteristics. The diffusion coefficient is 10 -10 cm 2/sec for ammonium perchlorate and 10 -9 cm 2/sec for copper hypophosphite at 20°C. It is concluded that the variation of the reactivity near the interface is due to the enhanced acid concentration.

  19. The Steady-State Serum Concentration of Genistein Aglycone Is Affected by Formulation: A Bioequivalence Study of Bone Products

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandra; Burnett, Bruce P.; Polito, Francesca; Russo, Silvia; D'Anna, Rosario; Pillai, Lakshmi; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Levy, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc) per capsule) and an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate), 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μg molybdenum, 250 μg boron per two tablets) were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate) per tablet; the Squadrito formulation) in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of healthy postmenopausal women (n = 30) randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax), concentration (Cmax), half-life (T1/2), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs), Cmax (0.7 μM), T1/2 (18 ± 6.9 versus 21 ± 4.9 hrs), and AUC (9221 ± 413 versus 9818 ± 1370 ng·hr/mL). The OTC supplement's synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs), Cmax (0.57 μM), T1/2 (8.3 ± 1.9 hrs), and AUC (6474 ± 287 ng·hr/mL). Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption. PMID:23484100

  20. Global Precipitation Variations and Long-term Changes Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 25-year (1979-2004) monthly dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The emphasis is to discriminate among the variations due to ENSO, volcanic events and possible long-term changes. Although the global change of precipitation in the data set is near zero, the data set does indicate an upward trend (0.13 mm/day/25yr) and a downward trend (-0.06 mm/day/25yr) over tropical oceans and lands (25S-25N), respectively. This corresponds to a 4% increase (ocean) and 2% decrease (land) during this time period. Techniques are applied to attempt to eliminate variations due to ENSO and major volcanic eruptions. The impact of the two major volcanic eruptions over the past 25 years is estimated to be about a 5% reduction in tropical rainfall. The modified data set (with ENSO and volcano effect removed) retains the same approximate change slopes, but with reduced variance leading to significance tests with results in the 90-95% range. Inter-comparisons between the GPCP, SSWI (1988-2004), and TRMM (1998-2004) rainfall products are made to increase or decrease confidence in the changes seen in the GPCP analysis.

  1. Interannual variation in climate-potential net primary productivity relationships in differing ecosystems of California

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.W.; Randerson, J.T. )

    1994-06-01

    The seasonality and interannual variation in potential net primary production (NPP) were examined in differing vegetation types in California over three years of contrasting precipitation using co-registered maps of climate, vegetation, and 1km biweekly NDVI derived from high resolution satellite AVHRR data. Differences in seasonality of the vegetation types (annual grassland, chamise chaparral, deciduous oak woodland, and evergreen oak) were clearly evident and corresponded well to patterns observed in field studies. In years and locations having high precipitation the annual peak in NDVI occurred later in all vegetation classes. The annual sum of biweekly NDVI was correlated with annual precipitation in all vegetation types, although the slopes and intercepts of the regressions differed among types. Annual grassland showed the largest increase in sumNDVI per unit increase in total precipitation and most of the variation in grassland sumNDVI was explained by variation in autumn precipitation. In general the ratio of sumNDVI to annual precipitation was dependent on the temporal distribution of precipitation with respect to the long-term average pattern. Published relationships between precipitation and NPP were used to develop equations relating annual NDVI sum to NPP.

  2. Nitric oxide production by haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Novas, Ana; Barcia, Ramiro; Ramos-Martínez, Juan Ignacio

    2007-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as an important physiological modulator, with evidence of its role as a signalling molecule throughout the whole phylogenetic scale. In marine molluscs, it intervenes in processes related to the immune function of haemocytes. The presented results indicate that basal NO production by haemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis shows seasonal variations, with summer values statistically higher than those of winter. The presence of IL-2 increased NO production in winter. In summer, incubating the haemocytes with TNF-alpha for 6h slightly increased NO production. LPS, TGF-beta1 or PDGF did not induce significant effects on NO production by the haemocytes. Immunoblotting experiments detected two proteins that bind to vertebrate iNOS and eNOS antibodies, with different seasonal expression: the protein that binds to anti-iNOS antibody was expressed throughout the year, whereas the anti-eNOS antibody bound with a protein that was only detected in winter. IL-2 is suggested to start a signalling system dependent on the seasonal presence of winter protein. Such a system would activate the enzyme, thus favouring the higher NO production detected in winter. PMID:17574865

  3. Localizing the Holy Grail: Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric CO2 and oceanic deepwater production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2003-04-01

    The 'Holy Grail' of glacial/interglacial CO_2 research is to identify the major driver for variations in atmospheric CO_2 on this time scale. A simple mechanism has hitherto remained elusive. I use an entirely new approach to the problem, namely a global vertical advection-diffusion balance of tracers in the ocean which shows that the ocean's deepwater production (DWP) is the sought-after physical mechanism. The model adequately reproduces modern pCO_2 and vertical profiles of temperature, ΣCO_2, Alkalinity, PO_4, and O_2 in the ocean. Based on recently advanced compelling evidence for reduced glacial DWP, the model will then be shown to explain the glacial pCO_2 of 200~μatm. over a full glacial/interglacial transition (20~ky), model results excellently reproduce the observed temporal evolution of atmospheric CO_2 and deep ocean CaCO_3 saturation. The mechanism also explains the remarkable correlation between Antarctic temperature and CO_2 as recorded in ice cores. The ocean's deepwater production rate is hence identified as the dominant driver of glacial/interglacial CO_2 variations through its effect on the vertical distribution of heat and elements in the sea, initially set into motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

  4. Relative bioavailability of commercial ampicillin formulations in man

    PubMed Central

    Mayersohn, M.; Endrenyi, L.

    1973-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of three commercial ampicillin products was examined in 12 human subjects using a crossover experimental design. Based upon the areas under the ampicillin plasma concentration-time curves after the oral administration of 250 mg. ampicillin and using an analysis of variance technique no statistically significant differences were found between the products examined. These findings are in contrast to those of a recent report and appear to be explained by formulation differences. These relatively minor differences in formulation reflect the importance of formulation variables in providing efficient drug therapy. The intrasubject variation associated with several of these products is quite marked and is consistent with the incomplete and erratic absorption of this antibiotic in man. PMID:4758871

  5. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni; Bustamante, Maria Angeles; Ben Amara, Mouna; Tittarelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste) for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.); melon, (Cucumis melo L.); and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses. PMID:26070163

  6. FORMULATIONS OF BIOPESTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formulation development is one of many steps required for commercialization of biological pesticides and holds the promise to bridge the gap between production of the active agent and use by consumers. A biological pesticide begins with discovery of an agent capable of controlling a pest. Active a...

  7. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  8. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  9. Variation Trend and Driving Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Chinese Magnesium Production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Yu; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Gong, Xianzheng; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    As the largest magnesium producer in the world, China is facing a great challenge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. In this paper, the variation trend and driving factors of GHG emissions from Chinese magnesium production were evaluated and the measures of technology and policy for effectively mitigating GHG emissions were provided. First, the energy-related and process-oriented GHG inventory is compiled for magnesium production in China. Then, the driving forces for the changes of the energy-related emission were analyzed by the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition. Results demonstrated that Chinese magnesium output from 2003 to 2013 increased by 125%, whereas GHG emissions only increased by 16%. The emissions caused by the fuels consumption decline most significantly (from 28.4 to 6.6 t CO2eq/t Mg) among all the emission sources. The energy intensity and the energy structure were the main offsetting factors for the increase of GHG emissions, while the scale of production and the international market demand were the main contributors for the total increase. Considering the improvement of technology application and more stringent policy measures, the annual GHG emissions from Chinese primary magnesium production will be controlled within 22 million tons by 2020. PMID:26458120

  10. Quality by Design Approaches to Formulation Robustness-An Antibody Case Study.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Christine; Demeule, Barthelemy; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Adler, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The International Conference on Harmonization Q8 (R2) includes a requirement that "Critical formulation attributes and process parameters are generally identified through an assessment of the extent to which their variation can impact the quality of the drug product," that is, the need to assess the robustness of a formulation. In this article, a quality-by-design-based definition of a "robust formulation" for a biopharmaceutical product is proposed and illustrated with a case study. A multivariate formulation robustness study was performed for a selected formulation of a monoclonal antibody to demonstrate acceptable quality at the target composition as well as at the edges of the allowable composition ranges and fulfillment of the end-of-shelf-life stability requirements of 36 months at the intended storage temperature (2°C-8°C). Extrapolation of 24 months' formulation robustness data to end of shelf life showed that the MAb formulation was robust within the claimed formulation composition ranges. Based on this case study, we propose that a formulation can be claimed as "robust" if all drug substance and drug product critical quality attributes remain within their respective end-of-shelf-life critical quality attribute-acceptance criteria throughout the entire claimed formulation composition range. PMID:27001536

  11. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67%) of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than adult markets. Ensuring a long

  12. Prediction of Seasonal Climate-induced Variations in Global Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are therefore exposed to variations in yields, production, and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of major food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We assessed the reliability of hindcasts (i.e., retrospective forecasts for the past) of crop yield loss relative to the previous year for two lead times. Pre-season yield predictions employ climatic forecasts and have lead times of approximately 3 to 5 months for providing information regarding variations in yields for the coming cropping season. Within-season yield predictions use climatic forecasts with lead times of 1 to 3 months. Pre-season predictions can be of value to national governments and commercial concerns, complemented by subsequent updates from within-season predictions. The latter incorporate information on the most recent climatic data for the upcoming period of reproductive growth. In addition to such predictions, hindcasts using observations from satellites were performed to demonstrate the upper limit of the reliability of crop forecasting.

  13. Modifications ofAOAC Official Method 999.15 to improve the quantitation of vitamin K1 in complex formulated nutritional products.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Barrientos, Steven; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) occurs in foods in relatively low concentrations. It is synthesized for addition to formulated nutritional products (infant formulas, medical foods, and adult nutritional products). In recent years, nutritional products formulated with free amino acids and partially hydrolyzed proteins have been introduced in the market. Schimpf et al. demonstrated that the current AOAC Official Method 999.15 for determination of vitamin K in milk and infant formula is not adequate to quantitatively extract vitamin K1 from such products. We developed a modification of AOAC 999.15 for the analysis of vitamin K1 in these products that provides quantitative extraction by increasing the sample size, volume of extraction solvents, time of liquid/liquid partitioning, and order of the addition of solvents. This modified procedure showed extraction efficiency comparable to that of the original AOAC 999.15 procedure for analyzing infant formula matrixes and to the modified procedure of Schimpf et al. for the analysis of samples containing limited amounts of free amino acids andlor partially hydrolyzed proteins. Extraction efficiency increased more than 10% using the modified extraction procedure for samples containing higher amounts of these components. The chromatographic separation was improved by using a Dionex Acclaim triacontanol-bonded C30 column (250 x 3.0 mm id, 3 pm particle size) maintained at 15 degrees C, with acetonitrile-methanol (50 + 50, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, which provided baseline separation of the cis and trans isomers of vitamin K1 from each other and from other compounds contained in the sample extracts. PMID:23513963

  14. [Variation trends of natural vegetation net primary productivity in China under climate change scenario].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Wu, Shao-hong; Yin, Yun-he

    2011-04-01

    Based on the widely used Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ) for climate change study, and according to the features of natural environment in China, the operation mechanism of the model was adjusted, and the parameters were modified. With the modified LPJ model and taking 1961-1990 as baseline period, the responses of natural vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) in China to climate change in 1991-2080 were simulated under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B2 scenario. In 1961-1990, the total NPP of natural vegetation in China was about 3.06 Pg C a(-1); in 1961-2080, the total NPP showed a fluctuant decreasing trend, with an accelerated decreasing rate. Under the condition of slight precipitation change, the increase of mean air temperature would have definite adverse impact on the NPP. Spatially, the NPP decreased from southeast coast to northwest inland, and this pattern would have less variation under climate change. In eastern China with higher NPP, especially in Northeast China, east of North China, and Loess Plateau, the NPP would mainly have a decreasing trend; while in western China with lower NPP, especially in the Tibetan Plateau and Tarim Basin, the NPP would be increased. With the intensive climate change, such a variation trend of NPP would be more obvious. PMID:21774310

  15. Relevance of variation in use of terminology to define generic pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2015-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the use of generic drug policies to foster competition in the pharmaceutical sector, reduce drug prices, and increase access to therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about how countries implement these policies. This article describes different terminology adopted by national regulatory authorities to define generic versus proprietary drug products in developing countries, including those in Latin America, and challenges that arise in their application of WHO guidelines, such as labeling issues. The author concludes that variation in generics terminology in these countries is a result of institutional context (i.e., the public sector setting as well as the body of laws and regulations that exists in the country) and policy legacies, such as intellectual property regimes, and highlights the need for further analysis of pharmaceutical regulations to improve understanding of the barriers and political implications of generic drug policies. PMID:25915016

  16. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on. PMID:9703705

  17. Recent developments on new formulations based on nutrient-dense ingredients for the production of healthy-functional bread: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahaie, Somayeh; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2014-11-01

    Bread is one of the oldest functional foods which its health effects have been investigated in many studies. The current communication presents a review of published studies in recent years on the topic and looks at possible future trends in the improved nutritional and health qualities which have been applied in the bakery industry, directing it further to the formulation design and production of functional breads. The results show that many beneficial ingredients such as dietary fibers, phenolic antioxidants, marine ingredients, and n-3 fatty acids can be used in the bread industry to increase its functionality and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and celiac disease. Moreover, the use of psyllium seed, amaranth seed, chestnut flour and prebiotics in gluten-free bread (GFB) baking may be the promising frontier to improve overall appearance, quality, sensory properties, and shelf-life of GFB. PMID:26396285

  18. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying. PMID:27080205

  19. Selected physical and chemical properties of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts important for formulated product quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Madieh, Shadi; Augsburger, Larry L

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to assess selected formulation-relevant physical properties of several commercial Feverfew extracts, including flowability, hygroscopicity, compressibility and compactibility (2) to develop and validate a suitable extraction method and HPLC assay, and (3) to determine the parthenolide content of several commercial Feverfew extracts. Carr's index, minimum orifice diameter and particle-particle interaction were used to evaluate powder flowability. Hygroscopicity was evaluated by determining the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) after storage at various % relative humidities. Heckle analysis and compression pressure-radial tensile strength relationship were used to represent compression and compaction properties of feverfew extracts. An adapted analytical method was developed based on literature methods and then validated for the determination of parthenolide in feverfew. The commercial extracts tested exhibited poor to very poor flowability. The comparatively low mean yield pressure suggested that feverfew extracts deformed mainly plastically. Hygroscopicity and compactibility varied greatly with source. No commercial feverfew extracts tested contained the label claimed parthenolide. Even different batches from the same manufacturer showed significantly different parthenolide content. Therefore, extract manufactures should commit to proper quality control procedures that ensure accurate label claims, and supplement manufacturers should take into account possible differences in physico-chemical properties when using extracts from multiple suppliers. PMID:18446457

  20. Seasonal Variations in Alkenone Concentration and Production in the Oligotrophic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, B.; Prahl, F.; Sparrow, M.; Rust, T.

    2003-04-01

    Since its introduction in 1986, the alkenone unsaturation index (UK37) has been used extensively by the paleoceanographic community to determine variations in past sea-surface temperature (SST). Despite this widespread use, however, surprisingly little is yet known about where and when the UK37 signal exported to sediments is produced in the euphotic zone. Independent lines of empirical evidence suggest subsurface production within the euphotic zone to be an important source of alkenone export in subtropical regions of the Pacific and perhaps other oligotrophic parts of the world ocean. In the present study, we examined evidence for subsurface alkenone production in the oligotrophic subtropical North Pacific gyre at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA (22o 45N, 158oW) in three different seasons. Highest alkenone production rates, as determined by uptake of 13C-labeled inorganic carbon into alkenones during 24-hour in situ incubations, and highest alkenone standing stocks were found within (Spring, Fall) or just below (Summer) the surface mixed layer. Lowest alkenone standing stocks and lowest production rates were found within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Measured UK37 values were converted into growth temperature (gT) estimates using a culture-based calibration equation (UK37 = 0.034 T + 0.039; Prahl et al., 1988) and compared with water temperatures actually measured by CTD at the depth of sample collection. In most cases, alkenone gT under-estimated actual water temperature by 2-3oC when alkenone production rates were high and over-estimated actual water temperature by 3-4oC when production rates were low. These results suggest a non-thermal, physiological control on alkenone unsaturation and indicate that light-limited alkenone production at the DCM in the oligotrophic North Pacific is quantitatively unimportant. The physiological mechanisms responsible for these observations and the implication of these results for improved confidence in UK37

  1. Pervasive multidecadal variations in productivity within the Peruvian Upwelling System over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, S.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.; Charlier, K.; Billy, I.; Hanquiez, V.; Blanz, T.; Schneider, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    There is no agreement on the pluri-decadal expression of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific over the last millennium. Marine records from the Peruvian margin indicate humid conditions (El Niño-like mean conditions) over the Little Ice Age, while precipitation records from the eastern equatorial Pacific infer arid conditions (La Niña-like mean conditions) for the same period. We here studied diatom assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and major and minor elements at the lamination level in three laminated trigger cores located between 11°S and 15°S on the Peruvian shelf within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to reconstruct precipitation and ocean productivity at the multiannual to multidecadal timescales over the last millennium. We respected the sediment structure, thus providing the first records of the mean climatic conditions at the origin of the lamination deposition, which ones represent several years. Light laminations were deposited under productive and dry conditions, indicative of La Niña-like mean conditions in the system, while dark laminations were deposited under non-productive and humid conditions, representative of El Niño-like mean conditions. La Niña-like mean conditions were predominant during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 1000-600 years BP) and Current Warm Period (CWP; 150 years BP to present), while El Niño-like mean conditions prevailed over the Little Ice Age (LIA; 600-150 years BP). We provide evidence for persistent multidecadal variations in productivity over the last millennium, which were disconnected from the mean climate state. Multidecadal variability has been stronger over the last 450 years concomitantly to increased variability in the NAO index. Two intervals of strong multidecadal variability were also observed over the MWP, congruent to decreased solar irradiance and increased volcanic activity.

  2. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  4. Genotypic variation and slime production among blood and catheter isolates of Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Branchini, M L; Pfaller, M A; Rhine-Chalberg, J; Frempong, T; Isenberg, H D

    1994-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an important nosocomial pathogen that can proliferate in high concentrations of glucose and form biofilms on prosthetic materials. We investigated the genotypic diversity and slime production among 31 isolates of C. parapsilosis from individual patients with bloodstream or catheter infections. DNA subtyping was performed by using electrophoretic karyotyping plus restriction endonuclease analysis with BssHII followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Slime production was evaluated by growing organisms in Sabouraud broth with 8% glucose and examining the walls of the tubes for the presence of an adherent slime layer. Overall there were 14 DNA subtypes among the 31 isolates. Eighty percent of the isolates produced slime; 67% of the isolates were moderately to strongly positive, 13% were weakly positive, and 20% were not slime producers. The ability of isolates of a given DNA type to produce slime under these conditions was variable. The results of these studies indicate moderate genotypic variation among clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis. The propensity of these isolates to form slime in glucose-containing solutions suggests that this phenotypic characteristic may contribute to the ability of C. parapsilosis to adhere to plastic catheters and cause infections. PMID:8150956

  5. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  6. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rey, Benjamin; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-08-01

    It is often assumed that an animal's metabolic rate can be estimated through measuring the whole-organism oxygen consumption rate. However, oxygen consumption alone is unlikely to be a sufficient marker of energy metabolism in many situations. This is due to the inherent variability in the link between oxidation and phosphorylation; that is, the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated per molecule of oxygen consumed by mitochondria (P/O ratio). In this article, we describe how the P/O ratio can vary within and among individuals, and in response to a number of environmental parameters, including diet and temperature. As the P/O ratio affects the efficiency of cellular energy production, its variability may have significant consequences for animal performance, such as growth rate and reproductive output. We explore the adaptive significance of such variability and hypothesize that while a reduction in the P/O ratio is energetically costly, it may be associated with advantages in terms of somatic maintenance through reduced production of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we discuss how considering variation in mitochondrial efficiency, together with whole-organism oxygen consumption, can permit a better understanding of the relationship between energy metabolism and life history for studies in evolutionary ecology. PMID:26203001

  7. DNA-based methodologies for the quantification of live and dead cells in formulated biocontrol products based on Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Solsona, Cristina; Teixidó, Neus

    2015-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans strain CPA-2 is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against the major postharvest pathogens present on pome and citrus fruits. Dehydration, such as freeze-drying, spray-drying and fluidized bed drying is one of the best ways to formulate BCAs. In this work, the survival of CPA-2 cells after formulation was determined by dilution plating and molecular methods as qPCR alone and combined with a sample pretreatment with a propidium monoazide dye (PMA-qPCR) and they were used to calculate treatment concentrations in efficacy trials on postharvest oranges. Furthermore, no significant differences in CPA-2 survival were observed as determined by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR after both the freeze drying and fluidized bed drying processes; however, an interesting significant difference was observed in the spray dried product comparing all quantitative methods. A difference of 0.48 and 2.17 log10 CFU or cells g/dw was observed among PMA-qPCR with qPCR and dilution plating, respectively. According to our study, dilution plating was shown to be an unreliable tool for monitoring the survival of CPA-2 after spray drying. In contrast, the combination of PMA and qPCR enabled a quick and unequivocal methodology to enumerate viable and VBNC CPA-2 cells under stress-dried conditions. Efficacy trials showed that, after 3 days, spray drying formulation rehydrated with 10% non-fat skimmed milk (NFSM) was as effective as fresh cells to control Penicillium digitatum in oranges. PMID:26114590

  8. Marginal Lands Gross Primary Production Dominate Atmospheric CO2 Interannual Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlström, A.; Raupach, M. R.; Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Jung, M.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1960s terrestrial ecosystems have acted as a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions in an average year. Variations in this land carbon sink are also responsible for most of the large interannual variability in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While most evidence places the majority of the sink in highly productive forests and at high latitudes experiencing warmer and longer growing seasons, the location and the processes governing the interannual variations are still not well characterised. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that the long-term trend and the variability in the land CO2 sink are respectively dominated by geographically distinct regions: the sink by highly productive lands, mainly forests, and the variability by semi-arid or "marginal" lands where vegetation activity is strongly limited by water and therefore responds strongly to climate variability. Using novel analysis methods and data from both upscaled flux-tower measurements and a dynamic global vegetation model, we show that (1) the interannual variability in the terrestrial CO2 sink arises mainly from variability in terrestrial gross primary production (GPP); (2) most of the interannual variability in GPP arises in tropical and subtropical marginal lands, where negative anomalies are driven mainly by warm, dry conditions and positive anomalies by cool, wet conditions; (3) the variability in the GPP of high-latitude marginal lands (tundra and shrublands) is instead controlled by temperature and light, with warm bright conditions resulting in positive anomalies. The influence of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) on the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 concentrations is mediated primarily through climatic effects on GPP in marginal lands, with opposite signs in subtropical and higher-latitude regions. Our results show that the land sink of CO2 (dominated by forests) and its interannual variability (dominated by marginal lands) are

  9. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. PMID:24840395

  10. Temporal variation of thoron decay product concentration in the atmosphere and comparison with radon decay product concentration.

    PubMed

    Winkler, R; Aehlig, K

    1998-04-01

    Seasonal and long-term variation of the airborne 212Pb concentration, representative of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of thoron decay products (EECRn220), was investigated from 1989 through 1996 at a semi-natural location in southern Germany. Continuous measurement yielded a long-term average concentration of 0.082 Bq m-3, while daily mean concentrations varied from < or = 0.01 to 0.34 Bq m-3. An average annual effective dose of 1.4 mSv due to outdoor thoron progeny concentration was estimated. This is about 2% of the dose due to the average short-lived radon progeny concentration (EECRn222) of 8.4 Bq m-3 measured for this location in the same period. In most years the seasonal pattern of 212Pb activity concentration in the atmosphere is characterized by two maxima: the first in May and the second one in September. Low concentrations are observed from November through February of each year. This is in contrast to the behaviour of the short-lived 222Rn progeny which exhibit enhanced concentrations exactly during these months. The most probable reason for the different temporal behaviour of 212Pb is the extremely reduced flux of thoron gas from the ground during the winter months. PMID:9615341

  11. Determination of Degradation Products of Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride, Lidocaine and Piroxicam in a Semi-Topical Formulation: MS-MS Confirmation of Unknown Impurities.

    PubMed

    Cioroiu, Bogdan Ionel; Grigoriu, Ioana Cezara; Cioroiu, Mona Elisabeta; Niculaua, Marius; Lupuleasa, Roxana; Lazar, Mihai Ioan

    2016-07-01

    Association of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, piroxicam and lidocaine in a topical formulation is one of the newest innovations in the pharmaceutical formulary field. In this study, a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the establishment of the impurities of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, lidocaine and piroxicam in the semisolid topical formulation. In this study, we not only determined 2,6-dimethylaniline, 2-pyrydilamine but also specified impurities of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (dibenzosuberenone, amitriptyline, carbinole, cyclobenzaprine N-oxide and anthrachinone). The target compounds were determined using a mobile phase that consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer (0.025 M; pH 6.2)-acetonitrile-methanol (60 : 13 : 27, v/v/v). A minimum of three supplementary possible degradation products were determined. Using mass spectrometry, the unspecified impurities were identified and the use of correlation matrices permitted the association with the possible source compounds. The chromatographic conditions were qualified and validated according to ICH guideline requirements to confirm specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. PMID:27056018

  12. Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract in alkyl polyglucoside-based emulsion system: contribution of Confocal Raman imaging to the formulation development of a natural product.

    PubMed

    Zugic, Ana; Lunter, Dominique Jasmin; Daniels, Rolf; Pantelic, Ivana; Tasic Kostov, Marija; Tadic, Vanja; Misic, Dusan; Arsic, Ivana; Savic, Snezana

    2016-08-01

    Topical treatment of skin infections is often limited by drawbacks related to both antimicrobial agents and their vehicles. In addition, considering the growing promotion of natural therapeutic products, our objective was to develop and evaluate naturally-based emulsion system, as prospective topical formulation for skin infections-treatment. Therefore, alkyl polyglucoside surfactants were used for stabilization of a vehicle serving as potential carrier for supercritical CO2-extract of Usnea barbata, lichen with well-documented antimicrobial activity, incorporated using two protocols and three concentrations. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization suggested possible involvement of extract's particles in stabilization of the investigated system. Raman spectral imaging served as the key method in disclosing extract's particles potential to participate in the microstructure of the tested emulsion system via three mechanisms: (1) particle-particle aggregation, (2) adsorption at the oil-water interface and (3) hydrophobic particle-surfactant interactions. Stated extract-vehicle interaction proved to be correlated to the preparation procedure and extract concentration on one hand and to affect the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical features of investigated system, on the other hand. Thereafter, formulation with the best preliminary stability and liberation profile was selected for further efficiency and in vivo skin irritation potential evaluation, implying pertinent in vitro antimicrobial activity against G+ bacteria and overall satisfying preliminary safety profile. PMID:26135231

  13. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  14. Late Pleistocene temperature and productivity variations in the Benguela Current System (ODP Leg 175, Site 1082)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, C.; Rullkötter, J.

    2003-04-01

    Site 1082 (Walvis Basin) is located close to the major upwelling cells along the Southwest African coast with a year-round upwelling activity. Sediment samples spanning the last 770 kyr were investigated to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions in the Benguela upwelling system off Namibia. Alkenone-derived paleo-sea surface temperatures (calculated from the Uk'37index) roughly follow the 18O variations of planktonic foraminifera. The core shows warmer SST values (18-20°C) during interglacial stages and colder SST values (14-16°C) during glacial stages. Two long-term trends were observed: a decrease in SST values by 1°C from 770 kyr to 450 kyr and an increase in SST values by 2°C for the last 450 kyr. SST values in the northern Benguela System confirm the onset of the dominant 100 ka cycles associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation over the past 650 kyr. One important result is the observed warming trend in the Benguela Current region over the last 450 kyr. In this period, the trend to warmer sea surface temperatures is more evident during glacials, suggesting a southward migration of the polar and subpolar frontal systems and an intensification of the influence of the warm Agulhas Current on the Benguela Current System during glacial stages 10, 8, 6 and 4. Another possible mechanism that could be responsible for such a warming trend of the eastern South Atlantic is a weakening of the cross-equatorial heat transport from the South to the North Atlantic as a result of a weakening of the thermohaline circulation. The accumulation profile of the alkenones indicates an elevated marine surface productivity may have fluctuated over time due to the upwelling activity in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. The fluctuations in marine productivity are not related to the glacial-interglacial cycles which exhibit increased productivity during glacials at other locations. The marine biomarker distributions indicate that periods of higher

  15. Efficient lipase catalysed production of a lubricant and surfactant formulation using a continuous solvent-free process.

