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Sample records for production biomassan tuotanto

  1. Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass--An overview.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an important step involved in the production of bioethanol from lignocelluosic biomass. Though several pretreatment regimes are available, biological pretreatment seems to be promising being an eco-friendly process and there is no inhibitor generation during the process. In the current scenario there are few limitations in using this strategy for pilot scale process. The first and foremost one is the long incubation time for effective delignification. This can be minimized to an extent by using suitable microbial consortium. There is an urgent need for research and development activities and fine tuning of the process for the development of an economically viable process. This review presents an overview of various aspects of biological pretreatment, enzymes involved in the process, parameters affecting biological pretreatment as well as future perspectives. PMID:26320388

  2. Production and characterization of cellulases and hemicellulases by Acremonium cellulolyticus using rice straw subjected to various pretreatments as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Kenichiro; Yano, Shinichi; Fang, Xu; Endo, Takashi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2011-02-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are key enzymes in the production of alternative fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass-an abundant renewable resource. Carbon source selection is an important factor in the production of cellulases and hemicellulases. Rice straw--a potential ethanol source--has recently gained considerable interest in Asian countries. Here, we investigated the production of cellulases by using rice straw subjected to various pretreatments as substrates in order to produce cellulases at low costs; we also identified the enzymes' characteristics. Rice straw cutter milled to <3mm was pretreated by wet disk milling, dry ball milling, or hot-compressed water treatment (HCWT). Pretreated rice straw and commercial cellulose, Solka Floc (SF), were used as carbon sources for cellulase production by the fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus. Filter paper cellulase, β-xylanase, and β-xylosidase production from ball- and disk-milled samples were higher than those from SF. Enzymatic activity was absent in cultures where HCWT rice straw was used as carbon source. Wet disk-milled rice straw cultures were more suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw than SF cultures. Thus, wet disk milling may be a suitable pretreatment for producing substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis and generating inexpensive carbon sources for cellulase production. PMID:22112826

  3. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  4. Production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a cross section of different solutions to the many unique production problems operators face. Sections address benefit vs. cost options for production facility designs, oil and gas separation processes and equipment, oil treating and desalting systems, and water treating methods and equipment. Papers were selected to give an overall view of factors involved in optimizing the design of cost-effective production facilities.

  5. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  6. Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

  7. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  8. Solvent Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities such as corn and molasses was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  9. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  10. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  11. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  12. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry ...

  13. Cordless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Apollo-era technology spurred the development of cordless products that we take for granted everyday. In the 1960s, NASA asked Black Decker to develop a special drill that would be powerful enough to cut through hard layers of the lunar surface and be lightweight, compact, and operate under its own power source, allowing Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples further away from the Lunar Experiment Module. In response, Black Decker developed a computer program that analyzed and optimized drill motor operations. From their analysis, engineers were able to design a motor that was powerful yet required minimal battery power to operate. Since those first days of cordless products, Black Decker has continued to refine this technology and they now sell their rechargeable products worldwide (i.e. the Dustbuster, cordless tools for home and industrial use, and medical tools.)

  14. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  15. Novolak Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  16. Transplant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For field pepper (Capsicum spp.) production, plants can be established from direct seed or transplants depending on the location and cultural practices for the specific pepper type grown. Direct seeding can result in slow, variable, and reduced plant stands due to variations in soil temperature, wat...

  17. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  18. New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Reviews new educational technology products, including a microcomputer-based tutoring system, laser barcode reader, video/data projectors, CD-ROM for notebook computers, a system to increase a printer's power, data cartridge storage shell, knowledge-based decision tool, video illustrator, interactive videodiscs, surge protectors, scanner system,…

  19. Tequila production.

    PubMed

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

  20. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  1. Product separator

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  2. Aqueous production.

    PubMed

    Krupin, T; Wax, M; Moolchandani, J

    1986-01-01

    The formation of aqueous humour by the ciliary body is a complex process. Active transport of solutes by the ciliary process epithelium is an energy-dependent mechanism that selectively transports substances against an electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. Water passively follows the active solute transport. In addition to these active transport processes, ultrafiltration contributes to the formation of aqueous humour. The ciliary epithelium contains enzyme systems that function in the production of aqueous humour. The enzymes sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase [(Na+:K+)ATPase] and carbonic anhydrase participate in the active transport across this epithelium. Inhibition of these enzymes lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by decreasing aqueous humour production. the ciliary epithelium contains both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Electrophysiologic studies on the isolated iris-ciliary body (I-CB) preparation provide a means to study direct effects of the adrenergic agents on transepithelial properties of the ciliary epithelium. This paper will discuss the enzymatic and adrenergic properties of the ciliary epithelium as they relate to active transport and thereby aqueous humour production. PMID:3026067

  3. Fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, G.M.; Holmes, J.M.

    1985-01-22

    A coal fines log comprising a composite log made of a mixture of 90 to 98% coal particles having a size of roughly 10 microns, the log also containing paper and other cellulosic fibers such as bark in the range of 2 to 10% and grounded limestone is also provided in the log to neutralize the sulfur dioxide while burning. The log is contained in a hermetically sealed polyethylene envelope, the product so-formed is readily ignited and can sustain combustion over a relatively long period of time.

  4. Metallized Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, virtually all NASA spacecraft have used metallized films for a variety of purposes, principally thermal radiation insulation. King Seeley manufactures a broad line of industrial and consumer oriented metallized film, fabric, paper and foam in single layer sheets and multi-layer laminates. A few examples, commercialized by MPI Outdoor Safety Products, are the three ounce Thermos Emergency Blanket which reflects and retains up to 80 percent of the user's body heat helping prevent post accident shock or keeping a person warm for hours under emergency cold weather conditions.

  5. NULLJOB product

    SciTech Connect

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-05-01

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  6. Software Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MAST is a decision support system to help in the management of dairy herds. Data is collected on dairy herds around the country and processed at regional centers. One center is Cornell University, where Dr. Lawrence Jones and his team developed MAST. The system draws conclusions from the data and summarizes it graphically. CLIPS, which is embedded in MAST, gives the system the ability to make decisions without user interaction. With this technique, dairy managers can identify herd problems quickly, resulting in improved animal health and higher milk quality. CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. It is a shell for developing expert systems designed to permit research, development and delivery on conventional computers.