    PubMed

    Dossat, Valérie; Combes, Didier; Marty, Alain

    2002-08-01

    The transesterification of sunflower oil with a high oleic acid residue content (typically 83.5%) with butanol-1 by immobilised Lipozyme was carried out in a solvent free system and in a continuous way. During the first 6 h of reactor operation, a transition phase was observed, in which the main products were butyl ester and glycerol. This latter being insoluble in the reaction mixture, it is adsorbed onto the enzyme support thus leading to a decrease in enzyme performance. Step by step, less and less glycerol is produced and finally when glycerol is no longer produced a steady state is attained. The product composition is a mixture of butyl ester (65 molar%), monoglyceride (26 molar%), diglyceride (6 molar%) and residual triglyceride (3 molar%). This mixture has interesting lubricant and surfactant properties. The reactor was maintained without any loss in activity for a period of 3 months. This result is very different to that obtained using an organic solvent (n-hexane) which leads to a total loss of enzyme activity within a few hours. PMID:12067518

  16. Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Peinado, I; Miles, W; Koutsidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Thermal degradation of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was investigated. As a novelty, EPA, DHA or fish oil (FO) were incorporated as ω-fatty acid sources into model systems containing fish powder produced via Maillard reactions. Aroma composition of the resulting products was determined and complemented with sensory evaluation. Heating of the oils led to a fast decrease of both, EPA and DHA, and to the development of characteristic volatile compounds including hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and 4-heptenal, the most abundant being (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (132±44-329±122μmol/g). EPA and DHA addition to the model systems increased the concentration of these characteristic volatile compounds. However, it did not have a considerable impact on the development of characteristic Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines and some aldehydes. Finally, the results of the sensory evaluation illustrated that panellists would chose samples fortified with FO as the ones with a more pleasant aroma. PMID:27374575

  17. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  18. Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis slime production in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Christensen, G D; Baddour, L M; Simpson, W A

    1987-12-01

    Clinical studies performed by us and others have found an association between slime production and strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci that infect indwelling medical devices. By serial low-speed centrifugation of broth cultures we have isolated a stable, weakly adherent strain (RP62A-NA) from a strongly adherent, slime-producing, pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis sensu stricto (RP62A, ATCC 35984). We obtained a second strain from RP62A-NA (RP62A-NAR) by serial subculture of glass-adherent cells of RP62A-NA. All three strains had the same pattern of biochemical reactions, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and plasmid analysis. Transmission electron micrograph sections stained with the mucopolysaccharide-specific stain alcian blue demonstrated that the adherent strains RP62A and RP62A-NAR were covered with an extracellular coat of polysaccharide-rich material. In contrast, the nonadherent RP62A-NA strain lacked this external coat. All three strains were used in a mouse model of foreign body infection and a rat model of catheter-induced infective endocarditis. The adherence characteristics of isolates of RP62A and RP62A-NA recovered from experimental animals were relatively stable, although we noted a slight but a significant increase in the adherence of RP62A-NA isolates recovered from the foreign body model. The adherence characteristics of RP62A-NAR isolates recovered from infected animals were variable; in general these isolates were less adherent than the laboratory strain of RP62A-NAR. In both models the 50% infective dose (calculated by the Reed and Muench method) was three times greater for the RP62A-NA strain than for the RP62A strain. The phenotypic expression of slime production is subject to both in vitro and in vivo variation and could play a role in the pathogenesis of foreign body infection. PMID:3679536

  19. Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Wu, Laosheng; Chang, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in southern California was studied in winter and summer. All 14 compounds were detected in influent samples from the five WWTPs except for estrone. Paracetamol, naproxen and ibuprofen were the dominant compounds, with mean concentrations of 41.7, 35.7 and 22.3 μg/L, respectively. The treatment removal efficiency for most compounds was more than 90% and concentrations in the effluents were relatively low. Seasonal variation of the compounds' concentration in the wastewater was significant: the total concentration of each compound in the wastewater was higher in winter than in summer, which is attributed to more human consumption of pharmaceuticals during winter and faster degradation of the compounds in summer. The highest concentrations of triclosan and octylphenol were detected in sewage sludge, with mean concentrations of 1505 and 1179 ng/g, respectively. Risk quotients (RQs), expressed as the ratios of environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), were less than unity for all the compounds except for estrone in the effluents, indicating no immediate ecological risk is expected. However, RQs were higher than unity for 2 EDCs (estrone and octylphenol) and carbamazepine in sludge samples, indicating a significant ecotoxicological risk to human health. Therefore, appropriate treatment of sewage sludge is required before its application. PMID:23178835

  20. Variations in productivity and eolian fluxes in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the past 110 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmand, Ali; Marcantonio, Franco; Schulz, Hartmut

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution (one to two samples/ka) radionuclide proxy records from core 93KL in the northeastern Arabian Sea provide evidence for millennial climate variability over the past 110 ka. We interpret 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes as a proxy for eolian input, and authigenic uranium concentrations as a proxy for past productivity. We attribute orbital and suborbital variations in both proxies to changes in the intensity of the southwest Indian Ocean monsoon. The highest 230Th-normalized 232Th fluxes occur at times that are consistent with the timing of the Younger Dryas, Heinrich events 1-7 and cold Dansgaard-Oeschger stadial events recorded in the GISP2 ice core. Such high dust fluxes may be due to a weakened southwest monsoon in conjunction with strengthened northwesterlies from the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia. Authigenic uranium concentrations, on the other hand, are highest during warm Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials when the southwest monsoon is intensified relative to the northwesterly winds. Our results also indicate that on orbital timescales maximum average eolian fluxes coincide with the timing of marine isotopic stage (MIS) 2 and 4, while minimum fluxes occur during MIS 1, 3 and 5. Although the forcing mechanism(s) controlling suborbital variabilities in monsoonal intensity is still debated, our findings suggest an atmospheric teleconnection between the low-latitude southwest monsoon and North Atlantic climate.

  1. Approache Pluraliste du Developpement et Etude des Variations Procedurals en Production D'Orthographes Inventees. [A Pluralistic Approach to the Development and Study of Procedural Variations in the Production of Invented Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelet, Isabelle Montesinos

    2002-01-01

    This study used a pluralistic model to examine the procedures used by two preschoolers to achieve written productions using invented orthographies. The model allows children's procedural variations to be taken into consideration by understanding the hierarchy of different processing modes available to children in completing the task and…

  2. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile. PMID:21519742

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Characterisation of Degradation Products and the Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Estimation of Impurities in the Tolterodine Tartrate Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Lakkireddy; Himaja, Malipeddi; Vasudev, Rudraraju

    2015-01-01

    A short and sensitive stability-indicating gradient RP-UPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities and degradation products of tolterodine tartrate in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed by using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH shield RP18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) column with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvent A and B at a detection wavelength of 210 nm. During the stress study, the degradation products of tolterodine tartrate were well-resolved from tolterodine and its impurities and the mass balances were found to be satisfactory in all the stress conditions, thus proving the stability-indicating capability of the method. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. During the stability (40°C/75% RH, 3 months) analysis of the drug product, one unknown impurity was detected by the above stability-indicating method. The unknown impurity was isolated by preparative HPLC and subjected to mass and NMR studies. Based on the spectral data, the unknown impurity was characterised as 2-(3-amino-1-phenylpropyl)-4-methylphenol (des-N,N-diisopropyl tolterodine). Structural elucidation of the impurity by spectral data is discussed in detail. PMID:26839802

  4. Production benefit of treatment with a dual active oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin in slaughter lambs.

    PubMed

    Geurden, T; Slootmans, N; Glover, M; Bartram, D J

    2014-09-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes have a negative impact on the productivity of grazing sheep. Control of these infections has relied for decades on the use of anthelminics, leading to anthelmintic resistance (AR) worldwide, including the UK. The use of combination anthelmintics has been advocated as one of the tools in managing AR and decreasing the economic losses associated with AR. In this study, the benefit of a new combination (derquantel plus abamectin; DQL+ABA: Startect(®) Dual Active Oral Solution for Sheep, Zoetis, at 1 mL/5 kg bodyweight) was evaluated on a farm with suspected AR to benzimidazoles, by incorporating it into the existing treatment regime. In total 100 lambs were selected and allocated to one of two treatment groups, which were treated either with DQL+ABA or fenbendazole/levamisole at monthly intervals. All lambs were co-grazing the same pasture. Weight gain and carcass quality was evaluated, as well as treatment efficacy. The efficacy of DQL+ABA was high throughout the grazing season, whereas the efficacy of the fenbendazole/levamisole treatment regime was below the threshold for anthelmintic efficacy. The high efficacy of a monthly treatment with DQL+ABA resulted in a significantly higher average daily weight gain and shorter time to reach slaughter. PMID:24986436

  5. Study of non-thermal photon production under different scenarios in solar flares. 1: Scenarios and formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the overall phenomenology involved in solar flares, it is necessary to understand their individual manifestation before building a corresponding description of the global phenomenon. Here the concern is with the production of X and gamma rays in solar flares. Flares are initiated very often within the closed magnetic field configurations of active centers. According (2) when beta = kinetic energy density/magnetic energy density approximately 0.2, the magnetic trap configuration is destructed within the time scale of the impulsive phase of flares ( 100 s). A first particle acceleration stage occurs during this phase as indicated by impulsive microwave and hard X-rays bursts. In some flare events, when the field strength beta is very high, the broken field lines may close again, such that later, in the course of the flash and main phases more hot plasma of very high conductivity is created, and so, the field and frozen plasma expand outward, as the kinetic pressure inside the closed loops increases. The magnetically trapped particles excite strong Alfven wave turbulence of small transverse scale.

  6. Validated chromatographic methods for determination of perindopril and amlodipine in pharmaceutical formulation in the presence of their degradation products.

    PubMed

    Zaazaa, Hala E; Abbas, Samah S; Essam, Hebat Allah M; El-Bardicy, Mohammed G

    2013-07-01

    Two specific, sensitive, and precise stability-indicating chromatographic methods have been developed, optimized and validated for determination of perindopril arginin (PER) and amlodipine besylate (AML) in their mixtures and in the presence of their degradation products. The first method was based on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) combined with densitometric determination of the separated bands. Adequate separation was achieved using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates and ethyl acetate-methanol-toluene-ammonia solution, 33% (6.5:2:1:0.5 by volume), as a developing system. The second method was based on high-performance liquid chromatography, by which the proposed components were separated on a reversed-phase C18 analytical column using a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5, 0.01 M)-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (60:40:0.1% by volume) with ultraviolet detection at 218 nm. Different parameters affecting the suggested methods were optimized for maximum separation of the cited components. System suitability parameters of the two developed methods were also tested. The suggested methods were validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the quantification of PER and AML in their commercial tablets. Both methods were also statistically compared to each other and to the reference methods with no significant differences in performance. PMID:23112269

  7. Naval fuel saltstone formulation change

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Langton, C.A.

    1987-10-19

    Laboratory results support a formulation change for Naval Fuels saltstone from a cement-only waste form to a cement and Class F fly ash waste form. The recommended base formulation is waste, concentrated to a SpG of 1.35, mixed with a 1:1 ratio of Type 1 Portland cement and class F fly ash to achieve a water to cementitious materials (includes fly ash) ratio of 0.4. Due to variations in waste water chemistry, permit modifications should specify formulation ranges such that saltstone physical and chemical properties are enhanced. Operations should be based on pretesting each waste batch and adjusting the base formulation within specified ranges (ie. Draft DPSOL 247 WW-0312, ``Saltcrete Formulation Testing for Rapid Set and Excess Water.``) EP toxicity and TCLP tests are included and show comparable results for both cement-only and cement/fly ash waste forms. Heat generation due to hydration, a current problem with the cementonly formulation, is significantly reduced in the cement/fly ash mixture. In addition to the improved physical characteristics of the cement/fly ash formulation, savings of approximately 33% in raw materials cost may be obtained due to the substitution of the lower cost fly ash for cement in the Naval Fuels waste solidification process.

  8. Naval fuel saltstone formulation change

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, J.P. Jr. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant); Langton, C.A. )

    1987-10-19

    Laboratory results support a formulation change for Naval Fuels saltstone from a cement-only waste form to a cement and Class F fly ash waste form. The recommended base formulation is waste, concentrated to a SpG of 1.35, mixed with a 1:1 ratio of Type 1 Portland cement and class F fly ash to achieve a water to cementitious materials (includes fly ash) ratio of 0.4. Due to variations in waste water chemistry, permit modifications should specify formulation ranges such that saltstone physical and chemical properties are enhanced. Operations should be based on pretesting each waste batch and adjusting the base formulation within specified ranges (ie. Draft DPSOL 247 WW-0312, Saltcrete Formulation Testing for Rapid Set and Excess Water.'') EP toxicity and TCLP tests are included and show comparable results for both cement-only and cement/fly ash waste forms. Heat generation due to hydration, a current problem with the cementonly formulation, is significantly reduced in the cement/fly ash mixture. In addition to the improved physical characteristics of the cement/fly ash formulation, savings of approximately 33% in raw materials cost may be obtained due to the substitution of the lower cost fly ash for cement in the Naval Fuels waste solidification process.

  9. Drivers of variation in aboveground net primary productivity and plant community composition differe across a broad precipitation gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been a goal of ecology to determine what factors drive variation in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Total annual precipitation has been shown to be a strong predictor of ANPP across broad spatial scales, but a poor predictor at local scales. Here we aim to determine the amount...

  10. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  11. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  12. Holocene size variations in two diatom species off East Antarctica: Productivity vs environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Xavier

    2009-11-01

    I here present a biometric investigation on two diatom species, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (O'Meara) Hustedt and Fragilariopsis curta (Van Heurck) Hustedt, in Holocene samples from sediment core MD03-2601 from the Antarctic Continental Shelf off Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Apical valve length measurements of the two species are compared to their respective absolute and relative abundances as a proxy for the species productivity. Fragilariopsis kerguelensis valves were longer and more abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and smaller and less abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Conversely, F. curta valves were smaller and less abundant during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and longer and more abundant during the colder Late-Holocene period. Mean apical valve length variations even follow centennial-to-millennial oscillations in the species abundances. Maximal valve length and minimal valve length were also larger during the warmer Mid-Holocene period and during the colder Late-Holocene period for F. keguelensis and F. curta, respectively. The observed positive size-abundance relationships are linked to the environmental conditions at the core location that stands today at the lower ecological limit for F. kerguelensis and upper ecological limit for F. curta. More favourable environmental conditions (warmer, less icy for F. kerguelensis and colder, icier for F. curta) allowed for sexual reproduction at the upper range of the sexually inducible size window and subsequent restoration of larger initial cells which, in turn, resulted in overall bigger size of the species populations, though vegetative multiplication was more frequent.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation of factors controlling metabolism and primary productivity in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. L.; Argerich, A.; Ashkenas, L.

    2013-12-01

    Headwater streams account for 60-80 percent of stream-channel length in river networks, yet the variability among these streams is often simplified or neglected. Better understanding of the drivers and ways to characterize this variability are crucial as we evaluate the contributions of headwaters to downstream ecosystems. Metrics of ecosystem processes, such as whole stream metabolism, incorporate numerous factors across trophic levels and are considered fundamental descriptors of ecosystem function. Because metabolism integrates the activity of all organisms carrying out photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, it has been proposed as useful in evaluating contributions from multiple headwaters to downstream sites as well as measuring how stream communities respond to environmental changes. Here we explore the spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem metabolism and primary productivity across multiple forested headwater streams and their cumulative downstream sites. We also quantify the environmental factors that most influence these processes, including stream chemistry, temperature, chlorophyll a, benthic and algal biomass, fine sediment, forest cover and shading in 14 headwater streams and four downstream sites. This study occurred as part of the pre-treatment research in the Trask River Watershed Study, which is a multi-disciplinary, multi-year research project designed to evaluate the impacts of current forest management practices on headwater and downstream aquatic ecosystems in NW Oregon. Over the four years, we consistently found the headwater and downstream reaches to be highly heterotrophic with P:R ratios less than 0.05. However nutrient concentrations were not good predictors of metabolism rates or the biomass and activity of primary producers. Even though all sites were within a 3000 ha catchment and had similar amounts of forest cover and riparian shading, we observed high spatial variability in concentrations of stream nutrients (C, N, P) and

  14. Individual variation and repeatability of methane production from dairy cows estimated by the CO₂ method in automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Cornou, C; Madsen, J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual variation, repeatability and correlation of methane (CH4) production from dairy cows measured during 2 different years. A total of 21 dairy cows with an average BW of 619 ± 14.2 kg and average milk production of 29.1 ± 6.5 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) were used in the 1st year. During the 2nd year, the same cows were used with an average BW of 640 ± 8.0 kg and average milk production of 33.4 ± 6.0 kg/day (mean ± s.d.). The cows were housed in a loose housing system fitted with an automatic milking system (AMS). A total mixed ration was fed to the cows ad libitum in both years. In addition, they were offered concentrate in the AMS based on their daily milk yield. The CH4 and CO2 production levels of the cows were analysed using a Gasmet DX-4030. The estimated dry matter intake (EDMI) was 19.8 ± 0.96 and 23.1 ± 0.78 (mean ± s.d.), and the energy-corrected milk (ECM) production was 30.8 ± 8.03 and 33.7 ± 5.25 kg/day (mean ± s.d.) during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively. The EDMI and ECM had a significant influence (P<0.001) on the CH4 (l/day) yield during both years. The daily CH4 (l/day) production was significantly higher (P<0.05) during the 2nd year compared with the 1st year. The EDMI (described by the ECM) appeared to be the key factor in the variation of CH4 release. A correlation (r=0.54) of CH4 production was observed between the years. The CH4 (l/day) production was strongly correlated (r=0.70) between the 2 years with an adjusted ECM production (30 kg/day). The diurnal variation of CH4 (l/h) production showed significantly lower (P<0.05) emission during the night (0000 to 0800 h). The between-cows variation of CH4 (l/day, l/kg EDMI and l/kg ECM) was lower compared with the within-cow variation for the 1st and 2nd years. The repeatability of CH4 production (l/day) was 0.51 between 2 years. In conclusion, a higher EDMI (kg/day) followed by a higher ECM (kg/day) showed a higher CH4 production

  15. Effects of high dietary fibre diets formulated from by-products from vegetable and agricultural industries on plasma metabolites in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Yde, Christian Clement; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the biochemical influence of feeding high dietary fibre (DF) diets formulated from by-products from the vegetable and agricultural industries to sows during early to mid-gestation. The effect of feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on diurnal plasma metabolites patterns was also examined. The study included a total of 48 gestating sows from four blocks (12 gestating sows in each block). The sows were fed four different diets containing varying levels of starch (304-519 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and DF (171-404 g/kg DM) but with equal amounts of net energy. The low-DF diet (control) was based on barley and wheat, and the three high-DF diets formulated by replacing barley and wheat by pectin residue, sugar beet pulp and potato pulp, respectively. The experimental design comprised two periods of 4 weeks each. Half the sows were fed once daily at 08:00 h in the first period and twice daily at 08:00 and 15:00 h during the second period, and vice versa for the other half of the sows. Plasma samples from vena jugularis were collected by venipuncture at 07:00, 09:00, 12:00 and 19:00 h. Feeding high-DF increased plasma short-chain fatty acids (p = 0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (p < 0.001). However, there was no clear effect of DF on glucose and insulin responses. A negative correlation between amount of DF in the diets and plasma creatine (R2 = 1.00; diet effect: p = 0.02) suggested that plasma creatine concentrations was an indicator for the level of glucose-glycogen interchange. Furthermore, an explorative approach using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomics identified betaine (p < 0.001), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2; p < 0.001) and scyllo-inositol (p < 0.001) as biomarkers for the different by-products; pectin residue was related to high plasma levels of DMSO2, sugar beet pulp to plasma betaine, DMSO2 and scyllo-inositol, and potato pulp to plasma DMSO2 and scyllo-inositol. In conclusion, replacing

  16. Formal descriptions for formulation.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Two formalisms used to describe the physical microstructure and the organization of formulated products are given. The first, called "complex disperse systems formalism" (CDS formalism) is useful for the description of the physical nature of disperse matter. The second, called "non periodical organizational space formalism" (NPOS formalism) has the same operators as the CDS formalism, but different elements; it is useful to describe the arrangement of any objects in space. Both formalisms can be viewed as the same, applied to different orders of magnitude for spatial size. PMID:17875375

  17. Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Melinda A; Williams, Tony D

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed individual variation in work load (nest visit rate) during chick-rearing, and the consequences of this variation in terms of breeding productivity, in a highly synchronous breeder, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) focusing on female birds. There was marked (10- to 16-fold) variation in total, female and male nest visit rates, among individuals, but individual variation in female nest visit rate was independent of environment (rainfall, temperature) and metrics of individual quality (laying date, clutch size, amount of male provisioning help), and was only weakly associated with chick demand (i.e., day 6 brood size). Female nest visit rate was independent of date and experimentally delayed birds provisioned at the same rate as peak-nesting birds; supporting a lack of effect of date per se. Brood size at fledging was positively but weakly related to total nest visit rate (male + female), with >fivefold variation in nest visit rate for any given brood size, and in females brood size at fledging and chick mass at fledging were independent of female nest visit rate, that is, individual variation in workload was not associated with higher productivity. Nevertheless, nest visit rate in females was repeatable among consecutive days (6–8 posthatching), and between peak (first) and second broods, but not among years. Our data suggest that individual females behave as if committed to a certain level of parental care at the outset of their annual breeding attempt, but this varies among years, that is, behavior is not fixed throughout an individual's life but represents an annually variable decision. We suggest females are making predictable decisions about their workload during provisioning that maximizes their overall fitness based on an integration of information on their current environment (although these cues currently remain unidentified). PMID:26380688

  18. Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Williams, Tony D

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed individual variation in work load (nest visit rate) during chick-rearing, and the consequences of this variation in terms of breeding productivity, in a highly synchronous breeder, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) focusing on female birds. There was marked (10- to 16-fold) variation in total, female and male nest visit rates, among individuals, but individual variation in female nest visit rate was independent of environment (rainfall, temperature) and metrics of individual quality (laying date, clutch size, amount of male provisioning help), and was only weakly associated with chick demand (i.e., day 6 brood size). Female nest visit rate was independent of date and experimentally delayed birds provisioned at the same rate as peak-nesting birds; supporting a lack of effect of date per se. Brood size at fledging was positively but weakly related to total nest visit rate (male + female), with >fivefold variation in nest visit rate for any given brood size, and in females brood size at fledging and chick mass at fledging were independent of female nest visit rate, that is, individual variation in workload was not associated with higher productivity. Nevertheless, nest visit rate in females was repeatable among consecutive days (6-8 posthatching), and between peak (first) and second broods, but not among years. Our data suggest that individual females behave as if committed to a certain level of parental care at the outset of their annual breeding attempt, but this varies among years, that is, behavior is not fixed throughout an individual's life but represents an annually variable decision. We suggest females are making predictable decisions about their workload during provisioning that maximizes their overall fitness based on an integration of information on their current environment (although these cues currently remain unidentified). PMID:26380688

  19. Production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality.

    PubMed

    Ariahu, C C; Ukpabi, U; Mbajunwa, K O

    1999-01-01

    Germination and fermentation were investigated as methods of improving the nutritional and organoleptic properties of soybean and African breadfruit seed based food formulations. Four products consisting of germinated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GFSB), nongerminated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGFSB), germinated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GNFSB) and nongerminated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGNFSB) were prepared. Phytic acid contents, in vitro protein digestibilities, protein efficiency ratios (PER), net protein ratios (NPR), flavor, appearance and overall acceptability were evaluated. Germination followed by natural lactic fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the phytic acid by a factor of 11.6 in NGNFSB compared to reduction factors of 2.1 and 1.5 in GNFSB and NGFSB, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility (%), PER and NPR values of 73.4, 2.46 and 3.62 for GFSB; 71.1, 2.35 and 3.46 for NGFSB; 68.7, 2.16 and 3.41 for GNFSB were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 64.7, 1.82 and 2.11 for NGNFSB. The mean sensory scores were 5.26-5.67 for GNFSB, 4.66-4.94 for NGNFSB, 4.33-4.80 for GFSB and 4.27-4.34 for NGFSB on a 7-point rating scale. PMID:10716401

  20. Pesticide potential dermal exposure during the manipulation of concentrated mixtures at small horticultural and floricultural production units in Argentina: the formulation effect.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; March, Hugo; Rojic, Guillermo; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2014-02-15

    Potential dermal exposure measurements of horticultural and floricultural field operators that handled concentrated pesticides showed a correlation with the types of formulations used (liquid or solid) during the mix and load stage. For liquid formulations, hand exposure was 22-62 times greater than that for solid ones. The dermal exposure mechanism was studied for this formulation under laboratory conditions, finding that the rupture of the aluminum seal of the pesticide container and the color of the liquid formulation are important factors. Additionally, significant external surface contamination of pesticide containers collected at horticultural farms was found. This could partially account for the differences between the exposure levels of field and laboratory experiments for liquid formulations. PMID:24317159

  1. New European commission regulation on variations to the terms of marketing authorization for medicinal products and its impact on Croatian legislation.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Adrijana Ilić; Tomić, Sinisa; Simicić, Mirna

    2010-09-01

    Variations introduced to medicinal product documentation must not affect the quality, efficacy, and safety of the product. Croatian Medicinal Products Act and accompanying ordinances are largely aligned with the EU regulations. The EU has now tried to simplify the issue of variations with a new Regulation, creating differences in the definition of and approach to resolving certain types of variations between Croatia and the EU. These differences could hinder the approval procedure for variations in Croatia, particularly for medicines already approved in the EU. Amending the Croatian Ordinance on medicines already authorised in the EU would be one way of maintaining the efficiency of the Croatian regulatory system. PMID:20860972

  2. Continuous production of controlled release dosage forms based on hot-melt extruded gum arabic: Formulation development, in vitro characterization and evaluation of potential application fields.

    PubMed

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2016-01-30

    Controlled release matrices based on gum arabic are prepared by applying a continuous hot-melt extrusion technology: the pre-mixture consisting of gum arabic and the incorporated API is plasticized by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, an intermediate strand is formed by a round nozzle. Single dosed matrices are prepared by cutting the semi elastic strand with a rotary fly cutter. Paracetamol and phenazone are used as model drug substances. High drug loadings up to 70% can be realized. Matrices are characterized concerning their crystalline structure, in vitro dissolution, disintegration time and various physical parameters including glass transition temperature (Tg). Release characteristic behavior is mainly influenced by erosion of the matrices. At higher drug loadings also diffusion based transport gain importance. The solubility of the API shows an influence on the erosion rate of the matrix and should therefore be considered during formulation development. Tg is mainly influenced by the solubility of the API in the surrounding matrix. High soluble phenazone shows a decrease, whereas paracetamol addition has nearly no influence on the Tg of the polymeric system. Activation energy (EA) of the glass transition is determined via dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of APIs leads to a reduction of EA indicating an increased molecular movement at Tg region compared to placebo extrudates. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystalline state of the extruded matrices and interaction between matrix and incorporated APIs. The production of thin layer matrices is an interesting option to provide a fast drug delivery to the oral cavity. High mechanical strength combined with fast disintegration times can be a great advantage for the development of oro-dispersible tablets. A great benefit of the evaluated processing technology is the simple adaption of the final dose by varying either the cutting length or the diameter of the nozzle resulting in a cost

  3. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Dan-Feng; Liu, Josephine; Davitz, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention. PMID:24309313

  5. Characterization, Genetic Variation, and Combining Ability of Maize Traits Beneficial to the Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize stover has been identified as an important feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Our objectives were to measure hybrid effect and combining ability patterns of traits related to cellulosic ethanol production, determine if germplasm and mutations used for silage production would a...

  6. Discovery of Genetic Variation that Enhances Improvement of Dairy Production and Health in Cattle and Buffalos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis underlying this project is that genome-wide information on genetic variation will increase accuracy of predictions of genetic merit; will enhance heritability and reliability of these predictions through improved pedigree information; and will improve detection of most quantitative tr...