  7. Production Density Diffusion Equation Propagation and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Kenji; Amano, Yoshinori

    When we call the production flow to transition elements in the next step in the process of product manufactured one, the production flow is considered to be displaced in the direction of the unit production density. Density and production, as captured from different perspectives, also said production costs per unit of production. However, it is assumed that contributed to the production cost of manufacturing 100 percent. They may not correspond to the physical propagation conditions after each step of the production density, the equations governing the manufacturing process, which is intended to be represented by a single diffusion equation. We can also apply the concept of energy levels in statistical mechanics, production density function, in other words, in statistical mechanics “place” that if you use the world of manufacturing and production term. If the free energy in this production (potential) that are consuming the substance is nothing but the entropy production. That is, productivity is defined as the entropy production has to be. Normally, when we increase the number of production units, the product nears completion at year-end number of units completed and will aim to be delivered to the contractor from the turnover order. However, if you stop at any number of units, that will increase production density over time. Thus, the diffusion does not proceed from that would be irreversible. In other words, the congestion will occur in production. This fact and to report the results of analysis based on real data.

  8. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  9. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  10. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  11. Household Products Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  12. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  13. Science and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.; Schmitt, Roland W.

    1988-01-01

    Defines incremental product development and discusses how this style of innovation effects technology industries. Cites examples of Japanese competition which emphasizes quality and speed in product development. Makes recommendations for the improvement of product development in the United States. (CW)

  14. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  15. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  16. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  17. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  18. Product engineering guide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The semiconductor product engineers job requires knowledge and expertise related to many different subjects. This report provides guidance for newcomers to product engineering and is a consise reference for all others involved in product engineering. Subjects addressed are Customer/Supplier interactions, component development sequence, production schedule support, component characterization, product specifications, test equipment requirements, product qualification, characterization and development reports, preferred parts list, standard packaging, and finally, classification and security considerations. This guide is intended to help standardize and simplify the component development sequence presently used in the semiconductor product engineering department. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  20. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  1. Product assurance management and software product assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, C.; Borycki, G.; Panaroni, P.; Surbone, M.; Borcz, R.; Beddow, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of software assurance is discussed. The definition and implementation of standards are considered. It is recommended that requirements be clarified at the start of a project. The need for quality assurance in hardware is identified as the coming trend in the production of high cost single units which call for eradication of all errors during the early stages of development. The need to apply quality assurance throughout the whole mission is stressed. The dangers of overpricing product assurance services is stressed.

  2. ACS Quicklook PDF products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, Anatoly

    1999-12-01

    This report details the features of the ACS quicklook PDF products produced by the HST data pipeline. The requirements closely follow the design of paper products recommended by the Data Quality Committee, with appropriate changes required to fully support ACS.

  3. The Top 10 Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, American School & University showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the 10 most requested, as determined by readers. Products include fluorescent lighting, concrete floor maintenance and exterior sheathing.

  4. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  5. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  6. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  7. Data Product Maturity

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-25

    ... document, maturity levels are provided separately for each scientific data set (SDS) included with the data files. The data product ... indiscriminate use of these data products as the basis for research findings, journal publications, and/or presentations.   ...

  8. Baryon production at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, G.; Weiss, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of inclusive ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p production for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production represents 0.2 ..lambda..'s or anti ..lambda..'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p production implies all baryon-antibaryon pair production is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p production at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon production at these energies.

  9. CALIPSO Data Products Catalog

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-11-12

    ... aerosol, and stratospheric subtypes The cloud layer fraction was added to the aerosol profile data products. The aerosol layer fraction and surface winds were added to the cloud profile data product. ...

  10. Rational forest productivity decline.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, James I; Carleton, T J

    2003-01-01

    A whole forest optimisation model was employed to examine economic behaviour as it relates to long term, forest productivity decline in the boreal forests of Ontario, Canada. Our productivity investment model (PIM) incorporated a choice between productivity decline as represented by a drop in forest Site Class, and a fee to 'maintain' site productivity. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the point at which these fees exceeded the value of the differential in timber volume between upper and lower site classes. By varying discount rate, 'productivity investment frontiers' were constructed, which highlight the effects of the magnitude in productivity decline, maintenance fees, and harvest flow constraints upon the occurrence and schedule of productivity declines. In presenting this simple approach to exploring the effects of economic choice upon forest productivity decline, the phenomena of 'natural capital divestment' within forestry is described. PMID:12859006

  11. The new productivity challenge.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1991-01-01

    "The single greatest challenge facing managers in the developed countries of the world is to raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers," writes Peter F. Drucker in "The New Productivity Challenge." Productivity, says Drucker, ultimately defeated Karl Marx; it gave common laborers the chance to earn the wages of skilled workers. Now five distinct steps will raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers--and not only stimulate new economic growth but also defuse rising social tensions. PMID:10114929

  12. The EGRET data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) data products which we anticipate will suffice for virtually all guest and archival investigations. The production process, content, availability, format, and the associated software of each product is described. Supplied here is sufficient detail for each researcher to do analysis which is not supported by extant software.

  13. Vocational Education and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert, Jr.

    Vocational education can contribute to an improved United States productivity by producing an effective work force. People together with technology are two major factors in improving productivity, and they must be integrated. Industry is in the forefront of the efforts to improve productivity. It has encouraged management in long-range strategic…

  14. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  15. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  16. MISR Data Product Specifications

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-09-06

    ... which corresponds to the data product version. The  Science Data Product Guide  (PDF) describes a template for MISR science data ... 7, 10: updates for V4.0 software delivery Sections 1, 2: update applicable product versions Size (PDF):  11.1 Mb   ...

  17. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be th...

  18. Nulcear materials production: Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

  19. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Text Size Even though ... nothing small or simple about their accessories! Selecting products for your baby can be confusing, especially with ...

  20. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  1. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Flexible production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

    1986-03-01

    Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

  3. Suomi Npp Products Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The products include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone products from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a product maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data products. By far all products were publicly available and most products were ready for operational evaluation. Most products also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data products, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 products will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP products once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data products however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data products' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.

  4. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  6. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  7. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  8. Nasa's Emerging Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The goals, membership, and organizational structure of the NASA Productivity Steering Committee are described as well as steps taken to make NASA a leader in the development and application of productivity and quality concepts at every level of agency management. The overall strategy for the Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Program is through employee involvement, both civil servant and contractor, in all phases of agency-wide activity. Elements of the PIQE program and initial thrusts are examined.

  9. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  10. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  11. Higgs central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Dechambre, A.; Hernández, O. F.

    2012-01-01

    Using the CHIDe model, we tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs production to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive production of Higgs boson at the LHC. In this model, due to different choices of the scale in the Sudakov form factor for dijet and Higgs production, it is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.

  12. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  13. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  14. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  15. Ethnic cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Victoria L

    2003-10-01

    Based both on actual differences in the hair and skin and on cultural desire, people of color do have special considerations for cosmetic products. As the experts in hair and skin, it is incumbent on dermatologists to understand the needs of a diverse patient base, to be knowledgeable about the products that patients need and desire, and to be aware of possible adverse effects related to product use or misuse. Further research is needed both to continue to understand the needs of the hair and skin of people of color and to understand the effects of products on ethnic hair and skin. PMID:14717415

  16. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  17. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  18. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  19. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  20. MICROBIAL RESISTANT GYPSUM PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsum building materials often become wet, resulting in mold growth that leads to health and productivity impacts. A major source of mold growth is gypsum wallboard since nearly 90% of the interior finished surfaces of buildings are covered with gypsum products. It has been est...

  1. Process to Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gary, Ed.; Mirkes, Donna Z., Ed.

    Intended for educators who direct federally funded model projects, the booklet provides a framework for special education product development. In "Making Media Decisions," G. Richman explores procedures for selecting the most appropriate medium to carry the message of a given product. The fundamental questions are addressed: what is the goal; who…

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF MANNITOL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. We have found that Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL...

  3. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  4. Insect mass production technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements, make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food and animal origin. However, to realize the...

  5. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  6. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  7. Products from lunar anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Donald L.; Cochran, C. Norman; Cochran, William C.; Haupin, Warren E.; Keller, Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Lunar anorthositic soil can be processed to produce oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and calcium. A process scheme starting with the beneficiation of the ore by magnetic separation and yielding the pure products is being developed. Simplifications in the process are possible if requirements regarding product purity and separation may be relaxed.

  8. Jobs or Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Moira

    1985-01-01

    The author examines some of the complexities involved in trying to answer the question: jobs or productivity? human labor or machines? She discusses calculation of labor intensity, Australian statistics on the subject, trends in productivity, and institutional discouragement of labor intensity. (CT)

  9. User Oriented Product Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Wingard, Joseph

    While the educational product development field has expanded tremendously over the last 15 years, there is a paucity of conveniently assembled and readily interpretable information that would enable users to make accurate and informed evaluations of different, but comparable, instructional products. Minimum types of validation data which should be…

  10. OSI Product Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metka, Tonia

    1990-01-01

    Reviews some of the projects and organizations concerned with promoting conformance and interoperability testing of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) products and describes OSI products available from computer manufacturers and vendors. A list of references includes 57 articles that mention specific vendors and 11 general articles about OSI…

  11. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  12. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  13. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  14. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  15. Nanomaterials in Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. Foss; Baun, A.; Michelson, E. S.; Kamper, A.; Borling, P.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. It was found that in 19% of the products the nanomaterial were nanoparticles bound to the surfaces. Nanoparticles suspended in liquids were used in 37% of the products, whereas 13% used nanoparticles suspended in solids. One percent were powders containing free potentially airborne nanoparticles. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) Expected to cause exposure; (2) May cause exposure; and (3) No expected exposure to the consumer. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete the quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products — a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to a product scenario — the application of sun lotion — using best estimates available and/or worst case assumptions.

  16. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  17. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  18. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  19. Worldwide Blackberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of worldwide blackberry (Rubus spp.) production was conducted in 2005. Results indicated there were an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from 1995. Wild blackberries still make a significant contribution to worldwide production...

  20. Training for Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

  1. Hydrogen production from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  2. Productivity: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    This training package explains productivity in terms of the difference between worker output and company input. Output is defined in terms of the products and/or services of an organization (number and/or quality of units produced, efficiency of time use, marginal profits) and in terms of behavior (labor turnover, disruptions in routine, wasted…

  3. PHOENIX: the production line for science data products at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    In the past two years ESO has installed a production line for level 2 science data products. Focussing on spectroscopic observations, these in-house generated data products are complementary to the externally provided data products from the imaging surveys. The production line combines mass production (more than one million spectra have been generated so far), previews, and quality control.

  4. Product definition data interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  5. Firewall products today

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.P.

    1995-02-01

    With an increased interest in connecting to the Internet, there is a corresponding interest in protecting an organization`s network from others on the Internet. Internet firewalls help protect an organization`s network, and the increased demand for firewalls have brought about a number of freeware and commercial products. But how does someone determine the best product or service for their organization? This paper discusses things that need to be considered in deciding to build or purchase a firewall system. It discusses many of the products, features, and services that are commercially available and what components they include such as software, hardware, consulting, or a combination thereof. This paper is not an attempt to evaluate the products. The aim is to provide an awareness of what is currently available and their capabilities. An appendix gives contact information for all of the vendors whose product information was used in developing this paper.

  6. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  7. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-01-01

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source. PMID:16371161

  8. Concrete production floating platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

    1981-01-01

    The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

  9. SMAP Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will produce 14 standard data product processors. This paper will discuss the standard data products, their format, metadata, quality assessment products, as well as the planned release dates for the products both Beta and Validated quality. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  10. Towards regional products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, M.; Dibarboure, G.; Faugère, Y.; Bronner, E.

    2011-12-01

    During the last 17 years, altimeter Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (merging multiple sensors as maps or time series) were developed in parallel with L2 (a.k.a GDR) processing improvements. Directly usable and easier to manipulate, L3/4 products are now vastly used in the user community. They contribute to various studies in different fields that cover the ocean, from climate and meteorological phenomena, to geophysics and biology. The quality and precision of these products were periodically improved, taking advantage of new missions and datasets of opportunity, advanced altimeter technology, improved L2 processing, but also from a better understanding of the ocean stemming from the analysis of past records. Moreover, as applications become more and more diversified, L3/L4 products are evolving to better fit users' needs. The data latency is improved with an "on the fly" RT (OGDR-based) data production. Regional L3/L4 products are developed, with higher resolution (still limited to temporal/spatial scales accessible to a small satellite constellation), as for Mozambique, European West Shelves, and Arctic areas. Different experimental datasets were made available for end users. They will be able to assess impact of different parameters on their applications. Their feedback will contribute to improve altimeter products.