  7. Sociophonetic Variation in the Production and Perception of Obstruent Voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohena-Madrazo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents an instrumental study of variation in fricative voicing in Buenos Aires Spanish (BAS), particularly with respect to the devoicing change of the postalveolar fricative: /y/greater than/[function of]/. It proposes a novel way of determining the completion of this change by comparing the percentage voicing of the…

  8. Production of different phenotypes from the same genotype in the same environment by developmental variation.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter; Huber, Martin; Thiemann, Markus; van den Boogaart, Gerald; Schmitz, Oliver J; Schubart, Christoph D

    2008-02-01

    The phenotype of an organism is determined by the genes, the environment and stochastic developmental events. Although recognized as a basic biological principle influencing life history, susceptibility to diseases, and probably evolution, developmental variation (DV) has been only poorly investigated due to the lack of a suitable model organism. This obstacle could be overcome by using the recently detected, robust and highly fecund parthenogenetic marbled crayfish as an experimental animal. Batch-mates of this clonal crayfish, which were shown to be isogenic by analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci, exhibited surprisingly broad ranges of variation in coloration, growth, life-span, reproduction, behaviour and number of sense organs, even when reared under identical conditions. Maximal variation was observed for the marmorated coloration, the pattern of which was unique in each of the several hundred individuals examined. Variation among identically raised batch-mates was also found with respect to fluctuating asymmetry, a traditional indicator of the epigenetic part of the phenotype, and global DNA methylation, an overall molecular marker of an animal's epigenetic state. Developmental variation was produced in all life stages, probably by reaction-diffusion-like patterning mechanisms in early development and non-linear, self-reinforcing circuitries involving behaviour and metabolism in later stages. Our data indicate that, despite being raised in the same environment, individual genotypes can map to numerous phenotypes via DV, thus generating variability among clone-mates and individuality in a parthenogenetic species. Our results further show that DV, an apparently ubiquitous phenomenon in animals and plants, can introduce components of randomness into life histories, modifying individual fitness and population dynamics. Possible perspectives of DV for evolutionary biology are discussed. PMID:18245627

  9. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Mishra, Sanjay K; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Sihota, Ramanjit; Kotnala, Ankita; Bhartiya, Shibal; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparative evaluation of pharmaceutical characteristics of three marketed generic vs branded travoprost formulations. Materials and methods: Three generic travoprost formulations and one branded (Travatan without benzalkonium chloride) formulation (10 vials each), obtained from authorized agents from the respective companies and having the same batch number, were used. These formulations were coded and labels were removed. At a standardized room temperature of 25°C, the drop size, pH, relative viscosity, and total drops per vial were determined for Travatan (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) and all the generic formulations. Travoprost concentration in all four brands was estimated by using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry LCMS. Results: Out of the four formulations, two drugs (TP 1 and TP 4) were found to follow the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) limits for ophthalmic formulation regarding drug concentration, while the remaining two drugs failed due to the limits being either above 110% (TP 2) or below 90% (TP 3). Two of them (TP 1 and TP 2) had osmolality of 313 and 262 mOsm respectively, which did not comply with the osmolality limits within 300 mOsm (+ 10%). The pH of all the formulations ranged between 4.7 and 5.9, and the mean drop size was 30.23 ± 6.03 uL. The total amount of drug volume in the bottles varied from 2.58 ± 0.15 to 3.38 ± 0.06 mL/bottle. Conclusion: There are wide variations in the physical properties of generic formulations available in India. Although some generic drugs are compliant with the pharmacopeia standards, this study underscores the need for a better quality control in the production of generic travoprost formulations. How to cite this article: Wadhwani M, Mishra SK, Angmo D, Velpandian T, Sihota R, Kotnala A, Bhartiya S, Dada T. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Generic and Branded Travoprost Formulations. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2016;10(2):49-55. PMID:27536047

  10. Management of the virulent influenza virus infection by oral formulation of nonhydrolized carnosine and isopeptide of carnosine attenuating proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoly I

    2012-01-01

    important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied nonhydrolized formulated species of carnosine include at least direct interaction with nitric oxide, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The developed and patented by the authors formulations of nonhydrolized in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (gamma-glutamyl-carnosine) products have a promise in the Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection disease control and prevention. PMID:20841992

  11. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  12. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping field CDU on advanced production devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Jong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Hak Kwon; Kim, Sung Su; Bae, Koon Ho; Spielberg, Hedvi; Lee, Yun Ho; Levi, Shimon; Bustan, Yariv; Rozentsvige, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) have a dramatic effect on printed final lines and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, layer stack thickness, composition variations, and exposure variations. Process variations, in advanced VLSI production designs, specifically in memory devices, attributed to CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations. These variations significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or OCD metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time to set and cover only selected points of wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. on the implementation of a complementary method to the CDSEM and OCD tools, to monitor defect density and post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM) is based on measuring variations in the scattered light from periodic structures. The application is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV bright field (BF) wafer inspection tool under optimized illumination and collection conditions. The UVisionTM has already passed a successful feasibility study on DRAM products with 66nm and 54nm design rules. The tool has shown high sensitivity to variations across an FEM wafer in both exposure and focus axes. In this article we show how PVM can help detection of Field to Field variations on DRAM wafers with 44nm design rule during normal production run. The complex die layout and the shrink in cell dimensions require high sensitivity to local variations within Dies or Fields. During normal scan of production wafers local Process variations are translated into GL (Grey Level) values

  13. Comment on "Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust".

    PubMed

    Goff, John A

    2015-09-01

    Crowley et al. (Reports, 13 March 2015, p. 1237) propose that abyssal hill topography can be generated by variations in volcanism at mid-ocean ridges modulated by Milankovitch cycle-driven changes in sea level. Published values for abyssal hill characteristic widths versus spreading rate do not generally support this hypothesis. I argue that abyssal hills are primarily fault-generated rather than volcanically generated features. PMID:26339022

  14. Comment on “Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Crowley et al. (Reports, 13 March 2015, p. 1237) propose that abyssal hill topography can be generated by variations in volcanism at mid-ocean ridges modulated by Milankovitch cycle-driven changes in sea level. Published values for abyssal hill characteristic widths versus spreading rate do not generally support this hypothesis. I argue that abyssal hills are primarily fault-generated rather than volcanically generated features.

  15. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent geologic, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget,' defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Seismic reflection and refraction studies indicate that the crust becomes anomalously thin near fracture zones, but reference must be made to the boundary between residual upper mantle peridotites and overlying cumulate rocks in order to assess potential variations in the magma budget. The position of this interface, however, generally is not constrained by geophysical studies. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  16. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  17. Irreversibility and entropy production in transport phenomena, IV: Symmetry, integrated intermediate processes and separated variational principles for multi-currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of entropy production in transport phenomena is discussed again by emphasizing the role of symmetry of non-equilibrium states and also by reformulating Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion to derive entropy production from it. This yields conceptual reviews of the previous papers [M. Suzuki, Physica A 390 (2011) 1904; 391 (2012) 1074; 392 (2013) 314]. Separated variational principles of steady states for multi external fields {Xi} and induced currents {Ji} are proposed by extending the principle of minimum integrated entropy production found by the present author for a single external field. The basic strategy of our theory on steady states is to take in all the intermediate processes from the equilibrium state to the final possible steady states in order to study the irreversible physics even in the steady states. As an application of this principle, Gransdorff-Prigogine’s evolution criterion inequality (or stability condition) dXP≡∫dr∑iJidXi≤0 is derived in the stronger form dQi≡∫drJidXi≤0 for individual force Xi and current Ji even in nonlinear responses which depend on all the external forces {Xk} nonlinearly. This is called “separated evolution criterion”. Some explicit demonstrations of the present general theory to simple electric circuits with multi external fields are given in order to clarify the physical essence of our new theory and to realize the condition of its validity concerning the existence of the solutions of the simultaneous equations obtained by the separated variational principles. It is also instructive to compare the two results obtained by the new variational theory and by the old scheme based on the instantaneous entropy production. This seems to be suggestive even to the energy problem in the world.

  18. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  19. Neonates need tailored drug formulations

    PubMed Central

    Allegaert, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are very strong tools used to improve outcome in neonates. Despite this fact and in contrast to tailored perfusion equipment, incubators or ventilators for neonates, we still commonly use drug formulations initially developed for adults. We would like to make the point that drug formulations given to neonates need to be tailored for this age group. Besides the obvious need to search for active compounds that take the pathophysiology of the newborn into account, this includes the dosage and formulation. The dosage or concentration should facilitate the administration of low amounts and be flexible since clearance is lower in neonates with additional extensive between-individual variability. Formulations need to be tailored for dosage variability in the low ranges and also to the clinical characteristics of neonates. A specific focus of interest during neonatal drug development therefore is a need to quantify and limit excipient exposure based on the available knowledge of their safety or toxicity. Until such tailored vials and formulations become available, compounding practices for drug formulations in neonates should be evaluated to guarantee the correct dosing, product stability and safety. PMID:25254168

  20. Titan-like exoplanets: Variations in geometric albedo and effective transit height with haze production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checlair, Jade; McKay, Christopher P.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Extensive studies characterizing Titan present an opportunity to study the atmospheric properties of Titan-like exoplanets. Using an existing model of Titan's atmospheric haze, we computed geometric albedo spectra and effective transit height spectra for six values of the haze production rate (zero haze to twice present) over a wide range of wavelengths (0.2-2 μm). In the geometric albedo spectra, the slope in the UV-visible changes from blue to red when varying the haze production rate values from zero to twice the current Titan value. This spectral feature is the most effective way to characterize the haze production rates. Methane absorption bands in the visible-NIR compete with the absorbing haze, being more prominent for smaller haze production rates. The effective transit heights probe a region of the atmosphere where the haze and gas are optically thin and that is thus not effectively probed by the geometric albedo. The effective transit height decreases smoothly with increasing wavelength, from 376 km to 123 km at 0.2 and 2 μm, respectively. When decreasing the haze production rate, the methane absorption bands become more prominent, and the effective transit height decreases with a steeper slope with increasing wavelength. The slope of the geometric albedo in the UV-visible increases smoothly with increasing haze production rate, while the slope of the effective transit height spectra is not sensitive to the haze production rate other than showing a sharp rise when the haze production rate increases from zero. We conclude that geometric albedo spectra provide the most sensitive indicator of the haze production rate and the background Rayleigh gas. Our results suggest that important and complementary information can be obtained from the geometric albedo and motivates improvements in the technology for direct imaging of nearby exoplanets.

  1. Diagenetic variation in the Oregon Coast Range: Implications for rock strength, soil production, hillslope form, and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms by which lithology modulates geomorphic processes are poorly known. In the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), rhythmically bedded sandstones of the Eocene Tyee Formation underlie steep, soil-mantled hillslopes, with relatively uniform ridge-valley spacing. These characteristic landforms are perturbed where diagenetic variations manifest as resistant cliffs. Here we use petrology, rock mechanics, and lidar to characterize grain-scale variations in rock properties and their influence on rock strength, hillslope processes, and landscape morphology in two adjacent watersheds. Petrographic analyses suggest that a suite of diagenetic products in the "resistant" bedrock account for a 2.5 times increase in tensile strength relative to "typical" Tyee bedrock. Our reference catchment exhibits negligible resistant outcrops, and consistent hillslope gradients and longitudinal valley profiles. By contrast, the adjacent catchment teems with resistant, 1 to 10 m thick, noncontiguous sandstone beds that form hanging valleys with gentle upstream hillslopes and anomalously narrow valleys. Mechanical and topographic analyses suggest that the low fracture density characteristic of these resistant beds may render them relatively impervious to comminution by tree root activity, the dominant OCR soil production mechanism. Based on both hillslope gradient- and hilltop curvature-erosion models, we estimate that hillslopes perched above resistant beds erode at approximately half the pace of hillslopes unencumbered by downstream knickpoints. The diagenetic variations likely influence relief at the watershed scale. Depositional position and diagenetic processes appear to control the occurrence of resistant beds, providing a framework to quantify how seemingly subtle variations in rock properties can impose first-order controls on landscape form and evolution.

  2. SPATIAL VARIATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONCENTRATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MINIMIZING EXPOSURE MISCLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: Many epidemiological studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) rely on system average DBP concentrations as surrogates of personal exposures. Here we examine the potential effect of exposure misclassification from spatial variability on the association between mean bir...

  3. Variation and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and net primary production of the Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    The gradients of elevations and latitudes in the Appalachian Mountains provide a unique regional perspective on landscape variations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. We reveal patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology, and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Global Production Efficiency Model datasets. We analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS), and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compare the results in different spatial contexts, including North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations, we analyze data and compare the results between the 30°-to-40°N and the 40°-to-50°N latitudes. The result reveal significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was a -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years from 1982 to 2006. The LOS was prolonged by 0.3 days per year-1 during the 25-year percent. The NPP increased by 2.68 g Cm-2 yr-2 from 1981 to 2000.

  4. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Morrison, L.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration.

  5. Late Holocene SST and primary productivity variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea as a recorder for winter monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Anna; Gaye, Birgit; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Variability in the oceanic environment of the Arabian Sea region is strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon cycle of alternating wind directions. Strong south-westerly winds during the summer monsoon induce upwelling of nutrient rich waters along the coast off Somalia, Oman and southwest India, which result in high rates of primary production. In the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan on the other hand, primary production and sea surface temperatures are linked to northeast monsoonal winds that cool the sea surface and drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity during the winter season. In this study, we analyzed alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) variations and proxies of primary productivity (organic carbon and δ15N) in a well-laminated sediment core from the Pakistan continental margin to establish the first high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene. Over the last 2400 years reconstructed SST in the northeastern Arabian Sea decreased whereas productivity increased, imaging a long-term trend of northeast monsoon strengthening in response to insolation-induced southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The comparison of our winter monsoon record with records of summer monsoon intensity suggests that summer and winter monsoon strength was essentially anti-correlated over the late Holocene throughout the Asian monsoon system. In addition, SST variations recorded off Pakistan match very well with Northern Hemisphere temperature records supporting the growing body of evidence that Asian climate is linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change. It reveals a consistent pattern of increased summer monsoon activity in the northeastern Arabian Sea during northern hemispheric warm periods (Medieval Warm Period, Roman Warm Period) and strengthened winter monsoon activity during hemispheric colder periods (Little Ice Age).

  6. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  7. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  8. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  9. Alice's adventures in um-derland: Psycholinguistic sources of variation in disfluency production

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that three common types of disfluency (fillers, silent pauses, and repeated words) reflect variance in what strategies are available to the production system for responding to difficulty in language production. Participants' speech in a storytelling paradigm was coded for the three disfluency types. Repeats occurred most often when difficult material was already being produced and could be repeated, but fillers and silent pauses occurred most when difficult material was still being planned. Fillers were associated only with conceptual difficulties, consistent with the proposal that they reflect a communicative signal whereas silent pauses and repeats were also related to lexical and phonological difficulties. These differences are discussed in terms of different strategies available to the language production system. PMID:25339788

  10. Time-dependent Variation in Life Cycle Assessment of Microalgal Biorefinery Co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mahdokht

    Microalgae can serve as a highly productive biological feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The lipid fraction of algal seeds has been the primary target of research for biofuel production. However, numerous assessments have found that valorization of co-products is essential to achieve economic and environmental goals. The relative proportion of co-products depends on the biomolecular composition of algae at the time of harvesting. In the present study the productivity of lipid, starch, and protein fractions were shown through growth experiments to vary widely with species, feeding regime, and harvesting time. Four algae species were cultivated under nitrogen-replete and -deplete conditions and analyzed at regular harvesting intervals. Dynamic growth results were then used for life cycle assessment using the U.S. Department of Energy's GREET model to determine optimal growth scenarios that minimize life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, eutrophication, and cumulative energy demand (CED), while aiming for an energy return on investment (EROI) greater than unity. Per kg of biodiesel produced, C. sorokiniana in N-replete conditions harvested at 12 days was most favorable for GHG emissions and CED, despite having a lipid content of <20%. N. oculata under the same conditions had the lowest life cycle eutrophication impacts, driven by efficient nutrient cycling and valorization of microalgal protein and anaerobic digester residue co-products. The results indicate that growth cycle times that maximize a single fraction do not necessarily result in the most favorable environmental performance on a life cycle basis, underscoring the importance of designing biorefinery systems that simultaneously optimize for lipid and non-lipid fractions.

  11. Evaluation of Bovine chemerin (RARRES2) Gene Variation on Beef Cattle Production Traits1

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Rempel, Lea A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Cushman, Robert A.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Shackelford, Steven D.; King, David A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P < 0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P < 0.05) and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG) and residual feed intake (RFI), respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), and marbling (P < 0.05). Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit

  12. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function. PMID:26403303

  13. Latitudinal variation of leaf stomatal traits from species to community level in forests: linkage with ecosystem productivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    To explore the latitudinal variation of stomatal traits from species to community level and their linkage with net primary productivity (NPP), we investigated leaf stomatal density (SDL) and stomatal length (SLL) across 760 species from nine forest ecosystems in eastern China, and calculated the community-level SD (SDC) and SL (SLC) through species-specific leaf area index (LAI). Our results showed that latitudinal variation in species-level SDL and SLL was minimal, but community-level SDC and SLC decreased clearly with increasing latitude. The relationship between SD and SL was negative across species and different plant functional types (PFTs), but positive at the community level. Furthermore, community-level SDC correlated positively with forest NPP, and explained 51% of the variation in NPP. These findings indicate that the trade-off by regulating SDL and SLL may be an important strategy for plant individuals to adapt to environmental changes, and temperature acts as the main factor influencing community-level stomatal traits through alteration of species composition. Importantly, our findings provide new insight into the relationship between plant traits and ecosystem function. PMID:26403303

  14. Modelling the impact of variations in ice sheet runoff on fjord and coastal biological productivity over annual to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A. J.; Cowton, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Each summer, vast quantities of surface-derived ice sheet meltwater runs off from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Much of this runoff is injected into glaciated fjords at depth beneath marine-terminating glaciers. Due to its low relative density, the runoff rises as a buoyant plume up the glaciers' calving fronts, entraining deep fjord water as it does so. This deep, ambient water tends to be relatively rich in nutrients and so the runoff plumes act to fertilise the surface layers of the fjord, leading to an observed late season spike in biological productivity in the fjord's surface layers. Although surface melting and runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet are predicted to increase significantly in the coming years and decades, the potential effect of this on fjord and coastal biological productivity is yet to be quantified. Here we present simulations of fjord circulation and biological productivity using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), and a new coupled representation of buoyant runoff plumes which enables decadal time period experiments of large three dimensional fjords. We investigate the effect on biological productivity of varying ice sheet runoff, ocean properties, near-surface winds and fjord geometry and bathymetry. We find that variations in ice sheet runoff are particularly important for biological productivity because the rate of discharge controls the depth at which the plumes reach neutral buoyancy and therefore whether the nutrient-rich deep water is delivered to the photic zone.

  15. Variation in the production rate of biosonar signals in freshwater porpoises.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Satoko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ding; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Yoda, Ken

    2013-05-01

    The biosonar (click train) production rate of ten Yangtze finless porpoises and their behavior were examined using animal-borne data loggers. The sound production rate varied from 0 to 290 click trains per 10-min time interval. Large individual differences were observed, regardless of body size. Taken together, however, sound production did not differ significantly between daytime and nighttime. Over the 172.5 h of analyzed recordings, an average of 99.0% of the click trains were produced within intervals of less than 60 s, indicating that during a 1-min interval, the number of click trains produced by each porpoise was typically greater than one. Most of the porpoises exhibited differences in average swimming speed and depth between day and night. Swimming speed reductions and usage of short-range sonar, which relates to prey-capture attempts, were observed more often during nighttime. However, biosonar appears to be affected not only by porpoise foraging, but also by their sensory environment, i.e., the turbid Yangtze River system. These features will be useful for passive acoustic detection of the porpoises. Calculations of porpoise density or abundance should be conducted carefully because large individual differences in the sound production rate will lead to large estimation error. PMID:23654415

  16. Analysis of genetic and pathogenic variation among Alternaria solani in a potato production region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year survey was conducted in a potato production region to investigate the genetic variability within naturally infecting populations of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight in potato, and between species A. solani and A. dauci. Genetic diversity among 151 isolates was assessed using s...

  17. Genetic variations alter production and behavioral responses following heat stress in two strains of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a problem for both egg production and hen well-being. Given a stressor, genetic differences alter the type and degree of hens’ responses and their adaptation. This study examined heat stress responses of two strains of White Leghorns: Dekalb XL (DXL), a commercial strain individually ...

  18. Ovine mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and its association with production and reproduction traits within an Afec-Assaf flock.

    PubMed

    Reicher, S; Seroussi, E; Weller, J I; Rosov, A; Gootwine, E

    2012-07-01

    Polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) protein- and tRNA-coding genes were shown to be associated with various diseases in humans as well as with production and reproduction traits in livestock. Alignment of full length mitochondria sequences from the 5 known ovine haplogroups: HA (n = 3), HB (n = 5), HC (n = 3), HD (n = 2), and HE (n = 2; GenBank accession nos. HE577847-50 and 11 published complete ovine mitochondria sequences) revealed sequence variation in 10 out of the 13 protein coding mtDNA sequences. Twenty-six of the 245 variable sites found in the protein coding sequences represent non-synonymous mutations. Sequence variation was observed also in 8 out of the 22 tRNA mtDNA sequences. On the basis of the mtDNA control region and cytochrome b partial sequences along with information on maternal lineages within an Afec-Assaf flock, 1,126 Afec-Assaf ewes were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups HA, HB, and HC, with frequencies of 0.43, 0.43, and 0.14, respectively. Analysis of birth weight and growth rate records of lamb (n = 1286) and productivity from 4,993 lambing records revealed no association between mitochondrial haplogroup affiliation and female longevity, lambs perinatal survival rate, birth weight, and daily growth rate of lambs up to 150 d that averaged 1,664 d, 88.3%, 4.5 kg, and 320 g/d, respectively. However, significant (P < 0.0001) differences among the haplogroups were found for prolificacy of ewes, with prolificacies (mean ± SE) of 2.14 ± 0.04, 2.25 ± 0.04, and 2.30 ± 0.06 lamb born/ewe lambing for the HA, HB, and the HC haplogroups, respectively. Our results highlight the ovine mitogenome genetic variation in protein- and tRNA coding genes and suggest that sequence variation in ovine mtDNA is associated with variation in ewe prolificacy. PMID:22266988

  19. The Sensitivity of Land Surface Model Simulations to Differences in Diurnal Variations In Two Bias Corrected Reanalysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. A.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Bias reduced forcing datasets were produced from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis. For each forcing product, an identical bias reduction scheme was applied whereby the reanalysis fields were adjusted to match monthly mean observations. The two products were then used as forcing for a land surface model. Despite the identical bias correction applied to each reanalysis, differences to the diurnal forcing are manifest in LSM model predictions of soil moisture status, evaporation, snow water equivalence, and runoff. Magnitudes of these differences and resultant effects on hydrological flux simulation are compared for 20 control watersheds distributed across the North American continent with a particular emphasis placed on which of the input variations (e.g. precipitation and radiation forcing) dominate the differences to model output, what role land surface characteristics play (e.g. soils, vegetation, topography), and how these vary over the continent.

  20. Variations in cercarial production and the level of in vitro activation of metacercariae of two different isolates of Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica infections cause large economic losses and are a serious veterinary medicine problem in many regions of the world. Recent studies examining fascioliasis in the bison population from Bialowieza National Park have shown that the prevalence of infection with this parasite is up to 100%. Liver flukes isolated from bison from Bialowieza National Park in Poland were compared with a fluke strain originally obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, UK, to determine variations in cercarial production and establish the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro. Some small differences in cercarial production between the two isolates are shown, while significant differences in the ability of their metacercariae to activate in vitro were observed. PMID:26204191

  1. Ethnic Variation in Consumption of Traditional Tobacco Products and Lung Cancer Risk in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Greg A; Hashibe, Mia; Siwakoti, Bhola; Wei, Mei; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Pun, Chin Bahadur; Milrod, Charles; Adhikari, Subodh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading contributor to cancer deaths in the developing world. Within countries, significant variability exists in the prevalence of lung cancer risk, yet limited information is available whether some of the observed variability is associated with differences in the consumption pattern of local tobacco products with differing potency. We recruited 606 lung cancer cases and 606 controls from the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital in Nepal from 2009-2012. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with different tobacco products, using unconditional logistic regression. Unfiltered cigarettes tended to be the most frequently used products across ethnic subgroup with about 53.7% of Brahmins, 60.1% of Chettris, and 52.3% of Rai/Limbu/Magar/others. In contrast, about 39.9% of Madishe/Tharu smokers reported using bidi compared with only 27.7% who smoked unfiltered cigarettes. Among those who only smoked one type of product, choor/kankat smokers had the highest lung cancer risk (OR 10.2; 95% CI 6.2-16.6), followed by bidi smokers (OR 5.6; 95% CI 3.6-8.7), unfiltered cigarettes (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.2), and filtered cigarettes (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.3). A clear dose-response relationship was observed between increased frequency of smoking and lung cancer risk across all ethnic subgroups. These results highlight the important role of traditional tobacco products on lung cancer risk in the low income countries. PMID:26320442

  2. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  3. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  4. Variations in DNA subtype, antifungal susceptibility, and slime production among clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Messer, S A; Hollis, R J

    1995-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an important nosocomial pathogen that can proliferate in high concentrations of glucose and form biofilms on prosthetic materials. We investigated the genotypic diversity, slime production, and antifungal susceptibility among 60 isolates of C. parapsilosis from 44 patients and 10 patient care providers from five different medical centers. Molecular typing was performed using macrorestriction digest profiles with BssHII followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REAG) and by electrophoretic karyotyping (EK). Slime production was evaluated by growing the organisms in Sabouraud broth with 8% glucose and examining the walls of the tubes for the presence of an adherent slime layer. Antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, and itraconazole was determined using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards proposed standard methods. Overall 28 different DNA types were identified by REAG and EK methods. MIC90 values ranged from 0.12 microgram/ml for itraconazole to 1.0 microgram/ml for fluconazole and amphotericin B. Sixty-five percent of the isolates produced slime: 37% were moderately to strongly positive, 28% were weakly positive, and 35% were negative. Overall, 83% of blood and catheter isolates were slime positive versus 53% of isolates from all other sites (P < 0.05). These data underscore the genetic diversity and susceptibility of C. parapsilosis to antifungal agents. Slime production may be important in enabling C. parapsilosis to cause catheter-related bloodstream infections. PMID:7789100

  5. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  6. Nutrient variation in an urban lake chain and its consequences for phytoplankton production.

    PubMed

    Roach, W John; Grimm, Nancy B

    2009-01-01

    In the Central Arizona-Phoenix (CAP) ecosystem, managers divert mixed stream water and groundwater to maintain an artificial lake chain in Indian Bend Wash (IBW), a historically flashy, ephemeral, desert stream. Nutrient concentrations in the CAP ecosystem's groundwater, stream water, and floodwater differ: stream water has low concentrations of both inorganic N and P, while groundwater is low in inorganic P but rich in nitrate (NO(3)(-)). Consequently, groundwater contribution drives inorganic N concentrations in the lake chain. In contrast, floodwater typically has high P concentrations while remaining low in N. Thus we expected N and P concentrations in IBW lakes to vary with the mix of water flowing through them. Elevated NO(3)(-) and low inorganic P concentrations were predicted when groundwater pumping was pronounced and this prediction was supported. We hypothesized that these predictable changes in water chemistry would affect nutrient limitation of phytoplankton. Laboratory nutrient-addition bioassays demonstrated that phytoplankton growth was P-limited throughout the summer of 2003 when N/P was high. However, after a late-season flood drove N/P below 31:1, the expected threshold between N and P limitation, N limitation was observed. Our results indicate that effects of floods, the preeminent historic drivers of Sonoran Desert stream biogeochemistry, are mitigated in urban ecosystems by decisions about which spigots to turn. Consequently, nutrient limitation of urban streams is driven as much by management decisions as by natural hydrologic variation. PMID:19465718

  7. Production and characterization of hard films of ZrN with temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, H.; Molina, C. M.; Benavides, V.; Ospina, R.; Sánchez, L. A.; Giraldo, A. L.; Arias, D. F.; Arango, Y. C.; Restrepo, E.; Arango, P.; Devia, A.

    2005-08-01

    ZrN films were grown by the PAPVD method in the pulsed arc technique; bilayers were grown on stainless steel substrates by using a repetitive pulsed vacuum arc system. To produce the coatings, a target of Zr with a purity of 99.99% was used. The system is composed by a reaction chamber with two opposite electrodes placed inside it. The target is the cathode and the samples of stainless steel are the anode. A pulsed power supply is used to generate the discharge. The coatings were grown, varying the temperature of the substrate between 50 °C and 260 °C. The pressure into chamber was 3 mbar and the voltage of the discharge was 270 V. XRD technique was employed to study the coatings, observing changes on the lattice paramenter and intensity variations of the crystallographic planes, as a function of the substrate temperature. Morphological characteristics were analized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), determining the thickness and the grain size.