  11. IRIS Product Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) evaluation of SIGMET Inc.'s Integrated Radar Information System (IRIS) Product Generator and recommendations for products emphasizing lightning and microburst tools. The IRIS Product Generator processes radar reflectivity data from the Weather Surveillance Radar, model 74C (WSR-74C), located on Patrick Air Force Base. The IRIS System was upgraded from version 6.12 to version 7.05 in late December 1999. A statistical analysis of atmospheric temperature variability over the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Weather Station provided guidance for the configuration of radar products that provide information on the mixed-phase (liquid and ice) region of clouds, between 0 C and -20 C. Mixed-phase processes at these temperatures are physically linked to electrification and the genesis of severe weather within convectively generated clouds. Day-to-day variations in the atmospheric temperature profile are of sufficient magnitude to warrant periodic reconfiguration of radar products intended for the interpretation of lightning and microburst potential of convectively generated clouds. The AMU also examined the radar volume-scan strategy to determine the scales of vertical gaps within the altitude range of the 0 C to -20 C isotherms over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS area. This report present's two objective strategies for designing volume scans and proposes a modified scan strategy that reduces the average vertical gap by 37% as a means for improving radar observations of cloud characteristics in the critical 0 C to -20 C layer. The AMU recommends a total of 18 products, including 11 products that require use of the IRIS programming language and the IRIS User Product Insert feature. Included is a cell trends product and display, modeled after the WSR-88D cell trends display in use by the National Weather Service.

  12. Product Realization Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore » enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  13. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  14. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  15. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  16. Gasohol: outlook for production

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.M.

    1981-11-01

    The US Department of Energy has set goals for alcohol production of 920 million gallons per year by the end of 1982 and 1.8 billion gallons per year by the end of 1985, to provide an alternative source of energy. The production of ethanol from sugar crops, grains and tubers, and other crops is reviewed. The recovery of fuel-grade alcohol from fermentation beers, and the energy requirements to make anhydrous alcohol are discussed. The economics of alcohol production and the financial incentives offered by the United States Government are summarized.

  17. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2004-12-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  18. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  19. Acceleration radioisotope production simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1996-12-31

    We have identified 96 radionuclides now being used or under consideration for use in medical applications. Previously, we calculated the production of {sup 99}Mo from enriched and depleted uranium targets at the 800-MeV energy used in the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos. We now consider the production of isotopes using lower energy beams, which may become available as a result of new high-intensity spallation target accelerators now being planned. The production of four radionuclides ({sup 7}Be, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 99}Mo, and {sup 195m}Pt) in a simplified proton accelerator target design is being examined. The LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER90 codes were used to model the target, transport a beam of protons and secondary produced particles through the system, and compute the nuclide production from spallation and low-energy neutron interactions. Beam energies of 200 and 400 MeV were used, and several targets were considered for each nuclide.

  20. CERES FSW Data Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    CERES FSW Data Products Level 3:  Spatially (1°x1° lat/lon ... Description : Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW): Regional averages of instantaneous footprint computed fluxes [TOA, ...

  1. Critical Schwinger Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality.

  2. Cyanobacterial biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-11-30

    The development of new technologies for production of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO₂ emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO₂ to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO₂ with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel production from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the production systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for production of high value chemicals including biofuels. PMID:22446641

  3. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  4. Colloidal Silver Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be dangerous to your health. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... homemade and commercial colloidal silver products. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Colloidal Silver Scientific ...

  5. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  6. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products come as a tablet, a capsule, a syrup, a solution (clear liquid), an extended-release (long- ... liquid) to take by mouth. The tablet, capsule, syrup, and solution are usually taken every 4 to ...

  7. CALIPSO Expedited Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... Thursday, January 31, 2013 The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration ... Science investigations to be published in research journals should, therefore, not be based on the Expedited data products, but ...

  8. Thermochromism in Commercial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mary Anne; Leblanc, Monique

    1999-09-01

    Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

  9. JWST science data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Science data products for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data products that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data products. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data products will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.

  10. Equipment & New Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are a number of materials including a spectrophotometer, power meter, vacuum pump, fume hood, cart system, and others. The source of the product and a brief description are given for each. (RH)

  11. Production of solvated electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    Current research, both theoretical and experimental, relating to the production and kinetics of interactions of solvated electrons is reviewed. Particular attention is focused on solvated electrons generated by ionizing radiation in water, alcohols, and organic systems.

  12. Well production method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.J.; Coats, E.A.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a method of producing methane gas from a coalbed. It includes drilling a well into an earth formation to a depth penetrating a coalbed seam; setting a casing in the well extending through the coalbed seam; perforating the casing at the coalbed seam; installing a production tubing string in the well casing, the string extending in spaced relation in the casing to the coalbed seam and defining a continuous annulus in the well between the production tubing string and the casing between a surface end of the well and the coalbed seam, the production tubing string including a side pocket mandrel and a tubing removable gas lift valve installed in the side pocket mandrel; installing a tubing lift gas injection line in the well annulus along with the production tubing string the lift gas injection line being connected into the side pocket mandrel to communicate into the gas lift valve; installing a wellhead on the well having separate flow line.

  13. NOx production in lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Stedman, D. H.; Dickerson, R. R.; Rusch, D. W.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of odd nitrogen (NOx) production by electrical discharge through air was theoretically and experimentally estimated to be about 60,000 trillion NOx molecules per joule. The theoretical treatment employed a cylindrical shock-wave solution to calculate the rate of NOx production in high temperature reactions. The limits obtained were experimentally verified by subjecting a regulated air flow to electrical discharges followed by a measurement of NOx production using chemiluminescence. These measurements also indicated that water vapor content has no detectable effect on the NOx production rate. The results imply that lightning is a significant source of NOx, producing about 30-40 megatons NOx-N per year and possibly accounting for as much as 50% of the total atmospheric NOx source.

  14. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  15. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Formula What do can codes mean? Dates on Egg Cartons UPC or Bar Codes Storage Times Refrigerator ... primarily on perishable foods such as meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. "Closed" or "coded" dating might ...

  16. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  17. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    PubMed

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. PMID:26991162

  18. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  19. MISR UAE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... and desert regions of the United Arab Emirates. The main scientific goal is to evaluate and improve satellite derived aerosol and ocean products commonly used by the scientific community. Over 20 research laboratories are participating in the field campaign. The ...

  20. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications called ... and nervous system respond to pain. Hydrocodone relieves cough by decreasing activity in the part of the ...

  1. Productivity Improvement and Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Benjamin I., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a developmental model designed to help productivity improvement and professional development become an integral part of the natural everyday work experience. Examples and a summarized model are included. (CT)

  2. Dynamics of Hyperon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sibirtsev, A.

    2007-11-07

    The progress of strangeness physics at COSY in both experimental and theoretical aspects is reviewed. It is argued that the dynamics of hyperon production involves excitation of baryons and that it is feasible to study their properties such as mass and total width. It is shown that under certain kinematical cuts the resonance signal can be isolated from the effect due to the final state interaction. Recent puzzles concerning the {sigma}-hyperon production are discussed.

  3. Pretreated densified biomass products

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This presentation poster covers data products from the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) of the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer products (TOMS) introduced in the presentation include TOMS Version 8 as well as Aura, which provides 25 years of TOMS and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data. The presentation lists a number of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics data sets at DAAC.

  5. Magnetite and its production

    SciTech Connect

    Koebbe, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    The supply of high quality magnetite for the cleaning of coal using dense medium cyclones and vessels is of concern to all coal preparation operations. This paper describes the production of high purity magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) from a domestic underground mining operation in Missouri, Pea Ridge Iron Ore Company. Emphasis will be placed on the mining and processing of the magnetite ore into the various magnetite products required by coal preparation plants.

  6. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  7. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  8. Measuring Hospital Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving

    1974-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703

  9. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  10. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  11. GSICS Satellite Intercalibration Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, M.; Flynn, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring satellite instrument measurements (Top of Atmosphere radiances) while they are orbiting by comparing them with in-orbit stable references has emerged as a key component of ensuring quality (the stability and accuracy) of their measurements and correcting any biases that emerge during the mission. In 2006 the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the CGMS together initiated the Gobal Space Based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS,gsics.wmo.int) with the aim of monitoring the quality of measurement from satellite instruments launched by member including NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ISRO CMA KMA CNES. In recent years, GSICS, via collaboration among member agencies across nations has successfully monitored instrument records for both GEO (GOES, SEVIRI, MTSAT) and LEO (AVHRR) based instruments by comparing them to in-orbit references such as IASI, AIRS and MODIS. The cross comparison products undergo stringent quality checks and standarizations and a scientific review of the theoretical bases and are assigned a GSICS maturity level. The accepted products are distributed freely as GSICS correction products. These products have wide applications. The goal of the presentation is to introduce GSICS cross calibration products and demonstrate their applications in developing products such as Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDRs), evaluating Spectral Response Function status, and providing bias corrections. The impact of the GSICS bias corrections on retrieval of downstream variables such as Cloud Height Sea Surface Temperature will be one component of the presentation.

  12. Microbial production of propanol.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; François, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Both, n-propanol and isopropanol are industrially attractive value-added molecules that can be produced by microbes from renewable resources. The development of cost-effective fermentation processes may allow using these alcohols as a biofuel component, or as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of propylene. This review reports and discusses the recent progress which has been made in the biochemical production of propanol. Several synthetic propanol-producing pathways were developed that vary with respect to stoichiometry and metabolic entry point. These pathways were expressed in different host organisms and enabled propanol production from various renewable feedstocks. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimization of fermentation conditions greatly improved process performance, in particular, when continuous product removal prevented accumulation of toxic propanol levels. Although these advanced metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies have facilitated significant progress in the biochemical production of propanol, the currently achieved propanol yields and productivities appear to be insufficient to compete with chemical propanol synthesis. The development of biosynthetic pathways with improved propanol yields, the breeding or identification of microorganisms with higher propanol tolerance, and the engineering of propanol producer strains that efficiently utilize low-cost feedstocks are the major challenges on the way to industrially relevant microbial propanol production processes. PMID:27262999

  13. Exergy and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, J.

    1983-02-01

    With the fates of entire industries in the balance in the world's competitive economic battlegrounds, the leading competitor will be the one that is most productive in its sphere of competition. Conservation and competition are unnatural bedfellows. The most adept competitors will use the best principles of productive scientific management to seek the path of least action (Hamilton's principle) and least time (Fermat's principle) to triumph over their competitors' incomplete and insufficient conceptions of management. Exergy management can work in productive synergy with sound economic principles and other valid productivity principles to define and decide on optimal paths for a corporation to follow within existing degrees of freedom. It has identified its AEU and found its proper economics--exergioeconomics. It will encourage other managements to identify, say, their APUs (American Productivity Units) and their proper economics. When other managements follow suit, the revivified corporate entity will be admirably qualified to compete in the marketplace and reap the rewards that production economics offers through optimum allocation and utilization of energy, labor, capital and materials.

  14. Material and energy productivity.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  15. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  16. Beauty production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Shears, Tara; /Liverpool U.

    2008-04-01

    A review of recent measurements of beauty production, based on proton antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark production at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies {radical}s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty production at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), production will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark production can be found elsewhere [4].

  17. New Product Launching Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  18. Ecuador unveils products.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Ecuador's contraceptive social marketing program will be launched in January 1984 with distribution of a colored condom (Liber) and a low dose oral contraceptive (OC) (Evitex). The program, which is funded through a 3-year US$1.2 million award from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is managed by the Ecuador family planning association. Due to the fluctuating foreign monetary exchange rate, product prices have not yet been determined. However, Liber sales are expected to benefit from a government decision that removed condoms from the list of favored import products. The products will be cautiously promoted through generic television advertisements on family planning. In Ecuador, contraceptive products are not mentioned by brand name. If public response to the general family planning messages are favorable, brand name advertisements will run in small newspapers and on the radio. Eventually, advertisements will be placed in the 2 national newspapers with the aim of stimulating support of contraceptive social marketing among key opinion makers. OCs and IUDs are the most popular birth control methods in Ecuador, but nonavailability of OCs has retarded family planning efforts. Evitex will be sold on a prescription basis through about 1800 pharmaceutical outlets, while Liber will be distributed through pharmacies and the country's 30,000 "Mom and Pop" stores. A 3rd product, a spermicidal foaming tablet (Orlinda), will be available for distribution in mid to late 1984. PMID:12313312

  19. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  20. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  1. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  2. Enzymatic production of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Biwer, A; Antranikian, G; Heinzle, E

    2002-09-01

    Cyclodextrins (CD) are enzymatically modified starches with a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, agriculture and environmental engineering. They are produced from starch via enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glycosyl transferases (CGTases) and partly alpha-amylases. Due to its low solubility in water, separation and purification of beta-CD is relatively easy compared to alpha- and gamma-CD. In recent years more economic processes for gamma-CD and especially alpha-CD production have been developed using improved CGTases and downstream processing. New purification steps, e.g. affinity adsorption, may reduce the use of complexing agents. The implementation of thermostable CGTases can simplify the production process and increase the selectivity of the reaction. A tabular overview of alpha-CD production processes is presented. PMID:12226716

  3. SAR Product Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P. J.; Hounam, D.; Rye, A. J.; Rosich, B.; Börner, T.; Closa, J.; Schättler, B.; Smith, P. J.; Zink, M.