  8. Effect of Tannin and Species Variation on In vitro Digestibility, Gas, and Methane Production of Tropical Browse Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, B. S.; Hassen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen tanniferous browse plants were collected from South Africa to investigate their digestibility, gas production (GP) characteristics and methane production. Fresh samples were collected, dried in forced oven, and ground and analyzed for nutrient composition. In vitro GP and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were determined using rumen fluid collected, strained and anaerobically prepared. A semi- automated system was used to measure GP by incubating the sample in a shaking incubator at 39°C. There was significant (p<0.05) variation in chemical composition of studied browses. Crude protein (CP) content of the species ranged from 86.9 to 305.0 g/kg dry matter (DM). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ranged from 292.8 to 517.5 g/kg DM while acid detergent fiber (ADF) ranged from 273.3 to 495.1 g/kg DM. The ash, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrate, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen and CP were negatively correlated with methane production. Methane production was positively correlated with NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Tannin decreased GP, IVOMD, total volatile fatty acid and methane production. The observed low methanogenic potential and substantial ammonia generation of some of the browses might be potentially useful as rumen manipulating agents. However, a systematic evaluation is needed to determine optimum levels of supplementation in a mixed diet in order to attain a maximal depressing effect on enteric CH4 production with a minimal detrimental effect on rumen fermentation of poor quality roughage based diet. PMID:25557814

  9. Variation in M protein production among Streptococcus pyogenes strains according to emm genotype.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masakado; Suzuki, Masahiro; Hirose, Kaoru; Hiramatsu, Reiji; Minagawa, Hiroko; Minami, Masaaki; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Okamoto, Akira; Ohta, Michio; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2011-06-01

    M protein is an important virulence determinant in Streptococcus pyogenes, but the amounts of M protein in various strains of the species remain to be elucidated. To assess the amount of M protein in strains of each emm genotype, dot blot analysis was performed on 141 clinically isolated strains. Among the cell membrane-associated proteins, M protein was present in greater quantities in the emm1, 3, and 6 strains than in the other emm strains. In addition three strains, one each of the emm1, 3, and 6 types, showed prolific M protein production (M protein-high producers). These three emm genotypes are frequently isolated in clinical practice. Sequencing of the csrRS gene, one of the two-component signal transduction systems implicated in virulence, was performed on 25 strains bearing different amounts of M protein. CsrS mutations, in contrast to CsrR protein, were detected in 11 strains. The M protein-high producer strain of emm1 type carried two amino acid substitutions, whereas the other three emm1 strains carried only one substitution each. The M protein-high producer expressed its emm gene more strongly than the corresponding M protein-low producer did according to TaqMan RT-PCR. These observations suggest that the accumulation of amino acid substitutions in CsrS protein may contribute, at least in part, to the large amount of M protein production seen in several emm genotypes. PMID:21371090

  10. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  11. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species. PMID:23094379

  12. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  13. Variations of the paleo-productivity in benthic foraminifera records in MIS 3 from western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Du, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding climate change of last glacial age as the background information of climate forecasting is particularly important in climate research. Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 61-24 ka B.P.) is a relative warm and unstable period in the last glacial. Millennium scale abrupt climate changes, such as Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles, are identified in this period. Research topic on the variations of monsoon during the glacial cycles, especially in MIS 3, is critical for understanding low latitude climatic change and the global paleo-environment as a whole. Fortunately, high resolution sedimentary records in western South China Sea provide us valuable materials to uncover how East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) system acts in a highly fluctuating climate ambient like MIS 3. Core 17954 is located in the modern summer upwelling area off the Vietnam coast in western South China Sea (SCS), its sediments record the variations of upwelling generated by EASM. In this work, we carry out paleo-ecological analyses on planktonic ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides) and benthic foraminifera (Bulimina aculeate, Uvigerina peregrina, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, ect.) sampled from Core 17954 to investigate paleo-productivity and nutrition change of western SCS and its relation to EASM. The results show that benthic and planktonic foraminifera have similar responses to nutrition change. Various indicators of productivity on the basis of benthic foraminiferal analyses reflect an overall three stage change trend: productivity gradually increases from the beginning of MIS 3 (60-40 ka) to its maximum during 35-30 ka, and finally declines after 30 ka. There is also another important discovery, if we observe the climate change in MIS 3 as a whole, we can also find western SCS and Northern Hemisphere High latitude have strong correspondences in such changes: Heinrich events coincided with high productivity events in the western SCS. Further, the result of

  14. Variations in vegetation cover and topography control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    The factors controlling topsoil erosion rates are relatively well understood. This explains why topsoil erosion rates on the Chinese loess plateau (CLP) can be relatively accurately estimated using a combination of empirical data and relatively simple models (Zhao et al., in press). This is, however, not the case for non-topsoil erosion (sediment production by gullying and landslides): while it is well known that these processes produce significant amounts of sediment, the factors controlling their intensity on the CLP are far less understood. In this study, the contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production on the CLP was investigated. We estimated non-topsoil erosion rates (ENT) by making the difference between measured total sediment yield and the estimated topsoil erosion in 46 gauged catchments on the CLP for the period 1950-1970, when soil conservation measures were mostly absent in the area. We tested an extensive set of environmental variables related to topography, climate and the impact of land use for correlation Our results showed that the average catchment erosion rate (E) and ENT between 1950 and 1970 were 68.29 tha‑1yr‑1 and 58.02 tha‑1yr‑1 respectively. The sediment contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production ranged between 0 and 97% with a mean of 70%. Both E and ENT were significantly related with river slope, land use, NDVI, and gully density. However, gully density was the only variable explaining a major part of the variance in both E (60%) and ENT (57%). Gully density itself was significantly related to topography and vegetation cover but not to precipitation. Importantly, gully density was not only related to overall slope steepness, but also the river gradients and the hypsometric integral, suggesting that not only land cover disturbance but also tectonic uplift may control gully density and erosion rates. The absence of a clear climate signal, both with respect to the variation in gully density

  15. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Variation in stomatal conductance and its genetic correlation with crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2015-07-01

    Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and canopy temperature have been used to estimate plant water status in many crops. The behaviour of g(s) in sugarcane indicates that the internal leaf water status is controlled by regular opening and closing of stomata. A large number of g(s) measurements obtained across varying moisture regimes, locations, and crop cycles with a diverse sugarcane germplasm composed of introgression, and commercial clones indicated that there is a high genetic variation for g(s) that can be exploited in a breeding programme. Regardless of the environmental influences on the expression of this trait, moderate heritability was observed across 51 sets of individual measurements made on replicated trials over 3 years. The clone×water status interaction (G×E) variation was smaller than the clone (G) variation on many occasions. A wide range of genetic correlations (r(g)= -0.29 to 0.94) between g(s) and yield were observed across test environments in all three different production regions used. Canopy conductance (g(c)) based on g(s) and leaf area index (LAI) showed a stronger genetic correlation than the g(s) with cane yield (tonnes of cane per hectare; TCH) at 12 months (mature crop). The regression analysis of input weather data for the duration of measurements showed that the predicted values of r(g) correlated with the maximum temperature (r=0.47) during the measurements and less with other environmental variables. These results confirm that the g(c) could have potential as a criterion for early-stage selection of clones in sugarcane breeding programmes. PMID:25948709

  16. Temporal variation of oceanic spreading and crustal production rates during the last 180 My

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogné, Jean-Pascal; Humler, Eric

    2004-11-01

    oceanic crusts and seismic measurements [E. Humler, C.H. Langmuir, V. Daux, Depth versus age: new perspectives from the chemical compositions of ancient crust, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 173 (1999) 7-23], the magmatic flux at young (0-80 Ma) oceanic ridges appears to be about 18.1±3.4 km 3 year -1 and was possibly 15% to 30% higher during the Mesozoic. We propose that mantle temperature variation provides an alternative mechanism to spreading rate for the Cretaceous highstand in sea-level and atmospheric CO 2 generation.

  17. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall. PMID:27592518

  18. High genetic variation in resting-stage production in a metapopulation: Is there evidence for local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Anne C; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Hall, Matthew D; Walser, Jean-Claude; Haag, Christoph; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy, as resting stages can only be produced sexually. In this species, on a continental scale, resting-stage production is locally adapted--that is, it is induced when the photoperiod indicates the imminence of habitat deterioration. Here, we aimed to explore whether selection is strong enough to maintain local adaptation at a scale of a few kilometers. We assessed life-history traits of 64 D. magna clones originating from 11 populations of a metapopulation with permanent and intermittent pool habitats. We found large within- and between-population variation for all dormancy-related traits, but no evidence for the hypothesized higher resting-stage production in animals from intermittent habitats. We discuss how gene flow, founder events, or other forms of selection might interfere with the process of local adaptation. PMID:26418426

  19. Formulation of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The enduring stages of entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are infective juveniles, which require a high humidity and sufficient ventilation for survival. Formulations must account for these requirements. Nematodes may be formulated inside the insects in which they reproduced or they need to be cleaned and mixed with a suitable binder to maintain humidity but allowing for gas exchange. Another method for formulation is the encapsulation in beads of Ca-alginate. Generic procedures for these formulation techniques are described. PMID:27565496

  20. Psychiatrists' use of formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care. PMID:27512593

  1. The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: Implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained through sunrise and sunset in the lower statosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model constrained by observed concentrations of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heteogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosols agree with measured concentrations of NO, NO2, and ClO throughout the day, but fail to account for high concentrations of OH and HO2 observed near sunrise and sunset. The morning burst of (OH) and (HO2) coincides with the rise of (NO) from photolysis of NO2, suggesting a new source of HO(x) that photolyzes in the near UV (350 to 400 nm) spectral region. A model that allow for the heterogeneous production of HNO2 results in an excellent simulation of the diurnal variations of (OH) and (HO2).

  2. The Diurnal Variation of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals: Implications for the Heterogeneous Production of HNO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, J. P.; Kohn, D. W.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Pfister, L.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Yue, G. K.; Prather, M. J.; Wilson, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained through sunrise and sunset in the lower stratosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model constrained by observed concentrations of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N205 on sulfate aerosols agree with measured concentrations of NO, NO2, and ClO throughout the day, but fail to account for high concentrations of OH and H02 observed near sunrise and sunset. The morning burst of [OH] and [HO2] coincides with the rise of [NO] from photolysis of N02, suggesting a new source of HO, that photolyzes in the near UV (350 to 400 nm) spectral region. A model that allows for the heterogeneous production of HN02 results in an excellent simulation of the diurnal variations of [OH] and [HO2].

  3. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)–fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  4. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  5. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  6. Time-lagged variation in pond density and primary productivity affects duck nest survival in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Walker, Johann; Rotella, Jay J; Stephens, Scott E; Lindberg, Mark S; Ringelman, James K; Hunter, Christine; Smith, Aaron J

    2013-07-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is the primary breeding region for most species of North American dabbling ducks (Anas spp.). Conservation of these species is guided in part by knowledge of relationships between nest survival probability and habitat features. Positive relationships between duck nest survival and amount and configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation have been observed in previous studies, but these 2- to 4-year studies might not have adequately characterized the temporal effect of wet-dry episodes on nest survival. Over an eight-year period, we studied nest survival of five species of ducks in the PPR relative to spatial and temporal variation in pond density, primary productivity, and hydrologic status of wetlands, soil, and vegetation on 52 study sites selected to span a gradient of spatial variation in proportion of herbaceous perennial vegetation and in number of wetland basins. We observed the fate of 12 754 nests. Consistent with past studies, 90% of nests that failed to hatch were destroyed by predators. Nest survival probability was positively related to current-year pond density and primary productivity, negatively related to pond density and primary productivity during the previous two years, and positively related to the number of wetland basins on the study site. Predicted relationships between nest survival and proportion or configuration of herbaceous perennial vegetation in the surrounding landscape were not supported. For mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), median estimated nest survival probability ranged from 0.02 (SE = 0.01) to 0.22 (SE = 0.02). Estimated nest survival was greatest on sites with numerous wetland basins that had transitioned from dry, unproductive conditions to wet, productive conditions in the previous 1-2 years. Our results were consistent with time-lagged responses of food webs to resource pulses in a broad array of ecosystems. Our study highlighted the importance of wetland basins and wet-dry episodes to duck

  7. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: II. Analysis of density variations in terms of glass dynamics and comparisons with global mobility, fast dynamics, and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    PubMed Central

    Chieng, Norman; Cicerone, Marcus T.; Zhong, Qin; Liu, Ming; Pikal, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous HES/disaccharide (trehalose or sucrose) formulations, with and without added polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and disaccharide formulations of human growth hormone (hGH), were prepared by freeze drying and characterized with particular interest in methodology for using high precision density measurements to evaluate free volume changes and a focus on comparisons between “free volume” changes obtained from analysis of density data, fast dynamics (local mobility), and PALS characterization of “free volume” hole size. Density measurements were performed using a helium gas pycnometer, and fast dynamics was characterized using incoherent neutron scattering spectrometer. Addition of sucrose and trehalose to hGH decreases free volume in the system with sucrose marginally more effective than trehalose, consistent with superior pharmaceutical stability of sucrose hGH formulations well below Tg relative to trehalose. We find that density data may be analyzed in terms of free volume changes by evaluation of volume changes on mixing and calculation of apparent specific volumes from the densities. Addition of sucrose to HES decreases free volume, but the effect of trehalose is not detectable above experimental error. Addition of sorbitol or glycerol to HES/trehalose base formulations appears to significantly decrease free volume, consistent with the positive impact of such additions on pharmaceutical stability (i.e., degradation) in the glassy state. Free volume changes, evaluated from density data, fast dynamics amplitude of local motion, and PALS hole size data generally are in qualitative agreement for the HES/disaccharide systems studied. All predict decreasing molecular mobility as disaccharides are added to HES. Global mobility as measured by enthalpy relaxation times, increases as disaccharides, particularly sucrose, are added to HES. PMID:23623797

  8. Latitudinal variation in ambient UV-B radiation is an important determinant of Lolium perenne forage production, quality, and digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Comont, David; Winters, Ana; Gomez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies to date have considered the responses of agriculturally important forage grasses to UV-B radiation. Yet grasses such as Lolium perenne have a wide current distribution, representing exposure to a significant variation in ambient UV-B. The current study investigated the responses of L. perenne (cv. AberDart) to a simulated latitudinal gradient of UV-B exposure, representing biologically effective UV-B doses at simulated 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30° N latitudes. Aspects of growth, soluble compounds, and digestibility were assessed, and results are discussed in relation to UV-B effects on forage properties and the implications for livestock and bio-ethanol production. Aboveground biomass production was reduced by approximately 12.67% with every 1 kJ m–2 day–1 increase in biologically weighted UV-B. As a result, plants grown in the highest UV-B treatment had a total biomass of just 13.7% of controls. Total flavonoids were increased by approximately 76% by all UV-B treatments, while hydroxycinnamic acids increased in proportion to the UV-B dose. Conversely, the digestibility of the aboveground biomass and concentrations of soluble fructans were reduced by UV-B exposure, although soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were unaffected. These results highlight the capacity for UV-B to directly affect forage productivity and chemistry, with negative consequences for digestibility and bioethanol production. Results emphasize the need for future development and distribution of L. perenne varieties to take UV-B irradiance into consideration. PMID:23580749

  9. Latitudinal variation in ambient UV-B radiation is an important determinant of Lolium perenne forage production, quality, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Comont, David; Winters, Ana; Gomez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan

    2013-05-01

    Few studies to date have considered the responses of agriculturally important forage grasses to UV-B radiation. Yet grasses such as Lolium perenne have a wide current distribution, representing exposure to a significant variation in ambient UV-B. The current study investigated the responses of L. perenne (cv. AberDart) to a simulated latitudinal gradient of UV-B exposure, representing biologically effective UV-B doses at simulated 70, 60, 50, 40, and 30° N latitudes. Aspects of growth, soluble compounds, and digestibility were assessed, and results are discussed in relation to UV-B effects on forage properties and the implications for livestock and bio-ethanol production. Aboveground biomass production was reduced by approximately 12.67% with every 1 kJ m(-2) day(-1) increase in biologically weighted UV-B. As a result, plants grown in the highest UV-B treatment had a total biomass of just 13.7% of controls. Total flavonoids were increased by approximately 76% by all UV-B treatments, while hydroxycinnamic acids increased in proportion to the UV-B dose. Conversely, the digestibility of the aboveground biomass and concentrations of soluble fructans were reduced by UV-B exposure, although soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations were unaffected. These results highlight the capacity for UV-B to directly affect forage productivity and chemistry, with negative consequences for digestibility and bioethanol production. Results emphasize the need for future development and distribution of L. perenne varieties to take UV-B irradiance into consideration. PMID:23580749

  10. Flexibility in formulating and processing SYNROC D: a current assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Ryerson, F.J.; Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1982-03-01

    In a recent series of papers, the authors have addressed the formulation, preparation, characterization and performance testing of SYNROC containing SRP defense wastes. They have also recently published a brief description of the SYNROC process flow sheets and a schematic layout of an associate processing facility. In this brief paper they summarize current data and discuss the implications of: (1) the flexibility of the SYNROC formulation to accommodate unanticipated changes in feed composition; and (2) recent reductions in complexity of the SYNROC process. In regard to formulation, it is important to realize that only four additives (TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, CaO and SiO/sub 2/) are used in the preparation of SYNROC containing SRP defense waste. Further, they have found that components in the waste sludge feed can vary by as much as +- 50% in composition without affecting either the quantity of SYNROC additives needed or the quality of the final product. Their experience shows the SYNROC formulation to be very tolerant of wide variations in feed composition and thus very forgiving of feed stream upsets. The SNROC-D process, at the present state (2 years R and D) is less developed than the more mature (greater than 15 years R and D) borosilicate glass process. This is expected. SYNROC is a new waste form and nearly all research has been directed toward lab synthesis and testing of the product. However, over the past year, the authors have undertaken an engineering research effort that has reduced the number of major process unit operations from six to three and increased our production capacity 50 fold. The major advances have been in: (1) simplifying the mixing and blending of additives with waste; and (2) combining and simplifying drying, calcination and redox-control operations. We expect further significant reductions in the number, size and complexity of the SYNROC process steps as engineering R and D continues.

  11. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product.

    PubMed

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  12. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product

    PubMed Central

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate. PMID:26330863

  13. The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Lucy; Malhi, Y; Silva-Espejo, J E; Farfán-Amézquita, F; Halladay, K; Doughty, C E; Meir, P; Phillips, O L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding climatic controls on tropical forest productivity is key to developing more reliable models for predicting how tropical biomes may respond to climate change. Currently there is no consensus on which factors control seasonal changes in tropical forest tree growth. This study reports the first comprehensive plot-level description of the seasonality of growth in a Peruvian tropical forest. We test whether seasonal and interannual variations in climate are correlated with changes in biomass increment, and whether such relationships differ among trees with different functional traits. We found that biomass increments, measured every 3 months on the two plots, were reduced by between 40 and 55% in the peak dry season (July-September) relative to peak wet season (January-March). The seasonal patterns of biomass accumulation are significantly (p < 0.01) associated with seasonal patterns of rainfall and soil water content; however, this may reflect a synchrony of seasonal cycles rather than direct physiological controls on tree growth rates. The strength of the growth seasonality response among trees is significantly correlated to functional traits: consistent with a hypothesised trade-off between maximum potential growth rate and hydraulic safety, tall and fast-growing trees with broad stems had the most strongly seasonal biomass accumulation, suggesting that they are more productive in the wet season, but more vulnerable to water limitation in the dry season. PMID:24026500

  14. Examining Variation in Recombination Levels in the Human Female: A Test of the Production-Line Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rowsey, Ross; Gruhn, Jennifer; Broman, Karl W.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Hassold, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The most important risk factor for human aneuploidy is increasing maternal age, but the basis of this association remains unknown. Indeed, one of the earliest models of the maternal-age effect—the “production-line model” proposed by Henderson and Edwards in 1968—remains one of the most-cited explanations. The model has two key components: (1) that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are the first ovulated and (2) that the first to enter meiosis have more recombination events (crossovers) than those that enter meiosis later in fetal life. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that the first oocytes to enter meiosis are indeed the first to be ovulated, but the association between the timing of meiotic entry and recombination levels has not been tested. We recently initiated molecular cytogenetic studies of second-trimester human fetal ovaries, allowing us to directly examine the number and distribution of crossover-associated proteins in prophase-stage oocytes. Our observations on over 8,000 oocytes from 191 ovarian samples demonstrate extraordinary variation in recombination within and among individuals but provide no evidence of a difference in recombination levels between oocytes entering meiosis early in fetal life and those entering late in fetal life. Thus, our data provide a direct test of the second tenet of the production-line model and suggest that it does not provide a plausible explanation for the human maternal-age effect, meaning that—45 years after its introduction—we can finally conclude that the production-line model is not the basis for the maternal-age effect on trisomy. PMID:24995869

  15. Interindividual variation of sensitivity to frequency modulation: its relation with click-evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Yamagishi, Shimpei; Hirota, Koich; Kashino, Makio

    2014-04-01

    The frequency modulation detection limen (FMDL) with a low modulation rate has been used as a measure of the listener's sensitivity to the temporal fine structure of a stimulus, which is represented by the pattern of neural phase locking at the auditory periphery. An alternative to the phase locking cue, the excitation pattern cue, has been suggested to contribute to frequency modulation (FM) detection. If the excitation pattern cue has a significant contribution to low-rate FM detection, the functionality of cochlear mechanics underlying the excitation pattern should be reflected in low-rate FMDLs. This study explored the relationship between cochlear mechanics and low-rate FMDLs by evaluating physiological measures of cochlear functions, namely distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). DPOAEs and CEOAEs reflect nonlinear cochlear gain. CEOAEs have been considered also to reflect the degree of irregularity, such as spatial variations in number or geometry of outer hair cells, on the basilar membrane. The irregularity profile could affect the reliability of the phase locking cue, thereby influencing the FMDLs. The features extracted from DPOAEs and CEOAEs, when combined, could account for more than 30 % of the inter-listener variation of low-rate FMDLs. This implies that both cochlear gain and irregularity on the basilar membrane have some influence on sensitivity to low-rate FM: the loss of cochlear gain or broader tuning might influence the excitation pattern cue, and the irregularity on the basilar membrane might disturb the ability to use the phase locking cue. PMID:24504749

  16. An Evaluation of Coulomb Stress Changes from Earthquake Productivity Variations in the Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptokaropoulos, K. M.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Karakostas, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and temporal evolution of the stress field in the seismically active and well-monitored area of the western Gulf of Corinth, Greece, is investigated. The highly accurate and vast regional catalogues were used for inverting seismicity rate changes into stress variation using a rate/state-dependent friction model. After explicitly determining the physical quantities incorporated in the model (characteristic relaxation time, fault constitutive parameters, and reference seismicity rates), we looked for stress changes across space and over time and their possible association with earthquake clustering and fault interactions. We focused our attention on the Efpalio doublet of January 2010 ( M = 5.5 and M = 5.4), with a high aftershock productivity, and attempted to reproduce and interpret stress changes prior to and after the initiation of this seismicity burst. The spatial distribution of stress changes was evaluated after smoothing the seismological data by means of a probability density function (PDF). The inverted stress calculations were compared with the calculations derived from an independent approach (elastic dislocation model) and this comparison was quantified. The results of the two methods are in good agreement (up to 80 %) in the far field, with the inversion technique providing more robust results in the near field, where they are more sensitive to the uncertainties of coseismic slip distribution. It is worth mentioning that the stress inversion model proved to be a very sensitive stress meter, able to detect even small stress changes correlated with spatio-temporal earthquake clustering. Data analysis was attempted from 1975 onwards to simulate the stress changes associated with stronger earthquakes over a longer time span. This approach revealed that only M > 5.5 events induce considerable stress variations, although in some cases there was no evidence for such stress changes even after an M > 5.5 earthquake.

  17. Composition of settling particles in the Southern Ocean and processes controlling seasonal variations of deep export production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinal, Damien; Ameur, Khedidja; Closset, Ivia; Bray, Stephen; Trull, Thomas W.

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes controlling the biological carbon pump and the efficiency of export production, we need time series in contrasted oceanic regions that fully describe seasonality. Due to strong logistic constraints, especially in the Southern Ocean, such data can only be obtained from above (satellite) or from below (sediment traps). In this study, settling particles of Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ) along the CLIVAR-SR3 transect (140°E, south to Tasmania) have been collected in sediment traps deployed at 1000, 2000 and 3800m (SAZ), 800 and 1500 m (PFZ) and 200 and 3700 m (AZ). In addition to the measurements of Particulate Organic Carbon, Particulate Inorganic Carbon, Biogenic silica we have measured particulate composition of some trace and major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Ba, Sr, Mn, U, light Rare Earth Elements) by ICP-MS. When looking at correlations between elemental fluxes we show that there are generally different modes of variations. Surprisingly, those are not necessarily site-specific, i.e. different periods of SAZ and AZ traps can behave in a similar way, while they can be strongly decoupled at other periods. This is the case not only for biogenic elements (e.g. Ba, Ca, Sr) but also for elements usually representative of lithogenic particles (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti). More particularly Al vs. Fe fluxes appear to be strongly bimodal: Al fluxes are generally higher in northern traps while Fe fluxes are higher in AZ and PFZ traps; moreover single data points of both traps are distributed over two clear correlation lines, each one displaying little scattering. This suggests that the types of Fe- and/or Al- bearing particles vary more seasonally than spatially. In contrast, Ba fluxes, which are used in paleo-oceanography as a proxy of export production, are very similar to Ca fluxes, whatever the location. This suggests that carbonate productivity is more prone to deep carbon export compared to opal

  18. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  19. Audits of radiopharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, F P

    1992-03-01

    A procedure for auditing radiopharmaceutical formulations is described. To meet FDA guidelines regarding the quality of radiopharmaceuticals, institutional radioactive drug research committees perform audits when such drugs are formulated away from an institutional pharmacy. All principal investigators who formulate drugs outside institutional pharmacies must pass these audits before they can obtain a radiopharmaceutical investigation permit. The audit team meets with the individual who performs the formulation at the site of drug preparation to verify that drug formulations meet identity, strength, quality, and purity standards; are uniform and reproducible; and are sterile and pyrogen free. This team must contain an expert knowledgeable in the preparation of radioactive drugs; a radiopharmacist is the most qualified person for this role. Problems that have been identified by audits include lack of sterility and apyrogenicity testing, formulations that are open to the laboratory environment, failure to use pharmaceutical-grade chemicals, inadequate quality control methods or records, inadequate training of the person preparing the drug, and improper unit dose preparation. Investigational radiopharmaceutical formulations, including nonradiolabeled drugs, must be audited before they are administered to humans. A properly trained pharmacist should be a member of the audit team. PMID:1598931

  20. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping LER and defect density on production wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabtay, Saar; Blumberg, Yuval; Levi, Shimon; Greenberg, Gadi; Harel, Daniel; Conley, Amiad; Meshulach, Doron; Kan, Kobi; Dolev, Ido; Kumar, Surender; Mendel, Kalia; Goto, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Naoaki; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shirou; Sekito, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) constitute a higher percentage of the line-width and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include: scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, lithography stack thickness and composition variations, exposure variations, etc. These process variations in advanced VLSI manufacturing processes, specifically in memory devices where CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations, are well known to significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time and cover only a small fraction of the wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and Nikon Corporation®, on the implementation of a complementary method to the CD-SEM and OCD tools, to monitor post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM), is based on measuring variations in the light reflected from periodic structures, under optimized illumination and collection conditions, and is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV brightfield (BF) wafer inspection tool. It will be shown that full polarization control in illumination and collection paths of the wafer inspection tool is critical to enable to set an optimized Process Variation Monitoring recipe.