    2003-03-01

    As SAR instruments and their operating modes become more complex, as new applications place more and more demands on image quality and as our understanding of their imperfections becomes more sophisticated, there is increasing recognition that SAR data quality has to be controlled more completely to keep pace. The SAR product CONtrol software (SARCON) is a comprehensive SAR product control software suite tailored to the latest generation of SAR sensors. SARCON profits from the most up-to-date thinking on SAR image performance derived from other spaceborne and airborne SAR projects and is based on the newest applications. This paper gives an overview of the structure and the features of this new software tool, which is a product of a co-operation between teams at BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre and DLR under contract to ESA (ESRIN). Work on SARCON began in 1999 and is continuing.

  4. A productivity measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, R.H.; Blain, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The system for measuring productivity of the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Drafting Group was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Productivity Measurement System, built on relational data base management software, provides up-to-date information on the productivity of the Drafting Group, the drafting units, and the individual Drafters. The system was developed using data collected in the Drafters Time and Activities Log and Task Baseline Agreement (TBA) that was input to the data base. Using these data, an average usage rate in hours per square foot of drawing, CAD and Manual, was established. This provided a benchmark for management reports that are depicted graphically for ease of trend analyses. In addition, the system provides each drafter an indicator as to where they stand in relation to their peers, and all of the information provided leads to more accurate drafting estimates. 11 figs.

  5. Cyanobacterial chemical production.

    PubMed

    Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-08-10

    The increase in global temperatures caused by rising CO2 levels necessitates the development of alternative sources of fuel and chemicals. One appealing alternative that has been receiving increased attention in recent years is the photosynthetic conversion of atmospheric CO2 to biofuels and chemical products using genetically engineered cyanobacteria. This can help to not only provide an alternate "greener" source for some of the most popular petroleum based products but it can also help to reduce atmospheric CO2. Utilizing cyanobacteria rather than plants allows for reduced land requirements and reduces competition with food crops. This review discusses advancements in the field since 2012 with a particular emphasis on production of hydrocarbons. PMID:27238233

  6. Production of reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.J.; Raghuram, S.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a process combination for producing a gasoline component from a naphtha feedstock. It comprises: contacting the naphtha feedstock in a reforming zone at reforming conditions with a reforming catalyst comprising a Group VIII metal on a refractory support to produce a reformate and a hydrogen-rich gas; separating the reformate, in a first separation zone, into a light hydrocarbon product and a heavy reformate; separating the heavy reformate, in a second separation zone, into a low-octane paraffin fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction; contacting a low-octane paraffin fraction in a paraffin-isomerization zone at primary isomerization conditions with a paraffin-isomerizing catalyst to produce an isomerized heavy-paraffin product; and, combining at least a portion of each of the aromatic-rich fraction and the isomerized heavy-paraffin product to produce the gasoline component.

  7. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed. PMID:11548997

  8. Biological hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  9. Defect production in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  10. Medical Products Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  11. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  12. Gas production apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  13. Labour Productivity Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

  14. Biogas: Production and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

  15. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  16. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  17. HRD and Productivity: Allied Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    The author defines productivity and discusses ways to increase productivity in the workplace, with emphasis on human resource development (HRD). He discusses the use of quality circles, participative management, and layoffs to increase productivity. (CH)

  18. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... MISR Level 3 Imagery:   Overview  | Products |  View Data  |  Download Data There are currently five types of Level 3 ... MIL3MRD, MIL3QRD, MIL3YRD Parameter Definition Sample Radiance Radiance data for 4 bands and 9 view ...

  19. Teaching and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersholt C.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a theory of educational productivity that demonstrates the relationship between instructional practices and student outcomes. Identifies and discusses nine factors related to increasing student learning: ability, development, motivation, instructional quality, learning time, home environment, classroom social group, peer group, and use…

  20. Worldwide Production of Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of blackberry production conducted in 2005 found that an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries were planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from estimated area in 1995. In Europe, 7692 ha of black berries were commercially cultivated with Serbia accounting for 69% of the...

  1. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  2. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... in preventing tooth decay in people of all ages. Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products ... even among children younger than 6 years of age. Proper application technique ... cleared for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as ...

  3. Partnerships for Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Wayne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes three programs in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that involve industry, education, and the community in teaching people the skills they need to become productive employees. The programs include a youth apprenticeship program, a customized adult education program, and a Tulsa chamber of commerce industrial alliance that provides manufacturing services…

  4. Production of heteropteran predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter treats several key aspects of rearing procedures for predatory bugs. The value of natural, factitious, and artificial foods for the major species used in biological control is reviewed. Whereas several types of factitious foods are routinely used in the production of heteropteran predat...

  5. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  6. Organic strawberry production manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern commercial organic strawberry production is a technical undertaking that encompasses many factors and poses many challenges. Growers must be aware of the compatibility of specific strawberry varieties with local climate, soil, plant pathogens, insect pests, and harvest schedules. Growers must...

  7. Chemicals and Allied Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. F.; Hovious, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from chemical industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) wastewater treatment by-product type; (2) biological, and physical/chemical treatments; and (3) source treatment. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  9. Switchgrass production tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decision to grow perennial grasses for bioenergy has long-term land use implications. Perennial grasses like switchgrass must be harvested annually for 5 to 10 years to be economically feasible. Typically, the decision comes down to which production system has the greatest economic benefit. Prod...

  10. Designing for Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the design principles undergirding "productive failure" (PF; M. Kapur, 2008). We then report findings from an ongoing program of research on PF in mathematical problem solving in 3 Singapore public schools with significantly different mathematical ability profiles, ranging from average to lower ability. In the 1st…

  11. Retrieving Product Documentation Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

  12. Knowledge Production and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.; Meehan, Peter

    The study of knowledge production and utilization deals with the problems of how to translate theoretical concepts and knowledge into practical solutions to people's problems. Many criticisms have been leveled at aspects of previous information system models, including their linearity, one-way communication paths, overdependence on scientific…

  13. Production of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  14. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  15. Means of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    No one who's worked in higher education will ever confuse the experience with working in the corporate sector. Colleges and universities are simply not geared for the business of manufacturing or marketing products. The focus--as it should be--is on teaching and research. Given the wealth of talent among IT staff and faculty, however, higher ed…

  16. Education, Unemployment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    The United States is faced with two serious economic problems: declining productivity growth and rising unemployment. These problems have become severe in the last decade. Both problems are caused by a number of factors, but experts fail to agree on which factors have most contributed to the problems. This paper examines the relationship between…

  17. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  18. Data Products on Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

  19. Ethylene production from methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, M.; Kunishi, A. T.; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. A new reaction is described in which ethylene is formed from the Cu+-catalysed breakdown of methionine in phosphate buffer at 30° in air. Some of the other products of the reaction are methionine sulphone, methionine sulphoxide, homocysteic acid, homocystine, acrolein, dimethyl disulphide, methanethiol, ethyl methyl sulphide, methane and ethane. These are considered to be produced in different reaction pathways. 2. Hydrogen peroxide is an intermediate in this reaction and can support ethylene production in the model system in anaerobic atmospheres. Cuprous copper is the active form that catalyses the formation of ethylene from an oxidized intermediate. The initial reaction is probably a Strecker degradation, but the aldehyde product is further degraded to ethylene and other products. 3. Methional (CH3·S·CH2·CH2·CHO) is the most effective producer of ethylene in the model system and appears to be an intermediate in the reaction. 4. The evidence, from both tracer studies and from other precursors of ethylene in the reaction, indicates that ethylene is derived from the −CH2·CH2− group of methionine. PMID:16749150

  20. Fixing Maintenance Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one university's facility managers use Nextel communications technology in conjunction with a Famis Software maintenance management system to improve the productivity of its maintenance technicians. The system uses a wireless Internet connection to automate the flow of work order information to and from technicians. The key to these…

  1. Heterologous Production of Curcuminoids

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, J. L.; Prather, K. L. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Curcuminoids, components of the rhizome of turmeric, show several beneficial biological activities, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Despite their numerous pharmaceutically important properties, the low natural abundance of curcuminoids represents a major drawback for their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, they represent attractive targets for heterologous production and metabolic engineering. The understanding of biosynthesis of curcuminoids in turmeric made remarkable advances in the last decade, and as a result, several efforts to produce them in heterologous organisms have been reported. The artificial biosynthetic pathway (e.g., in Escherichia coli) can start with the supplementation of the amino acid tyrosine or phenylalanine or of carboxylic acids and lead to the production of several natural curcuminoids. Unnatural carboxylic acids can also be supplemented as precursors and lead to the production of unnatural compounds with possibly novel therapeutic properties. In this paper, we review the natural conversion of curcuminoids in turmeric and their production by E. coli using an artificial biosynthetic pathway. We also explore the potential of other enzymes discovered recently or already used in other similar biosynthetic pathways, such as flavonoids and stilbenoids, to increase curcuminoid yield and activity. PMID:25631288

  2. Early Humour Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

    2012-01-01

    The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their…

  3. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  4. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  5. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  6. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  7. The Democratization of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Groves, James

    2009-01-01

    Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

  8. Innovating blackberry production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides an overview of progress made on the blackberry production system at the Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, WV. Several lines of research have made a significant positive impact to the blackberry industry as the new technology has have been successfully transf...

  9. Career Education Product File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Office of Career Education.

    Designed for school staffs and others looking for effective career education programs, this resource file contains descriptions of 150 career education programs and products. It provides an overview of the types of research and development-based career education programs currently available to school districts across the United States. The file…

  10. Models for Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiser, Bob; Walter, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how models can support productive thinking. For us a model is a "thing", a tool to help make sense of something. We restrict attention to specific models for whole-number multiplication, hence the wording of the title. They support evolving thinking in large measure through the ways their users redesign them. They assume new…

  11. MISR Geometric Product Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Current F03_0013 11/28/2004 Data Product Specification Rev L  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild ... fixes including removal of the 'T' from PGE 7 Core Meta Date fields. HDF file access efficiency updates.   ...

  12. Developing Productive International Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways to develop productive international teams in the international marketplace. Discusses obstacles, including language and distance; a model for effective global team performance; cultural differences; shared goals; communication; lack of information; leadership; work procedures; compensation; lack of knowledge or skills; and hindered…

  13. Byproducts to New Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alaska fisheries industry harvests over 2 million metric tons of wild fish annually, and after processing, over 1 million metric tons of fish byproducts are produced. This presentation will discuss current utilization of products made from fish byproducts in Alaska, and opportunities for enhanci...

  14. Observer, Process, and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Noa

    1996-01-01

    The structure of art as a symbol system is composed of three dimensions: observer, process, and product. Each dimension is described, discussed, and its application to art therapy illustrated through the case study of a 12-year-old boy suffering from a progressive neurological disorder. (LSR)

  15. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  16. Autonomous production of propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

  17. Antiproton production for Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Azhgirey, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij)

    1991-03-01

    Needs to improve the Fermilab Pbar Source for the Tevatron Upgrade and discrepancies in predictions of the antiproton yields have forced us to develop the production model based on the modern data and to incorporate this model to the current version of MARS10 code. The inclusive scheme of this code with the use of statistical weights allows the production of antiprotons to be enhanced within the phase space region of interest, which is extremely effective for optimization of Pbar Source parameters and for developing of such an idea as a beam sweeping system. Antiproton production model included in the modified version of our Monte Carlo program MARS10M for the inclusive simulation of hadronic cascades, as for other particles throughout the program, is based on a factorization approach for hadron-nucleus differential cross-section. To describe antiproton inclusive spectra in pp-collisions a phenomenological model has been used modified in the low-Pt region. The antiproton production in pion-nucleon interactions is described in the frame of our simple phenomenological model based on the modern data. In describing of the of antiproton production cross-sections ratio in hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon collisions the ideas of soft hadronization of color strings and all the present experimental data have been used. Some comparisons of our model with experimental data are presented in the wide intervals of initial momenta, antiproton kinematical variables and nuclei. In all the cases the agreement is pretty good what gives us an assurance in the consequent studies carried out for the Fermilab Pbar Source. The results of such study are presented in this paper.