  1. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of ondansetron orally disintegrating tablets using different superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Sheshala, Ravi; Khan, Nurzalina; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Darwis, Yusrida

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate cost effective taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of ondansetron, a bitter drug using different superdisintegrants by a wet granulation technique. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as a diluent and disintegrant in addition to aspartame as a sweetener were used in all formulations. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The tablets' hardness was maintained in the range of 2-3 kg and friability was <1% for all batches. All tablet formulations disintegrated rapidly in vitro within 5.83 to 33.0 sec. The optimized formulation containing 15% Polyplasdone XL-10 released more than 90% of drug within 5 min and the release was comparable to that of a commercial product. In human volunteers, optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and they disintegrated in the oral cavity within 12 sec. The stability results were also satisfactory. A pharmacokinetic study with the optimized formulation was performed in comparison with a reference (Zofer MD 8®) and they were found to be bioequivalent. In conclusion, a cost effective ondansetron orally disintegrating tablet was successfully prepared with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:22139694

  2. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in different biological wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Gang

    2011-04-15

    The occurrence of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in two wastewater treatment plants in Beijing was studied monthly over the course of one year. The removal of PPCPs by three biological treatment processes including conventional activated sludge (CAS), biological nutrient removal (BNR), and membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared during different seasons. Seasonal variations of PPCPs in the wastewater influent were discrepant, while in the wastewater effluent, most PPCPs had lower concentrations in the summer than in the winter. For the easily biodegradable PPCPs, the performance of MBR was demonstrated to be more stable than CAS or BNR especially during winter months. Diclofenac, trimethoprim, metoprolol, and gemfibrozil could be moderately removed by MBR, while their removal by CAS and BNR was much lower or even negligible. Nevertheless, no removal was achieved regardless of the season or the treatment processes for the recalcitrant PPCPs. Studies on the contribution of each tank of the MBR process to the total removal of four biodegradable PPCPs indicated the oxic tank was the most important unit, whereas membrane filtration made a negligible contribution to their elimination. PMID:21428396

  3. Consequences of intraspecific variation in female body size in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae): feeding ecology, male attraction, and egg production.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Michael R; Frinchaboy, Caylin

    2014-02-01

    Body size is an important feature of organisms, influencing many components of life history and fitness, such as feeding success and reproductive output. Body size is considered especially salient for solitary predators, whose food intake hinges on individual predation success, which in turn is often driven by the relative sizes of predator and prey. The current study examined intraspecific variation in adult female length and its fitness consequences in a solitary predator, the praying mantid Stagmomantis limbata Hahn. Through a 5-yr integration of observational and experimental work in the field and captivity, we investigated the relationship between female pronotum length and prey size, diet breadth, male attraction, and measures of egg production (fecundity and ootheca mass). We found that longer females ate longer prey in the field and showed greater breadth of prey size than shorter females. Longer females did not necessarily feed at higher rates in the field, as measured by the rate of abdominal expansion. Female length failed to show significant effects on male attraction or on the incidence of cannibalism. Longer females had higher fecundity (mature eggs in body at death) and laid heavier oothecae than shorter females. In nature, longer females consistently emerged as adults earlier in the season than shorter females. Shorter female adults emerged when feeding rates were higher in the field, suggesting an incidental ecological benefit of shorter adult size. PMID:24341955

  4. [Production and law of variation of the pleural cavity intrinsic pressure and the pressure of alveolar wall during respiratory process].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-04-01

    All physiologic textbooks deal with pleural cavity pressure, alveolar wall pressure and pressure inside the lung, but they have not stated these ideas clearly. The present study reveals production and Law of variation of the intrinsic pressure of pleural cavity, the pressure of alveolar wall and the intrinsic pressure in the alveoli. Pleural cavity intrinsic pressure is produced by the pressure from pleura expanding or compressing force of the lungs. When the lungs calmly inhale, the thorax expands, pleural cavity negative pressure increase. When the lungs calmly exhale, thorax reduces, but thorax and lungs are still in the extended state, pleural cavity is still in negative pressure. With thorax reducing, negative pressure decreases. When the lungs are at the forced expiration, the lung pleura and wall pleura extrude pleural cavity, only to produce positive pressure. The pressure of alveolar wall is the algebraic sum of the intrinsic pressure of pleural cavity, the intrinsic pressure of pulmonary tissue and the additional pressure of alveolar wall. We did the calculation of additional pressure on the alveolar wall by using Laplace formula of spherical elastic membrane. The intrinsic pressure of alveoli depends on the moving speed or slowness of expansion or compression of alveolar wall and the size of trachea resistance. PMID:22616171

  5. Acidity variations across the cloud drop size spectrum and their influence on rates of atmospheric sulfate production

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, J.L. Jr.; Bator, A.; Rao, Xin; Demoz, B.

    1994-11-01

    Measurements of pH variations within natural cloud drop populations reveal that small drops are often more acidic than large drops. Cloud samples collected from coastal stratus clouds, frontal clouds, and radiation fogs, from heavily polluted and pristine locations, had pH values ranging from below three to more than seven. Differences between small and large cloud drop acidities as large as two pH units were observed, although differences were generally below one pH unit. This chemical heterogenity can significantly enhance oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within clouds, relative to oxidation rates predicted from the average cloudwater composition. One-third of the sampled clouds were estimated to experience an increase of at least 20% in the rate of sulfur oxidation by ozone (8% of the clouds had increases exceeding 100%) as a result of acidity differences between large and small cloud drops. These findings suggest that sulfate production within clouds, a critical component of the global sulfur cycle, may be more rapid than previously though. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Seasonal variation and physical properties of the cloud system over southeastern China derived from CloudSat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-05-01

    Based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data and CloudSat products, the seasonal variations of the cloud properties, vertical occurrence frequency, and ice water content of clouds over southeastern China were investigated in this study. In the CloudSat data, a significant alternation in high or low cloud patterns was observed from winter to summer over southeastern China. It was found that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation and its transport of moisture leads to a conditional instability, which benefits the local upward motion in summer, and thereby results in an increased amount of high cloud. The deep convective cloud centers were found to coincide well with the northward march of the EASM, while cirrus lagged slightly behind the convection center and coincided well with the outflow and meridional wind divergence of the EASM. Analysis of the radiative heating rates revealed that both the plentiful summer moisture and higher clouds are effective in destabilizing the atmosphere. Moreover, clouds heat the mid-troposphere and the cloud radiative heating is balanced by adiabatic cooling through upward motion, which causes meridional wind by the Sverdrup balance. The cloud heating-forced circulation was observed to coincide well with the EASM circulation, serving as a positive effect on EASM circulation.

  7. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 μmol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  8. Variation et heterogeneite de recits en francais de jeunes eleves tunisiens (Variation and Heterogeneity of the French Narrative Productions of Young Tunisian Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anane, Chiraz

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes narrative productions in the French of 10 Tunisian pupils selected from 2 schools (1 in an urban area, 1 in a rural area) in Tunisia (Tunis). The purpose of the study was to observe the development of the French language in native Tunisian Arabic speakers. Particular attention is focused on the narrative structure and time…

  9. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  10. Stress Formulation in Three-Dimensional Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of elasticity evolved over centuries through the contributions of eminent scientists like Cauchy, Navier, Hooke Saint Venant, and others. It was deemed complete when Saint Venant provided the strain formulation in 1860. However, unlike Cauchy, who addressed equilibrium in the field and on the boundary, the strain formulation was confined only to the field. Saint Venant overlooked the compatibility on the boundary. Because of this deficiency, a direct stress formulation could not be developed. Stress with traditional methods must be recovered by backcalculation: differentiating either the displacement or the stress function. We have addressed the compatibility on the boundary. Augmentation of these conditions has completed the stress formulation in elasticity, opening up a way for a direct determination of stress without the intermediate step of calculating the displacement or the stress function. This Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation (CBMF) can be specialized to derive the traditional methods, but the reverse is not possible. Elasticity solutions must be verified for the compliance of the new equation because the boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of displacement are not trivially satisfied. This paper presents the variational derivation of the stress formulation, illustrates the method, examines attributes and benefits, and outlines the future course of research.

  11. Scaling equations to model variations in operating conditions for activation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    A simple approximate scheme of calculating the variations of fusion activation-induced radioactive inventories with reactor operating conditions (power and time) by scaling equations is formulated. Application of the scheme to evaluate radiological dose-contributing activation products for HT-9 ferritic steel first wall shows decent agreements with numerical results.

  12. Production of grooming-associated sounds by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo: variation, social learning, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Watts, David P

    2016-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use some communicative signals flexibly and voluntarily, with use influenced by learning. These signals include some vocalizations and also sounds made using the lips, oral cavity, and/or teeth, but not the vocal tract, such as "attention-getting" sounds directed at humans by captive chimpanzees and lip smacking during social grooming. Chimpanzees at Ngogo, in Kibale National Park, Uganda, make four distinct sounds while grooming others. Here, I present data on two of these ("splutters" and "teeth chomps") and consider whether social learning contributes to variation in their production and whether they serve social functions. Higher congruence in the use of these two sounds between dyads of maternal relatives than dyads of non-relatives implies that social learning occurs and mostly involves vertical transmission, but the results are not conclusive and it is unclear which learning mechanisms may be involved. In grooming between adult males, tooth chomps and splutters were more likely in long than in short bouts; in bouts that were bidirectional rather than unidirectional; in grooming directed toward high-ranking males than toward low-ranking males; and in bouts between allies than in those between non-allies. Males were also more likely to make these sounds while they were grooming other males than while they were grooming females. These results are expected if the sounds promote social bonds and induce tolerance of proximity and of grooming by high-ranking males. However, the alternative hypothesis that the sounds are merely associated with motivation to groom, with no additional social function, cannot be ruled out. Limited data showing that bouts accompanied by teeth chomping or spluttering at their initiation were longer than bouts for which this was not the case point toward a social function, but more data are needed for a definitive test. Comparison to other research sites shows that the possible existence of grooming

  13. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  14. Postpartum variations of plasma IGF and IGFBPs, oocyte production and quality in dairy cows: relationships with parity and subsequent fertility.

    PubMed

    Grimard, B; Marquant-Leguienne, B; Remy, D; Richard, C; Nuttinck, F; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postpartum variations of plasma IGF-1 and IGFBP concentrations, oocyte production and quality were related to parity and subsequent conception rate in Holstein dairy cows. Holstein dairy cows [10 primiparous (PP) and 22 multiparous (MP)] were allotted in six batches and sampled once weekly between calving and oestrous synchronization treatment started at 71.2 ± 2.0 days postpartum. During the 3 weeks before treatment, ovum pick-up (OPU) was performed twice weekly. Oocytes were scored on a 4-point scale, and oocytes from OPU1, 3 and 5 were fertilized in vitro. Seventeen cows became pregnant after first and second AI and were considered as fertile (F), while the others were considered to be subfertile (SF). Logistic regression was carried out to investigate the relationships between repeated measurements and fertility including parity and batch effects in the models. Likelihood of fertility significantly increased when plasma urea and IGFBP-3 concentrations decreased and was higher in PP compared with MP cows. There was a trend for fertility to increase when plasma IGF-1 concentrations increased (p = 0.07). In vitro cleavage and development rates were similar between SF and F cows (46.4% and 28.3% in SF vs 55.0% and 22.1% in F). Parity had an effect on plasma IGF-1 concentrations (PP: 61.65 ± 2.67 vs MP: 41.63 ± 5.81 ng/ml, p < 0.001), mean number of follicles aspirated per session (PP: 5.7 ± 1.3 vs MP: 9.5 ± 0.8, p < 0.05) and fertility (PP: 8/10 = 80% vs MP: 9/22 = 41%, p < 0.05) but not on the number of oocytes recovered per session nor their quality. In conclusion, postpartum plasma urea and IGFBP-3 concentrations, but not oocyte production and quality before breeding, were related to subsequent conception rate in our experimental design. Parity had a significant effect on energy status, follicular growth and fertility and needs to be considered when investigating relationships between nutrition and reproduction

  15. The Effects of Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Variations on 26Al Production in Massive Stars: A Sensitivity Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliadis, Christian; Champagne, Art; Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the effects of thermonuclear reaction rate variations on 26Al production in massive stars. The dominant production sites in such events were recently investigated by using stellar model calculations: explosive neon-carbon burning, convective shell carbon burning, and convective core hydrogen burning. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed for each of these sites by adopting temperature-density-time profiles from recent stellar evolution models. For each profile, we individually multiplied the rates of all relevant reactions by factors of 10, 2, 0.5, and 0.1, and analyzed the resulting abundance changes of 26Al. In total, we performed ≈900 nuclear reaction network calculations. Our simulations are based on a next-generation nuclear physics library, called STARLIB, which contains a recent evaluation of Monte Carlo reaction rates. Particular attention is paid to quantifying the rate uncertainties of those reactions that most sensitively influence 26Al production. For stellar modelers our results indicate to what degree predictions of 26Al nucleosynthesis depend on currently uncertain nuclear physics input, while for nuclear experimentalists our results represent a guide for future measurements. We also investigate equilibration effects of 26Al. In all previous massive star investigations, either a single species or two species of 26Al were taken into account, depending on whether thermal equilibrium was achieved or not. These are two extreme assumptions, and in a hot stellar plasma the ground and isomeric states may communicate via γ-ray transitions involving higher-lying 26Al levels. We tabulate the results of our reaction rate sensitivity study for each of the three distinct massive star sites referred to above. It is found that several current reaction rate uncertainties influence the production of 26Al. Particularly important reactions are 26Al(n,p)26Mg, 25Mg(α,n)28Si, 24Mg(n,γ)25Mg, and 23Na(α,p)26Mg. These reactions

  16. Optimisation of Natural Ingredient Based Lipstick Formulation by Using Mixture Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajin, Mariani; Bono, Awang; Mun, Ho Chong

    The cosmetic industry in Malaysia is proven to be one of the important economy sources. Lipstick is one of the decorative cosmetic products that command a unique market. The quality of lipstick is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. The ratio of the ingredients used determines the final product characteristics. In previous researches, statistical mixture design has been proved to be effective tool to investigate the relationship between variables in formulation work. Contour graphics were formed to assess the change in the response surface in order to understand the relationship between the product cost and consumer acceptance of the lipsticks. In this work, natural waxes, solvents and colorant were used to prepare lipstick formulation. Statistical mixture design has been applied for experimental setting for the components system. The effects of the mixture components on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of the lipstick have been investigated. The results indicate that the physical properties of the lipstick can be manipulated by changing the composition of the base ingredient used in the formulation. It was found that the variation of the mixture component affected the consumer acceptance on lipstick`s rub-off characteristic.

  17. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    PubMed

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection. PMID:26149748

  18. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data Products for National Drought Monitor Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Drought effects are either direct or indirect depending on location, population, and regional economic vitality. Common direct effects of drought are reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat. Indirect impacts follow on the heels of direct impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. In the United States alone, drought is estimated to result in annual losses of between $6 - 8 billion. Recent sustained drought in the United States has made decision-makers aware of the impacts of climate change on society and environment. The eight major droughts that occurred in the United States between 1980 and 1999 accounted for the largest percentage of weather-related monetary losses. Monitoring drought and its impact that occurs at a variety of scales is an important government activity -- not only nationally but internationally as well. The NDMC (National Drought Mitigation Center) and the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) RMA (Risk Management Agency) have partnered together to develop a DM-DSS (Drought Monitoring Decision Support System). This monitoring system will be an interactive portal that will provide users the ability to visualize and assess drought at all levels. This candidate solution incorporates atmospherically corrected VIIRS data products, such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Ocean SST (sea surface temperature), and AMSR-E soil moisture data products into two NDMC vegetation indices -- VegDRI (Vegetation Drought Response Index) and VegOUT (Vegetation Outlook) -- which are then input into the DM-DSS.

  19. Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Olesen, Birgit; Sejr, Mikael K; Christensen, Peter Bondo; Rodrigues, João; Renaud, Paul E; Balsby, Thorsten JS; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    We studied the depth distribution and production of kelp along the Greenland coast spanning Arctic to sub-Arctic conditions from 78 °N to 64 °N. This covers a wide range of sea ice conditions and water temperatures, with those presently realized in the south likely to move northwards in a warmer future. Kelp forests occurred along the entire latitudinal range, and their depth extension and production increased southwards presumably in response to longer annual ice-free periods and higher water temperature. The depth limit of 10% kelp cover was 9–14 m at the northernmost sites (77–78 °N) with only 94–133 ice-free days per year, but extended to depths of 21–33 m further south (73 °N–64 °N) where >160 days per year were ice-free, and annual production of Saccharina longicruris and S. latissima, measured as the size of the annual blade, ranged up to sevenfold among sites. The duration of the open-water period, which integrates light and temperature conditions on an annual basis, was the best predictor (relative to summer water temperature) of kelp production along the latitude gradient, explaining up to 92% of the variation in depth extension and 80% of the variation in kelp production. In a decadal time series from a high Arctic site (74 °N), inter-annual variation in sea ice cover also explained a major part (up to 47%) of the variation in kelp production. Both spatial and temporal data sets thereby support the prediction that northern kelps will play a larger role in the coastal marine ecosystem in a warmer future as the length of the open-water period increases. As kelps increase carbon-flow and habitat diversity, an expansion of kelp forests may exert cascading effects on the coastal Arctic ecosystem.

  20. Rational formulation design.

    PubMed

    Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J; Oliveira, G; Vieira, R; Mohammed, D; Hirata, K

    2012-12-01

    To be efficacious and to satisfy the requirements for claim substantiation, a cosmetic formulation must achieve effective targeting of an active in the skin. Although the basic principles governing the skin permeation and disposition of molecules have been known for many years, attention has been far less focused on the role of the vehicle, particularly at cosmetically relevant doses. In this article, we discuss the necessity to understand the fate of the formulation components as well as the active once applied onto skin. Recent data confirm that the residence time of the formulation constituents can have a profound impact on the fate of the active. Approaches to identify the ideal vehicle for skin delivery are considered critically, specifically the recent work on 'formulating for efficacy' (FFE) by the late Johann Wiechers. Essentially, FFE aims to match the active with the optimal vehicle for skin delivery based on matching polarity/solubility values of the trinity of skin, active and vehicle. The emerging importance of techniques that provide insight to how the vehicle distributes in and on skin is highlighted. PMID:22882873

  1. Payloads minimum EIRP formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of the payloads is formulated. The EIRP consists of three components; EIRP = P sub T + G sub T + L sub TX, where P sub T is the transmitter total RF output power, G sub T is the transmitting antenna gain, and L sub TX is all transmitter circuit losses.

  2. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex® 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60°C and 80°C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50μg/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50μg/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory. PMID:26159351

  3. Optimisation of the formulation and of the technological process of egg-based products for the prevention of Salmonella enteritidis survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Vannini, Lucia; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the survival of Salmonella enteritidis after a pressure treatment in relation to compositive variables (NaCl content, pH), both in model and real systems, the latter consisting in an egg-based mayonnaise type product. Moreover, the fate of the surviving cells of S. enteritidis has been monitored during storage at 10 degrees C and the growth or death parameters have been calculated and modelled in relation to pH, NaCl concentration of the medium and entity of the pressure treatment applied. The modelling of the effects of the environmental factors on the treatment effectiveness indicated that the salt content and pH displayed a synergistic effect with pressure, whose extent was higher in the mayonnaise based products than in BHI. In fact, while in the model systems the cell recovery and growth during the subsequent incubation at 10 degrees C was allowed in many combinations of the Central Composite Design, in the real systems no recovery or growth of S. enteritidis were observed. This viability loss, which was maximum at pH 4.00 or 2% NaCl, could not be attributed merely to the interactions of such variables, but probably involves the naturally occurring antimicrobial enzymes of the raw material, whose activity can be enhanced by the pressure treatment. PMID:11934044

  4. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a novel fast dissolving film formulation of flupentixol dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ahmed; Bendas, Ehab R; Ramadan, Afaf A; Mostafa, Dalia A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop fast dissolving oral film of the antipsychotic drug, flupentixol dihydrochloride, to enhance its bioavailability, optimize its therapeutic effect when used to treat depression with anxiety, and increase the convenience and compliance by the mentally ill, developmentally disable, elderly, and pediatric patients. Six formulae were prepared with different concentrations of water-soluble polymers vis. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by solvent casting technique. The prepared films were subjected to characterization for folding endurance, weight variations, thickness, disintegration time, drug release pattern, and drug content. Physical compatibility between the drug and excipients was guaranteed in the selected formulation (2% HPMC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. This formulation revealed high stability after testing according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In vivo studies based on single phase parallel design were carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy human volunteers. The concentration of flupentixol dihydrochloride in plasma samples was analyzed by a developed validated LC-MS/MS assay method and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the established formulation were compared with the commercially available oral tablets. Faster rate of absorption of flupentixol could be obtained from the oral film formulation and the relative bioavailability was found to be 151.06% compared to the marketed product. PMID:25142820

  5. Two and three way spectrophotometric-assisted multivariate determination of linezolid in the presence of its alkaline and oxidative degradation products and application to pharmaceutical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha Abd El-Monem; Eissa, Maya Shaaban; Abd El-Sattar, Osama Ibrahim; Abd El-Kawy, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Linezolid (LIN) is determined in the presence of its alkaline (ALK) and oxidative (OXD) degradation products without preliminary separation based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry using two-way chemometric methods; principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS), and three-way chemometric methods; parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS). A training set of mixtures containing LIN, ALK and OXD; was prepared in the concentration ranges of 12-18, 2.4-3.6 and 1.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively according to a multilevel multifactor experimental design. The multivariate calibrations were obtained by measuring the zero-order absorbance from 220 to 320 nm using the training set. The validation of the multivariate methods was realized by analyzing their synthetic mixtures. The capabilities of the chemometric analysis methods for the analysis of real samples were evaluated by determination of LIN in its pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The accuracy of the methods, evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), was 0.058, 0.026, 0.101 and 0.026 for LIN using PCR, PLS, PARAFAC and N-PLS, respectively. Protolytic equilibria of LIN and its degradation products were evaluated using the corresponding absorption spectra-pH data obtained with PARAFAC. The obtained pKa values of LIN, ALK and OXD are 5.70, 8.90 and 6.15, respectively. The results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported HPLC method, and there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method regarding both accuracy and precision.

  6. Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom

    2014-05-14

    We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (α) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from α = 0 to α = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

  7. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  8. Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.

    PubMed

    Haas, J S; Whipple, R E; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Volpe, A M; Pelkey, G E

    1997-01-01

    In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted. PMID:9022856

  9. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for the Great Lakes Basin Ecological Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    The proposed solution would simulate VIIRS and LDCM sensor data for use in the USGS/USFWS GLBET DST. The VIIRS sensor possesses a spectral range that provides water-penetrating bands that could be used to assess water clarity on a regional spatial scale. The LDCM sensor possesses suitable spectral bands in a range of wavelengths that could be used to map water quality at finer spatial scales relative to VIIRS. Water quality, alongshore sediment transport and pollutant discharge tracking into the Great Lakes system are targeted as the primary products to be developed. A principal benefit of water quality monitoring via satellite imagery is its economy compared to field-data collection methods. Additionally, higher resolution satellite imagery provides a baseline dataset(s) against which later imagery can be overlaid in GIS-based DST programs. Further, information derived from higher resolution satellite imagery can be used to address public concerns and to confirm environmental compliance. The candidate solution supports the Public Health, Coastal Management, and Water Management National Applications.

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Measurements of Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratio for Improved Forecasting of Plant Productivity and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that vegetation is directly sensitive to changes in the diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio and that increased percentage of diffuse irradiation can accelerate photosynthesis. Therefore, measurements of diffuse versus global irradiance could be useful for monitoring crop productivity and overall vegetative health as they relate to the total amount of particulates in the air that result from natural disasters or anthropogenic (manmade) causes. While the components of solar irradiance are measured by satellite and surface sensors and calculated with atmospheric models, disagreement exists between the results, creating a need for more accurate and comprehensive retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters. Two satellite sensors--APS and VIIRS--show promise for retrieving aerosol properties at an unprecedented level of accuracy. APS is expected to be launched in December 2008. The planned launch date for VIIRS onboard NPP is September 2009. Identified partners include the USDA s ARS, North Carolina State University, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University. Although at present no formal DSSs (decision support systems) require accurate values of diffuse-to-global irradiance, this parameter is sufficiently important that models are being developed that will incorporate these measurements. This candidate solution is aligned with the Agricultural Efficiency and Air Quality National Applications.

  11. Critical Climate-Sensitive and Important Grain-Producing Regions: Grain Production/Yield Variations Due to Climate Fluctuations. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Ideally, the Crop Country Inventory, CCI, is a methodology for the pre-harvest prediction of large variations in a country s crop production. This is accomplished by monitoring the historical climatic fluctuations, especially during the crop calendar period, in a climate sensitive large crop production region or sub-country, rather than the entire country. The argument can be made that the climatic fluctuations in the climatic sensitive region are responsible for the major annual crop country variations and that the remainder of the country, without major climatic fluctuations for a given year, can be assumed to be a steady-state crop producer. The principal data set that has been used is the Global Climate Mode (GCM) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), taken over the last half century. As a test of its accuracy, GCM data can and has been correlated with the actual meteorological station data at the station site.

  12. Equivalence of Dirac formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, William P.; Martin, Jeremy G.

    2002-06-01

    We construct general Dirac theories in both ⊗ ℓ(3, 1) and ⊗ ℓ(1, 3) using a first order left acting Dirac operator. Any two such theories are equivalent provided they have the same dimension. We also show that every 16- or 8-dimensional real Dirac theory in ℓ(3, 1) is equivalent to some (complex) Dirac theory in ⊗ ℓ(1, 3). As an immediate consequence of this we have that the Hestenes and original Dirac formulations are equivalent.

  13. Formulation development and comparative in vitro study of metoprolol tartrate (IR) tablets.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tazeen; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Maboos, Madiha; Khan, Madeeha; Bashir, Lubna; Naz, Shazia

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop Immediate Release (IR) tablets of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) and to compare trial formulations to a reference product. Six formulations (F1-F6) were designed using central composite method and compared to a reference brand (A). Two marketed products (brands B and C) were also evaluated. F1-F6 were prepared with Avicel PH101 (filler), Crospovidone (disintegrant) and Magnesium Stearate (lubricant) by direct compression. Pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods were used to assess their quality. Furthermore, drug profiles were characterized using model dependent and independent (f(2)) approaches. Brands B and C and F5 and F6 did not qualify the tests for content uniformity. Moreover, brand B did not meet weight variation criteria and brand C did not satisfy requirements for single point dissolution test. Of the trial formulations, F2 failed the test for uniformity in thickness while F4 did not disintegrate within time limit. Only F1 and F3 met all quality parameters and were subjected to accelerated stability testing without significant alterations in their physicochemical characteristics. Based on AIC and r(2)(adjusted) values obtained by applying various kinetic models, drug release was determined to most closely follow Hixson-Crowell cube root law. F1 was determined to be the optimized formulation. PMID:27166530

  14. ASSESSING IMPACT OF INTERANNUAL CLIMATE VARIATIONS ON WATER RESOURCES AND CROP PRODUCTIVITY USING CLIGEN AND WEPP MODELS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physically based hydrological and plant growth models are useful tools for assessing the impact of climate variations. Most response models require daily weather, which is often synthesized using stochastic daily weather generators. The objectives were to evaluate the ability of the CLImate GENera...

  15. Authigenic 10Be/9Be Ratio Signatures of the Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Linked to Geomagnetic Dipole Moment Variation During and Since the Brunhes/Matuyama Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Q.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Ménabréaz, L.; Valet, J. P.; Valery, G.; Choy, S.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rate of cosmogenic nuclides is linked to the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) by a non-linear inverse relationship. Large amplitude GDM variations associated with reversals and excursions can potentially be reconstructed using time variation of the cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) production recorded in ocean sediments. Downcore profiles of authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) in oceanic cores provide independent and additional records of the evolution of the geomagnetic intensity and complete previous information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI). Here are presented new authigenic 10Be/9Be results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and from the top of core MD05-2930 collected in the West Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Completing data of Ménabréaz et al. (2012, 2014), these results provide the first continuous 10Be production rate sedimentary record covering the last 800 ka. Along these cores, authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio peaks are recorded - within methodological errors - at the stratigraphic level of RPI lows. High-resolution chronologies (δ18O-derived) lead to interpret these peaks as successive global 10Be overproduction events triggered by geomagnetic dipole lows present in the PISO-1500 and Sint-2000 stacks. The largest amplitude 10Be production enhancement is synchronous to the very large decrease of the dipole field associated with the last polarity reversal (772 ka). It is consistent in shape and duration with the peak recorded in core MD90-0961 from the Maldive area (Indian Ocean) (Valet et al. 2014). Two significant 10Be production enhancements are coeval with the Laschamp (41 ka) and Icelandic basin (190 ka) excursions, while 10Be production peaks of lower amplitude correlate to other recognized excursions such as the Blake (120 ka), Pringle-Falls (215 ka), Portuguese Margin (290 ka), Big Lost (540 ka) among others. This study provides new data on the amplitude and timing of dipole field variations

  16. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel

    2011-08-07

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  17. Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  19. In vitro dry powder inhaler formulation performance considerations.

    PubMed

    Ziffels, Susanne; Bemelmans, Norman L; Durham, Phillip G; Hickey, Anthony J

    2015-02-10

    It has long been desired to match airflow conditions during formulation evaluation to those of relevance to lung deposition. In this context several strategies have been adopted involving sampling at different: flow rate (without consideration of flow conditions, e.g. shear, Reynolds number, work function); pressure drop (with and without consideration of flow conditions) and; flow rate and pressure drop. Performance testing has focused on the influence of these sampling conditions on delivered dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size distribution. However, in order to be physiologically relevant it is also important to know when the drug was delivered with respect to initiation of airflow as variation in this parameter would influence lung deposition. A light obscuration method of detecting the dose delivered from a dry powder inhaler while sampling for aerodynamic particle size distributions (APSD) by inertial impaction has been developed. Four formulations of albuterol sulfate and budesonide in sieved and milled lactose, respectively, were dispersed and their rate of delivery monitored. The differences observed have the potential to impact the site of delivery in the lungs. The rate of delivery of drug is clearly an important companion measurement to delivered dose and APSD if the intent is to predict the similarity of in vivo performance of dry powder inhaler products. PMID:25497311

  20. Analysis of hematinic formulations available in the Indian market

    PubMed Central

    Karelia, B. N.; Buch, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the hematinic formulations available in Indian market for their varieties of dosage forms, iron salts used, content of elemental iron, frequency of administration, additional nutrients, and cost. Materials and Methods: Hematinic formulations listed in Indian Drug Review (2009) were analyzed for the iron salts contained and the elemental iron content. Preparations containing iron ± folic acid ± vitamin C were considered as ‘acceptable’ formulations. For proper comparison, cost of 100 mg elemental iron in each formulation was calculated. Acceptable oral formulations containing iron with folic acid were further classified according to iron salts, and the median cost of various iron salts was compared. We also identified oral solid formulations that required administration more than three times a day. Prices of ‘acceptable’ iron preparations were compared with that of ‘irrational’ formulations. Results: Out of 621 formulations, 365 were oral solid formulations, 232 were oral liquids, and 24 were for parenteral administration. Formulations containing iron salts like ferrous sulphate, ferrous sulphate (dried), carbonyl iron, and ferrous fumarate are cheaper than formulations containing other iron salts. Among the 365 oral (solid) iron formulations, we found 60 that would require administration more than three times a day to provide a therapeutic dosage of elemental iron. As compared to irrational formulations, the cost of acceptable formulations was in a significantly narrow range; however, the median cost of acceptable products was significantly higher than that of the irrational ones, except in case of the parenteral preparations. Conclusion: The drug regulation authorities should tune the drug price in such a way that rational formulations cost less than the irrational ones. PMID:22368414

  1. Formulation of custom sized LX-15 granules

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, T.W.

    1980-04-01

    LX-15 is a booster explosive formulation consisting of 95% HNS I and 5% Kel F-800 developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The purpose of this effort was to develop formulation techniques for the production of custom size granules that are amenable for processing in automatic weighing equipment. This report details processes whereby 0.4 and 1.5 kg size batches are produced, meeting those requirements. Efforts to date have found that granule size is dependent on batch/vessel size, water-to-solvent ratio and the degree of vessel agitation.

  2. Variability in annual recruitment success as a determinant of long-term and large-scale variation in annual production of intertidal Wadden Sea mussels ( Mytilus edulis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukema, J. J.; Dekker, R.

    2007-06-01

    To understand the background of the strong variation and recent decline of stocks and production of mussels ( Mytilus edulis) on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, we analysed long-term (twice-annual for 26 years) and multi-station (15 sites) estimates of numbers, mean individual weights, biomass, and annual production on Balgzand, a 50-km2 tidal-flat area in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands). Somatic production was estimated from summed growth increments of soft tissues per half-year period and expressed in ash-free dry mass (AFDM). In adults, positive values in spring/summer regularly alternated with negative values in autumn/winter, when up to ˜25% (mean: 14%) of individual weight gains in the preceding season were lost. No weight losses were observed during the first winter of the life of mussels. The 26-year mean of net somatic tissue production P amounted to 5.5 g AFDM m-2 a-1 at a mean biomass B of 3.2 g AFDM m-2; the ratio P/B varied strongly with age composition of the mussel population and ranged between 0.5 and 3.0 a-1 (mean: 1.7). Within the restricted areas of mussel beds, mean biomass and annual production values were two orders of magnitude higher. In the Wadden Sea, mussel beds cover a typical 1% of extensive tidal flat areas. Numerical densities of recruits showed straight-line relationships with subsequent life-time year-class production. Once recruits had reached an age of ˜10 months, their numbers predicted subsequent production within narrow limits. Production per recruit averaged 0.21 g AFDM for 10-mo recruits and was not related to recruit density. Local variation in annual production varied strongly, with maximal values between mid-tide and low-tide level, where recruitment was also maximal. Production per recruit was higher at low than at high intertidal levels. Frequently failing recruitment is indicated as the main cause of declining mussel stocks in the Wadden Sea. As in other bivalve species, a declining frequency

  3. Formulation and production of intumescent coating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schwartz, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for manufacturing and producing fire protective intumescent coatings are described. The coatings consist of three reactive parts mixed together at the time of use. The chemical composition of the reactive parts is discussed. The characteristics of the coatings which are obtained by three types of processing are analyzed. Qualification tests of the materials to determine acceptability are reported.

  4. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

  5. Formulations for children: problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah K; Marriott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric formulation design is complex as there is a need to understand the developmental physiological changes that occur during childhood and their impact on the absorption of drugs. Paediatric dose adjustments are usually based on achieving pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles equivalent to those achieved in adult populations. However, differences in the way in which children handle adult products or the use of bespoke paediatric formulations can result in unexpected pharmacokinetic drug profiles with altered clinical efficacy. Differences in drug formulations need to be understood by healthcare professionals involved in the prescribing, administration or dispensing of drugs to children such that appropriate advice is given to ensure that therapeutic outcomes are achieved. This issue is not confined to oral medicines but is applicable for all routes of administration encountered in paediatric therapy. PMID:25855822

  6. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  7. Regional Sea Level Variations from GRACE, InSAR and a Regional Atmospheric Climate Model Output Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C. W.; Velicogna, I.; Rignot, E. J.; Wahr, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    We generate static regional sea level variations (sea level fingerprints, SLF) from ice sheets, glaciers and land hydrology using 10 years of monthly NASA/DLR GRACE satellite data and 40 years of ice sheet mass balance from the mass budget method (surface mass balance from a regional atmospheric climate model minus ice discharge along the periphery). We evaluate the impact of the spatial distribution in ice sheet mass balance on the inferred regional sea level pattern. Based on the results, we derive requirements on the spatial scale of mass loss needed to resolve the regional pattern of sea level change. In the calculation of the water and ice mass changes over land, we also need to restore the amplitude of the GRACE signal before calculating the regional sea level pattern. Here, we describe an improved scaling factor method that comprises both a seasonal and a long-term component. We discuss the impact of these components on the retrieved regional sea level pattern. Using the SLF, we identify the sources of observed sea level variations. We show that the cumulative SLF describe a large portion of the trend and annual amplitude of the observed sea level variations at both the global and basin scales. When comparing the cumulative SLF with observations of sea level change from steric corrected altimetry, we find an excellent agreement at the global and basin scales. We discuss differences in sea level pattern between the last decade and the prior 40 years. This work was conducted at the University of California Irvine and at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  9. High-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of steviol glycosides in Stevia formulations and sugar-free food products, and benchmarking with (ultra) high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E; Meyer, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-11

    A high-performance TLC (HPTLC) method was newly developed and validated for analysis of 7 steviol glycosides in 6 different types of food and Stevia formulations. After a minimized one-step sample preparation, 21 samples were developed in parallel, allowing an effective food screening. Depending on the sample application volume, the method was suited to analyze food sample concentrations in the mg/kg range. LOQs of stevioside in natural yoghurt matrix spiked at 0.02, 0.13 and 0.2% were determined by the calibration curve method to be 12ng/band (peak height). ANOVA was successfully passed to prove data homogeneity in the working range (30-600ng/band). The accuracy (recovery tolerance limit, 92-120%), repeatability (3.1-5.4%) and intermediate precision (4.0-8.4%) were determined for stevioside in milk-based matrix including sample preparation and recovery rates at 3 different concentration levels. For the first time, the recording of HPTLC-ESI-MS spectra via the TLC-MS Interface was demonstrated for rebaudioside A. HPTLC contents for rebaudioside A were compared with results of two (U)HPLC methods. The running costs and analysis time of the three different methods were discussed in detail with regard to screening of food products. PMID:24873964

  10. Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation in Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2005-01-01

    A set of conditions had not been formulated on the boundary of an elastic continuum since the time of Saint-Venant. This limitation prevented the formulation of a direct stress calculation method in elasticity for a continuum with a displacement boundary condition. The missed condition, referred to as the boundary compatibility condition, is now formulated in polar coordinates. The augmentation of the new condition completes the Beltrami-Michell formulation in polar coordinates. The completed formulation that includes equilibrium equations and a compatibility condition in the field as well as the traction and boundary compatibility condition is derived from the stationary condition of the variational functional of the integrated force method. The new method is illustrated by solving an example of a mixed boundary value problem for mechanical as well as thermal loads.

  11. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-06-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition. The characteristics in August were optimal with the lowest level of ash (20% of volatile solids), a C:N ratio of 32 and the highest specific methane yield measured at 327LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 72% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per mass collected of 53m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in August, which is 4.5 times higher than the lowest value, obtained in December. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,800ha would be required to satisfy the 2020 target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1.25% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) based on the optimal gross energy yield obtained in August (200GJha(-1)yr(-1)). PMID:26970924

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variation of organic ultraviolet filters from personal care products used along the Japanese coast.

    PubMed

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Murata, Kotaro; Tanihata, Mai; Suzuki, Kengo; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the behavior of organic ultraviolet (UV) filters released by recreational activities along the Japanese coastline. Seasonal variations of organic UV filters in seawater were investigated at four different recreational beaches (Mogushi, Wakamiya, Tsurugahama, and Otachimisaki beaches) in both summer (July through August) and winter (December). Moreover, short time scale diurnal changes were monitored at Otachimisaki beach in summer. Of the four sunscreen agents tested in this study, two agents-2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS)-were detected in all samples, whereas octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzonic acid and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor were lower than detection limits. In particular, EHMC, one of the most popular organic UV filters, was dominant. The highest concentration of EHMC was observed at 1,080 ng L(-1), a level that exceeds those of previous studies. Both EHMC and EHS concentrations showed significant (p < 0.05) seasonal variations with advancing summer suggesting direct input from recreational activities. The subsequent examination showed short time scale diurnal changes of organic UV filters on the beach. The results showed that diurnal changes in EHMC concentrations were correlated to the number of bathers. EHMC concentrations increased during the afternoon and decreased during the night, although complete attenuation during the night did not occur. EHMC persists along the coast due to low mobility and may persist the next day. This is the first study to show the natural attenuation behavior of organic UV filters along recreational beaches. PMID:25480128

  13. Spatio-temporal variation of nectar robbing in Salvia gesneriflora and its effects on nectar production and legitimate visitors.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Rosas-Guerrero, V

    2016-01-01

    Nectar robbing occurs when floral visitors remove floral nectar through floral damage and usually without providing pollination in return. Even though nectar robbing may have negative, neutral or even positive effects on plant fitness, few studies have investigated temporal and spatial variation in robbing rate and their consequences, particularly in the tropics. In this study, robbing levels were estimated during 3 years in four populations of Salvia gesneriflora, a hummingbird-pollinated shrub endemic to central Mexico that is mainly robbed by birds, carpenter bees and bumblebees. The effect of robbing on nectar availability, flower longevity and on visitation rate by floral visitors was also evaluated. Our results indicate great variation in robbing levels across years and populations and a positive relationship between robbing level and flower abundance per population. Moreover, our results show that nectar availability is about eight times higher in unrobbed flowers than in robbed flowers, and that nectar robbers prefer younger flowers, although lifespan of robbed and unrobbed flowers did not differ statistically. Primary and secondary nectar robbers showed a higher visitation rate compared to legitimate visitors, and neither legitimate nor illegitimate floral visitors seem to discriminate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. These results suggest that robbers may respond to food availability and that no floral visitors apparently could differentiate between robbed and unrobbed flowers. Finally, results show that nectar robbers prefer the youngest flowers, which suggests that strong competition for access to nectar between pollinators and robbers might occur, mainly at the first stages of the flowers. PMID:25677960

  14. Nanoliposomal Dry Powder Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Gaurang; Chougule, Mahavir; Singh, Mandip; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2013-01-01

    Liposomal dry powder formulations (DPFs) have proven their superiority over conventional DPFs due to favorably improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of entrapped drugs, and thus, reduced local and systemic toxicities. Nanoliposomal DPFs (NLDPFs) provide stable, high aerosolization efficiency to deep lung, prolonged drug release, slow systemic dilution, and avoid macrophage uptake of encapsulated drug by carrier-based delivery of nano-range liposomes. This chapter describes methods of preparation of nanoliposomes (NLs) and NLDPFs, using various techniques, and their characterization with respect to size distribution, flow behavior, in vitro drug release profile, lung deposition, cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Some examples have been detailed for better understanding of the methods of preparation and evaluation of NLDPFs by investigators. PMID:19903555

  15. Seasonal Variation in Shell Calcification of Planktonic Foraminifera in the NE Atlantic Reveals Species-Specific Response to Temperature, Productivity, and Optimum Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Weinkauf, Manuel F G; Kunze, José G; Waniek, Joanna J; Kučera, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Using shells collected from a sediment trap series in the Madeira Basin, we investigate the effects of seasonal variation of temperature, productivity, and optimum growth conditions on calcification in three species of planktonic Foraminifera. The series covers an entire seasonal cycle and reflects conditions at the edge of the distribution of the studied species, manifesting more suitable growth conditions during different parts of the year. The seasonal variation in seawater carbonate saturation at the studied site is negligible compared to other oceanic regions, allowing us to assess the effect of parameters other than carbonate saturation. Shell calcification is quantified using weight and size of individual shells. The size-weight scaling within each species is robust against changes in environmental parameters, but differs among species. An analysis of the variation in calcification intensity (size-normalized weight) reveals species-specific response patterns. In Globigerinoides ruber (white) and Globigerinoides elongatus, calcification intensity is correlated with temperature (positive) and productivity (negative), whilst in Globigerina bulloides no environmental forcing is observed. The size-weight scaling, calcification intensity, and response of calcification intensity to environmental change differed between G. ruber (white) and G. elongatus, implying that patterns extracted from pooled analyses of these species may reflect their changing proportions in the samples. Using shell flux as a measure of optimum growth conditions, we observe significant positive correlation with calcification intensity in G. elongatus, but negative correlation in G. bulloides. The lack of a consistent response of calcification intensity to optimum growth conditions is mirrored by the results of shell size analyses. We conclude that calcification intensity in planktonic Foraminifera is affected by factors other than carbonate saturation. These factors include temperature

  16. Seasonal Variation in Shell Calcification of Planktonic Foraminifera in the NE Atlantic Reveals Species-Specific Response to Temperature, Productivity, and Optimum Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weinkauf, Manuel F. G.; Kunze, José G.; Waniek, Joanna J.; Kučera, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Using shells collected from a sediment trap series in the Madeira Basin, we investigate the effects of seasonal variation of temperature, productivity, and optimum growth conditions on calcification in three species of planktonic Foraminifera. The series covers an entire seasonal cycle and reflects conditions at the edge of the distribution of the studied species, manifesting more suitable growth conditions during different parts of the year. The seasonal variation in seawater carbonate saturation at the studied site is negligible compared to other oceanic regions, allowing us to assess the effect of parameters other than carbonate saturation. Shell calcification is quantified using weight and size of individual shells. The size–weight scaling within each species is robust against changes in environmental parameters, but differs among species. An analysis of the variation in calcification intensity (size-normalized weight) reveals species-specific response patterns. In Globigerinoides ruber (white) and Globigerinoides elongatus, calcification intensity is correlated with temperature (positive) and productivity (negative), whilst in Globigerina bulloides no environmental forcing is observed. The size–weight scaling, calcification intensity, and response of calcification intensity to environmental change differed between G. ruber (white) and G. elongatus, implying that patterns extracted from pooled analyses of these species may reflect their changing proportions in the samples. Using shell flux as a measure of optimum growth conditions, we observe significant positive correlation with calcification intensity in G. elongatus, but negative correlation in G. bulloides. The lack of a consistent response of calcification intensity to optimum growth conditions is mirrored by the results of shell size analyses. We conclude that calcification intensity in planktonic Foraminifera is affected by factors other than carbonate saturation. These factors include temperature

  17. Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.

    1989-01-01

    Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.

  18. Simulating open quantum dynamics with time-dependent variational matrix product states: Towards microscopic correlation of environment dynamics and reduced system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-02-01

    We report the development of an efficient many-body algorithm for simulating open quantum system dynamics that utilizes a time-dependent variational principle for matrix product states to evolve large system-environment states. Capturing all system-environment correlations, we reproduce the nonperturbative, quantum-critical dynamics of the zero-temperature spin-boson model, and then exploit the many-body information to visualize the complete time-frequency spectrum of the environmental excitations. Our "environmental spectra" reveal correlated vibrational motion in polaronic modes which preserve their vibrational coherence during incoherent spin relaxation, demonstrating how environment information could yield valuable insights into complex quantum dissipative processes.

  19. Pediatric drug development: formulation considerations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Areeg Anwer; Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Abdallah, Daud Baraka

    2014-10-01

    Absence of safe, effective and appropriate treatment is one of the main causes of high mortality and morbidity rates among the pediatric group. This review provides an overview of pharmacokinetic differences between pediatric and adult population and their implications in pharmaceutical development. Different pediatric dosage forms, their merits and demerits are discussed. Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997 and the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act 2002 added 6 months patent extension and exclusivity incentives to pharmaceutical companies for evaluation of medicinal products in children. Prescription Drug User Fee Act and Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 made it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to perform pediatric clinical studies on new drug products. Drug development program should include additional clinical bridge studies to evaluate differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in adult and child populations. Additionally, pharmaceutical development should consider ease of administration, palatability, appropriate excipients, stability and therapeutic equivalency of pediatric dosage forms. Pediatric population is diverse with individual preferences and demand for custom made dosage formulations. Practically it is not feasible to have different pharmaceutical dosage forms for each group. Hence, an appropriate dosage form that can be administered across pediatric population is warranted. PMID:24483293

  20. MECHANISMS OF AGRESSION AND PRODUCTION IN CHICKENS: GENETIC VARIATIONS IN THE FUNCTIONS OF SEROTONIN, CATECHOLAMINE, AND CORTICOSTERONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study demonstrates that genetic selection for high and low group productivity and longevity with alterations in cannibalism and flightiness affected the regulations of the neuroendocrine system of selected birds, and that CORT and monoamines, such as 5-HT, DA, EP and NE, were differently regula...

  1. Short communication: Variation in production parameters among Canadian Holstein cows classified as high, average, and low immune responders.

    PubMed

    Stoop, C L; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle evaluated for immune responses and identified as high responders are known to have a lower occurrence of economically important diseases, including mastitis, metritis, ketosis, and retained placenta. These high immune responders have also been shown to make more antibody following vaccination and to have improved milk and colostrum quality. Therefore, breeding for improved immune response is expected to have several benefits in the dairy industry. However, a concern of such an approach to improve animal health is the potential cost of lost production due to an allocation of host resources to mount a robust immune response. The objective of this study was to evaluate early- and late-lactation production parameters in cattle classified as having high, average, or low estimated breeding values (EBV) for cell-mediated (CMIR), antibody-mediated (AMIR), and overall immune responses. A total of 561 cows from 6 herds were phenotyped for immune response and ranked based on EBV for CMIR and AMIR. A linear animal model was used to evaluate differences in milk, fat, and protein yields among immune response groups, and a regression analysis was conducted based on immune response EBV. Overall, no difference in production parameters was found based on immune response rank; however, some positive relationships with immune response EBV were found, suggesting that breeding for enhanced immune responsiveness as a prophylactic approach to improve animal health would not come at the cost of lost production. PMID:27060821

  2. Variations in short term products of inorganic carbon fixation in exponential and stationary phase cultures of Aphanocapsa 6308.

    PubMed

    Weathers, P J; Allen, M M

    1978-03-01

    Aphanocapsa 6308 metabolizes both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The short term incorporation (5-s) metabolic pattern and the patterns of incorporation of bicarbonate for exponential versus stationary phase cultures differ, however. Cells were equilibrated for 10 min in air and distilled water prior to injection of either NaH14CO3 at pH 8.0, or Na214CO3 at pH 11.0. Hot ethanol extracts were analyzed via paper chromatography and autoradiography for products of CO2 fixation. At 5 s, malate (51.5%) predominates slightly as a primary bicarbonate fixation product over 3-phosphoglycerate (40.3%); 3-phosphoglycerate is the primary product of carbonate fixation. At 60 s, the carbonate and bicarbonate labelling patterns are similar. Cells in stationary phase fix in 5 s a greater proportion of bicarbonate into malate (36% vs. 14% for 3-phosphoglycerate) than do cells in exponential growth. Likewise, 60 s incorporations show a large amount of bicarbonate fixed into aspartate (30.9%) in stationary phase cells over that of exponential phase (11.6%). These data suggest an operative C4 pathway for purposes not related to carbohydrate synthesis but rather as compensation for the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. The enhancement of both aspartate fixation and CO2 fixation into citrulline in stationary phase correlates with an increase in cyanophycin granule production which requires both aspartate and arginine. PMID:417691

  3. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jessica L.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy®. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel®, Carraguard®, and PRO 2000®. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  4. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2012-08-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel, Carraguard, and PRO 2000. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  5. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  6. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    lower water to solids ratio. Nevertheless, the higher viscosity grout may still meet the requirements for the cooling coil grout under certain pumping conditions or alternatively, the mix may be made more fluid by a short period of high shear mixing during production. The mixes have not been optimized for large scale production. It may be possible, for example, to adjust the water to cementitious materials ratio to provide improved performance of these mixes based on the results and conclusions of the large scale testing at CETL. Recommendations from this task include incorporation of a backup mixing/pumping system that is either integrated into the system or is available for immediate use in case of a pump or mixer failure of the primary system. A second recommendation is to conduct a laboratory scale investigation to determine the impact of operational variation on the properties of the grout. This effort would be initiated after feedback is received from the large scale testing at CETL. The purpose of this proposed variability testing is to better understand the limits of the operational variations (such as temperature and mixing time), and to identify possible approaches for remediation to ensure that the grout produced will flow effectively in the coils while still meeting the performance requirements.

  7. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  8. Response of gross ecosystem productivity, light use efficiency, and water use efficiency of Mongolian steppe to seasonal variations in soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Gong; Eugster, Werner; Asanuma, Jun; Kotani, Ayumi; Davaa, Gombo; Oyunbaatar, Dambaravjaa; Sugita, Michiaki

    2008-03-01

    The examination of vegetation productivity and use of light and water resources is important for understanding the carbon and water cycles in semiarid and arid environments. We made continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes over an arid steppe ecosystem in Mongolia by using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. These measurements allow an examination of EC-estimated gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), light use efficiency (LUE), and water use efficiency (WUE) of the steppe. Daily variations of GEP, LUE, and WUE were associated with daily variations of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ambient temperature (Ta), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The magnitudes of these variations were also dependent on canopy development. On the daily basis, GEP linearly correlated with evapotranspiration rate and PAR. LUE correlated positively with leaf area index, Ta, and soil moisture availability but negatively with the surface reflectivity for short-wave solar radiation. Throughout the growing season, both GEP and LUE responded strongly to precipitation-fed soil moisture in the top 20 cm of the soil. An examination of the responses of LUE and WUE to PAR under different soil moisture conditions shows that when soil water availability exceeded VPD, the steppe was most efficient in light use, whereas it was less efficient in water use. The multivariate analysis of variance also suggests that soil moisture availability, especially water status in the upper 20-cm soil layer with dense distribution of grass roots, is the most significant factor that governs GEP, WUE, and LUE. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the use of available water and light by the Mongolian arid steppe ecosystems under seasonally varying soil moisture conditions. A better understanding of these functional responses is required to predict how climate change may affect arid steppe ecosystems.

  9. Natural variation in the glucose content of dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated rice straw liquid hydrolysates: implications for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Goda, Takashi; Teramura, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Miki; Kanamaru, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Rice straw is a promising resource for bioethanol production. Because the glucose content of pretreatment liquid hydrolysates is highly correlated with ethanol yield, the selection of appropriate rice cultivars is essential. The glucose content in liquid hydrolysates of pretreated rice straws of 208 diverse cultivars was evaluated in natural field in 2013 and 2014 using a novel high-throughput system. The glucose content of the rice straw samples varied across cultivars and was affected by environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Several high-quality cultivars exhibiting high glucose content in both years were identified. The results of this study can aid in development of novel rice cultivars suitable as both feedstocks for bioethanol production and cooking. PMID:26872499

  10. Flooded native pastures of the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso: biomass and primary productivity variations.

    PubMed

    Pozer, C G; Nogueira, F

    2004-11-01

    The Pantanal comprises a number of landscape units, submitted to a flood pulse with variable intensity or regularity. One of these units, the flooded plains, is important in cattle raising. This study was carried out in the northern portion of the Pantanal and presents data related to the productive dynamics of the flooded native pastures both protected from and exposed to cattle. The greatest total biomass values were for the protected pasture due to accumulated dead biomass. Net primary production presented smaller values at the flood-season start and increasing gradually beginning in the subsequent rainy season. However, consumption by cattle was also more intense during the months of greater precipitation. The effect of cattle in pastures is of fundamental importance to management since it prevents the dead biomass excess that increases fire risks. PMID:15744427

  11. Completed Beltrami-Michell formulation for analyzing radially symmetrical bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Saigal, Sunil; Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    1994-12-01

    A force method formulation, the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF), has been developed for analyzing boundary value problems in elastic continua. The CBMF is obtained by augmenting the classical Beltrami-Michell formulation with novel boundary compatibility conditions. It can analyze general elastic continua with stress, displacement, or mixed boundary conditions. The CBMF alleviates the limitations of the classical formulation, which can solve stress boundary value problems only. In this report, the CBMF is specialized for plates and shells. All equations of the CBMF, including the boundary compatibility conditions, are derived from the variational formulation of the integrated force method (IFM). These equations are defined only in terms of stresses. Their solution for kinematically stable elastic continua provides stress fields without any reference to displacements. In addition, a stress function formulation for plates and shells is developed by augmenting the classical Airy's formulation with boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of the stress function. The versatility of the CBMF and the augmented stress function formulation is demonstrated through analytical solutions of several mixed boundary value problems. The example problems include a composite circular plate and a composite circular cylindrical shell under the simultaneous actions of mechanical and thermal loads.

  12. Completed Beltrami-Michell Formulation for Analyzing Radially Symmetrical Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaljevic, Igor; Saigal, Sunil; Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    1994-01-01

    A force method formulation, the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF), has been developed for analyzing boundary value problems in elastic continua. The CBMF is obtained by augmenting the classical Beltrami-Michell formulation with novel boundary compatibility conditions. It can analyze general elastic continua with stress, displacement, or mixed boundary conditions. The CBMF alleviates the limitations of the classical formulation, which can solve stress boundary value problems only. In this report, the CBMF is specialized for plates and shells. All equations of the CBMF, including the boundary compatibility conditions, are derived from the variational formulation of the integrated force method (IFM). These equations are defined only in terms of stresses. Their solution for kinematically stable elastic continua provides stress fields without any reference to displacements. In addition, a stress function formulation for plates and shells is developed by augmenting the classical Airy's formulation with boundary compatibility conditions expressed in terms of the stress function. The versatility of the CBMF and the augmented stress function formulation is demonstrated through analytical solutions of several mixed boundary value problems. The example problems include a composite circular plate and a composite circular cylindrical shell under the simultaneous actions of mechanical and thermal loads.

  13. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  15. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Christopher M.; Puleston, Cedric O.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact. PMID:25561523

  16. Variation in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) land use indicates production and population peaks prior to European contact.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Christopher M; Puleston, Cedric O; Vitousek, Peter M; Chadwick, Oliver A; Haoa, Sonia; Ladefoged, Thegn N

    2015-01-27

    Many researchers believe that prehistoric Rapa Nui society collapsed because of centuries of unchecked population growth within a fragile environment. Recently, the notion of societal collapse has been questioned with the suggestion that extreme societal and demographic change occurred only after European contact in AD 1722. Establishing the veracity of demographic dynamics has been hindered by the lack of empirical evidence and the inability to establish a precise chronological framework. We use chronometric dates from hydrated obsidian artifacts recovered from habitation sites in regional study areas to evaluate regional land-use within Rapa Nui. The analysis suggests region-specific dynamics including precontact land use decline in some near-coastal and upland areas and postcontact increases and subsequent declines in other coastal locations. These temporal land-use patterns correlate with rainfall variation and soil quality, with poorer environmental locations declining earlier. This analysis confirms that the intensity of land use decreased substantially in some areas of the island before European contact. PMID:25561523

  17. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) container productivity in a slum and a suburban district of Rio de Janeiro during dry and wet seasons.