  18. Butadiene production process overview.

    PubMed

    White, Wm Claude

    2007-03-20

    Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

  19. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  20. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  1. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  2. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  3. Massey products in differential cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Daniel

    We generalize Massey products to differential cohomology and relate these products to trivializations of higher bundles equipped with connection. The construction presented here is analogous to the construction of matric Massey products given by Peter May, but generalized to sheaves. We also prove a theorem regarding the refinement of the singular Massey product to differential cohomology.

  4. NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of natural products as pesticides is reviewed, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a natural product-based strategy for pesticide discovery. Current and past natural product and natural product-based herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, rodent...

  5. Productivity Trends in Intercity Trucking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    Productivity trends indicate intercity trucking productivity increased an average 2.7 percent a year, a fairly uniform increased productivity rate but substantially lower as compared to air carrier, railroad, and pipeline transportation. Factors affecting productivity are gradual introduction of technological innovation, larger capacity trucks,…

  6. Holographic entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-10-01

    The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

  7. Aging and Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Shafto, Meredith A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental research and older adults’ reports of their own experience suggest that the ability to produce the spoken forms of familiar words declines with aging. Older adults experience more word-finding failures, such as tip-of-the-tongue states, than young adults do, and this and other speech production failures appear to stem from difficulties in retrieving the sounds of words. Recent evidence has identified a parallel age-related decline in retrieving the spelling of familiar words. Models of cognitive aging must explain why these aspects of language production decline with aging whereas semantic processes are well maintained. We describe a model wherein aging weakens connections among linguistic representations, thereby reducing the transmission of excitation from one representation to another. The structure of the representational systems for word phonology and orthography makes them vulnerable to transmission deficits, impairing retrieval. PMID:18414600

  8. Product lines in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weber, J R

    1986-01-01

    The findings presented in the case study demonstrate that financial analysis is only as valid as the assumptions it is based upon. The single most important task is the definition of the clinical product. All other associated data is suspect and can lead to serious errors in business decisions if the product is poorly defined. A comprehensive case mix system, integrated with other financial systems with flexible reporting capabilities is required. The hospital and physicians must be willing to invest the time and expense necessary to ensure that the data is reliable. The hospital must be prudent in determining what cost finding approach they will elect to use. Although the RCC method has some fundamental problems, care must be taken not to develop a cost system that will require a significant amount of effort to maintain. PMID:10311387

  9. Charm production in DPMJET

    SciTech Connect

    Berghaus, P; Montaruli, T; Ranft, J E-mail: montaruli@ba.infn.it

    2008-06-15

    In this work, charm production in the DPMJET hadronic jet simulation is compared to experimental data. Since the major application of DPMJET is the simulation of cosmic-ray-induced air showers, the version of the code integrated in the CORSIKA simulation package has been used for the comparison. Wherever necessary, adjustments have been made to improve agreement between simulation and data. With the availability of new muon/neutrino detectors that combine a large fiducial volume with large amounts of shielding, investigation of prompt muons and neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions will be feasible for the first time. Furthermore, above {approx}>100 TeV charmed particle decay becomes the dominant background for diffuse extraterrestrial neutrino flux searches. A reliable method to simulate charm production in high-energy proton-nucleon interactions is therefore required.

  10. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A.

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  11. [Therapy with blood products].

    PubMed

    Petros, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are frequently used in intensive care medicine although there is little evidence of improvement in clinical outcome. The threshold for erythrocyte transfusion in non-bleeding critically ill patients is currently a hemoglobin level of 7.0 g/dl. The indications for platelet transfusion must be assessed after evaluation of the cause of thrombocytopenia, the clinical condition and the expected effect. The use of plasma should also be critically viewed, mainly due to hypervolemia. Prothrombin complex concentrates are better than plasma for warfarin reversal. There is good evidence for the use of albumin for massive paracentesis, in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Albumin infusion can have favorable effects in severe sepsis and septic shock. A restrictive strategy should be favored in the use of blood products and the decision should be based on a critical appraisal of the available evidence. PMID:26825633

  12. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively. PMID:26075003

  13. Nattokinase: production and application.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed. PMID:25348469

  14. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  15. Maintaining JPSS Product Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; McWilliams, G.; Ibrahim, W.; Brueske, K. F.; Smit, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    NASA and NOAA are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the old POES system managed by the NOAA. JPSS satellites will carry sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the JPSS is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3), data processing and product delivery. CGS processes the data from the JPSS satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for S-NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the JPSS program. The EDRs for S-NPP are undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. Changes identified by the Cal/Val campaign are coming available for implementation into the operational system in support of both S-NPP and JPSS-1. Raytheon is supporting this effort through the development and use of tools, techniques, and processes designed to detect changes in product quality, identify root causes, and rapidly implement changes to the operational system to bring suspect products back into specification. This paper will describe the theoretical framework underpinning the analysis techniques, as well as the tools and processes used to support the cal/val effort.

  16. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  17. Deepwater production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Panicker, N.N.; Yancey, I.R.

    1983-05-01

    A deepwater production riser design developed by Mobil Research and Development Corporation is presented. The riser consists of a lower rigid section terminated about 200 feet below the sea surface with a tensioning buoy assembly and a flexible upper section made of a bundle of flexible pipes. It is designed to be compliant to waves, currents and vessel motions and applicable to both mild and severe environments. Design, analysis, testing, and installation method are discussed.

  18. Deepwater production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Panicker, N.N.; Yancey, I.R.

    1984-08-01

    The design of a deepwater production riser is described. The compliant riser design consists of a lower rigid section terminated about 200 ft (60 m) below the sea surface with a tensioning buoy assembly and a flexible upper section made of a bundle of flexible pipes. It is designed to be compliant to waves, currents, and vessel motions and applicable to both mild and severe environments. Design, analysis, testing, and installation are discussed.

  19. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  20. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  1. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  2. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  3. Pyrolysis Products Of Dimethyldichlorosilane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Carswell, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of chemical reactions and chemical products of chemical-vapor deposition of silicon carbide from dimethyldichlorosilane. Topic important because it relates to current interest in lightweight refractory materials for use in advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Analyses showed that at temperature of 700 to 1,100 degrees C and contact time of about 1 minute, SiC forms by two chemical-reaction paths.

  4. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  5. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    PubMed

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer. PMID:25900048

  6. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  7. Advanced Production Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  8. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  9. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  10. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less