    PubMed

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Marques, William A; Peres, Roberto C; Cunha, Sérgio P; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2007-06-01

    Seasonal variation in container productivity and infestation levels by Aedes aegypti were evaluated in two areas with distinct levels of urbanization degrees in Rio de Janeiro, a slum and a suburban neighborhood. The four most productive containers can generate up to 90% of total pupae. Large and open-mouthed containers, such as water tanks and metal drums, located outdoors were the most productive in both areas, with up to 47.49% of total Ae. aegypti pupae collected in the shaded sites in the suburban area. Water-tanks were identified as key containers in both areas during both the dry and rainy seasons. Container productivity varied according to seasons and urbanization degree. However, the mean number of pupae per house was higher in the suburban area, but not varied between seasons within each area (P > 0.05). High infestation indexes were observed for both localities, with a house index of 20.5-21.14 in the suburban and of 9.56-11.22 in the urban area. This report gives potential support to a more focused and cost-effective Ae. aegypti control in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:17612770

  18. Variation in type A trichothecene production and trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Fusarium goolgardi from natural ecosystems of Australia.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Liliana O; Laurence, Matthew H; Proctor, Robert H; McCormick, Susan P; Summerell, Brett A; Liew, Edward C Y

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium goolgardi, isolated from the grass tree Xanthorrhoea glauca in natural ecosystems of Australia, is closely related to fusaria that produce a subgroup of trichothecene (type A) mycotoxins that lack a carbonyl group at carbon atom 8 (C-8). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that F. goolgardi isolates produce type A trichothecenes, but exhibited one of two chemotypes. Some isolates (50%) produced multiple type A trichothecenes, including 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO), 8-acetylneosolaniol (Ac-NEO) and T-2 toxin (DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype). Other isolates (50%) produced only DAS (DAS chemotype). In the phylogenies inferred from DNA sequences of genes encoding the RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits as well as the trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI), F. goolgardi isolates were resolved as a monophyletic clade, distinct from other type A trichothecene-producing species. However, the relationships of F. goolgardi to the other species varied depending on whether phylogenies were inferred from RPB1 and RPB2, the 12-gene TRI cluster, the two-gene TRI1-TRI16 locus, or the single-gene TRI101 locus. Phylogenies based on different TRI loci resolved isolates with different chemotypes into distinct clades, even though only the TRI1-TRI16 locus is responsible for structural variation at C-8. Sequence analysis indicated that TRI1 and TRI16 are functional in F. goolgardi isolates with the DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype, but non-functional in isolates with DAS chemotype due to the presence of premature stop codons caused by a point mutation. PMID:26556373

  19. Variation in Type A Trichothecene Production and Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes in Fusarium goolgardi from Natural Ecosystems of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Laurence, Matthew H.; Proctor, Robert H.; McCormick, Susan P.; Summerell, Brett A.; Liew, Edward C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium goolgardi, isolated from the grass tree Xanthorrhoea glauca in natural ecosystems of Australia, is closely related to fusaria that produce a subgroup of trichothecene (type A) mycotoxins that lack a carbonyl group at carbon atom 8 (C-8). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that F. goolgardi isolates produce type A trichothecenes, but exhibited one of two chemotypes. Some isolates (50%) produced multiple type A trichothecenes, including 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO), 8-acetylneosolaniol (Ac-NEO) and T-2 toxin (DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype). Other isolates (50%) produced only DAS (DAS chemotype). In the phylogenies inferred from DNA sequences of genes encoding the RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits as well as the trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI), F. goolgardi isolates were resolved as a monophyletic clade, distinct from other type A trichothecene-producing species. However, the relationships of F. goolgardi to the other species varied depending on whether phylogenies were inferred from RPB1 and RPB2, the 12-gene TRI cluster, the two-gene TRI1-TRI16 locus, or the single-gene TRI101 locus. Phylogenies based on different TRI loci resolved isolates with different chemotypes into distinct clades, even though only the TRI1-TRI16 locus is responsible for structural variation at C-8. Sequence analysis indicated that TRI1 and TRI16 are functional in F. goolgardi isolates with the DAS-NEO-T2 chemotype, but non-functional in isolates with DAS chemotype due to the presence of premature stop codons caused by a point mutation. PMID:26556373

  20. Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L.

    2009-03-31

    We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales

  1. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  2. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. PMID:26688290

  3. Variation in feeding behavior and milk production among dairy cows when supplemented with 2 amounts of mixed ration in combination with 2 amounts of pasture.

    PubMed

    Wright, M M; Auldist, M J; Kennedy, E; Dunshea, F R; Hannah, M; Wales, W J

    2016-08-01

    Variation in feeding behavior and milk production of grazing dairy cows fed a mixed ration was measured. Experiments were conducted in spring (early lactation) and autumn (late lactation) with 48 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Pasture allowance (low vs. high) and amounts of supplement (low vs. high) were applied to determine the effect on variation among cows in feeding behavior and milk production. The experiments investigated 4 dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Daily pasture allowances were 15kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 37kg of DM/cow per day (high; to ground level); and 12kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 31kg of DM/cow per day (high; to ground level), for the spring and autumn experiments, respectively. Supplements were offered at 6kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 14kg of DM/cow per day (high); and 6kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 12kg of DM/cow per day (high), for the spring and autumn experiments, respectively. There were 2groups of 6 cows per treatment. All treatments received a partial mixed ration, defined as a total mixed ration fed between periods of grazing that contained wheat grain, corn grain, alfalfa hay, and canola meal. The grain-to-forage ratio of the supplements was 78:22 (DM basis) in both spring and autumn. In both experiments, the pre-experimental period was 14d followed by a 10-d experimental period. The variation among cows within a group in feeding behavior was influenced by the amount of supplement but not the amount of pasture offered. The variation among cows in pasture eating time approximately doubled when the amount of supplement offered increased, indicating that to reduce the variability among cows, supplement feeding management strategies need to be considered. Increasing pasture allowance had no effect on pasture eating time although pasture intake increased as a result of increased grazing intensity compared with the low pasture allowance. However, increasing the amount of supplement in the partial

  4. Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Wood Production in Tropical Trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, is Related to Local Climate and Species Functional Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous

  5. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  6. Biopsychosocial Formulation: Recognizing Educational Shortcomings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Tina; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Since Engel introduced the biopsychosocial model, it has been extensively examined. The authors expect psychiatrists to formulate cases using the biopsychosocial model. However, resident psychiatrists' ability to generate formulations using this model has received little attention. Methods: The authors evaluated resident biopsychosocial…

  7. IMPROVED ZEIN FORMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to mitigate the deficiencies of articles produced using zein (the dominant corn protein and a potential co-product of the bio-ethanol industry) we have treated zein with glyoxal. Chemical modification was carried out in 90% ethanol/water using various amounts of base. Glyoxal was added be...

  8. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. PMID:22554470

  9. Formulation Design of Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry G; Miller, Danforth P

    2015-10-01

    Drugs for inhalation are no longer exclusively highly crystalline small molecules. They may also be amorphous small molecules, peptides, antibodies, and myriad types of engineered proteins. The evolution of respiratory therapeutics has created a need for flexible formulation technologies to engineer respirable particles. These technologies have enabled medicinal chemists to focus on molecular design without concern regarding compatibility of physicochemical properties with traditional, blend-based technologies. Therapeutics with diverse physicochemical properties can now be formulated as stable and respirable dry powders. Particle engineering technologies have also driven the deployment of new excipients, giving formulators greater control over particle and powder properties. This plays a key role in enabling efficient delivery of drugs to the lungs. Engineered powder and device combinations enable aerosols that largely bypass the mouth and throat, minimizing the inherent variability among patients that arises from differences in oropharyngeal and airway anatomies and in breathing profiles. This review explores how advances among molecules, particles, and powders have transformed inhaled drug product development. Ultimately, this scientific progress will benefit patients, enabling new classes of therapeutics to be formulated as dry powder aerosols with improved efficacy, reduced variability and side effects, and improved patient adherence. PMID:26296055

  10. [Formation and Variation of Brominated Disinfection By-products in A Combined Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Process for Seawater Desalination].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Sun, Ying-xue; Shi, Na; Hu, Hong-ying

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and brominated disinfection by-products ( Br-DBPs ) during a seawater desalination ultrafiltration (UF) combined reverse osmosis (RO) process were studied. The seawater contained high level of bromide ion (45.6-50.9 mg x L(-1)) and aromatic compounds with specific ultraviolet absorbance ( SUVA) of 3.6-6.0 L x (mg x m)(-1). The tryptophan-like aromatic protein, fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like were the main fluorescent DOM in the seawater. After pre-chlorination of the seawater, the concentrations of DBPs was significantly increased in the influent of UF, which was dominantly the Br-DBPs. Bromoform (CHBr3) accounted for 70.48% - 91.50% of total trihalomethanes (THMs), dibromoacetic acid (Br2CHCO2H) occupied 81.14% - 100% of total haloacetic acids (HAAs) and dibromoacetonitrile (C2HBr2N) occupied 83.77% - 87.45% of total haloacetonitriles ( HANs). The removal efficiency of THMs, HAAs and HANs by the UF membrane was 36.63% - 40.39%, 73.83% - 95.38% and 100%, respectively. The RO membrane could completely remove the HAAs, while a little of the THMs was penetrated. The antiestrogenic activity in the seawater was 0.35 - 0.44 mg x L(-1), which was increased 32% - 69% after the pre-chlorination. The DBPs and other bio-toxic organics which formed during the UF-RO process were finally concentrated in the UF concentrate and RO concentrate. PMID:26841602

  11. Formulation considerations for the development of medications with abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, Robert S; Moore, Richard A

    2006-06-01

    The availability of increasingly sophisticated drug formulations and delivery devices has created new opportunities in drug development. These newer approaches can result in improved drug bioavailability, or they can alter key pharmacokinetic parameters in such a way as to decrease dosing interval, decrease variability, or blunt maximal concentrations that are associated with adverse events of particular concern. Special formulations or devices can also provide for easier or more convenient dosing in subpopulations of interest, such as children or the elderly. Although the key principles of abuse potential assessment and the underlying neurochemistry and pharmacology are relatively well understood, evaluation of the influences of drug formulation have received much less study. Because dose and formulation - and even the therapeutic indication - are refined over the course of development, it is usually difficult to conduct more than a cursory evaluation of the influence of formulation on the underlying abuse potential of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Industrial sponsors would benefit from further research in areas of formulation science and pharmacokinetics that would improve the predictability of prescription drug abuse. In particular, validation of new pharmacokinetic parameters and standardization of methods to understand the consequences of product tampering could assist in gaining a better assessment of risk for controlled release formulations. Such methods could apply not only to innovator products, but also to those wishing to develop generic versions with similar pharmaceutical performance. This article proposes several factors that may be of use to industrial sponsors in making formulation choices for drugs with the potential for abuse. PMID:16472940

  12. Formulation and in-vivo evaluation of a cosmetic multiple emulsion containing vitamin C and wheat protein.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Yazan, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to see the effect of two antiaging agents in one stable multiple emulsion prepared using natural oil. Vitamin C, which is a very unstable ingredient and is decomposed in the presence of oxygen, active as an antioxidant, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of w/o/w multiple emulsion. In this way, slow release can be expected and the effect of vitamin C can be increased since it is protected from the external environment by entrapping it in the internal phase. The other ingredient which is a product of wheat proteins was also used as an antiaging agent in the oily phase. Both of the ingredients increase the synthesis of collagen fibers in the dermis. Therefore, a synergystic effect can be produced by using the two ingredients in one formulation. In this study, multiple emulsions were prepared by the two-step method. Basic formulation containing no active material and a stable formulation containing vitamin C in the internal aqueous phase and wheat protein in the oily phase were prepared. The oil used was macadamia nut oil since it contains a high quantity of palmitoleic acid which is the natural ingredient of the young skin. Basic formulation as well as the active formulation after confirming their stabilities, were applied to the cheeks of 11 human volunteers for four weeks. Different parameters of the skin were monitored every week to see any effect produced by these emulsions. The data obtained was evaluated statistically. It was found that the active formulation as well as base increased the moisture of the skin as verified by statistical tests. However, there were no significant variations in other parameters like skin sebum, pH, elasticity, melanin and erythema, concerning the two formulations. PMID:18166519

  13. Comparison between liposomal formulations of amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Adler-Moore, Jill P; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Given the clinical success of commercial amphotericin B lipid products, investigators have begun making generic formulations of liposomal amphotericin B. Generic medicines are an attractive approach to help decrease the cost and accessibility to healthcare, provided that appropriate studies are performed to ensure bioequivalence with the parent product. This is of particular concern for liposomal drugs such as amphotericin B where liposomes are used as a carrier system to reduce the toxicity of the active agent. A favorable therapeutic profile for this form of the drug has to include the proper chemical composition along with strictly controlled manufacturing processes. Studies have shown that a comparison of liposomal amphotericin B products with different or the same chemical compositions, using different methods of production, will vary in size, and have significantly dissimilar in vitro and in vivo toxicities along with reduced efficacy. These results underscore the importance of establishing appropriate bioequivalence testing for liposome products to ensure uniformity of their therapeutic index. PMID:26768369

  14. Variation in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Its Effect on Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common naturally occurring and most thoroughly studied plant growth regulator. Microbial synthesis of IAA has long been known. Microbial IAA biosynthesis has been proposed as possibly occurring through multiple pathways, as has been proven in plants. However, the biosynthetic pathways of IAA and the ecological roles of IAA in yeast have not been widely studied. In this study, we investigated the variation in IAA production and its effect on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative Saccharomyces paradoxus yeasts from diverse ecological sources. We found that almost all Saccharomyces yeasts produced IAA when cultured in medium supplemented with the primary precursor of IAA, L-tryptophan (L-Trp). However, when cultured in medium without L-Trp, IAA production was only detected in three strains. Furthermore, exogenous added IAA exerted stimulatory and inhibitory effects on yeast growth. Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the amount of IAA production in the yeast cultures and the IAA inhibition ratio of their growth. PMID:27483373

  15. Fasciola hepatica: variations in redial development and cercarial production in relation to the geographic origin of the parasite

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Sanabria, Rodrigo; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Romero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred Galba truncatula, originating from a French population, were subjected to single-miracidium infections with an allopatric isolate (origin, Argentina) of Fasciola hepatica. The control group was constituted by 100 snails coming from the same population and exposed to sympatric miracidia of F. hepatica according to the same protocol. Snail samples were collected bimonthly from both groups between day 14 and day 112 p.e. (at 20 °C) and snail dissections were performed to count free rediae, intraredial morulae and free cercariae. Third and fourth generation rediae were significantly more numerous in the allopatric group, while the number of first generation rediae was significantly lower. In the sympatric group, the decrease in the number of intraredial morulae in the first, second and third redial generations was significantly faster. Free cercariae within the snail body were significantly more numerous in the sympatric than in the allopatric groups, whatever the date of snail dissection. The changes in redial development and cercarial production noted in the Argentinean group might be due to the evolution of South American flukes in a divergent way after the introduction of foreign infected ruminants in this continent from the 15th century. PMID:24054407

  16. On the scale variation of the total cross section for Higgs production at the LHC and at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafarella, A.; Corianò, C.; Guzzi, M.; Smith, J.

    2006-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the total pp cross section for scalar Higgs production to next-to-next-to-leading order in αs at LHC energies, and of the pp¯ cross section at the Tevatron, combining an implementation of the solutions of the parton evolution equations at the three-loop order with the corresponding hard scatterings, evaluated at the same perturbative order. Our solutions of the DGLAP equations are implemented directly in x-space and allow for the study of the dependence of the results on the factorization (μF) and renormalization scales (μR) typical of a given process, together with the stability of the perturbative expansion. The input sets for the parton evolutions are those given by Martin, Roberts, Stirling and Thorne and by Alekhin. Results for K-factors are also presented. The NNLO corrections can be quite sizeable at typical collider energies. The stability region of the perturbative expansion is found when μR>mH˜μF.

  17. Variation of the water production rate of comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina) from SOHO/SWAN observations throughout its apparition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, Michael; Mäkinen, Terhi; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Quémerais, Eric; Ferron, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite makes observations of the hydrogen coma of comets. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates are calculated using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), typically yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average. Here we describe the analysis of observations of comets observed during 2015 and 2016 of bright comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina). C/2013 US10 reached a perihelion distance of 0.82286 AU on 15.7 November 2015. The pre-perihelion leg of the apparition followed an average power law variation of 3.7 x 1029 r‑1.3 molecules s‑1, where r is the heliocentric distance in AU. This rather flat variation is not atypical of new Oort cloud comets on their first pass through the inner solar system. Support from grants NNX11AH50G from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and NNX13AQ66G from the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program are gratefully acknowledged, as is support from CNRS, CNES, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

  18. Significance of Strain in Formulation in Theory of Solid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic theory of solid mechanics was deemed complete circa 1860 when St. Venant provided the strain formulation or the field compatibility condition. The strain formulation was incomplete. The missing portion has been formulated and identified as the boundary compatibility condition (BCC). The BCC, derived through a variational formulation, has been verified through integral theorem and solution of problems. The BCC, unlike the field counterpart, do not trivialize when expressed in displacements. Navier s method and the stiffness formulation have to account for the extra conditions especially at the inter-element boundaries in a finite element model. Completion of the strain formulation has led to the revival of the direct force calculation methods: the Integrated Force Method (IFM) and its dual (IFMD) for finite element analysis, and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF) in elasticity. The benefits from the new methods in elasticity, in finite element analysis, and in design optimization are discussed. Existing solutions and computer codes may have to be adjusted for the compliance of the new conditions. Complacency because the discipline is over a century old and computer codes have been developed for half a century can lead to stagnation of the discipline.

  19. A natural formulation (imoviral™) increases macrophage resistance to LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menghini, L; Leporini, L; Pintore, G; Ferrante, C; Recinella, L; Orlando, G; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2014-01-01

    Imoviral™ is a natural product formulation containing a mixture of uncaria, shiitake and ribes extracts. All ingredients are recognized as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent and immunomodulant. In order to evaluate the rational basis of extract mixture as immunomodulatory agent, we tested the effect of Imoviral™ formulation on macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress. The effect was evaluated as variation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and as cytokine gene expression. The extract did not affect cell viability up to 250 μg/ml. Treatment with extract (10-150 μg/ml) reduced ROS and PGE2 production as well as IL-8 and TNF-α gene expression. A pre-treatment with extract blunted LPS-induced production of ROS and PGE2, markers of oxidative and inflammatory stress, as well as the gene expression of all cytokines tested, indicators, in vitro, of immune response activation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Imoviral™ formulation could be a useful tool to modulate the immune function, reducing the oxidative and inflammatory markers related to bacterial attack. Experimental data suggest that Imoviral™ extract mixture could also represent a preventive pharmacological strategy to enhance cell resistance to bacterial infections. PMID:25620186

  20. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  1. Predicting kinetic model of biogas production and biodegradability organic materials: biogas production from vinasse at variation of COD/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Syaichurrozi, Iqbal; Budiyono; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-12-01

    The biogas fermentation of vinasse (TS 7.015 ± 0.007%) was investigated within a wide range of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/N (Total Nitrogen) ratio. Urea (46% nitrogen content) was added into substrate to adjust COD/N ratio of 400/7-700/7. This study used batch anaerobic digesters in laboratory-scale that were operated at room temperature in 60 days. The results showed that control variable, 400/7, 500/7, 600/7, 700/7 generated total biogas of 107.45, 123.87, 133.82, 139.17, 113.27 mL/g COD and had the value of COD removal of 31.274 ± 0.887, 33.483 ± 0.266, 36.573 ± 1.689, 38.088 ± 0.872, 32.714 ± 0.881%, respectively. Variable with COD/N ratio of 600/7 was the best variable. In the kinetic model of biogas production, variable with COD/N of 600/7 had kinetic constant of A (mL/g COD), μ (mL/g COD.day), λ (days) of 132.580, 15.200, 0.213, respectively. The model equation of kinetic of biodegradability organic materials obtained was [formula in text]. PMID:24128402

  2. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation. PMID:25768973

  3. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  4. Discovery and Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Don; Rodger, Caroline

    The uses of Raman spectroscopy in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) discovery, development and release cover a wide variety of sample types and applications. However, the technique does not have a high prominence in the pharmaceutical industry despite being recognised by regulatory authorities as a suitable methodology for the analysis and release of pharmaceutical API and products. One reason is that other analytical techniques are well established and changing to Raman methods is cost prohibitive considering return on investments (ROI). In addition the technique is often regarded as being one for "experts" and not one for main stream applications. As a consequence Raman spectroscopy is frequently the 2nd or 3rd technique of choice for a specific application. However, due to its unique sampling attributes (e.g. micro and macro measurements direct from the sample, through glass, from well plates or in the presence of water) and selectivity, applications of this technology are found throughout the life cycles of pharmaceutical products. It can therefore be considered to be a spectroscopic common denominator. This chapter highlights a number of routine, specialised and niche Raman spectroscopy applications which have been used in the development of new medicines while detailing some of the limitations of these approaches.

  5. Systematic Studies of Modified Vocalization: Speech Production Changes During a Variation of Metronomic Speech in Persons Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ye, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The most common way to induce fluency using rhythm requires persons who stutter to speak one syllable or one word to each beat of a metronome, but stuttering can also be eliminated when the stimulus is of a particular duration (e.g., 1 s). The present study examined stuttering frequency, speech production changes, and speech naturalness during rhythmic speech that alternated 1 s of reading with 1 s of silence. A repeated-measures design was used to compare data obtained during a control reading condition and during rhythmic reading in 10 persons who stutter (PWS) and 10 normally fluent controls. Ratings for speech naturalness were also gathered from naïve listeners. Results showed that mean vowel duration increased significantly, and the percentage of short phonated intervals decreased significantly, for both groups from the control to the experimental condition. Mean phonated interval length increased significantly for the fluent controls. Mean speech naturalness ratings during the experimental condition were approximately 7 on a 1–9 scale (1 = highly natural; 9 = highly unnatural), and these ratings were significantly correlated with vowel duration and phonated intervals for PWS. The findings indicate that PWS may be altering vocal fold vibration duration to obtain fluency during this rhythmic speech style, and that vocal fold vibration duration may have an impact on speech naturalness during rhythmic speech. Future investigations should examine speech production changes and speech naturalness during variations of this rhythmic condition. Educational Objectives The reader will be able to: (1) describe changes (from a control reading condition) in speech production variables when alternating between 1 s of reading and 1 s of silence, (2) describe which rhythmic conditions have been found to sound and feel the most natural, (3) describe methodological issues for studies about alterations in speech production variables during fluency-inducing conditions, and (4

  6. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Rifampicin Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaraz, MD.; Hiremath, D.; Chowdary, K. P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Rifampicin biodegradable microcapsules were prepared by feasible emulsification-ionic gelation method for a novel controlled release product. Sodium alginate and Carbopol 974P were used as coating polymers in different ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 to obtain elegant microcapsules. The formulations were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, sieve analysis, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro release studies. The microcapsules were discrete, large, almost spherical and free flowing with encapsulation efficiency in the range of 75% to 89%, drug loading 75% to 86% and size 440 μm to 500 μm. Rifampicin release from these microcapsules was slow and extended over longer periods of time depending on the polymer coat. Drug release was diffusion controlled and followed first order kinetics. The formulation MC1 with a coating ratio of 1:1 (Sodium alginate: Carbopol 974P) was found to be suitable for oral controlled release. PMID:20582197

  8. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  9. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  10. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline. PMID:24707220

  11. Insulin formulations--a review.

    PubMed

    Gualandi-Signorini, A M; Giorgi, G

    2001-01-01

    Although the improvement on insulin therapy since it was first conceived, it is still far from mimicking physiological secretion of pancreatic b-cells and research to find new insulin formulations and new routes of administration continues. Human biosynthetic insulin (rapid-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting), produced by recombinant DNA technique, is currently available. The pharmacokinetic profile of rapid-acting insulin (regular) does not adequately reproduce the physiological post-prandial insulin response. This has led to the development of molecular analogues with slight modifications that prevent the spontaneous polymerisation underlying delayed absorption. Fast-acting analogues such as Lyspro and Aspart can be injected immediately before the meal, inducing a very fast and substantial peak of insulin, similar to that produced by b-cells, but have the disadvantage of short duration of action. For this reason, and because of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient basal insulin concentrations to control preprandial blood glucose levels with current long-acting insulins, analogues known as Glargine and Detemir have been synthesized. They have virtually no plasma peak and acts for about 24 h. These characteristics make it ideal to cover basal insulin requirement. With insulin analogues, it also seems possible to overcome the problem of intra- and inter-individual variability in absorption after subcutaneous injection. This variability is directly proportional to the duration of insulin action. Research into new routes of administration has led to production of inhaled insulin powder, soon to become commercially available. Insulin is absorbed through the lung alveoli. Trials to evaluate efficacy and toleration have shown that inhaled insulin has a similar kinetic profile to the fast-acting injected analogue and can therefore be used for mealtime requirement, combined with a single daily injection of long-acting insulin. Oral insulin is currently being

  12. Formulation development and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:23956881

  13. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate for Respiratory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:23956881

  14. Methodology of oral formulation selection in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Kuentz, Martin; Holm, René; Elder, David P

    2016-05-25

    Pharmaceutical formulations have to fulfil various requirements with respect to their intended use, either in the development phase or as a commercial product. New drug candidates with their specific properties confront the formulation scientist with industrial challenges for which a strategy is needed to cope with limited resources, stretched timelines as well as regulatory requirements. This paper aims at reviewing different methodologies to select a suitable formulation approach for oral delivery. Exclusively small-molecular drugs are considered and the review is written from an industrial perspective. Specific cases are discussed starting with an emphasis on poorly soluble compounds, then the topics of chemically labile drugs, low-dose compounds, and modified release are reviewed. Due to the broad scope of this work, a primary focus is on explaining basic concepts as well as recent trends. Different strategies are discussed to approach industrial formulation selection, which includes a structured product development. Examples for such structured development aim to provide guidance to formulators and finally, the recent topic of a manufacturing classification system is presented. It can be concluded that the field of oral formulation selection is particularly complex due to both multiple challenges as well as opportunities so that industrial scientists have to employ tailored approaches to design formulations successfully. PMID:26687443

  15. Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Siddiq, Afshan; Allen, Naomi E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Feller, Silke; Tjønneland, Anne; Føns Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Ramón Quirós, J; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Oustoglou, Erifili; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B as; Stattin, Pär; Ferrari, Pietro; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J

    2013-04-15

    High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy product intake and increased prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in EPIC. The C/T-13910 lactase variant (rs4988235) was genotyped in 630 men with prostate cancer and 873 matched control participants. Dairy product consumption was assessed by diet questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for prostate cancer in relation to lactase genotype were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Lactase genotype frequency varied significantly between countries, with frequencies of the T (lactase persistence) allele ranging from 7% in Greece to 79% in Denmark. Intake of milk and total dairy products varied significantly by lactase genotype after adjustment for recruitment center; adjusted mean intakes of milk were 44.4, 69.8 and 82.3 g/day among men with CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively. The lactase variant was not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, both in our data (adjusted OR for TT vs. CC homozygotes: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59) and in a meta-analysis of all the published data (combined OR for T allele carriers vs. CC homozygotes: 1.12, 0.96-1.32). These findings show that while variation in the lactase gene is associated with milk intake in men, the lactase polymorphism does not have a large effect on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22965418

  16. Process Formulations And Curing Conditions That Affect Saltstone Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.; Pickenheim, B. R.; Daniel, W. E.

    2012-09-28

    The first objective of this study was to analyze saltstone fresh properties to determine the feasibility of reducing the formulation water to premix (w/p) ratio while varying the amount of extra water and admixtures used during processing at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The second part of this study was to provide information for understanding the impact of curing conditions (cure temperature, relative humidity (RH)) and processing formulation on the performance properties of cured saltstone.

  17. Comparative efficacy of alcohol-based surgical scrubs: the importance of formulation.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; McCormack, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol-based surgical scrubs (ABSSs) are used to prevent surgical site infections. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) often is added to enhance persistent germicidal activity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ABSS product formulation on efficacy. We evaluated three commercially available ABSS formulations and one control alcohol formulation according to the surgical scrub methodology specified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Only one ABSS formulation met FDA efficacy requirements when tested at the manufacturer's recommended dosage. In contrast, two ABSS formulations, one of which contained CHG, failed to meet the FDA acceptance criteria for a 3-log10 reduction on day 5, meaning the formulations did not sufficiently reduce bacteria levels on hands on the fifth day of product application. The data suggest that recommendations to include CHG in ABSS formulations should be reconsidered, and product efficacy, skin tolerability, and user acceptability should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:25453683

  18. Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance, biomass and estimated production rates of tintinnids at tropical estuarine and mangrove waters, Parangipettai, southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    2002-10-01

    Seasonal varaitions in species composition, abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata) were investigated in the tropical estuarine and mangrove systems of Parangipettai, South India, monthly from January to December 1994. There were remarkable seasonal variations in environmental parameters, chlorophyll a concentrations and abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids: highest in postmosoon/summer and lowest in monsoon. The total abundance and biomass of tintinnids were in the range of 2-420 indiv. l -1 and 0.02 3.01 μg C l -1, respectively, with the peak appearing in the estuarine waters. A total of 47 species of tintinnids belonging to 14 genera was identified. Of which, Tintinnopsis was the most abundant genus in terms of number of species (20), followed by Codonellopsis (4), Stenosemella (4), Favella (3), Eutintinnus (3), and the remaining genus, number of species are one or two. Most of the tintinnid species occurred on distinct seasonal pattern and closely associated to species-specific environmental conditions. Due to large thermal gradients (range: 22.5-33.8 °C), the overall mean biomass was highest (mean: 1.64 μg C l -1) during summer than the remaining seasons. Estimated production rates of tintinnids ranged from 0.02 to 2.5 μg C l -1 day -1, with peak in summer. The trophodynamic role of tintinnids was assessed by estimating their grazing impact as expressed by daily removal of phytoplankton biomass. The grazing impact also demonstrated a seasonal pattern and ranged from 0.03% to 1.24% removal day -1. The higher grazing impact estimated during summer could be related to high concentrations of food supply. Due to significant positive relationship between the total biomass of tintinnids and chlorophyll a concentrations, food supply is not a problem for tintinnids harboring in this estuarine and mangrove systems. Hence, predation loss by meso- and macrozooplankton might be the possible reasons for the estimated

  19. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Saraf, S; Kaur, C D

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  20. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  1. Variations in the elemental ratio of organic matter in the central Baltic Sea: Part I-Linking primary production to remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreus, Markus; Schartau, Markus; Engel, Anja; Nausch, Monika; Voss, Maren

    2015-06-01

    For most marine ecosystems the growth of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the associated amount of nitrogen fixation are regulated by the availability of phosphorus. The intensity of summer blooms of nitrogen (N2) fixing algae in the Baltic Sea is assumed to be determinable from a surplus of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) that remains after the spring bloom has ended. But this surplus DIP concentration is observed to continuously decrease at times when no appreciable nitrogen fixation is measured. This peculiarity is currently discussed and has afforded different model interpretations for the Baltic Sea. In our study we propose a dynamical model solution that explains these observations with variations of the elemental carbon-to-nitrogen-to-phosphorus (C:N:P) ratio during distinct periods of organic matter production and remineralization. The biogeochemical model resolves seasonal C, N and P fluxes with depth at the Baltic Sea monitoring site BY15, based on three assumptions: (1) DIP is utilized by algae though not needed for immediate growth, (2) the uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is hampered when the algae's phosphorus (P) quota is low, and (3) carbon assimilation continues at times of nutrient depletion. Model results describe observed temporal variations of DIN, DIP and chlorophyll-a concentrations along with partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). In contrast to other model studies, our solution does not require N2 fixation to occur shortly after the spring bloom to explain DIP drawdown and pCO2 levels. Model estimates of annual N2 fixation are 297 ± 24 mmol Nm-2a-1. Estimates of total production are 14200 ± 700 mmol Cm-2a-1, 1400 ± 70 mmol Nm-2a-1, and 114 ± 5 mmol Pm-2a-1 for the upper 50 m. The models C, N and P fluxes disclose preferential remineralization of P and of organic N that was introduced via N2 fixation. Our results are in support of the idea that P uptake by phytoplankton during the spring bloom contributes to the

  2. Intermediate release formulations of diclofenac potassium tablets for IVIVC.

    PubMed

    Ali, Huma; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Zafar, Farya; Bushra, Rabia; Yasmin, Riffat; Siddiqui, Shehla; Alam, Zafar M

    2016-07-01

    In recent days response surface methodology (RSM) has widely been applied for development and optimization of cost effective formulations with required quality. Study comprised of three steps including micromeritic comparison of different powder blends of placebo and diclofenac potassium (DP), formulation designing with CCRD (Design Expert, version 7.0.0), and stability testing of selected formulations by using R Gui. Ten formulations (F11-F20) were developed using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) (X1) (13-72%), methocel K15M (X2) (6.59-23.4%) and magnesium stearate (X3) (1.32-4.68%), while responses were % friability and % drug release. Blending rate constant was determined at 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes. The results of physicochemical parameters were found within acceptable limits. After in vitro testing at pH 1.2, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8, mechanism of drug release, kinetic analysis and statistical evaluation were carried out by model - independent, model-dependent and one-way ANOVA methods. Most formulations followed zero order kinetics at higher pH. Fickian release (0.326 ≤ n ≤0.449) was observed with β greater than 0.5 and less than 1. ANOVA indicated no significant variation within and between formulations as p-values were found to be > 0.05. PMID:27393442

  3. Optimized formulation of solid self-microemulsifying sirolimus delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Wonkyung; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop an optimized solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) formulation for sirolimus to enhance its solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Methods Excipients used for enhancing the solubility and stability of sirolimus were screened. A phase-separation test, visual observation for emulsifying efficiency, and droplet size analysis were performed. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to optimize the liquid SMEDDS formulation. The selected liquid SMEDDS formulations were prepared into solid form. The dissolution profiles and pharmacokinetic profiles in rats were analyzed. Results In the results of the oil and cosolvent screening studies, Capryol™ Propylene glycol monocapry late (PGMC) and glycofurol exhibited the highest solubility of all oils and cosolvents, respectively. In the surfactant screening test, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) was determined to be the most effective stabilizer of sirolimus in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluids. The optimal formulation determined by the construction of ternary phase diagrams was the T32 (Capryol™ PGMC:glycofurol:vitamin E TPGS = 30:30:40 weight ratio) formulation with a mean droplet size of 108.2 ± 11.4 nm. The solid SMEDDS formulations were prepared with Sucroester 15 and mannitol. The droplet size of the reconstituted solid SMEDDS showed no significant difference compared with the liquid SMEDDS. In the dissolution study, the release amounts of sirolimus from the SMEDDS formulation were significantly higher than the raw sirolimus powder. In addition, the solid SMEDDS formulation was in a more stable state than liquid SMEDDS in pH 1.2 simulated gastric fluids. The results of the pharmacokinetic study indicate that the SMEDDS formulation shows significantly greater bioavailability than the raw sirolimus powder or commercial product (Rapamune® oral solution). Conclusion The results of this study suggest the potential use

  4. Impact of vibration and agitation speed on dissolution of USP prednisone tablets RS and various IR tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Nicole; Lange, Sigrid; Klein, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Dissolution testing is an in vitro procedure which is widely used in quality control (QC) of solid oral dosage forms and, given that real biorelevant test conditions are applied, can also be used as a predictive tool for the in vivo performance of such formulations. However, if a dissolution method is intended to be used for such purposes, it has to deliver results that are only determined by the quality of the test product, but not by other variables. In the recent past, more and more questions were arising on how to address the effects of vibration on dissolution test results. The present study was performed to screen for the correlation of prednisone dissolution of USP Prednisone Tablets RS with vibration caused by a commercially available vibration source as well as to investigate how drug release from a range of immediate release formulations containing class 1-4 drugs of the biopharmaceutical classification scheme is affected by vibration when performing dissolution experiments at different agitation rates. Results of the present study show that the dissolution process of oral drug formulations can be affected by vibration. However, it also becomes clear that the degree of which a certain level of vibration impacts dissolution is strongly dependent on several factors such as drug properties, formulation parameters, and the design of the dissolution method. To ensure the establishment of robust and predictive dissolution test methods, the impact of variation should thus be considered in method design and validation. PMID:26104919

  5. Variational approach to stochastic nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect

    Phythian, R.; Curtis, W.D.

    1986-03-01

    A variational principle is formulated which enables the mean value and higher moments of the solution of a stochastic nonlinear differential equation to be expressed as stationary values of certain quantities. Approximations are generated by using suitable trial functions in this variational principle and some of these are investigated numerically for the case of a Bernoulli oscillator driven by white noise. Comparison with exact data available for this system show that the variational approach to such problems can be quite effective.

  6. Hybrid fuel formulation and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to develop an improved hybrid fuel with higher regression rate, a regression rate expression exponent close to 0.5, lower cost, and higher density. The approach was to formulate candidate fuels based on promising concepts, perform thermomechanical analyses to select the most promising candidates, develop laboratory processes to fabricate fuel grains as needed, fabricate fuel grains and test in a small lab-scale motor, select the best candidate, and then scale up and validate performance in a 2500 lbf scale, 11-inch diameter motor. The characteristics of a high performance fuel have been verified in 11-inch motor testing. The advanced fuel exhibits a 15% increase in density over an all hydrocarbon formulation accompanied by a 50% increase in regression rate, which when multiplied by the increase in density yields a 70% increase in fuel mass flow rate; has a significantly lower oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratio requirement at 1.5; has a significantly decreased axial regression rate variation making for more uniform propellant flow throughout motor operation; is very clean burning; extinguishes cleanly and quickly; and burns with a high combustion efficiency.

  7. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  8. Cosmogenic Beryllium Production from Ocean Sediment Sequences Help to Construct Accurate Records of the Geodynamo Variation at the Millennial to Million Year Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Ménabréaz, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Demory, F.; Guillou, V.; Arnold, M.; Vidal, L.

    2013-12-01

    The possible contribution of the axial precession to the energy of the geodynamo was recently reintroduced by theoretical and experimental studies. It is supported by relative paleointensity stacks and deep sea floor magnetization records documenting series of geomagnetic dipole lows (GDL) with recurrence at periods ranging from 30 to 120 kyr, and intriguing phase relationships with obliquity variations and δ18O records (e.g. Fuller, 2006; Thouveny et al. 2008). Yet, these time-series are presently not precise and complete enough to validate this fundamental and debated relationship. The MAG-ORB project funded by the French "Agence nationale de la Recherche" aims at reconstructing the series of GDL over the last Ma, by coupling -on the very same sedimentary sequences- the reconstructions of paleomagnetic variations, cosmogenic10Be production variations and δ18O isotope variations. Recent results (e.g. Ménabréaz et al., 2012, 2013) demonstrate that 10Be overproduction events are systematically induced by the GDL linked with excursions and reversals -as awaited from the theoretical and empirical non linear inverse relationship established between the magnetic moment value and the penetration rate of cosmic rays and particles. The calibration of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signals using absolute Virtual (axial) Dipole Moment values allowed us to construct 10Be-derived Geomagnetic Dipole Moment records over the last millennium, the last 60 ka and the last Ma, allowing to assess the robustness of the GDL series by a method completely independent from rock and paleo-magnetic methods. These records are comparable with individuals RPI records obtained from the same cores, and with global RPI stacks (e.g. GLOPIS, SINT 800 and PISO-1500). Since the Beryllium atoms are adsorbed on the settling silicate particles, the measured 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of cosmogenic isotope overproductions accurately indicate the exact stratigraphic position of the GDL in the sedimentary

  9. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Tao, Molei; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  10. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Roehe, Rainer; Dewhurst, Richard J.; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Rooke, John A.; McKain, Nest; Ross, Dave W.; Hyslop, Jimmy J.; Waterhouse, Anthony; Freeman, Tom C.

    2016-01-01

    Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB) were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI) were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e.g. human metabolism

  11. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    PubMed

    Roehe, Rainer; Dewhurst, Richard J; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Rooke, John A; McKain, Nest; Ross, Dave W; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Waterhouse, Anthony; Freeman, Tom C; Watson, Mick; Wallace, R John

    2016-02-01

    Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB) were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI) were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e.g. human metabolism

  12. Continuous Remote Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Concentrations in Relation to Interannual Variations in Biological Production and Carbon Cycling in the Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Campbell, J. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We successfully initiated a program to obtain continuous time series of atmospheric O2 concentrations at a semi-remote coastal site, in Trinidad, California. The installation, which was completed in September 1999, consists of a commercially-available O2 and CO2 analyzers interfaced to a custom gas handling system and housed in a dedicated building at the Trinidad site. Ultimately, the data from this site are expected to provide constraints, complementing satellite data, on variations in ocean productivity and carbon exchange on annual and interannual time scales, in the context of human-induced changes in global climate and other perturbations. The existing time-series, of limited duration, have been used in support of studies of the O2/CO2 exchange from a wild fire (which fortuitously occurred nearby in October 1999) and to quantify air-sea N2O and O2 exchanges related to coastal upwelling events. More generally, the project demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining semi-continuous O2 time series at moderate cost from strategic locations globally.

  13. Impact of formulation and process variables on solid-state stability of theophylline in controlled release formulations.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval; Mohammad, Adil; Wu, Suyang; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-02-29

    Understanding the impact of pharmaceutical processing, formulation excipients and their interactions on the solid-state transitions of pharmaceutical solids during use and in storage is critical in ensuring consistent product performance. This study reports the effect of polymer viscosity, diluent type, granulation and granulating fluid (water and isopropanol) on the pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline anhydrous (THA) in controlled release formulations as well as the implications of this transition on critical quality attributes of the tablets. Accordingly, 12 formulations were prepared using a full factorial screening design and monitored over a 3 month period at 40 °C and 75%. Physicochemical characterization revealed a drastic drop in tablet hardness accompanied by a very significant increase in moisture content and swelling of all formulations. Spectroscopic analysis (ssNMR, Raman, NIR and PXRD) indicated conversion of THA to theophylline monohydrate (TMO) in all formulations prepared by aqueous wet granulation in as early as two weeks. Although all freshly prepared formulations contained THA, the hydration-dehydration process induced during aqueous wet granulation hastened the pseudopolymorphic conversion of theophylline during storage through a cascade of events. On the other hand, no solid state transformation was observed in directly compressed formulations and formulations in which isopropanol was employed as a granulating fluid even after the twelve weeks study period. The transition of THA to TMO resulted in a decrease in dissolution while an increase in dissolution was observed in directly compressed and IPA granulated formulation. Consequently, the impact of pseudopolymorphic transition of theophylline on dissolution in controlled release formulations may be the net result of two opposing factors: swelling and softening of the tablets which tend to favor an increase in drug dissolution and hydration of theophylline which decreases the drug

  14. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  15. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  16. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  17. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  18. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  19. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  20. An Ecoinformatic Analysis of the Effect of Seasonal and Annual Variation in Temperature, Precipitation, and Solar Irradiance on Pollen Productivity in Two Neotropical Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselhorst, D. S.; Tcheng, D. K.; Moreno, J. E.; Punyasena, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Observational data provide a powerful source of information for understanding the phenological response of tropical forests to a changing climate. Annual changes in mean temperature, precipitation, and solar irradiance, in part driven by ENSO cycles, provide a natural experiment. However, these time series are often relatively short (several years to several decades), the average climatic variability experienced in that timeframe is relatively small, and the corresponding response is therefore often very weak. As a result, standard statistical approaches may fail in detecting a biological response. We present an alternative ecoinformatic analysis that demonstrates the power of weak models in the discovery and interpretation of statistically significant signals in short, noisy, ecological time series. We developed a simple response prediction model that uses cross-validation to explore a landscape of models that correlate the phenological behavior of individual taxa (pollen production, flowering, fruiting) to seasonal and annual mean temperature, precipitation, and solar irradiance using multivariate linear regression. We use a sign slope sensitivity analysis of each linear model that tallies positive and negative slope counts of a taxon's phenological behavior to our environmental and null variables. We applied this analysis to pollen trap data collected from 1996 to 2006 from two lowland Panamanian forests, Barro Colorado Island and Parque National San Lorenzo. We also tested the performance of our predictive model using published data of annual flowering and fruiting from BCI to corroborate that our approach could reproduce previously published results on tropical phenology. Our results indicate that although the overall variation in temperature was 3.28 °C over the ten year period, pollen productivity at both sites was most consistently affected by changes in temperature. This result was replicated by the published BCI flower and fruit data, which also

  1. Formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of effects of super disintegrants in cefixime oral disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Remya, Ks; Beena, P; Bijesh, Pv; Sheeba, A

    2010-07-01

    The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate. PMID:21042477

  2. Formulation Development, Evaluation and Comparative Study of Effects of Super Disintegrants in Cefixime Oral Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Remya, KS; Beena, P; Bijesh, PV; Sheeba, A

    2010-01-01

    The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate. PMID:21042477

  3. Case Formulation in TADS CBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.

    2005-01-01

    For the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) manual was developed with the aim of balancing standardization and flexibility. In this article, we describe the manual's case formulation procedures, which served as one major mechanism of flexibility in TADS CBT. We first describe the essential…

  4. TERATOLOGY OF A ZINEB FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the teratogenic potential of a zineb formulation. An initial toxicity study indicated that oral doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg/day adversely affected the weight gain of nonpregnant rats but not nonpregnant mice. In the teratology st...

  5. Effects of formulation on transport of pyrethroids in residential settings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell L; Trask, Jennifer R; Hendley, Paul; Cox, Megan J; Chepega, Joseph C; Harbourt, Christopher M; Davidson, Paul C

    2016-02-01

    Washoff of 17 pyrethroid products resulting from a 1-h, 25.4-mm rainfall occurring 24 h after application was measured in indoor studies with concrete slabs. These products included different pyrethroid active ingredients and a range of formulation types. Based on this replicated study, 5 product pairs with contrasting washoff behaviors were chosen for an outdoor study using 6 full-scale house fronts in central California. Products in 4 of these pairs were applied once to different rectangular areas on the driveway (1 product in each pair to 3 house lots and the other to the remaining 3 house lots). The products in the fifth pair were applied 3 times at 2-mo intervals to vertical stucco walls above the driveway. All house lots received natural and simulated rainfall over 7 mo. Indoor studies showed differences up to 170-fold between paired products, whereas the maximum difference between paired products in the field was only 5-fold. In the pair applied to the wall, 1 product had 91 times the washoff of the other in the indoor study, whereas in the field the same product had 15% lower washoff. These results show that, although the formulation may influence washoff under actual use conditions, its influence is complex and not always as predicted by indoor experiments. Because the formulation also affects insect control, washoff research needs to be conducted together with efficacy testing. PMID:26235307

  6. Assessment of the effects of pH, formulation and deformulation on the conformation of interferon alpha-2 by NMR.

    PubMed

    Panjwani, Naim; Hodgson, Derek J; Sauvé, Simon; Aubin, Yves

    2010-08-01

    This article reports the results of our investigation of the effects of pH and various formulations on the conformation of interferon (IFN) alpha-2a and IFN alpha-2b using the NMR fingerprinting assay. Samples of (15)N-IFN alpha-2 were produced and their activity was inferred by comparing their NMR spectra with those recorded for the corresponding European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) reference standards. The proteins were then mixed with appropriate excipients to reproduce formulations used in innovator products of Roferon-A and Intron-A and deformulated via cation-exchange chromatography. The conformation of IFN alpha-2 was monitored by two-dimensional (2D)-NMR spectroscopy at various pHs, after formulation and deformulation procedures. Our results show that the process does not alter the conformation of IFN alpha-2 and that the optimal pH for deformulation is 4.0 +/- 0.5. Variation in pH below 3.0 causes the protein to unfold, whereas above pH 4.5, the three-dimensional (3D) fold is maintained, but the NMR spectra indicate a propensity to oligomerize. This behaviour is reversible upon readjusting the pH to 3.5-4.5. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of NMR to assess the structure of protein therapeutics. The proposed method can assist in validating analytical methods that require deformulation of IFN-based products. PMID:20186942

  7. Probabilistic Finite Element: Variational Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide techniques which are cost-effective and enable the engineer to evaluate the effect of uncertainties in complex finite element models. Embedding the probabilistic aspects in a variational formulation is a natural approach. In addition, a variational approach to probabilistic finite elements enables it to be incorporated within standard finite element methodologies. Therefore, once the procedures are developed, they can easily be adapted to existing general purpose programs. Furthermore, the variational basis for these methods enables them to be adapted to a wide variety of structural elements and to provide a consistent basis for incorporating probabilistic features in many aspects of the structural problem. Tasks concluded include the theoretical development of probabilistic variational equations for structural dynamics, the development of efficient numerical algorithms for probabilistic sensitivity displacement and stress analysis, and integration of methodologies into a pilot computer code.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE STRAINS OF RAINBOW TROUT USED TO INITIATE A SELECTIVE BREEDING PROGRAM FOR AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation is the raw material for selection to work on, natural selection in wild populations and artificial selection in captive populations. Within captive populations genetic variation is expected to decline over time. Because of the high fecundity of many fish species relatively few pa...

  9. Variation of organic carbon and nitrate with river flow within an oceanic regime in a rural area and potential impacts for drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurès, E.; Delpla, I.; Merel, S.; Thomas, M.-F.; Jung, A.-V.; Thomas, O.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryOver the last two decades, climate change has become a major environmental and public health concern due to the increase of the mean temperature on the Earth and its consequences on extreme meteorological events such as floods and droughts. These events induce very low or very high river flows that may impair surface water quality, and therefore result in potential health impacts when used for drinking water production. The present study aims at assessing the impact of hydrologic regime on surface water quality with a particular emphasis on total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrate. Water quality data from three French rivers acquired over a 27 years period, from January 1983 to December 2009, show the influence of extreme flows. Variation in TOC and nitrate concentrations showed opposite patterns for the whole range of flow rate (from less than 10% up to more than 100% of the mean flow). Regarding fluxes, TOC increased continuously with flow rate while nitrate was stable for very high discharges. The C/N ratio expressed from TOC and nitrate concentrations showed high values for extreme flows and particularly for very low flow rates, generally in summer, where nitrate is assimilated by biomass. Considering TOC and nitrate fluxes, it is confirmed that the worst situations were encountered for very high flow rates, namely for TOC exportation during surface runoff which was related to heavy rains or floods. These findings are of great importance with regard to the adaptation for drinking water treatment in facing extreme hydrological conditions, of which the frequency is increasing with climate change.

  10. Designing Preclinical Perceptibility Measures to Evaluate Topical Vaginal Gel Formulations: Relating User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences to Formulation Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G.; Kojic, E. Milu; Kiser, Patrick F.; Friend, David R.; Katz, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product “perceptibility,” the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence. PMID:24180360

  11. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: formulation development.

    PubMed

    Myrdal, Paul B; Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are a long-standing method to treat diseases of the lung, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MDIs rely on the driving force of the propellant, which comprises the bulk of the MDI formulation, to atomize droplets containing drug and excipients, which ideally should deposit in the lungs. During the phase out of chlorofluorocarbon propellants and the introduction of more environmentally friendly hydrofluoroalkane propellants, many improvements were made to the methods of formulating for MDI drug delivery along with a greater understanding of formulation variables on product performance. This review presents a survey of challenges associated with formulating MDIs as solution or suspension products with one or more drugs, while considering the physicochemical properties of various excipients and how the addition of these excipients may impact overall product performance of the MDI. Propellants, volatile and nonvolatile cosolvents, surfactants, polymers, suspension stabilizers, and bulking agents are among the variety of excipients discussed in this review article. Furthermore, other formulation approaches, such as engineered excipient and drug-excipient particles, to deliver multiple drugs from a single MDI are also evaluated. PMID:24452499

  12. Nonchromophoric halide ligand variation in polyazine-bridged Ru(II),Rh(III) bimetallic supramolecules offering new insight into photocatalytic hydrogen production from water.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hannah Mallalieu; White, Travis A; Stone, Brittany N; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Brewer, Karen J

    2015-04-01

    The new bimetallic complex [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhBr2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (1) (Ph2phen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) was synthesized and characterized to compare with the Cl(-) analogue [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhCl2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (2) in an effort to better understand the role of halide coordination at the Rh metal center in solar H2 production schemes. Electrochemical properties of complex 1 display a reversible Ru(II/III) oxidation, and cathodic scans indicate multiple electrochemical mechanisms exist to reduce Rh(III) by two electrons to Rh(I) followed by a quasi-reversible dpp(0/-) ligand reduction. The weaker σ-donating ability of Br(-) vs Cl(-) impacts the cathodic electrochemistry and provides insight into photocatalytic function by these bimetallic supramolecules. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit identical light-absorbing properties with UV absorption dominated by intraligand (IL) π → π* transitions and visible absorption by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions to include a lowest energy Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (1)MLCT transition (λ(abs) = 514 nm; ε = 16 000 M(-1) cm(-1)). The relatively short-lived, weakly emissive Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (3)MLCT excited state (τ = 46 ns) for both bimetallic complexes is attributed to intramolecular electron transfer from the (3)MLCT excited state to populate a low-energy Ru(dπ) → Rh(dσ*) triplet metal-to-metal charge transfer ((3)MMCT) excited state that allows photoinitiated electron collection. Complex 1 outperforms the related Cl(-) bimetallic analogue 2 as a H2 photocatalyst despite identical light-absorbing and excited-state properties. Additional H2 experiments with added halide suggest ion pairing plays a role in catalyst deactivation and provides new insight into observed differences in H2 production upon halide variation in Ru(II),Rh(III) supramolecular architectures. PMID:25782053

  13. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm

  14. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  15. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  16. Nonrecursive formulations of multibody dynamics and concurrent multiprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdila, Andrew J.; Menon, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, research in recursive formulations of multibody dynamics has flourished. Historically, much of this research can be traced to applications of low dimensionality in mechanism and vehicle dynamics. Indeed, there is little doubt that recursive order N methods are the method of choice for this class of systems. This approach has the advantage that a minimal number of coordinates are utilized, parallelism can be induced for certain system topologies, and the method is of order N computational cost for systems of N rigid bodies. Despite the fact that many authors have dismissed redundant coordinate formulations as being of order N(exp 3), and hence less attractive than recursive formulations, we present recent research that demonstrates that at least three distinct classes of redundant, nonrecursive multibody formulations consistently achieve order N computational cost for systems of rigid and/or flexible bodies. These formulations are as follows: (1) the preconditioned range space formulation; (2) penalty methods; and (3) augmented Lagrangian methods for nonlinear multibody dynamics. The first method can be traced to its foundation in equality constrained quadratic optimization, while the last two methods have been studied extensively in the context of coercive variational boundary value problems in computational mechanics. Until recently, however, they have not been investigated in the context of multibody simulation, and present theoretical questions unique to nonlinear dynamics. All of these nonrecursive methods have additional advantages with respect to recursive order N methods: (1) the formalisms retain the highly desirable order N computational cost; (2) the techniques are amenable to concurrent simulation strategies; (3) the approaches do not depend upon system topology to induce concurrency; and (4) the methods can be derived to balance the computational load automatically on concurrent multiprocessors. In addition to the presentation of

  17. Correlation operators based on the iterative solution of an implicitly formulated diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Anthony; Tshimanga, Jean; Piacentini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Correlation operators are used in variational data assimilation (VDA) for defining background error covariance models and in hybrid ensemble-VDA for localizing, via a Schur product, low-rank sample estimates of background error covariance matrices. This presentation describes new approaches for defining correlation operators based on diffusion operators. The starting point is a two dimensional (2D) implicitly formulated diffusion operator on the sphere, which has been shown in previous works to support symmetric and positive definite smoothing kernels that are closely related to those from the Matern correlation family. Different iterative and preconditioning methods are proposed for solving the 2D implicit diffusion problem, and are compared with respect to their efficiency, accuracy, memory cost, and parallel properties on high-performance computers. The algorithms described in this presentation are evaluated in a global ocean VDA system.

  18. Efficacy evaluations on five chlorhexidine teat dip formulations.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, P A; O'Neil, J K; Murdough, P A; Lafayette, A R; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W

    1993-09-01

    Three developmental postmilking teat dip formulations containing chlorhexidine digluconate were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in sequential experimental exposure trials. Two additional commercial chlorhexidine digluconate teat dip products were evaluated in natural exposure trials. Under conditions of experimental challenge, the developmental formulations were efficacious against Staph. aureus but did not significantly reduce incidence of new IMI by Strep. agalactiae. None of the three formulations of a conventional germicide used as teat sanitizers effectively reduced incidence of new Strep. agalactiae IMI under experimental challenge conditions. In the natural exposure trials with negative controls, a .35% chlorhexidine teat sanitizer had efficacy of 88.7% against Staph. aureus and 51.4% against Strep. agalactiae. The .5% chlorhexidine product reduced Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae IMI by 86 and 56%, respectively. PMID:8227681

  19. Formulation of Clog Removal by Using Mixture Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Buhri; Krishniah, Duduku; Rajin, Mariani; Hadi, Almuhaymin Abdul

    Liquid for clog removal is one of the detergent products sold in the market. Generally, the formulation with good performance in term of cleaning effectiveness is desirable. On the other hand, the stability and cost of the product also must be considered. The quality of the clog removal is directly linked to the basic ingredients used in formulation. In this research, various compositions of sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium meta-silicate were used to optimise the clog removal formulation. Twenty combination components were selected according to the D-optimal criterion. The cost and physical properties of the clog removal such as pH, cleaning effectiveness and stability were studied. Contour graphics were generated to assess the change in the response surface in order to understand the effect of the mixture composition on clog removal characteristics. The statistical study shows that the fitted model was adequate to describe the responses.

  20. A probabilistic Hu-Washizu variational principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    A Probabilistic Hu-Washizu Variational Principle (PHWVP) for the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM) is presented. This formulation is developed for both linear and nonlinear elasticity. The PHWVP allows incorporation of the probabilistic distributions for the constitutive law, compatibility condition, equilibrium, domain and boundary conditions into the PFEM. Thus, a complete probabilistic analysis can be performed where all aspects of the problem are treated as random variables and/or fields. The Hu-Washizu variational formulation is available in many conventional finite element codes thereby enabling the straightforward inclusion of the probabilistic features into present codes.